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Essays in Little, by Andrew Lang

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Title: Essays in Little

Author: Andrew Lang


Editor: W. H. Davenport Adams
Release Date: December 29, 2007 [eBook #1594]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ESSAYS IN LITTLE***


Transcribed from the 1891 Henry and Co. edition by David Price, email ccx074@pgl
af.org
ESSAYS IN LITTLE.
by
ANDREW LANG.
with portrait of the author.
london:
HENRY AND CO., BOUVERIE STREET, E.C.
1891.
Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Vincy, Ld., London and Aylesbury.
CONTENTS.
Preface
Alexandre Dumas
Mr. Stevenson’s works
Thomas Haynes Bayly
Théodore de Banville
Homer and the Study of Greek
The Last Fashionable Novel
Thackeray
Dickens
Adventures of Buccaneers
The Sagas
Charles Kingsley
Charles Lever: His books, adventures and misfortunes
The poems of Sir Walter Scott
John Bunyan
To a Young Journalist
Mr. Kipling’s stories

PREFACE
Of the following essays, five are new, and were written for this volume. They a
re the paper on Mr. R. L. Stevenson, the “Letter to a Young Journalist,” the stu
dy of Mr. Kipling, the note on Homer, and “The Last Fashionable Novel.” The art
icle on the author of “Oh, no! we never mention Her,” appeared in the New York S
un, and was suggested by Mr. Dana, the editor of that journal. The papers on Th
ackeray and Dickens were published in Good Words, that on Dumas appeared in Scri
bner’s Magazine, that on M. Théodore de Banville in The New Quarterly Review. T
he other essays were originally written for a newspaper “Syndicate.” They have
been re-cast, augmented, and, to a great extent, re-written.
A. L.
ALEXANDRE DUMAS
Alexandre Dumas is a writer, and his life is a topic, of which his devotees neve
r weary. Indeed, one lifetime is not long enough wherein to tire of them. The
long days and years of Hilpa and Shalum, in Addison—the antediluvian age, when a
picnic lasted for half a century and a courtship for two hundred years, might h
ave sufficed for an exhaustive study of Dumas. No such study have I to offer, i
n the brief seasons of our perishable days. I own that I have not read, and do
not, in the circumstances, expect to read, all of Dumas, nor even the greater pa
rt of his thousand volumes. We only dip a cup in that sparkling spring, and dri
nk, and go on,—we cannot hope to exhaust the fountain, nor to carry away with us
the well itself. It is but a word of gratitude and delight that we can say to
the heroic and indomitable master, only an ave of friendship that we can call ac
ross the bourne to the shade of the Porthos of fiction. That his works (his bes
t works) should be even still more widely circulated than they are; that the you
ng should read them, and learn frankness, kindness, generosity—should esteem the
tender heart, and the gay, invincible wit; that the old should read them again,
and find forgetfulness of trouble, and taste the anodyne of dreams, that is wha
t we desire.
Dumas said of himself (“Mémoires,” v. 13) that when he was young he tried severa
l times to read forbidden books—books that are sold sous le manteau. But he nev
er got farther than the tenth page, in the
“scrofulous French novel
On gray paper with blunt type;”
he never made his way so far as
“the woful sixteenth print.”
“I had, thank God, a natural sentiment of delicacy; and thus, out of my six hund
red volumes (in 1852) there are not four which the most scrupulous mother may no
t give to her daughter.” Much later, in 1864, when the Censure threatened one o
f his plays, he wrote to the Emperor: “Of my twelve hundred volumes there is not
one which a girl in our most modest quarter, the Faubourg Saint-Germain, may no
t be allowed to read.” The mothers of the Faubourg, and mothers in general, may
not take Dumas exactly at his word. There is a passage, for example, in the st
ory of Miladi (“Les Trois Mousquetaires”) which a parent or guardian may well th
ink undesirable reading for youth. But compare it with the original passage in
the “Mémoires” of D’Artagnan! It has passed through a medium, as Dumas himself
declared, of natural delicacy and good taste. His enormous popularity, the wide
st in the world of letters, owes absolutely nothing to prurience or curiosity.
The air which he breathes is a healthy air, is the open air; and that by his own
choice, for he had every temptation to seek another kind of vogue, and every op
portunity.
Two anecdotes are told of Dumas’ books, one by M. Edmond About, the other by his
own son, which show, in brief space, why this novelist is so beloved, and why h
e deserves our affection and esteem. M. Villaud, a railway engineer who had liv
ed much in Italy, Russia, and Spain, was the person whose enthusiasm finally sec
ured a statue for Dumas. He felt so much gratitude to the unknown friend of lon
ely nights in long exiles, that he could not be happy till his gratitude found a
permanent expression. On returning to France he went to consult M. Victor Bori
e, who told him this tale about George Sand. M. Borie chanced to visit the famo
us novelist just before her death, and found Dumas’ novel, “Les Quarante Cinq” (
one of the cycle about the Valois kings) lying on her table. He expressed his w
onder that she was reading it for the first time.
“For the first time!—why, this is the fifth or sixth time I have read ‘Les Quara
nte Cinq,’ and the others. When I am ill, anxious, melancholy, tired, discourag
ed, nothing helps me against moral or physical troubles like a book of Dumas.”
Again, M. About says that M. Sarcey was in the same class at school with a littl
e Spanish boy. The child was homesick; he could not eat, he could not sleep; he
was almost in a decline.
“You want to see your mother?” said young Sarcey.
“No: she is dead.”
“Your father, then?”
“No: he used to beat me.”
“Your brothers and sisters?”
“I have none.”
“Then why are you so eager to be back in Spain?”
“To finish a book I began in the holidays.”
“And what was its name?”
“‘Los Tres Mosqueteros’!”
He was homesick for “The Three Musketeers,” and they cured him easily.
That is what Dumas does. He gives courage and life to old age, he charms away t
he half-conscious nostalgie, the Heimweh, of childhood. We are all homesick, in
the dark days and black towns, for the land of blue skies and brave adventures
in forests, and in lonely inns, on the battle-field, in the prison, on the deser
t isle. And then Dumas comes, and, like Argive Helen, in Homer, he casts a drug
into the wine, the drug nepenthe, “that puts all evil out of mind.” Does any o
ne suppose that when George Sand was old and tired, and near her death, she woul
d have found this anodyne, and this stimulant, in the novels of M. Tolstoï, M. D
ostoiefsky, M. Zola, or any of the “scientific” observers whom we are actually r
equested to hail as the masters of a new art, the art of the future? Would they
make her laugh, as Chicot does? make her forget, as Porthos, Athos, and Aramis
do? take her away from the heavy, familiar time, as the enchanter Dumas takes us
? No; let it be enough for these new authors to be industrious, keen, accurate,
précieux, pitiful, charitable, veracious; but give us high spirits now and then
, a light heart, a sharp sword, a fair wench, a good horse, or even that old Gas
con rouncy of D’Artagnan’s. Like the good Lord James Douglas, we had liefer hea
r the lark sing over moor and down, with Chicot, than listen to the starved-mous
e squeak in the bouge of Thérèse Raquin, with M. Zola. Not that there is not a
place and an hour for him, and others like him; but they are not, if you please,
to have the whole world to themselves, and all the time, and all the praise; th
ey are not to turn the world into a dissecting-room, time into tedium, and the l
aurels of Scott and Dumas into crowns of nettles.
There is no complete life of Alexandre Dumas. The age has not produced the inte
llectual athlete who can gird himself up for that labour. One of the worst book
s that ever was written, if it can be said to be written, is, I think, the Engli
sh attempt at a biography of Dumas. Style, grammar, taste, feeling, are all bad
. The author does not so much write a life as draw up an indictment. The spiri
t of his work is grudging, sneering, contemptuous, and pitifully peddling. The
great charge is that Dumas was a humbug, that he was not the author of his own b
ooks, that his books were written by “collaborators”—above all, by M. Maquet. T
here is no doubt that Dumas had a regular system of collaboration, which he neve
r concealed. But whereas Dumas could turn out books that live, whoever his assi
stants were, could any of his assistants write books that live, without Dumas?
One might as well call any barrister in good practice a thief and an impostor be
cause he has juniors to “devil” for him, as make charges of this kind against Du
mas. He once asked his son to help him; the younger Alexandre declined. “It is
worth a thousand a year, and you have only to make objections,” the sire urged;
but the son was not to be tempted. Some excellent novelists of to-day would be
much better if they employed a friend to make objections. But, as a rule, the
collaborator did much more. Dumas’ method, apparently, was first to talk the su
bject over with his aide-de-camp. This is an excellent practice, as ideas are k
nocked out, like sparks (an elderly illustration!), by the contact of minds. Th
en the young man probably made researches, put a rough sketch on paper, and supp
lied Dumas, as it were, with his “brief.” Then Dumas took the “brief” and wrote
the novel. He gave it life, he gave it the spark (l’étincelle); and the story
lived and moved.
It is true that he “took his own where he found it,” like Molère and that he too
k a good deal. In the gallery of an old country-house, on a wet day, I came onc
e on the “Mémoires” of D’Artagnan, where they had lain since the family bought t
hem in Queen Anne’s time. There were our old friends the Musketeers, and there
were many of their adventures, told at great length and breadth. But how much m
ore vivacious they are in Dumas! M. About repeats a story of Dumas and his way
s of work. He met the great man at Marseilles, where, indeed, Alexandre chanced
to be “on with the new love” before being completely “off with the old.” Dumas
picked up M. About, literally lifted him in his embrace, and carried him off to
see a play which he had written in three days. The play was a success; the sup
per was prolonged till three in the morning; M. About was almost asleep as he wa
lked home, but Dumas was as fresh as if he had just got out of bed. “Go to slee
p, old man,” he said: “I, who am only fifty-five, have three feuilletons to writ
e, which must be posted to-morrow. If I have time I shall knock up a little pie
ce for Montigny—the idea is running in my head.” So next morning M. About saw t
he three feuilletons made up for the post, and another packet addressed to M. Mo
ntigny: it was the play L’Invitation à la Valse, a chef-d’oeuvre! Well, the mat
erial had been prepared for Dumas. M. About saw one of his novels at Marseilles
in the chrysalis. It was a stout copy-book full of paper, composed by a practi
sed hand, on the master’s design. Dumas copied out each little leaf on a big le
af of paper, en y semant l’esprit à pleines mains. This was his method. As a r
ule, in collaboration, one man does the work while the other looks on. Is it li
kely that Dumas looked on? That was not the manner of Dumas. “Mirecourt and ot
hers,” M. About says, “have wept crocodile tears for the collaborators, the vict
ims of his glory and his talent. But it is difficult to lament over the survivo
rs (1884). The master neither took their money—for they are rich, nor their fam
e—for they are celebrated, nor their merit—for they had and still have plenty.
And they never bewailed their fate: the reverse! The proudest congratulate them
selves on having been at so good a school; and M. Auguste Maquet, the chief of t
hem, speaks with real reverence and affection of his great friend.” And M. Abou
t writes “as one who had taken the master red-handed, and in the act of collabor
ation.” Dumas has a curious note on collaboration in his “Souvenirs Dramatiques
.” Of the two men at work together, “one is always the dupe, and he is the man
of talent.”
There is no biography of Dumas, but the small change of a biography exists in ab
undance. There are the many volumes of his “Mémoires,” there are all the tomes
he wrote on his travels and adventures in Africa, Spain, Italy, Russia; the book
he wrote on his beasts; the romance of Ange Pitou, partly autobiographical; and
there are plenty of little studies by people who knew him. As to his “Mémoires
,” as to all he wrote about himself, of course his imagination entered into the
narrative. Like Scott, when he had a good story he liked to dress it up with a
cocked hat and a sword. Did he perform all those astonishing and innumerable fe
ats of strength, skill, courage, address, in revolutions, in voyages, in love, i
n war, in cookery? The narrative need not be taken “at the foot of the letter”;
great as was his force and his courage, his fancy was greater still. There is
no room for a biography of him here. His descent was noble on one side, with or
without the bend sinister, which he said he would never have disclaimed, had it
been his, but which he did not happen to inherit. On the other side he may hav
e descended from kings; but, as in the case of “The Fair Cuban,” he must have ad
ded, “African, unfortunately.” Did his father perform these mythical feats of s
trength? did he lift up a horse between his legs while clutching a rafter with h
is hands? did he throw his regiment before him over a wall, as Guy Heavistone th
rew the mare which refused the leap (“Mémoires,” i. 122)? No doubt Dumas believ
ed what he heard about this ancestor—in whom, perhaps, one may see a hint of the
giant Porthos. In the Revolution and in the wars his father won the name of Mo
nsieur de l’Humanité, because he made a bonfire of a guillotine; and of Horatius
Cocles, because he held a pass as bravely as the Roman “in the brave days of ol
d.”
This was a father to be proud of; and pluck, tenderness, generosity, strength, r
emained the favourite virtues of Dumas. These he preached and practised. They
say he was generous before he was just; it is to be feared this was true, but he
gave even more freely than he received. A regiment of seedy people sponged on
him always; he could not listen to a tale of misery but he gave what he had, and
sometimes left himself short of a dinner. He could not even turn a dog out of
doors. At his Abbotsford, “Monte Cristo,” the gates were open to everybody but
bailiffs. His dog asked other dogs to come and stay: twelve came, making thirte
en in all. The old butler wanted to turn them adrift, and Dumas consented, and
repented.
“Michel,” he said, “there are some expenses which a man’s social position and th
e character which he has had the ill-luck to receive from heaven force upon him.
I don’t believe these dogs ruin me. Let them bide! But, in the interests of
their own good luck, see they are not thirteen, an unfortunate number!”
“Monsieur, I’ll drive one of them away.”
“No, no, Michel; let a fourteenth come. These dogs cost me some three pounds a
month,” said Dumas. “A dinner to five or six friends would cost thrice as much,
and, when they went home, they would say my wine was good, but certainly that m
y books were bad.” In this fashion Dumas fared royally “to the dogs,” and his A
bbotsford ruined him as certainly as that other unhappy palace ruined Sir Walter
. He, too, had his miscellaneous kennel; he, too, gave while he had anything to
give, and, when he had nothing else, gave the work of his pen. Dumas tells how
