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Science Field Trip

Human Body
in Motion
A Virtual Tour of the
Mütter Museum, Philadelphia
“Where do Bones Move?”
A lesson on joints in
the human body.
Selections from the digital
Teacher Lesson Manual
and Student Reference Book

www.sciencecompanion.com
Science Companion Field Trips
A “Science in Real Life” Series
Come on a virtual field trip matching module sample lessons
with special places or current events!
“What a dog I got! His favorite bone is in my arm.”
Rodney Dangerfield

Welcome to the Mütter Museum in


Philadelphia!

This is a museum started in the 1800’s


to help doctors better understand the
human body. There are many weird,
wild, amazing things here, and there
are, especially, lots of bones!

l p hia
ilad e
Ph

Lots and
lots and
of bones...
When we’re born, we
have 350 bones in our
bodies, but the time we
grow up, we have only
206! Some of our bones
fuse together.

But what
happens with the bones
that stay separate?

How do bones move?


Where do they move?

Gallop to the next page for a


lesson on where bones move!
Levels 4-6

Science Companion ®

Human Body in Motion


Teacher Lesson Manual
Developers
Belinda Basca, Diane Bell, Debra Garcia, Lauren Satterly, and Martha Sullivan

Editor
Wanda Gayle

Technical Art and Graphics


Diana Barrie, Colin Hayes, Anthony Lewis, and Bill Reiswig

Book Production
Happenstance Type-O-Rama; Picas & Points, Plus (Carolyn Loxton)

Pedagogy and Content Advisors


Jean Bell, Max Bell, Janet Blanford*, Cindy Buchenroth-Martin, Debbie Clement*, Catherine Grubin,
Deborah Landon*, Christie McLean Kesler*, Jen Shuey*, and Michael Tasch

* Indicates a scientist or science educator who contributed advice or expertise, but who is not part of the Chicago
Science Group. Ultimately, responsibility for what is included or omitted from our material rests with the
Chicago Science Group.

Field Test Teachers


Joan Andler, Rosemary Hunt, Matt Laughlin, Mary Ann Loes, Teresa Morris, Marlyn Payne, Chris Sanborn,
Jane Stephenson, Will Whitlock, and Nancy Zordan

www.sciencecompanion.com

2009 Edition
Copyright © 2005 Chicago Science Group.
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part
of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means or stored in a database or
retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publisher.
SCIENCE COMPANION®, EXPLORAGEAR®, the CROSSHATCH Design™ and the WHEEL Design® are trademarks
of Chicago Science Group and Chicago Educational Publishing.
ISBN 1-59192-276-3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
Acknowledgments
The previous page lists people responsible for the content and graphics of this Science Companion unit.
It also includes the field test teachers, who provided enormously helpful advice and feedback concerning
this unit.

Many other Chicago Science Group colleagues and consultants have accomplished the administrative,
production, research, and support tasks essential for developing the Science Companion curriculum. There
are too many to list, but we gratefully acknowledge their skill and dedication.

—Jean Bell, President


Chicago Science Group
Table of Contents
Suggested Full-Year Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Front Cover

Welcome to Science Companion


Philosophy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Finding What You Need in Science Companion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Cross-Curricular Integration and Flexible Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Unit Overview
Introduction to the Human Body in Motion Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Unit Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Lessons at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Integrating the Student Reference Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Preparing for the Unit


Human Body in Motion Science Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Science Library and Web Links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Before You Begin Teaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Teacher Directions: Assembling the Family Link Notebooks. . . . . 52

Lessons
Navigation Tip: 1 How Do We Move?*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
If you are using Adobe Acrobat or the Adobe
2 Where Do Bones Move?*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Acrobat Reader, you'll have an easier time with
navigation if you give yourself a "Previous View" 3 Moving Our Bones*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
button. This tool works like a Back button, and 4 How Our Muscles Know When to Move*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
will allow you to retrace your jumps within the
file so you don't get lost. 5 Moving Quickly to Prevent Harm*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6 Inside Bones*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
* Make sure the Page Navigation toolbar is
displayed. (Use View/Toolbars or Tools/
Teacher Directions: Preparing Chicken Bones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Customize Toolbar if it is not.) 7 Working Muscles* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
* Place the "Previous View" and "Next View" 8 Delivering What Muscles Need*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
buttons on that toolbar if they are not
already there. (Use Tools/Customize 9 Breathing Hard for Our Muscles*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Toolbar.) 10 How Our Muscles Get the Nutrients They Need*. . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Teacher Directions: Preparing Gelatin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
11 Building Blocks: Cells Make It All Possible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
12 Poetry in Motion*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Previous View button on
Page Navigation toolbar.
* Indicates a core lesson

 | Human Body in Motion | Table of Contents


Skill Building Activities
Reading Science Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Observing and Describing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Designing a Fair Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Teacher Background Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Standards and Benchmarks


Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Benchmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Teacher Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Human Body in Motion | Table of Contents | 


Philosophy
Scie nce C ompa nio n
W elcome to

Almost anyone who has spent time with children is struck by the
tremendous energy they expend exploring their world. They ask
“why” and “how.” They want to see and touch. They use their minds
and senses to explore the things they encounter and wonder
about. In other words, children are already equipped with the basic
qualities that make a good scientist.

The goal of the Science Companion curriculum is to respond to


and nourish students’ scientific dispositions by actively engaging
their interests and enhancing their powers of inquiry, observation,
and reflection. Learning by doing is central to this program.

Each Science Companion lesson incorporates interesting and


relevant scientific content, as well as science values, attitudes,
and skills that children in the elementary grades should begin
to develop. These “habits of mind,” along with science content
knowledge, are crucial for building science literacy and they are an
integral part of the Science Companion program. Be aware of them
and reinforce them as you work with students. With experience,
students will develop the ways they demonstrate and use the
following scientific habits of mind.

Habits of Mind
Wondering and thinking about the natural and physical world
Students’ curiosity is valued, respected, and nurtured. Their
questions and theories about the world around them are
important in setting direction and pace for the curriculum.
Children are encouraged to revise and refine their questions and
ideas as they gain additional information through a variety of
sources and experiences.

Seeking answers through exploration and investigation


Students actively seek information and answers to their questions
by trying things out and making observations. They continually
revise their understanding based on their experiences. Through
these investigations, children learn firsthand about the “scientific
method.” They also see that taking risks and making mistakes are
an important part of science and of learning in general.

Pursuing ideas in depth


Students have the opportunity to pursue ideas and topics fully,
revisiting them and making connections to other subjects and
other areas in their lives.

 | Human Body in Motion | Philosophy


Observing carefully

Scie nce C ompa nio n


Students are encouraged to attend to details. They are taught to

W elcome to
observe with multiple senses and from a variety of perspectives.
They use tools, such as magnifying lenses, balance scales, rulers, and
clocks, to enhance their observations. Students use their developing
mathematics and literacy skills to describe, communicate, and
record their observations in age-appropriate ways.

Communicating clearly
Students are asked to describe their observations and articulate
their thinking and ideas using a variety of communication tools,
including speaking, writing, and drawing. They learn that record
keeping is a valuable form of communication for oneself and
others. Children experience how working carefully improves one’s
ability to use one’s work as a tool for communication.

Collaborating and sharing


Students come to know that their ideas, questions, observations,
and work have value. At the same time, they learn that listening
is vitally important, and that exchanging ideas with one another
builds knowledge and enhances understanding. Children discover
that they can gain more knowledge as a group than as individuals,
and that detailed observations and good ideas emerge from
collaboration.

Developing critical response skills


Students ask, “How do you know?” when appropriate, and are
encouraged to attempt to answer when this question is asked of
them. This habit helps develop the critical response skills needed
by every scientist.

