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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature
This chapter will contain researches from both local and foreign literature from
voting system. This includes websites, names from people who also made this
Evoting technologies are imagined as having the capacity to do a wide range of
things and increasing overall turnout increasing the efficiency of the electoral
process as well as reducing waiting time and costs. Although the field of e-voting
is relatively young, it has been advancing rapidly and so has the number of
issues that have been brought to the table. E-voting have been introduced in new
countries and with regards to different types of elections. E-voting constitutes a
relatively young field of research where a large part of studies are in the US. The
concept of trust, reliability and confidence are central tp evpting However ther
definition and usage vary across the disciplines. For example Besselaar et al.
use the concepts trust and reliability to interchangeably to refer trust in
technology and trust in the electoral process however many of existing definition
focus on just one of these for example the concepts of trust and and confidence
have been defined as the confidence that the election produces fair outcomes.
And trust in the very mechanisms of the democracy and the actual electoral
machine and the process that it records and count votes.

Foreign Studies
University of Leeds electronic voting
The main advantage of interactive voting is that it supports instantaneous,
anonymous (as well as known) interaction between the presenter and the
audience. As a result lectures become livelier the presenter can easily stay
aware of how well the audience has grasped the ideas he or she has been
communicating, and both the presenter and the audience can receive instant
feedback from each other. However as e-voting becomes more popular in their
university other systems have appeared too like the turning point and qwizdom
but this systems have its disadvantage and advantages.
LSA Computerized Voting System
The council elections were carried out in a much smoother and modern way.
They saved on time, effort, paper and whole lot of sweat. This was the first time
in India that such a thing was done, and while being modern and user-friendly, it
was also eco-friendly as it saved a lot of paper that would have been used up as
ballot paper. Moreover CVS consist of voting area wherein the respective
computers is accessed with the help of a unique authentication code which was
provided by the teacher in charge. Admin area wherein the nominee details

section has the various candidates details and used to set up the contestants
information before the election. CVS was developed by Archit Tantia and
Shubhangam Agrawal as visual basic as the programming language
Trent University Online Voting
It is a web based system that facilitates the running of elections and surveys
online. This system has been developed by SoftworksDev to simplify the process
of organizing elections and make it convenient for voters to vote remotely from
their home computers while taking into consideration security anonymity and
providing auditioning capabilities
Local Studies
UP Diliman Campus Computerized Elections
UP Diliman held its first campus-wide computerized University Student Council
elections. The open source voting system, called “Halalan”, was created by the
UP Linux Users Group a student organization at the College of Engineering. The
colleges provided the computers for the elections. The voting process started
with students presenting their IDs or Form-5s to attending poll clerks, who
checked the list of valid voters. Students on the list then received their passwords
from the poll clerks and proceeded to unoccupied voting stations. Using their
student numbers and the passwords provided as login information, they opened

their electronic ballots and marked the boxes of their chosen candidates. Once
they clicked the confirm button, their votes were final and they were automatically
logged out. The system allows voters to log in again but only to check their votes,
not change them. The first working prototype of Halalan was created in January
2005 and presented to UPD student councils and student publications later that
month at the Palma Hall Lobby. Its first application in the USC elections was at
the CoE and the School of Statistics in 2007. A year later, the College of
Business Administration, the College of Mass Communication, and the School of
Library and Information Science also adopted the system. In order that it could
run, it would require a network of computers connected to a web server such as
Apache and a database server such as MySQL.
Student Council Voting System for Pangasinan State University
They are finally moving away from the known flaws and weaknesses of the old
ways of doing things and toward an automated election system that promises a
speedy and accurate count and highly efficient reporting mechanism that
democratizes the count and canvass of election results and the extinction of
cheating vote padding and vote shaving
Based on College Student Council Voting System for Pangasinan State
University, the system must be simple software, because it managed to secure
the ballots and performed quick counterbalance. It was designed to take them

through the novice user of the software and it is designed as user friendly
environment to know abruptly the command of the software and user will have
not to invest their time and effort to learn it. Voters should receive that assurance
that their intent was correctly captured and that all eligible votes were correctly
2010 Philippine Automated Election
On may 2010 in the Philippines the country conducted its first ever automated
lections. To elect 17,000 national and local officials using new ballots to be
counted with the aid of PCOS (precinct count optical scans) machines instead of
the usual tedious manual counting. The automation of the May 2010 elections
was definitely not perfect. Smartmatic/TIM (provider) and COMELEC made
mistakes throughout the entire process that gave people a reason to distrust the
AES. However, the problems that arose were not severe enough to allow
interested parties to manipulate the election results. Despite all its shortcomings,
the AES was still able to eradicate the most damaging form of electoral fraud. It
transfer the vote counts to the different canvasing centers modems were used to
transmit result from the central servers and to the municipal board of canvassers
and from there it will be transmitted to the national board of canvassers where
the result for national postions are canvassed

“We are finally moving away from the known flaws and weaknesses of the old
ways of doing things and toward an automated election system that promises a
speedy and accurate count, a highly efficient reporting mechanism that
democratizes the count and canvass of election results, and most importantly,
the extinction of dagdag-bawas (vote padding and vote shaving” – comelec
chairman jose melo
PUP Biometrics Student Council Election
The equipment they used in the automated election included fingerprint scanner,
monitors for representing the candidates during the election period and a
computer set during the registration period all the necessary data will serve as an
input for the database program which is integrated to the fingerprint scanner

Conceptual Model of the Study




Operational Definition of Terms
The following are terms that were operationally defined for better
understanding of the study:


it is an open source web server/servlet container


a piece of paper or card on which somebody can record a vote


exchange of information between people, e.g. by means of
speaking, writing, or using a common system of signs or behavior


to store information in a computer system or process it by computer


information obtained from experiments or surveys, used as a basis
for making calculations or drawing conclusions



a structured set of data held in a computer, so that it can be
automatically retrieved or manipulated

Fingerprint Scanner

kind of security for biometrics used on computers using the mark of



Popular choice of database by web developers for
web applications database needs


device that send/receive transmission data from a
computer via communication lines


designing or writing of computer programs

Visual Basic


is a programming environment from Microsoft in which a
programmer uses a graphical user interface to choose and modify
preselected sections of code written in the BASIC programming


a computer in a network that stores application programs and data
files accessed by other computers


a mark or marks representing a number, especially a set of four
short vertical lines crossed by a diagonal fifth line used for

Web Based

Refers to wide range of application that is accessed over the
internet using hypertext transfer protocols (http).


a political election in its entirety, including the casting, recording,
and counting of votes


a formal indication of somebody's choice or opinion, especially in
an election