his big dog, Mouton once flew at him and bit one of his hands, while the other
held the throat of the brute. “Luckily my hand, though small, is powerful; what
it once holds it holds long—money excepted.” He could not “haud a guid grip o’
the gear.” Neither Scott nor Dumas could shut his ears to a prayer or his pock
ets to a beggar, or his doors on whoever knocked at them.
“I might at least have asked him to dinner,” Scott was heard murmuring, when som
e insufferable bore at last left Abbotsford, after wasting his time and nearly w
earing out his patience. Neither man preached socialism; both practised it on t
he Aristotelian principle: the goods of friends are common, and men are our frie
nds.
* * * * *
The death of Dumas’ father, while the son was a child, left Madame Dumas in grea
t poverty at Villers Cotterets. Dumas’ education was sadly to seek. Like most
children destined to be bookish, he taught himself to read very young: in Buffon
, the Bible, and books of mythology. He knew all about Jupiter—like David Coppe
rfield’s Tom Jones, “a child’s Jupiter, an innocent creature”—all about every go
d, goddess, fawn, dryad, nymph—and he never forgot this useful information. Dea
r Lemprière, thou art superseded; but how much more delightful thou art than the
fastidious Smith or the learned Preller! Dumas had one volume of the “Arabian
Nights,” with Aladdin’s lamp therein, the sacred lamp which he was to keep burni
ng with a flame so brilliant and so steady. It is pleasant to know that, in his
boyhood, this great romancer loved Virgil. “Little as is my Latin, I have ever
adored Virgil: his tenderness for exiles, his melancholy vision of death, his f
oreboding of an unknown God, have always moved me; the melody of his verses char
med me most, and they lull me still between asleep and awake.” School days did
not last long: Madame Dumas got a little post—a licence to sell tobacco—and at f
ifteen Dumas entered a notary’s office, like his great Scotch forerunner. He wa
s ignorant of his vocation for the stage—Racine and Corneille fatigued him prodi
giously—till he saw Hamlet: Hamlet diluted by Ducis. He had never heard of Shak
espeare, but here was something he could appreciate. Here was “a profound impre
ssion, full of inexplicable emotion, vague desires, fleeting lights, that, so fa
r, lit up only a chaos.”
Oddly enough, his earliest literary essay was the translation of Bürger’s “Lenor
e.” Here, again, he encounters Scott; but Scott translated the ballad, and Duma
s failed. Les mortes vont vite! the same refrain woke poetry in both the French
man and the Scotchman.
“Ha! ha! the Dead can ride with speed:
Dost fear to ride with me?”
So Dumas’ literary career began with a defeat, but it was always a beginning. H
e had just failed with “Lenore,” when Leuven asked him to collaborate in a play.
He was utterly ignorant, he says; he had not succeeded in gallant efforts to r
ead through “Gil Blas” and “Don Quixote.” “To my shame,” he writes, “the man ha
s not been more fortunate with those masterpieces than the boy.” He had not yet
heard of Scott, Cooper, Goethe; he had heard of Shakespeare only as a barbarian
. Other plays the boy wrote—failures, of course—and then Dumas poached his way
to Paris, shooting partridges on the road, and paying the hotel expenses by his
success in the chase. He was introduced to the great Talma: what a moment for T
alma, had he known it! He saw the theatres. He went home, but returned to Pari
s, drew a small prize in a lottery, and sat next a gentleman at the play, a gent
leman who read the rarest of Elzevirs, “Le Pastissier Français,” and gave him a
little lecture on Elzevirs in general. Soon this gentleman began to hiss the pi
ece, and was turned out. He was Charles Nodier, and one of the anonymous author
s of the play he was hissing! I own that this amusing chapter lacks verisimilit
ude. It reads as if Dumas had chanced to “get up” the subject of Elzevirs, and
had fashioned his new knowledge into a little story. He could make a story out
of anything—he “turned all to favour and to prettiness.” Could I translate the
whole passage, and print it here, it would be longer than this article; but, ah,
how much more entertaining! For whatever Dumas did he did with such life, spir
it, wit, he told it with such vivacity, that his whole career is one long romanc
e of the highest quality. Lassagne told him he must read—must read Goethe, Scot
t, Cooper, Froissart, Joinville, Brantôme. He read them to some purpose. He en
tered the service of the Duc d’Orléans as a clerk, for he wrote a clear hand, an
d, happily, wrote at astonishing speed. He is said to have written a short play
in a cottage where he went to rest for an hour or two after shooting all the mo
rning. The practice in a notary’s office stood him, as it stood Scott, in good
stead. When a dog bit his hand he managed to write a volume without using his t
humb. I have tried it, but forbear—in mercy to the printers. He performed wild
feats of rapid caligraphy when a clerk under the Duc d’Orléans, and he wrote hi
s plays in one “hand,” his novels in another. The “hand” used in his dramas he
acquired when, in days of poverty, he used to write in bed. To this habit he al
so attributed the brutalité of his earlier pieces, but there seems to be no good
reason why a man should write like a brute because it is in bed that he writes.
In those days of small things he fought his first duel, and made a study of Fear
and Courage. His earliest impulse was to rush at danger; if he had to wait, he
felt his courage oozing out at the tips of his fingers, like Bob Acres, but in
the moment of peril he was himself again. In dreams he was a coward, because, a
s he argues, the natural man is a poltroon, and conscience, honour, all the spir
itual and commanding part of our nature, goes to sleep in dreams. The animal te
rror asserts itself unchecked. It is a theory not without exceptions. In dream
s one has plenty of conscience (at least that is my experience), though it usual
ly takes the form of remorse. And in dreams one often affronts dangers which, i
n waking hours, one might probably avoid if one could.
* * * * *
Dumas’ first play, an unimportant vaudeville, was acted in 1825. His first nove
ls were also published then; he took part of the risk, and only four copies were
sold. He afterward used the ideas in more mature works, as Mr. Sheridan Le Fan
u employed three or four times (with perfect candour and fairness) the most curi
ous incident in “Uncle Silas.” Like Mr. Arthur Pendennis, Dumas at this time wr
ote poetry “up to” pictures and illustrations. It is easy, but seldom lucrative
work. He translated a play of Schiller’s into French verse, chiefly to gain co
mmand of that vehicle, for his heart was fixed on dramatic success. Then came t
he visit of Kean and other English actors to Paris. He saw the true Hamlet, and
, for the first time on any stage, “the play of real passions.” Emulation woke
in him: a casual work of art led him to the story of Christina of Sweden, he wro
te his play Christine (afterward reconstructed); he read it to Baron Taylor, who
applauded; the Comédie Française accepted it, but a series of intrigues disappo
inted him, after all. His energy at this moment was extraordinary, for he was v
ery poor, his mother had a stroke of paralysis, his bureau was always bullying a
nd interfering with him. But nothing could snub this “force of nature,” and he
immediately produced his Henri Trois, the first romantic drama of France. This
had an instant and noisy success, and the first night of the play he spent at th
e theatre, and at the bedside of his unconscious mother. The poor lady could no
t even understand whence the flowers came that he laid on her couch, the flowers
thrown to the young man—yesterday unknown, and to-day the most famous of contem
porary names. All this tale of triumph, checkered by enmities and diversified b
y duels, Dumas tells with the vigour and wit of his novels. He is his own hero,
and loses nothing in the process; but the other characters—Taylor, Nodier, the
Duc d’Orléans, the spiteful press-men, the crabbed old officials—all live like t
he best of the persons in his tales. They call Dumas vain: he had reason to be
vain, and no candid or generous reader will be shocked by his pleasant, frank, a
nd artless enjoyment of himself and of his adventures. Oddly enough, they are s
mall-minded and small-hearted people who are most shocked by what they call “van
ity” in the great. Dumas’ delight in himself and his doings is only the flower
of his vigorous existence, and in his “Mémoires,” at least, it is as happy and e
ncouraging as his laugh, or the laugh of Porthos; it is a kind of radiance, in w
hich others, too, may bask and enjoy themselves. And yet it is resented by tiny
scribblers, frozen in their own chill self-conceit.
There is nothing incredible (if modern researches are accurate) in the stories h
e tells of his own success in Hypnotism, as it is called now, Mesmerism or Magne
tism as it was called then. Who was likely to possess these powers, if not this
good-humoured natural force? “I believe that, by aid of magnetism, a bad man m
ight do much mischief. I doubt whether, by help of magnetism, a good man can do
the slightest good,” he says, probably with perfect justice. His dramatic succ
ess fired Victor Hugo, and very pleasant it is to read Dumas’ warm-hearted prais
e of that great poet. Dumas had no jealousy—no more than Scott. As he believed
in no success without talent, so he disbelieved in genius which wins no success
. “Je ne crois pas au talent ignoré, au génie inconnu, moi.” Genius he saluted
wherever he met it, but was incredulous about invisible and inaudible genius; a
nd I own to sharing his scepticism. People who complain of Dumas’ vanity may be
requested to observe that he seems just as “vain” of Hugo’s successes, or of Sc
ribe’s, as of his own, and just as much delighted by them.
He was now struck, as he walked on the boulevard one day, by the first idea of A
ntony—an idea which, to be fair, seems rather absurd than tragic, to some tastes
. “A lover, caught with a married woman, kills her to save her character, and d
ies on the scaffold.” Here is indeed a part to tear a cat in!
* * * * *
The performances of M. Dumas during the Revolution of 1830, are they not written
in the Book of the Chronicles of Alexandre the Great? But they were not litera
ry excellences which he then displayed, and we may leave this king-maker to hove
r, “like an eagle, above the storms of anarchy.”
Even to sketch his later biography is beyond our province. In 1830 he had forty
years to run, and he filled the cup of the Hours to the brim with activity and
adventure. His career was one of unparalleled production, punctuated by revolut
ions, voyages, exiles, and other intervals of repose. The tales he tells of his
prowess in 1830, and with Garibaldi, seem credible to me, and are borne out, so
far, by the narrative of M. Maxime Ducamp, who met him at Naples, in the Gariba
ldian camp. Like Mr. Jingle, in “Pickwick,” he “banged the field-piece, twanged
the lyre,” and was potting at the foes of the republic with a double-barrelled
gun, when he was not composing plays, romances, memoirs, criticisms. He has tol
d the tale of his adventures with the Comédie Française, where the actors laughe
d at his Antony, and where Madame Mars and he quarrelled and made it up again.
His plays often won an extravagant success; his novels—his great novels, that is
—made all Europe his friend. He gained large sums of money, which flowed out of
his fingers, though it is said by some that his Abbotsford, Monte Cristo, was n
o more a palace than the villa which a retired tradesman builds to shelter his o
ld age. But the money disappeared as fast as if Monte Cristo had really been pa
latial, and worthy of the fantasy of a Nero. He got into debt, fled to Belgium,
returned, founded the Mousquetaire, a literary paper of the strangest and most
shiftless kind. In “Alexandre Dumas à la Maison d’Or,” M. Philibert Audebrand t
ells the tale of this Micawber of newspapers. Everything went into it, good or
bad, and the name of Dumas was expected to make all current coin. For Dumas, un
luckily, was as prodigal of his name as of his gold, and no reputation could bea
r the drafts he made on his celebrity. His son says, in the preface to Le Fils
Naturel: “Tragedy, dramas, history, romance, comedy, travel, you cast all of the
m in the furnace and the mould of your brain, and you peopled the world of ficti
on with new creations. The newspaper, the book, the theatre, burst asunder, too
narrow for your puissant shoulders; you fed France, Europe, America with your w
orks; you made the wealth of publishers, translators, plagiarists; printers and
copyists toiled after you in vain. In the fever of production you did not alway
s try and prove the metal which you employed, and sometimes you tossed into the
furnace whatever came to your hand. The fire made the selection: what was your
own is bronze, what was not yours vanished in smoke.”
The simile is noble and worthy of the Cyclopean craftsman, Dumas. His great wor
ks endured; the plays which renewed the youth of the French stage, the novels wh
ich Thackeray loved to praise, these remain, and we trust they may always remain
, to the delight of mankind and for the sorrow of prigs.
* * * * *
So much has been written of Dumas’ novels that criticism can hardly hope to say
more that is both new and true about them. It is acknowledged that, in such a c
haracter as Henri III., Dumas made history live, as magically as Scott revived t
he past in his Louis XI., or Balfour of Burley. It is admitted that Dumas’ good
tales are told with a vigour and life which rejoice the heart; that his narrati
ve is never dull, never stands still, but moves with a freedom of adventure whic
h perhaps has no parallel. He may fall short of the humour, the kindly wisdom,
the genial greatness of Sir Walter at his best, and he has not that supernatural
touch, that tragic grandeur, which Scott inherits  from Homer and from Shakespea
re.
 In another Homeric
 quality, χαρyη, s Home  imself  lls it, in t e “delig 
t of bttle” nd  t e spi
 it of
 t e f  y, S  ott nd Dum  s e likem ste s. T
ei  fig ts nd t e fig tsin t e I el ndi  s g s e t e best t t ve eve  bee
n d  wn by mo t l m n. W en swo ds e loft, in siege o  on t e g eensw d, o 
in t e midnig  t  mbe  w ee n mbus is l id,  S ott nd Dum s e indeed t e
mselves. T e steel   ings,
 t e bu kle s
  l s , t ep y nd lunge  p ss nd nsw
e  too swift fo  t e sig t. If Dum s  s not, s
  e e t inly s not, t e nobl
e p ilosop y nd kindly knowledge of t e e t w i  e S ott’s, e is f  mo e
swift,
 mo e witty, mo e dive ting. He is not p olix, is style is not involved
, is di logue is s  pid nd keen s n ss ult  t ms. His f vou ite vi tue
s nd g  es, we epet it, eloy lty,f iends ip, giety, gene osity, ou  ge
, beuty, nd st engt  . He is imself t e f iend of t e big, stupid, ex ellent
Po
  t os; of At os,  e noble nd mel n  oly swo dsm n of so ow;of D’A t gn n,
t
t e indomit
 ble, t e t usty, t e inex ustible  in esou e; but is e t is nev
e  on t e side of  t e s ifty A  mis, wit
  ll is be uty, dexte ity, b  ve y, n
d b illi n e. T e b ve Bussy, nd te  iv  l ous, t e doomedL Mole,  e mo e
de  to im; nd if e embellis  es t ei    te  s, giving t em  ms ndvi 
tues t t neve  we e t ei s, isto y loses not  ing,  nd om n e nd we e t e g
ine s. In ll e does, t is best, s in t e “C ev lie   d’H ment l,”
 e s
movement,
 kindness,
 ou  ge, nd g iety. His p ilosop
 y of life is
 t t oldp
ilosop y of t e s g s nd of Home . Let us enjoy t e movement of t e f  y, t e
f es of f i  women, t e t ste of good wine; let us wel ome life  like mist  ess
, let us wel ome de t like f iend, nd wit jest—if de t omes wit onou 
.
  