Human Body in Motion | Philosophy | 


H uma n B ody i n M otio n
C luster 1

2
Mechanics of Movement

Lesson Where Do Bones Move?


A Quick Look

Big Idea Overview


Students identify several bones involved in movement as they
To move, many parts of our
play a “bone” version of “Simon Says.” During the game, they
bodies must work together.
discover that the skeleton moves at joints—points on the skeleton
Muscles move our skeletons
where two or more bones come together. Afterwards, they work
by pulling on bones that
with partners, using clues and moving their bodies, to solve
meet at joints.
riddles and identify some of the body’s major joints.

Process Skills Key Notes


• Communicating For more information about the science content in this lesson,
• Observing see the “How the Human Skeleton Moves” section of the Teacher
Background Information on pages 246–250.
• Reasoning

Standards and Benchmarks


Students focus on Life Science Standard C (Structure and Function
in Living Systems) as they investigate the skeletal system: “The human
organism has systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction,
circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and
for protection from disease. These systems interact with one another.”
Students also develop their understanding of Science in Personal
and Social Perspectives Standard F (Personal Health) as they learn
about the roles that exercise and proper body weight play in joint
health: “Regular exercise is important to the maintenance and
improvement of health. The benefits of physical fitness include
maintaining healthy weight, having energy and strength for
routine activities, good muscle tone, bone strength, strong heart/
lung systems, and improved mental health. Personal exercise,
especially developing cardiovascular endurance, is the foundation
of physical fitness.”

66 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Lesson Goals
Lesson
2
1. Discover that the skeleton can move at joints—the places
Notes
where two or more bones meet.
2. Learn that there are several types of joints, each with a
different structure.
3. Understand that the structure of a joint affects how its bones
can move.

Assessment Options
• Before you begin this lesson, consider giving the students the
following scenario and having them respond to the question
in the journal section of the science notebook: “Jeremiah was
sitting under an oak tree when he heard a loud cracking noise
directly above him. He looked up and noticed one of the tree’s
branches getting ready to break away from the tree. Jeremiah
immediately jumped to his feet and ran away to safety. How
was Jeremiah’s body able to move?” Return to this scenario
and question again at the end of Lesson 5 to see whether
their understanding of movement has grown.
• In addition, listen to the students during the synthesizing Teacher Master 4, Assessment 2
discussion as they explain the difficulties of being without
one particular joint. Do they recognize that a skeleton moves
at its joints? Use criteria A of Assessment 2 to record your
observations.
• After the students have returned the Family Link Homework
“Be Good to Your Joints,” have them turn to the “Taking Care of
My Body” section of their science notebooks on pages 52–53
to update their ideas. Review their additions to evaluate
whether students have applied what they learned and added
joint care to their list.

Science Notebook pages 52–53

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 67


Materials
Item Quantity Notes
ExploraGear
Joint model, ball-and-socket 1 To demonstrate the range of motion for this type
of joint.
Joint model, hinge 1 To demonstrate the range of motion for this type
of joint.
Limb bone 1 To demonstrate that bones don’t bend.
Classroom Supplies
Overhead projector 1 To display overhead transparency.
Curriculum Items
Poster “The Skeletal System and Movement”
Overhead Transparency “Human Skeleton”
Human Body in Motion Science Notebook, pages 5–8 and pages 52–53
Human Body in Motion Student Reference Book, pages 1–8
Teacher Master “Where’s This Joint? Answer Key”
Human Body in Motion Assessment 2 “Mechanics of Movement” (optional)
Family Link Homework “Be Good to Your Joints”

Preparation
Notes q Gather the joint models (ball-and-socket and hinge joints) and
the limb bone from the ExploraGear, as well as the Overhead
Transparency “Human Skeleton.”

q Copy the Family Link Homework “Be Good to Your Joints” for
students to take home.

q Collect books on the human skeleton to place in the Science


Center. See the Science Library and Web Links section on
pages 42–47 for suggestions. If you have access to a skeleton
model or individual bone specimens, put these on display
as well.

q Borrow x-rays of joints from parents, friends, and co-workers—or


download x-ray images from web sites—to post in the Science
Center. Visit www.sciencecompanion.com/links for a list of
sites that have x-ray images.

q Look for images of joint-like connections found in everyday


life to create a “Joint” wall in the Science Center. Gather small
items with joint-like connections to start a joint collection that
students can add to. See the Science Center section for details.

68 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Using the Student Reference Book
• After the Engage activities, have students read pages 1–5 of Notes
the student reference book to prepare them for the exploration
“Where’s This Joint?”

• After the lesson, refer them to the “Your Body in Motion—An


Owner’s Guide” on pages 6–7 of the student reference book to
help them complete the Family Link Homework “Be Good to
Your Joints.”

Vocabulary
ball-and-socket . . . . . A joint where bones can move in a
joint complete circle. Ball-and-socket joints
operate like certain types of showerheads.
Our hips and shoulders are examples
of ball-and-socket joints—we can move
them backward, forward, sideways, and in
a complete circle.
hinge joint. . . . . . . . . . . A joint that lets bones swing back and
forth like a door. Our knees, elbows,
fingers, and toes are examples of body
parts with hinge joints—because of their
hinge joints, these parts can bend and
straighten.
joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A point on the skeleton where two or
more bones come together. Most joints,
like our elbows, ankles, and knees, move a
lot. Some, like those in our pelvis, move
a little, and a few, like those in an adult’s
skull, don’t move at all.
pivot joint . . . . . . . . . . . A joint where bones can turn from side to
side—like an office swivel chair. We have
pivot joints at our elbows, ankles, wrists,
and backbones. Our heads also rest on a
pivot joint—we can shake our heads back
and forth “No” because of this.

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 69


Teaching the Lesson
Notes
Engage
Introductory Discussion
1. Help the class consider how our skeletons enable our bodies
to move:
a. Pass around the limb bone and challenge students to bend
it. Ask them how we are able to bend our bodies if our
bones can’t bend.

b. Allow the class to move their bodies to identify the points


on their body where movement is possible. Mark these
points on the overhead transparency “Human Skeleton.”
Ask the class what all these points have in common.
(Students should realize that movement occurs only at points
on the skeleton where two or more bones come together.)

2. Introduce the term joints to describe these points on the


Overhead Transparency: “Human skeleton where two or more bones come together.
Skeleton”
3. Help the class become familiar with some of their major bones
and joints by playing a game of “Simon Says,” using commands
to locate and move several of the body’s major bones, and
identify corresponding joints.
a. Display the overhead transparency “Human Skeleton” and
have the class follow along using their skeleton diagram on
page 2 of the student reference book.

b. With the class standing, give the first command and joint
question—for example, “Simon says touch your femur. Now
move your femur. What joint did you just move?” (Knee, hip,
etc.) Make sure the students understand how to locate the
bone on the diagram and then find it on their own bodies.

c. Have students take turns calling out commands.


d. If students select the skull, pelvis, or ribcage during the
game, use the opportunity to point out some joints (as in
the skull) do not move at all, and others (in the pelvis and
ribcage) move only slightly.

4. Give the class time to read pages 1–5 of their student reference
books prior to the exploration.

70 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Explore
Notes
Where’s This Joint?
Challenge the class to solve the “Where’s This Joint?” riddles in their
science notebooks:

1. Have the students form pairs and open their science notebooks
to page 5.
2. Inform the class that some of the riddles on page 6 refer to
one of three specific types of joints—hinge joints, pivot joints,
and ball-and-socket joints. Have students move their bodies
in a variety of ways to demonstrate each type of joint. Use the
hinge and ball-and-socket joint models as you review.
• Bend their leg—hinge joints, such as the knee, swing back
and forth like a door.
• Swing their arms around—ball-and-socket joints, such as
the shoulder, rotate in a complete circle like a showerhead.
• Move their wrist as if brushing off a bug—pivot joints, such
as the wrist, swivel from side to side like an office chair.