Dum s is no pessimist.   ven s m de but one d  m fo  m n—t
“He  e wo ld,” e w 
ites, “ nd du ing t ese t ee t ous  nd ye sm nkind s been issing  it.” It i
s e t in t t, if mo  l enso  s ip  ould ve p  evented it, t is g e t d m
of mo t l p ssions would neve   ve been li  ensed,  t ll,
 neve  pe  fo med. But
Dum s, fo  one, will not issit, but ppl uds wit  ll is
 mig t—  med spe
t to , fo tun te to in t e ete nl pie e, w e e ll t e men  nd women e
only pl yes. You e  is mnlyl ug te , you e  is mig ty nds pp oving,
you see t e te s e s eds w en e d “sl in Po t os”—g e t te s like t ose o
f P nt g uel.
* * * * *
     
His m y not  t e best, no  t e ultim
 be  te p ilosop y, but  it is p ilosop y, n
d one of w i  we m y some d y feel t e w nt. I e d t estilted iti isms, t
e pednti   pings of some mode n menw o  nnot w ite  t ei own l ngu ge, nd
I g t e  t t Dum s is out of d te. T e eis new p ilosop y of doubts nd del
i  ies, of d llyings nd efinements, of lf- e ted looke s-on, desi  ing nd
fe ing some new
 o de  of t e wo ld.
 Dum s does
 not d lly no
  doubt: e t kes
is side, e us es into t e smoke, est ikes is foe;  but t e e is neve  n unk
ind wo d on is lip, no  g udging t oug t in is e t.
   
It m y be s id t t Dum s is not m ste  of wo ds nd p  ses,t t e is not
  ffiné of exp ession, no  jewelle ofstyle. W en  I e d t e m unde ings, t
e stilted  nd st gge  ing senten es, t e  esit ting p  ses, t e f -soug  t nd
de -boug t nd wo t less wo d-juggles; t e s m s ientifi  ve bi ge, t e n tive
ped nt  ies of m ny mode n so-  lled “stylists,”
 I ejoi e t t Dum s w s not on
e of t ese. He told pl in t le, in  t e l ngu ge suited
 to
 pl in t le, wit 
bund n e of wit nd g iety, s in  t e efle tions of is C i ot, s in ll is
di logues.
 But e did not  gn w t e end of is pen in se  ofsome wo d t t n
obody d eve  used in  t is o  t t onne tion  befo e. T e ig t wo d  me to
im, t e simple st  ig tfo w d p  se. Epit et- unting m y be p etty spo t,
nd t e b g of t e epit et- unte  m y ont in some g ee ble epig  ms nd  e sp
eimens of style; but pl in t le of dventu e, of love nd w , needs none of
t is indust y, nd is even spoiled by inoppo tune diligen  e. Speed, di etness, 
lu idity et e   te isti s of Dum s’ style, nd t ey  e ex tly t e  
te isti s w i  is novels equi ed. S ott often f iled, is most loyl dmi 
e s m y dmit, int ese essenti ls; but it is  ely t t Dum s f ils, w en e i
s imself nd t is best.
* * * * *
  
In spite of is eedless edu tion, Dum s d tue iti  l qu lities,  nd most
dmi ed t e best t ings. We ve l e dy seen ow e w ites boutS kespe e,
Vi gil, Goet e, S ott. But  it m y be lessf mili ly known t t t is bu ly m n-
of- ll-wo k, igno  nt s e w s of G eek, d t ue nd keen pp e i tion of Ho
me . Dum s de l es t t e only  t i e iti ised is ontempo  ies in n unf
vou  ble sense, nd s one wis ful to find f ult. T e vi timswe e C simi  Del
vigne, S ibe, nd  Pons d. On e  o  sion Dum s de l es t t, fte  efle 
ting, e s w t t e w s moved by little pe son l pique, not by disinte este
dlove of t. He m kes is onfession  wit  e nobility
 of  ndou ; nd yet
 is eview of Pons d is wo t y of im. M. Pons d, w o, like Dum s, w s no s 
ol , w ote pl y styled Ulysse, nd bo  owed f
 om t e Odyssey. Dum s follows
Pons d, Odyssey in nd, nd  w ile e p oves t t t e d  m tist f iled to unde
st nd Home , p oves t t e imself  w s, in essenti ls,  p ble Home i  iti
. Dum s unde st nds t t f -off  e  oi  ge. He lives in  its life nd symp t
 wit its tempe . Home  nd e e ongeni l; oss t e g e t gulf of time
ises
t ey ex  nge smiles nd s lute.

“O ! n ient Home ,de  nd  good
 nd noble, I m minded now nd g in to le ve
ll nd t  nsl te t ee—I, w o  ve neve  wo d of G eek—so empty nd so dism l
e t e ve sions men m ke of t ee, in ve se o  in p ose.”
   
 Dum s  me to divine Home
How  , s it we e, t oug  l ngu ge e knew not, w o
s ll s y? He did divine im by n tu l symp t y of ex ellen e, nd is  pt
e s on t e “Ulysse” of Pons d ewo t wilde ness of  notes
 by le ned nd mo
st
 un-Home i  men. Fo , indeed, w o  n be less like t e e oi  minst el t n t
e  demi  p ilologist?
  
T is unive s lity desevesnote. T e Home i  student w o t kes up  volume of D
um s t  ndom finds  t t  e is not only Home i  n tu  lly, but t t e e lly k
nows is Home . W t did eno know? His  pidity in e ding must ve been
s em k ble s is p e wit t e pen. As M. Bl zede Bu y s ys: “Instin  t, exp
e ien e, memoy we e ll is; e sees  t gl n e,  e  omp
  es in fl s , e un
de st nds wit out ons  ious effo
 t, e fo
 gets not
 ing t t  e s e d.” T e p
st nd p esent e p otog  p ed impe is bly on is b  in, e knows  t e m nne s
of ll ges nd ll ount ies, t e n mes of ll t
  e  ms t t men ve used, l
l t e g ments t ey ve wo n, ll  t e dis es
 t ey ve t sted,
 ll
 t e te ms of
ll p ofessions,
 f om swo dsm
 ns ip to o  -building.
 Ot e  ut o s veto w
it, nd unt fo  f ts;  not ing stops  Dum s: e knows nd emembe seve yt ing.
Hen
 e is  pidity,
 is f ility, is positive
 delig
 t in l bou : en e it  m
e t t e mig t be e d, like Di kens, l ug ing w ile e wo ked.
* * * * *
   
T is is  t e  eulogy t n iti ism of Dums. His  f ults  e on t e su f 
e,visible to ll men. He w s not only  pid, e w s sty, e ws in onsistent
; is need  of money s well s is love of wok m de im put is nd to dozens
of pe is ble t ings. A beginne , ente ing t e fo est of Dum s’ books,m y f il
to see t e t ees  fo  t e wood. He m y be ounselled to sele  t fi st t e y le
of d’A t gn n—t e “Musketee s,”  “Twenty Ye s Afte  ,” nd  e “Vi omte de B  gel
t
onne.” M . Stevenson’s delig tful  ess y
 on t e l st m y ve sent  m ny e de s
to
 it; I  onfess to p efe ing
 t e yout  of t e “Musketee s” to t ei  old ge.
T en te e is  t e y le
 of t e V lois, w e eof  t e “D me de Monse e u” is t e be
st—pe  ps t e best t ing Dum s eve   w ote. T e “Tulipe
  Noi e” is novel gi ls
m y e d, s T ke  y s id, wit onfiden e. T e “C ev lie  d’H  ment l” is
ne ly (not quite) s good s“Quentin Duw d.” “Monte  C isto” s t e best be
ginning—
 nd loses itself  in t e s nds. T e novels on t e Revolution  e not
 mo

ng t e most llu ing: t e f med devi e “L. P. D.” (lili  pedibus dest ue) s
 t
e b d lu k to suggest “London P els Delive y.” T t is n ident, but  t e R
evolution is in itself too te ible nd pitiful, nd too ne  us (on bot sides!
) fo  fi tion.
 