3. Direct the pairs to do their best to solve the riddles. Let them
know that they can examine the models up close to help them
think about the ways different types of joints move.

Teacher Note: If you are unsure about the answers to any of the riddles,
you can refer to the Teacher Master “Where’s This Joint? Answer Key.”

Science Notebook pages 5–8

Teacher Master 13

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 71


Reflect and Discuss
Notes
Sharing
Review the riddles with the class. As they identify each joint, have
Big Idea the class work that joint on their own bodies to highlight its range
of motion. For riddles describing hinge or ball-and-socket joints,
To move, many parts of our
use the joint models to mirror the movements the students are
bodies must work together.
making. Emphasize how the two joint models are different from
Muscles move our skeletons
each other and how these differences in structure affect how
by pulling on bones that
various joints move.
meet at joints.
Synthesizing
Discuss the importance of the body’s moveable joints. These
questions may help the class realize how much they depend on
healthy joints:

• Has anyone ever injured a joint? (Sprained ankle, dislocated


shoulder, tennis elbow, etc.) How did it feel? What things were
difficult to do after the injury?

• Which of their moveable joints would be the hardest to live


without?

• What things would be difficult to do without that joint?


• If they had to choose one of their moveable joints to live
without, which one would it be? Why?

• Is there any movement they could do without joints? (While


some movements, such as the blinking the eye, do not involve
joints, students are likely to reach the conclusion that they depend
on healthy joints to perform most movements.)

72 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Ongoing Learning
Notes
Science Center
• Post x-ray images along with the questions “What bone is Materials: X-ray images of
this?” and “What joint is this?” in the Science Center. Encourage joints, joint models, books
students to refer to the anatomical joint models and books on on the human skeleton,
the human skeleton as they try to identify these joints. Visit self-sticking notes, markers,
www.sciencecompanion.com/links for a list of sites providing pictures of joint-like hinges,
potential images. small items with joint-like
hinges such as scissors, pliers,
• Create a “Joint” wall displaying pictures of joint-like connections toys such as K’nex® and LEGO
found in everyday life, such as hinged cabinets and doors, Bionicles®, skeletal system
lunch boxes, suitcases, utility trucks with aerial buckets, poster, skeleton model or
showerheads, swivel office chairs, video game joy sticks (first individual bone specimens
generation), and camera tripods. Provide self-sticking notes
and markers for students to label each image with the type of
joint it is similar to. Have students bring in additional pictures
from home to add to the wall.

• Have students contribute to a class collection of small items


featuring joint-like connections—scissors, pliers, nutcrackers,
garlic presses, and children’s toys such as miniature trucks (tow
trucks, cranes, utility trucks, etc), construction set pieces such
as K’nex® and jointed action figures such as LEGO BIONICLE®
figures.

• Display the skeletal system poster. Encourage the students


to write questions they have about bones and joints on self-
sticking notes and place them on the poster. Review the
questions as a class periodically as you progress through the
unit to see if the children are able to answer some of their
own questions.

• If you have access to a skeleton model or individual bone


specimens, put these on display as well.

Family Link
In the Family Link Homework “Be Good to Your Joints,” the students
identify ways to maintain their joints and keep them healthy throughout
their lives. When you hand out this homework, let the class know they
can use their reference books as they do this assignment.

Maintenance
Make sure to collect the Family Link Homework “Be Good to Your
Joints.” You can review the assignment as a class or assess students
individually by having them turn to the “Taking Care of My Body”
section of their science notebooks on pages 52–53 to see whether
they are able to add ideas about joint care to their lists. Teacher Master 20, Family Link

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 73


Extending the Lesson
Notes
Further Science Explorations
Bone Lyrics
Have the students revise a section of the lyrics from the African-
American spiritual “Dry Bones” (also known as “Dem Bones”),
substituting actual bone names for the common names used:

The foot bone connected to the leg bone

The leg bone connected to the knee bone

The knee bone connected to the thigh bone

The thigh bone connected to the hip bone

The hip bone connected to the back bone

The back bone connected to the neck bone

The neck bone connected to the head bone

Researching Diseases of the Joints


Have the class research debilitating diseases of the joints, such
as arthritis. Follow up by immobilizing the fingers of several
volunteers with tape. Wrap each of their fingers individually with
first aid tape so that the fingers are difficult to bend, but not so
tightly that circulation is affected. Have the volunteers report on
their feelings, including any frustrations they have, as they try to
accomplish some basic life tasks, such as buttoning a shirt, writing
a note, or opening a jar.

Visit www.sciencecompanion.com/links for a list of sites


providing basic background information on arthritis.

Bone Scientists
Find out about doctors, therapists, and scientists who deal with
bones, such as osteopaths, physical therapists, kinesiologists,
chiropractors, and archeologists. Invite them to your class for a
question and answer session.

74 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Bone Science: Investigating the Field of Archeology
Research the field of archeology—one of the fields of science that Notes
deals with bones. Post questions about archaeology for groups to
research, such as:

• How do archeologists select sites for excavation? (They look for


regions, such as those near a river, where people were most likely
to live.)

• What tools do archeologists use? (Shovels, hoes, pick axes, tape


measures, toothbrushes, paintbrushes, sifting screens, etc.)

• How do scientists determine the age of bones and fossils?


(Radiocarbon dating, tree-ring dating, potassium-argon dating,
and relative dating)

• What kinds of information can archeologists find out by


examining human bones? (Age, sex, health, possible cause
of death)

• What sorts of things did early humans use animal bones for?
(Bone needles, turtle shell cups, shell hoes, bone and shell beads
for necklaces)

Visit www.sciencecompanion.com/links for a list of sites providing


basic background information on the field of archeology.

Language Arts Extension


Have students interview and report on the experiences of a
neighbor, relative, or family friend suffering from arthritis.

Mathematics Extension
Have the class consider the proportions of the human skeleton by
determining the ratio of several body parts, including:

• Thumb circumference to wrist circumference


• Radius (one of the two bones in the lower arm) length to foot
length

• Femur (thigh bone) length to height


• Wrist circumference to neck circumference
(Typically, the circumference of your wrist is two times the
circumference of your thumb. The length of your radius is equal
to the length of your foot. The length of your femur is equal to
¼ of your height. The circumference of your neck is two times the
circumference of your wrist.)

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 75


Social Studies Extension
Notes Make the class aware of the proclamation by the United Nations,
the World Health Organization, and 37 countries naming
2000–2010 as the “Bone and Joint Decade.” Discuss the goal of
this proclamation—to promote global understanding and
treatment of musculoskeletal disorders through research and
prevention education. Have students present a brief report on
the initiative to increase their awareness of how international
organizations work together to bring about global change.

Visit www.sciencecompanion.com/links for links that will help


the class find out more about the “Bone and Joint Decade.”

Art Extension
Have the students use the bone ratios they determined in the
mathematics extension to draw stick figures of correct proportions.
They can also:

• Sketch in ellipses to represent the head, chest cavity, and


pelvis.

• Draw circles to represent major limb joints (ankles, knees, hips,


shoulders) and connect the joints to create limbs.

• Add hands and feet.


Visit www.sciencecompanion.com/links for links to sites that
demonstrate how to draw the human form.

76 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Overhead Transparency: “Human Skeleton” Science Notebook page 5

Science Notebook page 6 Science Notebook page 7

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 77


Science Notebook page 8 Science Notebook page 52

Science Notebook page 53 Teacher Master 4, Assessment 2

78 | Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move?