On Dum s’ f ults it s been no ple sue to dwell. In e ent
 wo k I find t e
Jesuit Le Moyne quoted, s ying bout C les V.: “W t need t t futu e ges s o
uld be m de qu inted so eligious n Empe o  w s not lw ys  ste!” T es me
eti en e llu es one in eg d to  so  delig tful n ut o  s Dum s. He w o
den i  ed so m ny died poo ; e w o d told of onque ing F n e, died du ing
t e Te ible Ye . But e ould  fo give, ould pp e i te,t e v lou of n ene 
my. Of t eS ot  t W te loo e w ites: “It w s not enoug to kill t em: we
d to pus t em down.” De d,t ey still stood “s oulde   to s oulde .” In te s
me gene ous tempe   n Englis  v l y offi e  w ote  ome, fte  W te  loo, t t
e would gl dly vegiven te est of is  life to  ve se ved,  on t t dy,in o
u  inf nt y o  in t e F en   v l y.  T ese e
 t e spi its
 t t w m t e e t
, t t m ke us ll f iends; nd to  t e g e t, t e b  ve, t e gene ous Dum s we 
y, oss t e ye s nd oss t e tomb, ou  Ave tque v le!

MR. STEVENSON’S WORKS


 
  ps t e fi st qu lity inM . Stevenson’s
Pe  wo ks, now som ny nd sov ious,
w i  st ikes e de , is t e buoy n y, t e su viv l of t e  ild in im. He
s told t e wold often, in p ose nd ve se, ow vivid e is memo ies of iso
wninf n y. T is etention of  ildis e olle tions es es, no doubt,  wit
ot e  people of genius: fo  ex mple, wit Geo ge S nd, w ose legendof e  own i
nf n y is mu mo e ente t ining, nd pe  ps will endu e longe , t n e  novel
s. He  yout , like S ott’s nd like M .Stevenson’s, w s p ssed ll  in f nt sy: 
in pl ying t being some one
 else, in t e invention of im gin y   te s, w
o we e living
 to e , in t ef b i  tion of endless unw
 itten om n es. Mny pe
sons, w o do not stonis t e wo ld by t ei  genius, ve lived t us in t ei  e
   
liest yout . But, t given  moment, t e f n ydies out of t em: t is often b
ef lls im gin tive boys in t ei  fi st ye  t s ool.  “Mny e  lled, few 
osen”; but it m y be sid wit p ob ble t ut, t t t e e s neve  been m n o
f genius in lette s, w ose boy ood ws not t us f nt sti , “ n isle of d e ms.”
We know
  S ott nd De Quin
ow  ey in bited i y  stles; nd Gillies tells us,
t oug Lo 
 k t does not,  t tS ott, in mn ood,  w s o  sion lly so lost in t
oug t, t t e knew not w e e e w s no  w t e w s doing.
  
T e pe uli ity of M . Stevenson  is not only to ve been f ntsti    ild, nd
to et in, in m tu ity, t t f nt sy ipened into imgin tion: e s lso kept
up t e bit of d  m tising eve yt ing, of pl ying, lf ons iously, m ny p t
 of m kingt e wo ld “ n unsubst nti l f i y pl e.” T is tun of mind
s,  it is
t t  uses is wo k o   sion lly to seem somew t f e kis . T us, in
 t e fogs
nd o os of London, e pl ys t being n A  bi n t le-telle   , nd  “New A 
is
bi n Nig ts” e new kind  of  om nti ism—O ient l, f e kis , like t e wo k of 
 ngeling. Indeed, tis u iousgenius, sp inging  f om  f mily  S ottis
of
enginee s, esembles not ing so mu  s one of t e f i y  ild en, w om t e l d
ies of Queen P ose pin ’s ou  t usedtole ve in t e dles of Bo de  keeps o 
ofpe s nts’ ott  ges. Of t e S ot e s little  but t e powe  of tou  ing us w
it sense of t e supe n tu  l, nd
 de ided bit of mo  lising;  fo  no S ot
of genius s been mo e uste e wit Robe t Bu ns. On t e ot  e  nd, one  eleme
nt of M . Stevenson’s et i  l disquisitions
  is de  ived fom is d  m ti  bit.
His
 optimism, is g y ou  ge, is bit of 
 epting t e wo
  ld  s ve y well
 wo
t living in nd looking t, pe su ded one of  is   iti s
  t t e  w s 
 d- e
ted young
 t lete of i  on f  me. Now,  of t e t lete e
 s not ing but is l
ove of t e open i : it is  t e ete  n l  ild t t d ives im to seek dventu es
nd to sojou n mong be  - ombe  s nd s v ges. T us, n dmi ingbut f  f om
optimisti   iti  m y doubt w et e  M . Stevenson’s ontent  t e wo ld is no
 wit
t “only is fun,”   s L mb s id of Cole idge’s
  pe  ing; w et e  e is but pl yi
ng t being t e ppy w io  in life; w et e  e is not ting t t p t, imse
lf to imself. At le st, it is p t fo tuntely on eived nd dmi  bly  sust
ined: diffi ult p t too, w e e s t t of t e pessimist is s e sy s w ining.
  
M . Stevenson’s wo k s been ve y mu  w itten  bout, s it s eng ged  nd del
ig ted e de s of eve y ge, st tion, nd   te  . Boys, of ou
 se, ve been
spe i lly dd essed in t e books of dventu e,  ild en in “A C ild’s G den  of
Ve se,” young men nd m idens in “Vi ginibus Pue isque,”— ll ges in ll t e u
iously v ied se ies of volumes. “Kidn pped”  w s oneof t e l st books wi  t
e l teLod Iddesleig   e d; nd I t ust  t e e is no m in mentioning t e ple 
su e w i  M . M tt ew A nold took in t e sme sto y.  C iti s ofeve y so t
ve been kind to M . Stevenson, in spite of t e f t t t te feww o fi  st be  m
e qu inted   wit is genius p  ised it wit ll t e w mt of w i  t ey we e m
ste s. T us e s be ome  kind of l ssi  in is own d y, fo   n undisputed
eput tion m kes  l ssi  w ile it l sts. But w s eve   so mu  f me won by w i
tings w i  mig t be  lled s  ppy nd desulto  y by t e dvo  tus di boli? It
is most mis ell neouslite  y b gg ge t t M . Stevenson  ies. Fi st, f
ew m g zine ti les; t en two little books of sentiment l jou neyings,  w i  o
nvin e t e e de t t M . Stevenson is s good omp ny to imself s is books
e to ot e s. T en  me volume o  two of ess ys,lite  y nd so il, on boo
ks nd  life. By t is time t e e ould be no doubt t t M .Stevenson d styl
e of  is own, modelled  to someextent on t e ess yists of t e l st entu y, but
wit tou  es of
 T ke  y; wit o igin l b e ks nd tu ns, wit deli  te f e k
is ness,in s o t, nd dete mined love of s ying t ings s t e newsp pe s do  n
ot s y t em. All t is wo k undoubtedly smelt t ifle of t e l mp, ndw s t e 
efo e de  to some,  nd n offen e to ot e s. Fo  my p t, I d delig ted in t
 e ess ys, f om t e fi st t t ppe ed in M mill n’s M gzine, s o tly fte  t
e F  n o-Ge
 m n w . In t is littlestudy, “O  de ed Sout ,”M . Stevenson  w s
employing imself in ext  ting ll t e mel n  oly ple su e w i  t e Rivie  
n give to we ied body nd mind esisting t e louds of e ly m l dy,

“Al s, t e wo n nd b oken bo d,
  n it be  t e p inte ’s dye!
 How 
T e p ofst  ined nd tuneless  o d,
How
 to t e minst  el’s skill eply!
To  ing eyes  e  l nds   pe lowe s, 
To feve is pulse e  g le blows  ill,
And A  by’s o  Eden’s  bowe s 
We e b en s t is moo l nd ill,”—
  
w ote S ott, in n ou  of m l dy nd dep ession. But t is w s not  t e spi it o
f “O de ed Sout ”: t e younge   soul ose g inst t e ty  nny  of t e body; nd t
t f mili  gl mou  w i  , in illness, obs Tinto ettoof is glow, did not spoi
l t emidl
 nd se to M . Stevenson. His g ll nt nd  eey stoi ism we e l e d
y wit im; nd so pe fet, if t ifle ove studied, w s is style, t t one l 
e dy fo es w new nd  ming ess yist.
    
But none of t ose e ly wo ks, no  t e delig tful book on Edinbu  g , p op esied
 t e sto y telle . M . Stevenson’s fi st publis ed t les, t e “New
of  A  bi n Ni
g ts,” o igin lly  ppe ed in qu intly edited weekly p pe , w i  nobody e d,
o nobody but t e w ite   s in  its  olumns. T ey wel omed t e st  nge  om n es w
it ejoi ings: but pe  ps t e e w s only one of t em  w o fo  es w t t M . Stev

enson’s fo te w s to be fi tion, not essy w iting; t t e w s to ppe  l wit s
u ess to t e l ge publi , nd not to t e tiny i le w o su oundt e ess yist
. It didnot seem likely t t ou in l ul ble publi  would m ke t emselves t
ome in t ose f nt sti  pu lieus w i  M . Stevenson’s f ny dis  ove ed ne  t e
 St  nd. T e impossible
 Young M n wit t e C e m T ts, t e
 g stly evels of  t
eSui ide Club, t e O ient  l  p i es of t  e H nsom C bs—w o ould fo  esee t t
t
 e publi  would t
 ste t em! It is t ue t t M . Stevenson’s  im gin tion m de
t e P esident of t e Club, nd t e ow dly  membe, M . Mlt us, s e l s t ey
we e te ible.  His om n e lw ys goes nd in nd wit e lity; nd M . M lt 
us is s mu   n tu l m nof skin nd bone, s Sil s L p m is m n of fles
nd blood. T e wo ld s w t is, nd ppl uded t e “No tes of P in e Flo ist n,”
in f i y London.
  
Yet,
 ex ellent nd unique s t ese t ings we e,  M. Stevenson d not yet “found
imself.”
 It would be mo et ue tos y t t e d only  dis ove ed outlying sk
its of is dominions. H s e eve  it ont e o d to t e  pit l yet? nd will
e eve  ente it lu elled, nd in t iump ? T t is p e isely  w t one m y dou
bt, not s wit  out
 ope. He is lw  ys m king dis  ove ies in is e lm; it isle
ss et in t t e will ente  its  ief ity  in st te. His next
 wo k w s  t e 
in t e n tu e of nnex tion nd inv sion t n settling of is own e lms. “P
in e Otto” is not, to my mind, ule  in is p ope  soil. T e p ovin es of Ge
o ge S nd nd of M . Geo ge  Me edit
 ve been t ken  ptive. “P in e Otto” is
f ntsti  indeed, but neit e  t e f ntsy no  t e style is quite M . Stevenson’s
. Te e e ex ellent p ss ges, nd t e S ot  soldie  of fo tune is wel ome,
nd t e l dies bound in subtlety nd wit. But  t e book, t le st to myself,  see
ms n ext emely el bo  te nd skilful p sti  e. I  nnot believe in t e pe sons
. I v guely smell  mo  l llego y (s in “Will of t e Mill”). I do not le l
y unde st nd w t it is ll bout. T e s ene is f i yl nd; butit is not t e f
i yl nd of Pe  ult. T e l dies e be utiful nd witty;  but t ey e es  ped f
om novel of M. Me edit ’s, nd ve no business e e. T e book is no mo e M
. Stevenson’s t n “T e T le of Two Cities” w s M . Di kens’s.
 
It w s p ob bly by w y of me e dive sion nd  ild’s  pl y t t M . Stevenson beg
n “T e su e Isl nd.” He is n m teu  of boyis  ple su es of mste pie es t
penny pl in nd twopen e olou  ed. P ob bly e d looked t t e sto ies of d
ventu e in penny p pe s w i  only boys e d, nd e dete mined spo tively to o
mpete wit  t ei  unknown ut o s.  “T e su e Isl nd”  me out in su pe iodi 
l, wit t e emp ti  wood uts w i  do n t em. It is s id t t t e pue ile pu
bli  w s not g e tly sti ed. A sto y is sto y, nd t ey  t e  p efe ed t e
    
egul  pu  veyo s. T e ve y f int  ism of t e style m y ve lien tedt e
m. But, w en “T  e su e Isl nd” ppe ed s e l book, t en eve y one w o d
sm k of yout left w s boy g in fo  some  ppy  ou s. M .Stevenson d e
nte ed into not e  p ovin e of is e lm: t e king d ome to is own g in.
    
T ey s y t e se m ns ip is in u  te; I  e no mo e t n I do fo   t e ye  30.
T ey s ytoo m ny people  e killed. T ey ll died in f i  fig t, ex ept vi
tim of Jo n Silve ’s. T e on lusion is little too like p t of Poe’s most 
eleb  ted t le, but nobody s bellowed  “Pl gi  ist!” Some  people m y not look 
ove  fen e: M . Stevenson, if e liked, mig t ste l o se,—t
 e nim l in t i
s  se is only skeleton.  A ve y sobe  student mig  t dd t t t e e o is impo 
ssibly leve   ; but, t en, t e e o is boy, nd
 t is is boy’s  book. Fo t e
est, t e    te s live. Only genius  ould ve invented  Jo n Silve  , t t te
ibly smoot -spoken m  ine
  . Not ing but  genius ould ve d  wn t t simple
 y
okel on t e isl nd, wit is  ving fo   eese  s C isti n d
  inty. T e blus
te ing
 Billy Bones  is  little m ste pie e: t e blind Pew, wit is t pping sti 
k (t ee e t ee su   blind  t ppe s in M. Stevenson’s  books), st ikes te o 
into t e boldest. T en,  t e t e su  e is t ooug ly s tisf to y in kind, nd t
e e is plenty of it. T el nds  pe, s in t e feve is , fog-smot  e ed fl t, is
g ll ntly p inted. And t e e e no inte fe ing petti o ts in t e sto y.
   
As fo  t e “Bl k Aow,” I onfess to s ing t e dis bilities of t e“C iti  o
n t e He t ,” to w om it is dedi  ted. “Kidn pped”  is less sto y t n f g
ment; but it is noble f gment.  Setting  side t e wi ked old un le, w o in i
s l te  be viou  is of t e ouse of R lp Ni kleby, “Kidn pped” is  ll ex ellen 
t—pe  ps M . Stevenson’s m ste pie e. Pe  ps, too, only S ot  m n knows  ow
good it is, nd only Lowl nd S ot knows ow dmi  ble   te  is t e dou 
, b ve, on eited D vid B lfou . Itis like  being  in S otl  nd g in to ome  on
“t e g een d ive- o d unningwide t oug t e e t e ,” w ee D vid “took is
l st look of Ki k Essenden, t e t ees  bout t e m nse, nd t e big ow nsin t
e ki ky d, w ee is f te  nd mot e ly.” Pe fe tlyS ot  ,too, is t e mou
lde ing, empty ouse of t e Mise  , wit t e st mped le t e on t e w lls. And t
e Mise  is s good s S ot  T  pbois, till e be omes omi id  l, nd t en on
e f ilsto e ognise imunless e is  little  m d,
 like t t ot e  f  nti  un l
e in “T e Me   y Men.” T e s
  enes on t e s ip, wit t e boy w o  mu de ed, e
is
bette —I t ink  mo e
 e l—t n t e s enes of pi  ti  l life in “T e M ste  of B
ll nt  e.” Te fig t in te Round House, even if it we e ex gge 
 ted, would  be
edeemed by t e “Song  of t e Swo
 d of
 Al n.” As to Al n B e  k imself,
 wit is
v lou  nd v nity, is good e t, isgood on eit of imself, is fnt sti  l
oy lty, e is bsolutely wo t y of t e nd t t d ew C llum Bey nd t e Doug l
e tu e. It is just possible t t we see, in “Kidn  pped,”
 mo e signs of dete m
ined l bou, mo e eviden e of tou  es nd etou  es, t n in “Rob Roy.” Innot
ing elsew i  it ttempts is it infeio ; in m ste y of l nds  pe, s in t e s 
ene of t e lonely o k in d y nd t i sty l nd, it is unsu  p ssed.  If t e e
e signs of l bou ed ndling on Al  n, t e  e  e none in t e sket  es of Cluny 
nd of RobRoy’s son, t e pipe . W t gene ous tist is Al n! “Robin Oig,” 
e s id, w en it  w s done, “ye e ge t pipe . I m not fit to blowin t e s
me kingdom
 wit you. Body of me! ye ve m i  musi  in you  spo  n t n I ve
in my e d.”
  
“Kidn
 pped,” we s id, is f  gment.  It ends nywe e, o  now e e, s if t e pe
n d d opped  f om we y nd.  T us, nd fo ot e  e sons,  one  nnot p eten
d to set w t is not e lly w ole g inst su  ounded w ole s “Rob  Roy,” o
 g inst “T eLegend of Mont ose.” Ag in, “Kidn pped” is novel wit out wom
n in it: not e e is DiVe non, not e e is Helen M G ego . D vid  B lfou  is t
e p  gm ti  Lowl nde; e does not be  omp   ison, ex ellent s  e is, wit B
illie
 Ni ol J vie, t e umo  ous Lowl nde  : e does not live  in te memo y like
t e immo tl B illie. It is s se ies of s enes nd sket  es t t “Kidn pped”
is unm t  ed mong M . Stevenson’s wo ks.
 
In “T e M ste  of B ll nt e” M . Stevenson  m kes g ll nt effo t to ente  w t
I ve ventu edto  ll t e  pit l of is kingdom. He does  int odu e wom n,
nd onf onts t e p oblems  of love s well s of f  te  n l t ed. T e “M ste 
” is studied, is polis ed d unguem; it is w ole in itself, it is em k bly
d ing ttempt to w ite t e t  gedy,  s, in “W ve ley,”  S ott w ote t e om n e
, of S otl nd bout t e time of te Fo ty-Five. Wit su   p ede esso  nd iv
l, M . Stevenson wisely le ves te pomps nd b ttles of te Fo ty-Five, its  i
v l y nd g ll nty, lone. He  s ows us t e se  my  side: t e int igues,  domesti 
 nd politi  l; t e  needy I is dventu  e  wit t e P  in  e, pe son w om S ott
d not studied. T e book, if ompletely su essful, would be M . Stevenson’s “
B ide of L mme moo  .” To bef  nk, I do not t ink it ompletely su essful— vi
to y ll long t e line. T e obvious  we k point is Se und  D ss, t t Indi n
of unknownn tion lity;   fo  su
  ely is n me m ks im s no Hindoo. T e M ste 
ould not ve b oug t im, s ive inglike Jos Sedley’s bl k se v nt, to S otl
nd. As in  Ame i  , t is lien would ve found it “too  d m old.” My powe  of
belief  (w i  ve  ges on  edulity) is st gge  ed by t e
 g stly ttempt  to enim
te te bu ied M ste . He e, t le st  to my t ste, t e f  e kis  ngeling s
got
  t e bette  of M . Stevenson, nd s b oug t in n element out of keeping wi
t t e stedy lu id t gedy of f  te n l  t ed. Fo  ll t e est, it we  e
d judge t t d nyt ing but  p  ise. T e b illi nt bl kgu dism of t e M ste
; is tou  of sentiment  s e le vesDu isdee   fo  t el st time, wit s d o
ld song on is lips; is f s in tion; is   ut lessness; is i ony;—
 ll e pe fe
t. It is not ve y e sy to unde   st nd
 t e C ev lie  Bou  ke, t t B  y Lyndon,
wit no e d nd wit good e t, t t e tu e of  bewilde ed kindly ons ie
n e; but it is esy to like im. How dmi  ble  is is undefle
 ted
 belief
 in nd
 ffe tion fo  t
 e M ste ! How
  ex ellent nd  ow I is e is, w en e buffoons
imself  outof is pe ils wit t e pi  tes!  T es enes e b illi nt nd living
, s w en t e Mste  t ows t e guine t oug t e H ll window, o  s in t e d 
kling  duel in t e g den. It needed n uste e tisti  ons ien e to m keHen 
y, t e younge  b ot e , so unlov  ble wit ll is ex ellen e, nd to keep t e l
dy so t ue, yet so mu  in s dow. T is is t e best wom n mong M . Stevenson’s
few women; but even s e is lmost lw ys ese ved, veiled s it we e.
 
T e old Lo d, g in,  is po t  it s lifelike  s S ott ould ve d wn, nd mo
e deli  telytou  ed t n S ott would  ve  ed to d  w it: F en  omp nion 
pi tu e to t e B on B  dw dine. T e w ole pie e e ds s if M . Stevenson 
d eng gedin st uggle wit imself s e w ote. T e sky is neve   blue,  t e su
n neve  s ines: we we yfo  “westl  nd wind.” T e  e is somet
 ing “t  wn,” s
t e S ot s y, bout t e sto y; t e e is often tou  of t is siniste   kind i
n t e ut o ’s  wo k. T e lngu ge is ext   o din ily tful, s in t e m dlo d
’s wo ds, “I ve felt t e ilt dil on is b e st-bone.” And  yet, one is dl
y t illed s one expe ts to be, w en, s M kell  s ys, “t e week-old o pse l
ooked me fo  moment in t e f e.”
 
P ob bly none of M . Stevenson’s m ny books s m de is n me so f mili   s “D 
. Jekyll
 nd M  Hyde.” I  e d it fi st
 in m nus  ipt, lone, t nig
 t; nd, w e
n t e Butle  ndM . U mson  me to t e Do to ’s doo , I onfesst t I t ew it
down, nd went  stily to bed. It is t e most  g uesome
 of ll is w itings, n
d so pe fe t t t one  n ompl in only of t e slig tly  too obvious mo  l; nd,
g in, t t e lly M . Hyde w s mo e of gentlem n t n t e un tuous D . Jekyll
, wit is “bedside m nne .”
  
So e e, not to spe k of some dmi  ble s o t sto ies like “T  wn J net,” is
b ief
 t logue—little mo e—ofM . Stevenson’s lite  y b gg ge. It is ll good
, toug v iously good;  yet t e wise wo ld  sks fo  t e m ste pie e. It is s i
d t t M . Stevenson   s not ventu ed on t e deli  te nd d ngeous  g ound  of t
e novel, be  use e s not w itten mode n love sto y. But  w o s?  e e 
T
e love ff  i s in Di kens, but do we emembe  o   e fo  t em? Is it t e love
ff i s t t we emembe  inS ott? T ke  y m y tou  us wit Clive’s nd  J k
Belsize’s misfo tunes, wit Esmond’s mel n  oly p ssion, nd muse us wit Pen
   
in so m ny toils, nd inte est us int e little e oine of t e “S bby Genteel S
to y.” But it is not by vi tue of t ose episodes t t T ke  y is so g e t. L
ove sto ies e best done by women, s in “M . Gilfil’s Love Sto y”; nd, pe  p
s, in n o din  y w y, by w ite s like Tollope. One m y defy  iti s to n me
g e t Englis ut o  in fi tion w ose  ief  nd distinguis ing me it is in is
pi tu es of t e pssion of Love. Still, t ey ll give Love is due st oke  in t
eb ttle, nd pe ps M . Stevenson will do so some d y. But I onfess t t, if
e eve  ex els imself, I do not expe t it to be in love sto y.
     