Teacher Master 13 Teacher Master 20, Family Link

Human Body in Motion | lesson 2 | Where Do Bones Move? | 79


Teacher Background
T eacher B ackgrou nd
In formatio n

Information
This section provides detailed descriptions of the structure of the
human body, the mechanics of movement, and the systems of
the body involved in movement. This material is intended to give
you background information you may need as you teach the unit;
however, it is not necessary to master or present all the content
offered. The Key Note section of each lesson indicates which portion
to review prior to teaching the lesson. A quick read-through before
teaching the unit—to get the big picture—followed by more
focused readings before each lesson should help you guide the
children in their discoveries about how their bodies move.

Introduction
To move, many parts of our bodies must work together. This
overarching concept, or “big idea,” is the thread that weaves
through the Human Body in Motion Unit. Explorations of the
muscular, skeletal, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous
systems reveal the vital role played by each system in bringing
about movement and highlight the interconnectedness of the
body’s systems. Some of these systems are directly involved in the
mechanics of movement; others support or control the cells, tissues,
and organs of these systems. Regardless of their function, all parts
are essential and depend on each other. An understanding of how
movement occurs in the human body leads to an understanding of
how the body operates in general—with every part playing a role
to ensure that we cannot only move, but also think, feel, heal, stay
warm, keep cool, bear children, fight disease, grow, and do nearly
everything else we need to do to survive and thrive.

232 | Human Body in Motion | Teacher Background Information


Other nutrients are also important for maintaining healthy bones.
Vitamin D helps to move calcium from the intestine into the
bloodstream and is also involved in osteoblast and osteoclast
regulation. The mineral phosphorus combines with calcium to form
the mineral component of bone. Vitamins A and C are instrumental
in the development of collagen.

Exercise also helps protect your bones. Bones that are required to
bear weight and that are pulled on frequently by skeletal muscles
become stronger and denser. Conversely, bones that are seldom
used become weaker and less dense.

By incorporating calcium-rich foods in your diet and exercising


regularly, you can significantly reduce the chance of developing
certain bone wasting diseases such as osteoporosis.

Mechanics of Movement
How the Human Skeleton Moves
Where Movement Occurs
Most of the bones of the skeleton are moveable. They are held
together by strong tissues called ligaments. Ligaments ensure that
bones are held together with the proper orientation and at the
correct tension, creating a firm connection with enough flexibility
remaining to allow movement.

Femur

Anterior Patella
cruciate
ligament
Lateral
Posterior collateral
cruciate ligament
ligament

Medial
collateral
ligament

Tibia

246 | Human Body in Motion | Teacher Background Information


The point where two or more bones meet is called a joint.
The diagram on the previous page showing the bones and
ligaments of the knee illustrates a moveable joint, a joint where
movement of the bones is possible.

By contrast, the skull (shown below) has fixed joints, ones that
do not allow the bones to move. Most of the bones that form the
skull are held together by tough fibers of connective tissue. The
tight, immovable connection between the skull bones creates a
virtual “helmet,” ensuring that the brain is maximally covered and
protected.

Most joints facilitate mobility, though the particular range of


motion varies greatly. The bones of the pelvis joint move only
slightly. The joints between the ribs and sternum and those
between the ribs and vertebrae allow just enough movement for
breathing. The joints of the extremities (fingers, toes, wrists, ankles,
elbows, knees, shoulders, and hips) demonstrate the tremendous
range of motion necessary for actions such as walking, running,
jumping, grasping, writing, and throwing. Many moveable joints
have specialized structures at their bone-to-bone connections that
facilitate motion. These structures, which cushion and lubricate
bones where they meet, allow them to move smoothly around
each other without abrasion. They are particularly well-developed
in highly moveable joints, such as the knee. Joints with these
features are called synovial joints. They typically have caps of soft,
flexible cartilage that cover and cushion the ends of the bones, and

Human Body in Motion | Teacher Background Information | 247


a capsule filled with synovial fluid that surrounds, lubricates, and
nourishes the joint.

compact bone

bone marrow

spongy bone

cartilage

capsule
filled with
synovial fluid

ligaments

There are many types of synovial joints in the body, including


gliding joints, hinge joints, saddle joints, condyloid joints, biaxial
ball-and-socket joints, multiaxial ball-and-socket joints, and pivot
joints. Each type of joint has a specific structure, and each allows
a different range of motion. In this unit, children are introduced to
three types of joints:

• Hinge joints—The joints in the elbows and knees that allow


the arms and legs to swing back and forth like a hinged door
are hinge joints.

• Pivot joints—The joints in the elbows, ankles, and wrists that


allow for side-to-side rotation are pivot joints. Your hand is able

248 | Human Body in Motion | Teacher Background Information


to brush off dirt from your clothing thanks to the wrist’s pivot
joint. The head also rests on a pivot joint. You can shake your
head back and forth to say “No” thanks to the necks’ pivot joint.

Ligament

• Ball-and-socket joints—The joints in your hips and shoulders


which enable the arms and legs to be swung in almost any
direction are ball-and-socket joints.

Deterioration of Joints
The moveable joints in the human body are vulnerable to
deterioration from disease, injury, neglect and overuse. One
consequence of deterioration is arthritis. Arthritis is characterized
by the inflammation or degeneration of a joint. It includes more
than 100 different diseases and is the leading cause of disability
in the United States.

Osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear, is the most common


type of arthritis, especially among older people. For individuals
who suffer from osteoarthritis, movement of affected joints can
be limited and painful. While the symptoms of osteoarthritis
may not appear until late in life, the damage to the cartilage that
contributes to the disease may occur much earlier. Excessive stress
placed on joints—particularly hips and knees—causes the slippery
cartilage cushion that covers the ends of the bones to break down
and wear away. Without their cartilage cap, the bones rub directly
against each other, causing pain, swelling, and loss of motion. To

Human Body in Motion | Teacher Background Information | 249


prevent arthritis later in life, it is essential to avoid excessive stress
to the joints. Lesson 3, “Where Do Bones Move?” makes this point
and provides children with the following ways to protect their
joints:

1. Move! When you don’t use your joints, they can become
stiff and weak. When you have to sit for a long time, change
positions often.
2. Stretch. Hold gentle stretches for 30–40 seconds—and don’t
bounce when you stretch.
3. Wear elbow pads, knee pads, and other gear that protects your
joints when you play sports where they can be injured.
4. Don’t overdo it. Exercising the same joint over and over can
put stress on it. When you’re doing the same activity again and
again, take breaks for at least five minutes every half-hour.
5. Maintain a healthy weight. Walking or running with just one
extra pound on your body can put four extra pounds of force
on your knees.
6. Don’t slouch. Sit up straight and keep both feet flat on the
floor. This will help you develop good posture, and will protect
the joints of your neck and back.
7. Think twice before wearing high heels. Women who have worn
very high heels for many years often develop problems with
their feet. There are lots of great-looking shoes that are also
good for your feet. (Flexible shoes that cushion and support
your feet, like tennis shoes, are best.)
8. Eat smart for your bones. Calcium-rich foods such as milk,
yogurt, broccoli, spinach, tofu, cheese, and salmon help keep
your bones strong.
9. Be careful when you lift heavy things. Bend your knees when
you pick stuff up and balance loads so that your largest and
strongest joints (your shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees)
are supporting most of the weight. Carry loads close to your
body—backpacks are great for this.
10. Protect your lungs as well as your joints—say “No” to smoking!
Smoking can make your bones thinner, increasing the risk of
broken bones.

250 | Human Body in Motion | Teacher Background Information


Table of Contents
Clusters and Lessons..................................Inside Front Cover
Introduction
Assessment Philosophy........................................................................ 5
Assessment Materials........................................................................... 8

Content Rubrics and Opportunity Overviews


Supporting Active Muscles Rubric 1 ................................................... 16
Supporting Active Muscles Opportunities Overview ........................... 17
Mechanics of Movement Rubric 2....................................................... 18
Mechanics of Movement Opportunities Overview .............................. 19
Body Basics Rubric 3.......................................................................... 20
Body Basics Opportunities Overview.................................................. 21

Skills and Attitudes Checklists and Self-Assessments


Observing and Describing: Checklist .................................................. 24
Observing and Describing: Self-Assessment ..................................... 25
Recording and Analyzing Data and
Making Conclusions: Checklist................................................... 26
Collecting Data and Making Conclusions: Self-Assessment .............. 27

Performance Tasks and Evaluation Guidelines


Supporting Active Muscles Cluster (Lessons 1, 8 10, 12):
A Race Around the School ......................................................... 30
Feeding Muscle Cells ................................................................. 31
Mechanics of Movement Cluster (Lessons 2 5):
A Trip to the Natural History Museum ........................................ 32
On Your Mark, Get Set, Go! ....................................................... 33
How Does that Arm Move?......................................................... 34
The Soccer Game ...................................................................... 35
Body Basics Cluster (Lessons 6 7, 11):
What Bone Cells Need ............................................................... 36
Muscle Investigation ................................................................... 37
Comparing Cells ......................................................................... 38
Unit Assessment:
Working Together ....................................................................... 39

Quick Check Items and Answer Keys


Supporting Active Muscles Cluster (Lessons 1, 8 10, 12) ................. 42
Mechanics of Movement Cluster (Lessons 2 5)................................. 44
Body Basics Cluster (Lessons 6 7, 11) .............................................. 47

HUMAN BODY IN MOTION| TABLE OF CONTENTS | 3


Rubric 2: Mechanics of Movement
Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C
(Lesson 2) (Lesson 3) (Lessons 4 and 5)

A skeleton moves at its Muscles move the bones Nerves carry signals to
joints. There are they are attached to by the muscles to move our
different kinds of joints pulling on them. bones.
in the human body.
4 - Exceeds Understands at a secure Understands at a secure Understands at a secure
Expectations level (see box below) level (see box below) and level (see box below)
and contemplates how can describe how muscles and can differentiate
Explores content the movements of are attached to bones. between the pathways
beyond the level different kinds of joints of reflexes and
presented in the
benefit different parts of intentional reactions.
lessons.
the human body.

3 - Secure Recognizes that a Recognizes that muscles Recognizes nerves carry


(Meets skeleton moves at its move bones by pulling on signals to the muscles
Expectations) joints and that there are them and work in pairs to to move bones either
different types of joints move limb bones. through a reflex or an
Understands in the human body. intentional reaction.
content at the level
presented in the
lessons and does
not exhibit
misconceptions.
2 - Developing Understands that a Has an incomplete Has an incomplete
(Approaches skeleton moves at its understanding of how understanding of how
Expectations) joints, but does not muscles move bones. nerves carry signals to
recognize that there are the muscles to move
Shows an increasing different types of joints bones.
competency with in the human body.
lesson content.

1 - Beginning Does not understand that Does not understand that Does not understand
a skeleton moves at its muscles move bones by that nerves carry signals
Has no previous
joints or that there are pulling on them. to the muscles to move
knowledge of lesson
different kinds of joints bones.
content.
in the human body.

18 | HUMAN BODY IN MOTION | CONTENT RUBRICS AND OPPORTUNITIES OVERVIEWS


Opportunities Overview: Mechanics of Movement
This table highlights opportunities to assess the criteria on Rubric 2:
Mechanics of Movement. It does not include every assessment
opportunity; feel free to select or devise other ways to assess various
criteria.

Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C


(Lesson 2) (Lesson 3) (Lessons 4 and 5)

Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4:


- Journal writing - Introductory discussion - Sharing discussion
- Introductory discussion - Reflective discussions - Science notebook page 16
Pre and Formative

- Sharing discussion - Science notebook pages 9- Lesson 5:


Opportunities

- Science notebook page 7 12 - Journal writing


- Sensory observation
- Synthesizing discussion
- Science notebook page 18

Performance Tasks
Mechanics of Movement Mechanics of Movement Mechanics of Movement
Cluster Cluster Cluster
A Trip to the Natural History A Trip to the Natural History On our Mark, Get Set, Go!,
Summative Opportunities

Museum, page 32 Museum, page 32 page 33


The Soccer game, page 35 The Soccer game, page 35 How Does that Arm Move?,
Unit Assessment Unit Assessment page 34
Working Together, pages 39- Working Together, pages 39- Unit Assessment
40 40 Working Together, pages 39-
40

Quick Check Items


Mechanics of Movement Mechanics of Movement Mechanics of Movement
Cluster Cluster Cluster
Pages 44 45: items 1 4 Page 45: item 5 Pages 45-46: items 6 9

HUMAN BODY IN MOTION | CONTENT RUBRICS AND OPPORTUNITIES OVERVIEWS | 19


A Trip to the Natural History Museum
Mechanics of Movement Cluster (Lessons 2 5)

Dylan was examining some dinosaur bones at the Natural History Museum. He was
surprised to discover how hard and inflexible they were. He wondered how a
dinosaur, or any organism with a skeleton, could move parts of its body. Explain how
this is possible.

TEACHER NOTE:
Use this assessment after teaching Lesson 3.

EVALUATION GUIDELINES:
When evaluating student answers, consider whether they include the following elements
in their written explanations:
x A skeleton contains many joints, a place where two or more bones come together.
x A skeleton can move at its joints when the muscles pull on the bones.

32 | HUMAN BODY IN MOTION | PERFORMANCE TASK EVALUATION GUIDELINES


The Mechanics of Movement Cluster
Quick Check Items

TEACHER NOTE: The following questions relate to the Mechanics of Movement cluster.
Use them after teaching the entire cluster, or select the applicable questions immediately
following each lesson. You can also compile Quick Check items into an end-of-unit
assessment.

1. (Lesson 2) The points on the skeleton where two or more bones come together are
called . joints

Use the following drawings to answer questions 2 and 3:

A B C

2. (Lesson 2) Which type of joint (hinge, pivot, or ball and socket) is shown in each
picture?

Drawing A pivot

Drawing B ball and socket

Drawing C hinge

3. (Lesson 2) What part of the body (knee, shoulder, or wrist) has this kind of joint?

Drawing A wrist

Drawing B shoulder

Drawing C knee

44 | HUMAN BODY IN MOTION | QUICK CHECK ANSWER KEYS


4. (Lesson 2) Which type of joint allows you to move it in all directions?

a. pivot joint

b. ball and socket joint

c. hinge joint

5. (Lesson 3) True or False? If false, rewrite the statement to make it true.

a. When muscle cells contract, they lengthen. false

When muscles cells contract, they shorten.

b. The muscles of your long bones work in pairs (two at a time) to move your
limbs.

true

c. Muscles can push bones. false

Muscles pull bones.

6. (Lesson 4) How do you catch a falling ruler? Number the steps from 1 to 5 in the
order they occur.

My muscles move my bones. 4

My eyes see the ruler drop. 1

My brain sends a message through my nerves to my hand muscles. 3

My eyes send a message through my nerves to my brain. 2

The bones in my fingers close around the ruler. 5

HUMAN BODY IN MOTION | QUICK CHECK ANSWER KEYS | 45


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


Directions

How to Solve the Riddles:


1. Read the riddles on page 6 and try to identify the joints they refer to.

2. Once you think you have solved a riddle, write the name of the joint on the line next to the
clue. (Refer to the word bank at the bottom of this page to help you.)

3. Afterwards, locate the joint on the skeleton diagram on page 7 and label it using its
common name.

Helpful Hints:
• If a riddle mentions specific bone names, you can use the skeleton diagram on page 7 to
help you.
• If a riddle mentions specific types of joints, you can use the joint diagrams on page 8 and
the classroom joint models to help you.
• Test your ideas on your own body. If you think you have identified a particular joint, exercise
that joint to see if it moves the way the riddle describes.