Possibly it  m y be in pl y. If e g in ttempt t e d  m , e  s t is in is
f vou , t t e will not de l in  supe nume  ies. In is t les is mino   
te s e s  efully d wn s is  ief pe son ges. Conside , fo  ex mple, t
e ministe , Hende l nd, t e m n w o is so fond  of snuff,
 in “Kidn pped,” nd, in
t e “M ste  of B ll nt  e,” Si  Willi m Jo nson, t e Englis Gove no . T ey 
e t e wo k of mind s ttentive to det ils, s e dy to subo din te o oblite 
te det ils w i  e unessenti l. T us M . Stevenson’s w itings  b e t e equ ll
y of wo k in t e study nd of inspi  tion f om dventu e in t e open i , nd t
us e wins eve y vote, nd ple ses eve y l ss of e de .
THOMAS HAYNES BAYLY
   
I  nnot sing t e old  songs, no  indeed ny  ot e s, but I  n e d t em, in t e
negle ted wo ks of T oms H ynes  B yly. Te n me of B yly m ybe unf mili , bu
t eve y one lmost s e d is ditties  nted—eve y one mu  ove  fo ty, t
llevents. “I’ll ng my H p on Willow T ee,” nd “I’d be Butte fly,”  nd
“O , no! we neve  mention He ,”   e dimly
 de  to eve y f iend of M. Ri  d Sw
ivelle . If to be sung eve   yw e e, to e  you  ve ses utte  ed in mony wit
ll pi nos nd quoted by t e wo ld t l ge, be f me, B yly d it. He w s n u
n ffe tedpoet. He w ote wo ds to i s,  nd e is lmost bsolutely  fo gotten. 
To e d im is to be  ied b k on t e wings of musi to t e bowe s of yout ;
nd to t e bowe s of yout I ve been w fted, nd to t e old bookselle s.  You
do not find on eve y st ll t e poems of B yly; but opy in two volumes  sbe
en dis ove ed, edited  by M . B yly’s widow (Bentley,
 1844). T ey s w t e lig t
in t e s me  ye  s t e p esent  iti , nd pe  ps t ey e sed to be ve y popul
befo e e w s b ee  ed. M . B yly, o ding to M s. B yly, “ bly penet  ted
t e sou es of t e um n e t,” like S kespe e nd M . Howells. He lso “g
ve to minst elsy t e tt ibutes  of intellet nd wit,” nd “ e l imed even festi
ve song f om vulg ity,”  in w i , sin e t e ge of An eon, festive  song s n
oto iously
 w llowed. T e poet w o did ll
 t is w s bo n t
 B t in O t. 1797.
His f t e  ws genteel soli  ito  , nd is g 
 e t-g  ndmot e  w s siste  to Lo d
Del me e, w ile e d emote b onet on t e mot  e ’s side. To t   e t e n
est  l sou e of is genius w s diffi ult, s in t e  se of Gifted Hopkins;   but
it w s believed to flow f om is m te n l g  ndf t e , M . F eem n, w om is f 
iend, Lod L vington,  eg ded  s “one of t e finest poets of is ge.” B yly w
s t s  ool t Win  este , w e e e ondu ted weekly ollege
 newsp
 pe . His
f t e , like S ott’s, would ve m de im l wye ; but “t e yout took  g e t
dislike to it, fo  is ide  s loved
  to dwell in t e egions of f n  y,” w i e
losed to tto neys. So et oug t of being le gym n,  nd w s sent to St. M
y’s H ll, Oxfo d. T e e “ e did  not pply imself
 to t e
   pu suit of  demi  l
onou s,” but fell in  love wit  young l dy w ose
 b ot e  e d tended in f
t l illness. But “t ey we e bot too wise to t ink of living upon  love, nd,
 
fte  mutu l te s nd sig s, t ey p ted neve  to meet g in. T e l dy,  t oug
g ieved, w s not e tb oken, nd soon be  me t e wife of not e .” Tey usull
y do. M . B yly’s eg et w s mo e p ofound, nd exp essed itself in t e tou  in
g ditty:
 
“O , no, we neve  mention e ,
He  n me is neve  e d,
My lips
 e now fo bid to spe k
T t on e f mili  wo d;
 
F om spo t to spo t t ey u y me
Tob nis my eg et,
And w en t ey only wo y me—
[I beg M . B yly’s p don]
 
“Andw en t ey win smile f om me,
T ey f n y I fo get.
 
“T ey bid  in  nge of s ene
 me seek
T e  ms t t ot e s see,
But we e I in fo eign l nd
T ey’d find
 no  nge in me.
’Tist ue t t I be old no mo e
T e v lley w ee we  met;
I do not  see t e wt o n t ee,
But ow  n I fo get?”
* * * * *
  
“T ey tell me s e is ppy now,

[And so s e w s, in f t.]
 
 T e g yest oft e g y;
T ey int  t t s e’s fo  gotten me;
But eed not w t t ey s y. 
Like me, pe  ps, s e st uggles wit
E  feeling
 of eg et: 
’Tis t ues e’s m ied M . Smit ,
But, , does s e fo get!”
 
T e tempt
 tion to p ody is e lly too st ong; t e l st lines, tu lly nd in
n ut enti  text, e:
 
“Butif s e loves s I ve loved,
S e neve   n fo get.”
   
B yly d now st u k t e note, t e sweet, sentiment l note, of t e e ly, inno e
nt, Vi to i n ge. Je mes imit ted im:
“R. H ngeline, R. L dy mine,
Dost t ou emembe  Je mes!”
  
We s ould do t e t i k quite diffe ently now, mo e like t is:
“Lovesp ke to me nd s id:
‘O, lips, be mute;
Let
 t t one n me be de d,
T t memoy flown  nd fled,
Untou
  ed t t lute!   
Go fo t ,’ s id  Love, ‘wit willow in t y nd,
And in t y i 
De d blossoms
 we ,
Blown f om t e sunless l nd.
  
“‘Go fo t ,’ s id Love;‘t ou neve  mo e s lt see
He  s dow glimme  by t e t ysting t ee;
Buts e is gl d,
Wit oses owned nd l d,
   
W o t fo gotten t ee!’
But I m de nswe : ‘Love!
 me no mo e t eeof,
Tell
Fo  s e s d unk of t t s me up s I.
Ye ,t oug e  eyes be d y,
S e g ne s t e e fo
  me
Te s s lte  t n t e se ,
Even till t e d y s e die.’
So g ve I Love t e lie.”
   
I de l e I ne ly weep ove  t ese lines; fo , t oug tey e only B yly’s sent
iment stily e  st in moden m nne  , t e e is somet ing sove y ffe ting, m
ouldy, nd unwolesome bout t em, t t t ey sound s if t ey d been “w itten
up to” sket  by dis iple of M . Rossetti’s.
  
In mood mu  mo e m nly nd mo  l, M . B yly w ote not e  poem to t e young l
dy:
   
“M
 y t y lot in life be ppy, undistu
 bed by t oug ts of me,
Te God w o s elte s innoen e t y gu d nd guide will be.
T y e t will lose te  illingsenseof opeless love  t l st,
And t e suns ine of t e futu e  se t e s dows of t e p st.”

It is s e sy s p ose to sing in t is m nne . Fo  ex mple:
“In f t, we need not be on  e ned; ‘t l st’ omesve y soon,  nd ou  Emili
 qu
ite fo gets t e memo y of
 t e moon, t e
 moon t t s one on e  nd us,
 t e woods

t t e d ou  vows, t e mo ning of t e w te s, nd t e mumu  of t e boug s.
S e is ppy wit not e , nd by e  we’ e quite fo got; s e neve  lets t oug
t of us b ing s dow on e  lot; nd if we meet t dinne  s e’s too leve  to 
epine, nd mentions
 us to M . Smit s ‘An old fl me of mine.’   s ll I g ie
And
ve t tit is t us? nd would I ve e  weep, nd lose e  e lt y ppetite nd
b ek e  e lt y sleep? Not so, s e’s  not   l, t oug
 poeti  ne’e  s ll I fo g
et t e f i y of my f n y w om I on e t oug t I d met. T e f i y of  myf n y!
It w s f n y, most t ings  e; e  emotions we e not ste df st s t e s ining o
f st ; but, , I love  e  im ge yet,
 s on e it s one on me, nd sw yed me
s t e low moon sw ys t e su ging of t e se .”
   
Amongot e  spo ts  is nxious f iends u ied t elovelo n B yly to S otl nd, w
e e e w ote mu  vese, nd ten to Dublin, w i ompleted  is u e. “He see
med in t e midst of t e owdt eg yest of ll, is l ug te   ng  mey nd lou
d t b nquet nd ll.” He t oug t no mo e of studying fo  t e C u  , but went
b k to B t , met Miss H yes, w s f s in ted by Miss H yes, “  me, s w, but d
id not onque  t on e,” s ys M s. H ynes B yly (née H yes)  wit widow’s p ide.
He  lovely n me w s Helen; nd I deeply eg et to  dd t t, fte  nedu  tion
t Oxfod, M . B yly, in is poems, entu ted t e penultim te, w i  , of ou 
se, is s o t.
 
“O , t ink not, Helen , of le ving us yet,”
   
e  olled, w en it would ve been just s e sy, nd und ed times mo e o 
e t, to sing—
 
“O , Helen , t ink not of le ving us yet.”
 
Miss H yes d l nds in I el  nd, l s! nd M . B yly insinu  ted t t, like King
E ste  nd King Weste  in t e b ll d, e  love s ou ted e  fo  e  l nds nd
e  fee; but e, like King Honou ,

“Fo  e  bonny f e

And fo  e  f i  bodie.”
 
In1825 ( fte  being ele ted to t e At enæum)  M. B yly “ t l st  in
 found f vou
t e eyes of Miss  H yes.” He p esented e  wit little uby e t, w i  s e

 epted, nd t ey we e m  ied, nd t fi st we e well-to-do, Miss H yes being
t e ei ess of Benj min H yes,  Esq., of M ble Hill, in ounty Co k. A f iend o
f M . B yly’s des ibed im t us:
   
“I neve  ve met on t is  illing e t
So me y, so kind, so f  nk yout ,
In moments of ple su e smile  ll mi t,
 In moments
 of so ow e t of t ut .
I ve e d t ee p ised, I ve seen t ee led
 By F s ion long e  g y  ee;
W ile be utiful lips ve oftens ed
T ei  fl tte ing poison in t ine e .”
     
Yet e s ys t t t e poet w s unspoiled. On is oneymoon, t Lo dAs down’s,M
. B yly, flying f om some f i  si ens, et e ted to bowe , nd t e e w ote i
s wo ld-f mous “I’d be Butte fly.”
“I’d be butte fly,  living ove ,
Dying w en f i  t ings e f ding w y.”
       
T e pl  e in w i  t e de t less st  ins welled f om t e singe  ’s e t w s en
efo t known  s“Butte fly Bowe .” He now w ote  novel, “T e Aylme s,” w i 
 s gone w e e t e old  moons go, nd e be  me  t e  lite  y lion, nd m de t
e qu int n e ofT eodo e Hook. T e loss of son  used  im to w ite some de
votion l ve ses,  w i  we e not w t e did best; nd now e beg n to t y omedi
es. One of t em, Sold fo  Song, su eeded ve y well. In t e st ge- o  betw
een Wy ombe Abbey nd London ew ote  su essful
   de ide u lled
little leve
Pe fe tion; nd it w s lu ky t t e opened t is vein, fo  is wife’s I is p o
pe ty got into n I is bog  of dis onesty nd diffi ulty. T i ty-five  pie es we
e ont ibuted by im to t e B itis st ge. Afte  long illness,  e died on Ap
il 22nd, 1829. He did not live, t is butte fly minst el, into t e winte  of u
m n ge.
    
Of is poems t e inevit ble iti ism must be t t e w s Tom Moo e of mu  lo
we  omplis ments. His business w s to  ol of t e most v pid nd obvious se
ntiment, nd to st ing flowe s, f uits, t ees, b eeze,  so ow, to-mo ow, knig t
s, o l-bl  k steeds,  eg et, de eption, nd
 so fo t , into fe vid n pæsti s.
Pe  ps is su ess l y in knowing ex tly ow little sense in poet y ompose s
will endu  e ndsinge  s will ept. W y,“wo ds fo  musi ” e lmost inv i b
ly t  s now, t oug t e wo ds of Eliz bet n songs e bette  t n ny  musi , i
s gloomy nd diffi ultquestion. Like most poets, I myselfdetest t e siste 
t, nd don’t  know nyt ing bout it. But ny one  n see t t wo  ds like B yl
y’s e nd ve long been
 mu  mo e popul  wit musi  l people t n wo ds
 like
S elley’s, Ke ts’s, S kespe e’s, Flet  e ’s, Lovel e’s, o  C ew’s.  T e n t
u  l expl n tion is not fl tte ing to musi  l people: t ll events, t e singing
wo ld doted on B yly.
 
“S e neve  bl med  im—neve  ,
But e eived im w en e  me
Wit wel
 ome so  t of  ,
s ive
And s e t ied to look t e s me.

“But v inly  s e dissembled,

Fo  w ene’e  s e t ied to smile,
A te unbidden t embled 
In e  blue eye ll t e w ile.”
    