Common Joints of the Human Body

Neck  Shoulder  Wrist  Jaw  Knuckle

Elbow  Hip  Knee  Ankle

Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2) 


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


Solve the Riddles

  Joint A: You will need to use these tiny hinge joints when you write
down your answers to these riddles.

  Joint B: This ball-and-socket joint can move in a complete circle. It


is your body’s most flexible joint. If you throw, hit, or lift too
hard, the bones in this joint can become disconnected (dis-
located). In fact, this is the most likely joint in the body to be
dislocated.

  Joint C: This hinge joint connects the lower ends of the tibia and the
fibula.

  Joint D: This is the largest—and heaviest—joint in the body. Every


time you move from one place to another, this joint works like
a hinge, moving up and down, but not side to side. This joint
is often injured during sports, such as basketball and skiing.

  Joint E: You use this hinge joint to talk and eat. It is the most active
joint in your body.

  Joint F: This joint has eight small bones that can move up and down,
with some side-to-side motion. The scientific name for this
joint is the radiocarpal joint because it involves the carpal
bones and the radius bone.

  Joint G: This ball-and-socket joint can move in a complete circle. It


is stronger than the shoulder but not as flexible. When you
walk, the force placed on this joint is three to four times
your body’s weight; when you run, it is five times your body
weight.

  Joint H: You might use this pivot joint when you’re startled by a sud-
den, loud sound or when you want to indicate “No” without
speaking.

  Joint I: You can find the answer to this riddle by raising your hand to
ask your teacher for help. Now put it down. You just exercised
this hinge joint.

 Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2)


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


The Human Skeleton

Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2) 


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


Types of Joints

Ball-and-Socket Joint
Bones at ball and socket joints can
move around in a complete circle like
a shower head.

Pivot Joint
Bones at pivot joints can swivel
around like an office chair.

Hinge Joint
Bones at hinge joints can swing back
and forth like a door.

 Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2)


Date:

Taking Care of My Body


Important Steps

I realize that my body is an amazing machine. It gets me from place to place, fights off infections,
allows me to learn about the world around me, helps me to grow, and many other things. In order
for my body to take care of me properly, I must take care of it!

Here are some of the ways that I pledge to take care of my body:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

52 Taking Care of My Body


Date:

Taking Care of My Body


Important Steps

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Signature:   Date:

Taking Care of My Body 53


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


Directions

How to Solve the Riddles:


1. Read the riddles on page 6 and try to identify the joints they refer to.

2. Once you think you have solved a riddle, write the name of the joint on the line next to the
clue. (Refer to the word bank at the bottom of this page to help you.)

3. Afterwards, locate the joint on the skeleton diagram on page 7 and label it using its
common name.

Helpful Hints:
• If a riddle mentions specific bone names, you can use the skeleton diagram on page 7 to
help you.
• If a riddle mentions specific types of joints, you can use the joint diagrams on page 8 and
the classroom joint models to help you.
• Test your ideas on your own body. If you think you have identified a particular joint, exercise
that joint to see if it moves the way the riddle describes.

Common Joints of the Human Body

Neck  Shoulder  Wrist  Jaw  Knuckle

Elbow  Hip  Knee  Ankle

Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2) 


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


Solve the Riddles

Knuckle   Joint A: You will need to use these tiny hinge joints when you write
down your answers to these riddles.

Shoulder   Joint B: This ball-and-socket joint can move in a complete circle. It


is your body’s most flexible joint. If you throw, hit, or lift too
hard, the bones in this joint can become disconnected (dis-
located). In fact, this is the most likely joint in the body to be
dislocated.

Ankle   Joint C: This hinge joint connects the lower ends of the tibia and the
fibula.

Knee   Joint D: This is the largest—and heaviest—joint in the body. Every


time you move from one place to another, this joint works like
a hinge, moving up and down, but not side to side. This joint
is often injured during sports, such as basketball and skiing.

Jaw   Joint E: You use this hinge joint to talk and eat. It is the most active
joint in your body.

Wrist   Joint F: This joint has eight small bones that can move up and down,
with some side-to-side motion. The scientific name for this
joint is the radiocarpal joint because it involves the carpal
bones and the radius bone.

Hip   Joint G: This ball-and-socket joint can move in a complete circle. It


is stronger than the shoulder but not as flexible. When you
walk, the force placed on this joint is three to four times
your body’s weight; when you run, it is five times your body
weight.

Neck   Joint H: You might use this pivot joint when you’re startled by a sud-
den, loud sound or when you want to indicate “No” without
speaking.

Elbow   Joint I: You can find the answer to this riddle by raising your hand to
ask your teacher for help. Now put it down. You just exercised
this hinge joint.

 Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2)


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


The Human Skeleton

Jaw joint
Neck joint
Shoulder joint

Elbow joint

Hip joint

Wrist joint

Knuckle joint

Knee joint

Ankle joint

Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2) 


Date:

Where’s This Joint?


Types of Joints

Ball-and-Socket Joint
Bones at ball and socket joints can
move around in a complete circle like
a shower head.

Pivot Joint
Bones at pivot joints can swivel
around like an office chair.

Hinge Joint
Bones at hinge joints can swing back
and forth like a door.

 Where’s This Joint? (Lesson 2)


Date:

Taking Care of My Body


Important Steps
Answers vary. Students add to this list throughout the unit. Gauge whether students’ entries
reflect an awareness of the impact of exercise, diet, and other lifestyle choices on health.
I realize that my body is an amazing machine. It gets me from place to place, fights off infections,
allows me to learn about the world around me, helps me to grow, and many other things. In order
for my body to take care of me properly, I must take care of it!

Here are some of the ways that I pledge to take care of my body:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

52 Taking Care of My Body


Date:

Taking Care of My Body


Important Steps

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Signature:   Date:

Taking Care of My Body 53


Human Body in Motion Unit
Teacher Masters:
Table of Contents
Introductory Letter to Families
Welcome to the Human Body in Motion Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2

Assessments
Human Body in Motion Assessment 1: Supporting Active Muscle Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Human Body in Motion Assessment 2: Mechanics of Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Human Body in Motion Assessment 3: Body Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Human Body in Motion Assessment 4: Observing and Describing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Human Body in Motion Assessment 5: Recording and
Analyzing Data and Making Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Note Recording Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–9

Teacher Masters
Request for Materials (Lessons 1 and 3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
What’s Inside the Human Body?—Initial (Lesson 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–12
Where’s This Joint? Answer Key (Lesson 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
What’s Inside the Human Body?—Final (Lesson 12). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–15
Setting Up a Fair Test (SBA 3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16–19

Family Links
Be Good to Your Joints (Lesson 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Moving Our Limbs (Lesson 3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Tracking Reflexes (Lesson 5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Calcium in Your Diet (Lesson 6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Breathing Matters (Lesson 9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Building Blocks (Lesson 11). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

ISBN 1-59192-279-8
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
2009 Edition. Copyright © 2005 Chicago Science Group. All Rights Reserved.
Human Body in Motion Assessment 2:
Mechanics of Movement
As you evaluate the children’s discussions and their work in their science notebooks, consider
whether they demonstrate understanding of the following criteria related to how the parts of the
body work together to move:
Assessment Criteria:
A. A skeleton moves B. Muscles move the C. Nerves carry signals to
at its joints. There are bones they are attached the muscles to move our
different kinds of joints to by pulling on them. bones.
Students’ Names in the human body.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Assessment 2: Mechanics of Movement Human Body in Motion Teacher Master 


Where’s This Joint?
Answer Key

Joint A: You will need to use these tiny hinge joints when you write down your
answers to these riddles. (Knuckle joints)