T is w s ple s nt fo  “ im”;but t e point is t t t ese e lines to n Indi n
i . S elley, lso, bout t e sme time,  w ote Lines to n Indi n i ; but we m
y “swe , nd s ve ou  o t ,”t t t e singe s p efe ed B yly’s.  Tennyson nd
Cole idge ould neve  equ l t e popul ity of w tfollows. I s ll sk t e pe
seve ing e de  to tell me w e e B yly ends, nd w e e p ody begins:
 
“W en  t eeye of be uty loses,
 W en  t e we y e t est, 
W en t e s de t e sunset  t ows is
 But v pou  in t e west; 
W en te moonlig  t tips t e billow
Wit w e t of silve  fo m,
And t e w ispe   of t e willow 
B e ks t e slumbe  of t e gnome,—
Nig t m y ome, but sleep will linge ,
 W en t e spi it, llfo lo n,
S uts its  e  g inst t e singe ,
And t e ustle of t e o n
Round t es d old m nsion sobbing
 Bids t e w keful m id e ll
W o itw s t t  used  t e t obbing
Of e  bosom t t e b ll.”
  
Will t is not do to sing just s well s t e o igin l? ndis it not t ue t t “
lmost
 ny m n you ple se ould eel it off fo  d ys toget e ”? Anyt ing will d
o t tspe ks of fogetting people, nd of being fo s ken, nd bout t e sunset,
nd t e ivy, nd t e ose.
   
“Tell me no moe t t t e tide of t ine nguis 
 Is ed s t e e t’s blood nd s lt s t e se ; 
T tt e st s in t ei  ou ses omm nd t ee to l nguis ,
T t t e nd of enjoyment is loosened f om t ee!

“Tell  me no mo e t t, fo gotten,  fo s ken,  
T ou o mest  t e wild wood,
 t ou sig’st on t e s o e.
N y, ent  is t e pledge
  t t of old we d t ken, 
And t e wo ds t t ve bound me, t ey bind t ee no mo e!
   
“E e t e sun  d gone  down on t y so ow,  t e m idens
Wee w e t ing t e o  nge’sbud in t y i ,
And t e t umpets  we e tuning t emusi  l  den  e
T t g ve t ee, b ide, to t e b onet’s ei .
   
“F ewell, m y no t oug t pie e t y b e st of t y t e son;
F ewell, nd be ppy in Hube  t’s emb  e.
Be t ebelle of t e b ll, be t e b ide of t e se son,
Wit di monds bedizened nd l nguid in l e.”
  
T is is mine, nd I s y, wit modest p ide, t t it is quite s good s—
 
“Go,m y’st  t ou be ppy,
T oug s dly we p t,
In life’s e ly summe 
G ief b e ks not t e e t.
 
“T e ills t t ss il us
As
 speedily p ss
As s des  o’e  mi  o ,
W i  st in not t e gl ss.”
 
Anybody ould do it, we s y, in w t Edg  Poe  lls “t e m d p ide of intelle t
u lity,” nd it e t inly looks s if it ould be done by nybody.
 Fo  ex mple,

t ke B yly s mo  list. His ide s e out of t e ent e. T is is bout is
st nd d:
“CRUELTY.
  
“‘B e k not t e t e d t e spide 
Is l bou ing to we ve.’
I s id, no  s Ieyed e 
Could d e m s e would de eive.
“He  b ow w s pu e nd  ndid,
He  tende  eyes bove;
And I, if  eve  m n did,
Fell opelessly in love.
 
“Fo  w o ould deem t t uel
 So f i  f e mig t be?
T t eyes so like jewel
We e only p ste fo  me?

“I wove  myt e d, spi ing
Wit in e  e t to limb;
I wove wit ze l unti ing
Fo  eve  su  time!
  
“But, ! t t t e d w s b oken
 All by e  finge s f i ,
T e vows ndp  ye s I’ve spoken
A e v nis ed into i !”
 
DidB yly w ite t t ditty o  did I? Upon my wo d, I  n dly tell. I m bei
ng ypnotised by B yly.  I lisp
 in numbe s, nd
 t e numbe  s ome like m d. I 
n dly sk fo  lig t wit out bounding in is tless  vein. E sy, e sy it s
eems; nd yet it w s B yly fte  ll, not you no  I, w o w ote t e l ssi —
 
“I’ll ng my p on willow t ee,
And I’ll go to t e w  gin,
Fo  pe eful ome s no  m fo  me,
 A b ttlefield no p in;
T e l dy I love willsoon be b ide,
 Wit  di dem on e  b ow. 
A , w y did s e fl tte  my boyis p ide?
S e is going to le ve me now!”
 
It is like listening, in t e s d yellow evening, to t e st  ins of b el o g
n, f int nd sweet, nd f  w y. A wo ld of memo ies ome  jigging b k—foolis
f n ies, d e ms, desi es, ll be koning nd bobbing to t e old tune:
   
“O d Ibut loved wit boyis love,
It would ve been well fo  me.”
  
How does B ylym n ge it?  W t is t e t i k of it, t e obvious, simple, me et i
ious t i k, w i  some ow,  fte  ll, let us mo k s we will, B yly  ould do,
nd we  nnot? He e lly d slim,
 se vi e ble,
 smi king, nd sig ing little t
lent of is own; nd—well, we ve not even t t. Nobody fo gets

“T e l dy I love will soon be b ide.”
 
Nobody emembe s ou  ultiv ted epi s nd esote i sonnets,  o bot e  mino  poe
t, mon sembl ble, mon  f è e! No   n we iv l, t oug we publis ou  books on t
e l gest p pe , t e bu ied popul ity of

“G ily t e t oub dou 
 Tou   ed is guit 
W en e w s stening
Home f om t e w ,
Singing, “F om P lestine
Hit e  I ome,
L dy love! L dy love!
Wel ome me ome!”
 
Of ou se t is is, isto i  lly, ve y in o e t ende ing of L nguedo  us
de ; nd t e imp ession is not mediæv  l, but of t e omi 
 ope  . Any oneof us
ould get in mo e lo  l olou  fo  t emoney, nd give t e usde  it e n o 
itole inste d of guit . T is is ow we s ould do “G ily t e T oub dou ” no
w d ys:—
   
“Si  R lp e is dy nd mi kle of mig t,
H , l belle  n  e ubépine! 
 bl
Sold ns seven t e sl in in fig t,
Honneu  à l belle Isoline!
  
“Si  R lp e idet in iven m il,
H ,l belle bl n e ubépine!
Bene t is n s l is is d k f e p le,
Honneu  à l belle Isoline!
 
“His eyes t ey bl ze s t e bu ning o l,
H , l belle bl n  e ubépine!
He smitet st ve on is gold itole,
Honneu  à l belle Isoline!
   
“F om e  m ngonel s e looket fo t ,
H , l belle bln  e ubépine!  
‘W o is e spu et so l te to t e no t ?’
Honneu  à l belle Isoline!
  
“H k! fo  e spe ket knig tly n me,
H, l belle  bl n  e ubépine!
And e  w n  eek glows s bu ning fl me,
Honneu  à l belle Isoline!
   
“Fo  Si  R lp e is  dy nd mi kle of mig t,
H, l belle  bl n  e ubépine!
 
And is love s ll ungi dle is swo d to-nig t,
Honneu  à l belle Isoline!”
  
Su  is t e om nti , esote i , old F en  w y of s ying—

“H k, ’tis te t oub dou 
B e t ing e  n me
Unde  t e b ttlement
Softly e  me,
Singing, “F om P lestine
Hit e  I ome.
L dy love! L dy love!
Wel ome me ome!”
      
T e mo  l of ll t is is t t mino  poet y sits fs ions, nd t t t e butte 
fly B yly ould  ve sify ve y su  essfully
 in t e f s ion of time simple  nd l
ess ped nti  t n ou own. On t e w ole, mino  poet y fo  mino  poet y, t is 
 singe , piping
tless   is n tive d  wing- oom notes, g ve g e t de l of pe fe t
ly mless, if ig ly un ultiv ted, enjoyment.
   
It must
 not be f n ied t t M . B yly d only one st ingto is bow—o ,  t e,
to is ly e. He w ote g e t de l, to  be su e, bout t e p ssion  of
 love, w i
 Count
  Tolstoï t inks we m ke too mu
  of. He did
 not d e m t t t e ff is
of t e e t s ouldbe egul  ted by t e St te—by t e Pe m nent Se   y of
et  t e
M i ge Offi e. T t is w t we e oming to, of ou se,unless t e ent usi s
ts of “f ee love”  nd “go w y s you ple se” f iled wit t ei  little  p og  mme
. Nodoubt t e e wouldbe poet y if t e St te egul ted o left w olly un egul 
ted t e ffe tions of  te futu e. M . B yly,  living in ot e  times, mong ot e 
m nne s, piped of t e d ty  nny of mot e :
   
“We met, ’tw s in owd, nd I toug t e would s un me.
He  me, I ould not b e t e, fo  is eye w s upon me.
He spoke,  is wods we e old,  nd is smile w s un lte ed,
I knew ow mu  e felt, fo  is deep-tonedvoi e f lte ed.
I woe my b id l obe, nd I iv lled  its w iteness; 
B ig t gems we e in my i ,—
 ow I ted t ei   b ig tness!
  lledme by my nme s t e b ide of not
He  e . 
O , t ou st been t e  use of t is nguis , my mot e !”
     
In futu e, w en t e efo me s of m i ge ve d t ei  w y, we s ll e d:
 
“T e wo ld  m y t inkme g y, fo  I bow tomy f te;
But t ou st been t e  use of my nguis , O St te!”
  
Fo  even w en t ue love is egul ted by t e County  Coun il o  t e vill ge ommun
ity, it will still pe sist in not unning smoot .
    
Of t ese p ssions,  t en, M . B yly  ould  nt; but let us emembe  t t e oul
d lso d lly wit old om n e, t t e w ote:
   
“T
 emistletoe ung  in t e  stle ll,
T e olly b  n  s one on t e old o k w ll.”
   
W en t e b ide unlu kily got into t e n ient  est,

 losed wit
“It sp ing. And, d e dful doom,
T e b ide l y l sped in e  living tomb,”
   
so t t e  love   “mou ned fo  is f i y b ide,” nd neve  found out e  p em tu
e  sket. T is w s t ue om n e s unde stood  w en Peel w s onsul. M . B yly
w s  ely politi  l; but e ommemo  ted t e e oes of W te loo, ou  l st vi t
o y wo t mentioning:

“Yetmou n not fo  t em, fo  in futu e t  dition
T ei  f me s ll bide  s ou  tutel  st ,
To instil by ex mple t e glo ious mbition
 Off lling, like t em, in  glo ious  w .
T oug te s m y be seen in t e b ig t eyes of be uty,
One onsol  tion must eve  em in:
Und unted  t eyt od in t e p t w y of duty,
W i  led t em to glo y on W te loo’s pl in.”
   
Could t e e be mo e simple Ty tæus? nd w o t t e ds im will not be mbitio
us of f lling in glo ious w ? B yly, indeed, is lw ys simple. He is “simpl
e, sensuous, nd p ssion te,” nd Milton sked no mo e f om poet.

 w e t of o  ngeblossoms,
“A
Wen next we met, s e wo e.
T e exp ession
 of e fe tu es
W s mo e t oug tful t n befo e.”
    
On is own p in iples Wo dswo t s ould ve dmi ed t is unffe ted st tement;
but Wo dswo t  ely p  ised is ontempo  ies, nd s id t t “Guy  M nne ing”
w s espe t ble effot in t e style of M s. R d liffe. No  did e even extol,
t oug it is mo e in is own line,
  
“Ofw t is t eold m n t inking,
As e le ns on is o ken st ff?”

My own f vouite mong M . B yly’s effusions is not sentiment l ode, but t e f
ollowing gus of t ue n tu  l feeling:—

“O , give me new  f es, new f es, newf es,
I’ve seen t ose ound me  fo tnig t nd mo e.
Some people g ow we y of t ings  o  of pl es,
But pe sons to me e mu  g e te  bo e.
I  e not fo  fe tu es, I’msu e to dis  ove 
Some exquisite t  itin te fi st t t you send.
My fondness f lls off w en t e novelty’s ove ;
I w nt new f e fo  n intim te f iend.”
 