Joint B: This ball-and-socket joint can move in a complete circle. It is your body’s
most flexible joint. If you throw, hit, or lift too hard, the bones in this joint
can become disconnected (dislocated). In fact, this is the most likely joint
in the body to be dislocated. (Shoulder joint)

Joint C: This hinge joint connects the lower ends of the tibia and the fibula.
(Ankle joint)

Joint D: This is the largest—and heaviest—joint in the body. Every time you move
from one place to another, this joint works like a hinge, moving up and
down, but not side to side. This joint is often injured during sports, such as
basketball and skiing. (Knee joint)

Joint E: You use this joint to talk and eat. It is the most active joint in your body.
(Jaw joint)

Joint F: This joint has eight small bones that can move up and down, with some
side-to-side motion. The scientific name for this joint is the radiocarpal joint
because it involves the carpal bones and the radius bone. (Wrist joint)

Joint G: This ball-and-socket joint can move in a complete circle. It is stronger


than the shoulder but not as flexible. When you walk, the force placed on
this joint is three to four times your body’s weight; when you run, it is five
times your body weight. (Hip joint)

Joint H: You might use this pivot joint when you’re startled by a sudden, loud
sound or when you want to indicate “No” without speaking. (Neck joint)

Joint I: You can find the answer to this riddle by raising your hand to ask your
teacher for help. Now put it down. You just exercised this hinge joint.
(Elbow joint)

Where’s This Joint? Answer Key (Lesson 2) Human Body in Motion Teacher Master 13
Name: Date:

Family Link with Science—Homework

Be Good to Your Joints


Describe a perfect school day from the perspective of your body’s joints.
• What are you eating, wearing, and carrying?

• Are you sitting, lifting things, or exercising? How?

• What simple changes can you make to your daily routine that will protect
your joints?

You can read about ten ways to be good to your joints on pages 6–7 of your reference
book to assist you as you complete this assignment.

Family Link: Be Good to Your Joints (Lesson 2) Human Body in Motion Teacher Master 20
Human Body in Motion Unit Visuals:
Table of Contents

Overhead Transparencies
Overhead Transparency: Human Skeleton (Lesson 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Overhead Transparency: Bone Structure (Lesson 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Overhead Transparency: The Circulatory System (Lesson 8). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Overhead Transparency: The Digestive System (Lesson 10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Overhead Transparency: Amazing Cells (Lesson 11). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–6
Overhead Transparency: How the Human Body Is Organized (Lesson 11). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Overhead Transparency: Steam Blower from Zorr (Lesson 11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–10

ISBN 1-59192-280-1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
2009 Edition. Copyright © 2005 Chicago Science Group. All Rights Reserved.
Human Skeleton
skull

maxilla
mandible
clavicle vertebra

scapula

rib
humerus

vertebra
radius
pelvis
sacrum
ulna
carpals metacarpals

phalanges
femur

patella

tibia

fibula

tarsals metatarsals

phalanges
Overhead Transparency: Human Skeleton (Lesson 2)
2009 Edition. Copyright ©
Human Body in Motion Visual 1 2005 Chicago Science Group.
All Rights Reserved.
www.sc encecompanion.com
Human Body in Motion Unit Posters:
Table of Contents

Posters
The Skeletal System and Movement (Lesson 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 1
The Muscular System and Movement (Lessons 3 and 7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 2
The Nervous System and Movement (Lessons 4 and 5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 3
The Circulatory System and Movement (Lesson 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 4
The Respiratory System and Movement (Lesson 9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 5
The Digestive System and Movement (Lesson 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 6
How the Human Body is Organized (Lesson 11). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poster 7

ISBN: 1-59192-281-X
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
2009 Edition. Copyright © 2005 Chicago Science Group. All Rights Reserved.
The Skeletal System and Movement

The Human Skeleton

Ball-and-socket joints like your hips


and shoulders allow bones
to move in a complete circle.

The kick starts with the


backwards movement
of the lower leg bones
Marjorie C. Leggitt

Next, the lower leg bones


move forward at the knee
Hinge joints like your knee allow
joint sending the ball flying bones to swing back and forth like
a door so you can kick the ball.

Pivot joints like those at our neck


and wrists allow bones to “swivel”
from side to side.

A Closer Look Inside Bone

There are three main types of bone cells: osteoblasts


2009 Edition. Copyright © 2005 Chicago Science Group.
(bone builders), osteoclasts (bone digesters), and All Rights Reserved.
osteocytes (bone directors). In this photograph two www.sciencecompanion.com

osteoclasts (shown in red) are “eating away” old,


worn out bone.
“I Wonder” Circle ®

Doing Science

o v er I W
isc on
D de
I

r
I Record

I Think
Doing
Science
ve

er I
bs Tr
I O y

I Wonder: notice, ask questions, state problems


I Think: consider, gather information, predict
I Try: experiment, model, test ideas, repeat
I Observe: watch, examine, measure
I Record: record data, organize, describe, classify, graph, draw
I Discover: look for patterns, interpret, reflect, conclude,
communicate discoveries

2009 Edition. Copyright © 2004 Chicago Science Group.


All Rights Reserved. www.sciencecompanion.com
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
Table of Contents

Chapter 1: You Can’t Move Without a Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Your Skeleton Has Several Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A Skeleton Gives Your Body a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A Skeleton Protects Your Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
The Human Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
How Does a Skeleton Move? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Joints—Where Bones Meet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter 2: Muscles Move Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


Your Moving Team—Bones, Joints and Muscles . . . . . . . . . . 9
Muscles Pull Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Muscles Don’t Push! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
How Muscles Work in Pairs—Moving Your Arm . . . . . . . . 12

Chapter 3: Directing Your Muscles—The Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


How Your Nervous System Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Your Brain—Command Central . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Your Senses—Providing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Your Nerves—Sending the Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Your Spinal Cord—The Main Pathway
Messages Travel On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
How Do All the Parts of Your Nervous
System Work Together? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Reaction Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Moving Without Thinking About It—Reflexes . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Diseases and Other Problems of the Nervous System . . . . . . . 25

iii
iv Table of Contents

Chapter 4: What’s Inside Your Body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27


How Your Body Is Organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Cells—The Building Blocks of the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Cells Combine to Make Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Tissues Combine to Form Organs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Organs Work Together as Organ Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 32
A Summary of How Your Body Is Organized . . . . . . . . . . 34
How Is Your Body Organized Like a House? . . . . . . . . . . 35
Your Body—Many Parts All Working Together . . . . . . . . . 35
What Cells Need to Stay Healthy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Chapter 5: A Closer Look at Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


The Structure of Bones Helps Them Do Their Jobs . . . . . . . . . 37
What Do Bone Cells Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Two Kinds of Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Bones Make Blood Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Types of Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Looking Even Closer—Long Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Calcium—The Key to Strong Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Chapter 6: A Closer Look at Muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


The Muscular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
To Move Your Bones, Many Muscle Cells Pull Together . . . . 49
From Cells to Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Muscles You Control and Muscles You Don’t . . . . . . . . . . 51
What Muscle Cells Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
How Do Your Muscle Cells Get Energy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
What Happens if Your Muscle Cells Don’t Get
Enough Nutrients and Oxygen? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table of Contents 

Chapter 7: Getting Muscles What They Need—Your Circulatory System . . . . 57


Your Circulatory System and How It Works . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
How Do Oxygen and Nutrients Get to Your Muscle Cells? . . 57
The Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Blood Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
The Circulatory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
How Your Circulatory System Works When You Exercise . . . . . 65
Why Does Your Heart Beat Faster When You Exercise? . . . . 65
How Do Your Heart Muscles “Know” to Work Faster? . . . . . 66
Why Does Your Face Get So Red When You Exercise? . . . . . 66

Chapter 8: From Breath to Movement—Your Respiratory System . . . . . . . . 69


How We Breathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Where the Air Goes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Your Air Cleaning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
From Your Lungs to Your Blood and Back Again . . . . . . . . . 74
Moving Oxygen into the Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Removing Waste from Your Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
How Your Respiratory System Works When You Exercise . . . . . 75
Why Do You Breathe Harder When You Exercise? . . . . . . . 75
How Do the Muscles That Control Breathing
“Know” to Work Faster? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Diseases and Conditions of the Respiratory System . . . . . . . . 76
Asthma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Cystic Fibrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Bronchitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Emphysema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
vi Table of Contents

Chapter 9: Getting Energy from Food—Your Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . 81


The Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
The Parts of Your Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
How Is Food Broken Down? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
A Sandwich’s Journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
What Happens to the Food Our Bodies Can’t Use? . . . . . . . 85
Digestion and Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Why Do You Feel Hungry After You’ve Been Active? . . . . . . 86
Why Do You Feel Thirsty During and After Exercise? . . . . . 86
Why Do Your Muscles Feel Tired? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Chapter 10: Poetry in Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
1
You Can’t Move
Without a Skeleton

Your Skeleton Has Several Jobs

A Skeleton Gives Your Body a Shape


More than 200 bones connect inside your body to form your
skeleton. You need your skeleton more than you probably
think you do. What would life be like without it? If you didn’t
have a skeleton, you would be just a puddle of skin and other
body parts piled on the floor. You couldn’t stand or hold your
head up, let alone move!

Like the steel beams that keep up a tall building, your skel-
eton is the structure that the rest of your body is built around.
Your skeleton gives your body a shape, something to hang
everything else on. Your bones, which hold up the rest of your
body, are stronger than wood, concrete, or even steel. They
need to be that strong because they support your body when
you move.


 Chapter 1

A Skeleton Protects Your Body


Think about your skull. Just like a helmet, it protects your
Challenge
brain. If you fall and hit your head, it might hurt, but your
Name three organs,
besides your brain, brain is safe inside and will usually be okay. Your skull and the
that your skeleton rest of your skeleton are like “armor.” They keep your brain
protects.
and the other organs in your body safe.

The Human Skeleton

Human Body Facts skull

• An adult’s body has maxilla


about 206 bones. mandible
But a baby has clavicle vertebra
as many as 270. (collarbone)
As you get older, scapula
(shoulder blade)
some bones grow
together, so two rib
bones become one. humerus

• Babies’ and tod-


dlers’ bones are
vertebra
softer than older
radius
kids’ and adults’. pelvis
So—when toddlers sacrum
fall—their bones carpals ulna
are likely to bend metacarpals
instead of break.

phalanges

femur

People Doing
­Science patella
(knee cap)
Many of the names we
tibia
use for bones today
were first used more
than 1800 years ago
fibula
by a Roman scientist
named Galen.
tarsals
metatarsals

phalanges
You Can’t Move Without a Skeleton 

How Does a Skeleton Move?


If bones are hard and don’t bend, how can a skeleton move? Human Body Fact
Your skeleton can only move where two bones come together. Do you know some-
one who’s “double-
jointed”? They really
Joints—Where Bones Meet aren’t. People who
are double-jointed
The point where two or more bones meet is called a joint.
have ligaments that
Joints that cannot move, like most of those in the skull, are stretch more than
called fixed joints. other people’s. They
can move in ways that
most people can’t.
This makes it seem like
they have extra joints.

How is your skeleton held together?


Word Connection
Bones that move are held in place by bands called ligaments The word ligament
(LIG-uh-muhnts). Ligaments hold your bones in place, but they comes from the Latin
are slightly stretchy—so you can move. word, “ligamentum,”
which means a band
or tie.
 Chapter 1

Joints that allow you to move, like those in your knees, are
called moveable joints.

Femur

Ligament Patella

Ligament
Ligament

Ligament

Tibia

Some joints allow a lot of movement and some just a little.


Your body has many different kinds of joints. You’ll be looking
at three kinds of moveable joints in science class.

Hinge joints, like those at your knees and elbows, allow your
arms and legs to swing back and forth like a hinged door.
You Can’t Move Without a Skeleton 

Human Body Facts


• Just like you oil the hinges of a door so the parts don’t scrape against each other
and squeak, your joints are oiled with a slippery, oily substance (called synovial
fluid) that keeps the bones from grinding against each other.

• Have you ever heard someone crack their knuckles? They’re not really cracking
their bones against each other. When they pull their bones apart, air bubbles
form and then burst—which makes that weird popping noise!

Pivot joints allow bones to rotate from side to side—like an


office swivel chair. You can brush dirt off your clothing with
your hand thanks to your wrist’s pivot joint. And you can
shake your head back and forth to say “No” because of your
neck’s pivot joint.

Ball-and-socket joints, like those in your shoulders and


hips, allow you to swing your arms and legs in almost any
T Think About It!
Try moving different parts
direction. of your body, like your
arm at the elbow or shoul-
der, your ankle, or your
head and neck. As you
move, think about what
kind of movement each
joint allows. What kind
of joint is moving in
each of these places?
 Chapter 1

Your Body in Motion—An Owner’s Guide


You’ve got to have smoothly working joints to move freely. But
joints are easy to injure. Here are ten ways you can be good to
your joints.

1. Move! When you don’t use your joints, they can become
stiff and weak. Change positions often if you have to sit for a
long time.

2. Stretch. Hold gentle stretches for 30–40 seconds. Don’t


bounce when you stretch.

3. Wear elbow pads, knee pads, and other gear that protects
your joints when you play sports.

4. Don’t overdo it. Using the same joint over and over can put
stress on it. When you’re doing the same activity again and
again, take a five minute break every 30 minutes of activity.

5. Keep a healthy weight. Walking or running with just one


extra pound on your body can put four extra pounds of
force on your knees.

6. Don’t slouch. Sit up straight and keep both feet flat on the
floor. This will help you develop good posture, and will pro-
tect the joints of your neck and back.

7. Think twice before wearing shoes that could hurt your feet.
Women who wear shoes with high heels often develop prob-
lems with their feet. There are lots of great-looking shoes
that are also good for your feet. Shoes that cushion and
­support your feet, like running shoes, are best.
You Can’t Move Without a Skeleton 

8. Eat smart for your bones. Calcium-rich foods such as milk,


yogurt, broccoli, spinach, tofu, cheese, and salmon help Backpack Tip
keep your bones strong. • Always wear the
straps of your
9. Be careful when you lift heavy things. Bend your knees when ­backpack over
both shoulders.
you pick stuff up and balance loads so that your largest and
strongest joints (your shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees) • Keep the weight
you carry in your
are supporting most of the weight. Carry loads close to your backpack to
body—backpacks are great for this. 10% of your body
weight. (If you
10. Protect your lungs as well as your joints. Say “No” to weigh 100 pounds,
smoking! Smoking can make your bones thinner. Thin bones you shouldn’t be
carrying more than
break more easily than normal bones. Don’t let this happen
10 pounds in your
to you. backpack.)
 Chapter 1

Science Inventions—Artificial Joints


Sometimes people’s joints wear out, or stop working well. This can
happen as people get older or as a result of injuries. In the past,
when this happened, people were just plain out of luck—forced to
live with the pain or unable to walk.

Now, doctors can actually replace worn-out or damaged joints


with new joints made of metal and plastic. The most common
joint to be replaced is the hip joint. Arthritis, a condition that can
damage the joints in older people, is a major cause. Another joint
that often gets repaired or replaced is the knee joint, which people
sometimes injure when they ski or do other sports.

The artificial hip joint in the hip on the left side is easy to see in this x-ray. Can you see
how this joint looks like a ball resting in a socket?