T is is pe fe tly  ndid: we s ould ll p efe  new f e, if p etty, eve y fo t
nig t:

“Come, I p  y you, nd  tell me t is,
All good
 fellows w ose  be ds e g ey,
Did not t e f i est of t e f i 
Common g ow nd  we isome e e
Eve  mont d p ssed w y?”

Fo  on e M . B yly utte ed in is “New F es” sentiment not usu lly exp essed,
but unive s lly felt;  nd now e suffe  s, s poet, be  use e is no longe 
newf e, be  use we ve wel omed is junio s. To B yly we s ll not etu n; b
ut e s one  e me it,— e is lw ys pe fe tly pl in-spoken nd intelligible.

“F ewell to my B yly, f ewell to t e singe 
W ose tende effusions my  unts used to sing;
F ewell, fo  t e f me of t e b d does  not  linge ,
Myf vou
 ite
 minst el’s  no longe  t e t ing.
But t oug  on is temples
 s f ded
  t e l u el, 
T oug b oken t e lute, nd t oug veiled is t e est,
My Byly,  t wo st,
 is un ommonly mo  l, 
W i  is mo e t n some new poets e, t t ei  best.”
  
F ewell toou  Byly, bout w ose songs we m y s y, wit M . T ke  y in  “V ni
ty F i ,” t t “t ey ont in numbe less good-n tu ed, simple ppe ls to t e ffe
tions.” We e no longe  ffe tion te, good-n tu ed, simple. We e leve e 
t n B yly’s udien e; but e we bette  fellows?
THÉODORE DE BANVILLE
   
T e e e lite  y eput tions in F  n e nd Engl nd w i  seem, like t e f i ie
s, to be un ble to oss unning w te . De n Swift, o ding to M. P ul de S i

nt-Vi to , is g e t m n t Dove , pigmy t C l is—“Son t lent, qui ent ousi
sme l’Anglete e, n’inspi e illeu  s qu’un
 mo ne étonnement.”
  M. P ul De S int-
Vi to  w s f i  exmple of  t e F en   iti
 , nd w t e s ys bout Swift w s
possibly t ue,—fo  im. T e e
 is not
 mu   esembl n  e between
  e De n nd M.
t
T éodo ede B nville, ex ept t t te l tte  too is poet w o s little  onou 
out of is own ount y. He is  ming singe  t C l is; t Dove  e inspi e
s un mo ne étonnement ( ble  k pe plexity). One s neve  seen n Englis ttem
pt to des   ibe o estim te is genius. His  unpopul ity in Engl nd is illust  t
ed by t e f t t t t e London Lib  y, t t espe  t ble institution, does not,
o  did not, possess  single  opy of  ny one of is books. He is but feebly ep
esented even in t e olle tion of t e B itis Museum. It is not d to oun
t
 fo  ou  indiffe en e to M. De B nville. He is poet not  only intensely F en 
, but intensely P isi n. He is  eful of fo m,  t e t n bund nt in m nne
. He s no sto y to tell, nd is sket  es  in pose, is ttempts  t iti  is
m, e not ve y weig ty o inst u tive. Wit ll is limit tions,   oweve , e 
ep esents, in omp ny wit M. Le onte de Lisle, t e se ond of t e t ee gene  ti
ons of poets ove  w om Vi to  Hugo eigned.
   
M. De B nville  s been  lled, by people w o do not like, nd w o pp ently 
ve not e d im, un  s ltimb nque  litté  i e ( lite  y ope-d n e ). Ot e  i
ti
 s, w o do like im,
 but w o ve limited tei  study to  e t in po tion of
is books, omp e im to wo ke  in gold, w o  efully  ses o  embosses d i
nty p o essions
 of f uns nd mæn ds. He is,  in point of f t,  somet ing mo e es
tim ble t n lite  y ope-d n e , somet ing moe se ious t n wo king jewel 
le  in  ymes. He  lls imself un  ffiné; but e is not,  like m ny pe sons w
o e p oud of t t title, unindiffé ent inm tte s of um n fo tune. His e l
  poems, of ou
ie  se, emu  on  e ned wit t e m tte  of  most e ly poems—wit
Lydi nd  Cynt i nd t ei  lig t loves. T e  ve ses of is se ond pe iod ofte
n de l wit t e most ev nes  ent subje  ts,
 nd t ey now et in but slig t petul
n e nd sp kle, s of  mp gne t t s been  too long d  wn. In p ef to y
ple fo  M. De B nville’s poet
  y one m y  dd t t e “ s loved
 ou  people,” nd
t t no poet, no iti , s onou ed S kespe e wit b ig te  wo ds of p  ise
.
    
T éodo e de B nville ws bon t Moulin, on M  14t 1823, nd e is t e efo e
t ee ye s younge   t n t e di tion ies of biog  p y would mke t e wo ld bel
ieve. He is t e son  of n v l offi e , nd, o ding to M. C les B udel i e
, des  end nt of  e C us de s. He  me mu  tool te
t  into t e wo ld to distin 
guis  imself in t e noisy exploits of 1830, nd t e  ief event of is yout w
s t e publi  tion  of “Les C i tides”  in 1842. T is fi st volume ont ined se
le tion
 f om t e ountless ve
 ses w i t e poet p odu ed between is sixteent
nd
  is nineteent ye
  . W teve  ot e  me its t e songs of mino s m y possess,
t ey ve seldom  t t  of pe mitting t emselves
 to be e d. “Les C i tides” 
e ex eption l e e. T ey e, bove  ll t ings, e d ble.  “On peut  les li e à
peu
 de f  is,” M. De B nville s ys imself. He dmits t t is lig te  wo ks, t
e poems  lled (in Engl nd) ve s deso iété, e sot of intelle  tu l ig et

te. M. Emile de Gi  dins id, in t e l te  d ys of t e Empi e, t t t e e we e
too m ny ig ettes  in t e i . T ei  st le pe fume lings  to t e lite  tue o
f t t time, s t e odou  of pstilles yet ngs bout  t e ve se ofDo  t, t e d
esigns of Eisen, t e wo k of t e Pompdou  pe iod. T e e is mo e t n smoke in
M. De B nville’s uling  inspi  tion, is lifelong devotion to lette s nd to g e
tmen of lette s—S kespe  e, Moliè e, Home  , Vi to  Hugo.  T ese  e is gods;
t e memo y of t em is is muse.  His ent usi sm is wo  t y of one w o,t oug bo
n too l te to see ndknow t e noble wildness of  1830, yet lives on t e e olle
tions, nd is st engt ened by t e ex mple, of t t eviv l of lette s. W teve
 one m y s y of t e enouve u,  of om nti ism, wit its ffe t tions, t e young
men of 1830  we  e sin e  e in t ei  devotion to libe ty, to poety, to knowledge.
One
  n  dly find mo e b illi nt nd tou   ing belief in t eseg e t  uses
t n t t of Edg  Quinet, s displ yed in t e lette s of is yout . De B nvil
le fell on mo e evil times.
   
W en “Les C i tides” w s publis ed poets d begun to keep neye on t e Bou se
, nd tists d bbled in fin n e. T e new volume of song int e so did ge w s
Novembe
  p im
 ose, nd not unlike t e flowe  of Sp ing. T e e w s singul 
f es ness nd opefulness in t e vese, wonde ful “ e tituded ns l’exp ession
ly ique,” s S inte-Beuve s id. T e m ste y of musi  l spee   nd of v ious f
o ms of song w s l e dy to be e ognised  s
  t e b sis nd t e note of t e t len
t of De  B nville.  He d style,
 wit out w i  m n m y w
 ite ve y ni e ve ses
bout e ven nd ell nd ot e  m tte s, nd m y ple se t ous nds of ex ellent  p
eople, but will w ite poet y—neve . Comp ing De  B nville’s boy’s wo k wit t e
boy’s wo kof M . Tennyson, one obse ves in e  —“Les  C  i tides” s in “T e He
spe ides”—te timb e of new voi e. Poet y so f es seems to m ke us w e of
some w nt w i  we d dly e ognised, but now e sensible of, t t e moment
we find it s tisfied.
   
It is dly ne ess y to s y t t t is g  tifying ndwel ome st  ngeness,   t is
lyi  o igin
 lity, is ne ly ll t t M. De B nville  sin ommon wit t e Eng
lis poet w ose  two p i eless volumes we e publis  ed in t e s me ye  s “Les C
i tides?” T e melody of M . Tennyson’s lines, t e loudy p l es of is im gin
tion, ose
“As Ilion, like mist ose into towe s,”
   
w en Apollos ng. T e  ite tu e w s flo ting  t fi st, nd onfused; w ile t
e little t e t e of M. De B nville’s poet y, w ee e s t piping to d n e of
nixies, w s b illi ntly lit nd eleg nt wit f es p int nd gilding.  “T e C i
 tides” suppo
 t t e pediment nd
 oof of t e t e o  temple in t e G  e o-F en 
style. T e poet p oposed to imself
“A ôté de Vénus et du fils de L tone
Peind e l fée et l pé i.”
  
T e longest
 poem in t e book, nd t e mostse ious, “L Voie L tée,”  eminds
 on
e of t e “P l e of A t,” w itten befo e t e fte -t oug t, befo e te “w ite-ey
 o pses”
ed  we e found lu king in o ne s. Beginning wit Home , “t e Ioni n f
t e  of t e est,”—
“Ce dieu, pè e des dieux qu’ do e Ionie,”—
   
t e poet gloifies ll t e  ief n mes of song.
 T e e is  long p o ession of i
llust ious s dows befo e S kespe e omes—S kespe e, w ose genius in ludes t
em ll.
“Toute é tion à l quelle on spi e,

Tout êve, toute  ose, ém nent de S kespe e.”
  
His mind s lent olou  to t e flowe s nd t e sky, to
“L fleu qui b ode un point su  les m nte u des pl ines,
Les nénup s pen és, et les pâles ose ux
Qui disent leu   nt somb e u mu mu e des e ux.”
  
 e ognises mo e sin e ity in t is ymn to ll poets, f om O p eus to Heine,
One
t n in “Les B ise s de Pie  e”— leve  imit tion of De Musset’s  sto ies in ve 
se.
 Love of
  t nd of t e m ste s of t, p ssion fo  t e figu es of old myt
ology,
 w i  d etu ned g in fte  t ei
  exile
 in 1830, g iety, nd eviv
l of t e dexte ity of Villon nd M ot,—t ese t ings e t e   te isti s of
M. De B nville’s
 genius, nd ll  tese we  e displ yed in “Les C i tides.”  Al e
dy, too, is peo up tion wit t e lig te   nd mo e f nt sti  so t of t e t i 
l musements s ows itself in lines like t ese:
“De son lit à b ld quin
Le soleil de son be u globe
Av it l’ i  d’un lequin
Et l nt s g de- obe;

“Et s soeu  u f ont  nge nt
M demoiselle l Lune
Ave  ses g  nds yeux d’ gent
Reg d it l te e b une.”
 
T e ve  se
 bout “t e sun in bed,” un ons iously Miltoni , is in vein of b d t
ste w i  s lw ys d sedu tions fo  M. De B nville.  He m s  fine l te  po
em on Ron ev ux  nd Rol nd by simil  bsu dity. T e ngel Mi  el is m deto
st ide down t e
 steps of e ven fou  t time,  nd M. De B nville
 f n ies t t
t is so t of t ing is like t e simpli ity of t e ges of f it .

In “Les C i tides,” espe i lly  in t e poems styled
 “En H bit Zinzolin,” M.  De B
nville evived oldmesu es—t e onde u nd t e “poo  little t iolet.” T ese
e fo  msof ve se w i  it  is e sy tow ite b dly, nd d indeed to w ite well
. T ey ve kno ked t t e doo  of t e Englis muse’s g den—  un w y kno k. 
In “Les C i tides” t ey took subodin te pl e, nd pl yed t ei  p  nks in t
e s dow of t e g  ve figu es of myt ology, o  t t e lose oft e p o ession of
Dionysus  nd is Mæn ds. De B nville often e  lls Ke ts in is  oi e of l s
si  l t emes. “Les  Exilés,” poem of is m tu ity,  is F en  “Hype ion.” “L
e T iomp e de B  us” eminds one of t e song of t e B ss ids in “Endymion”—
“So m ny, nd so m ny, nd so g y.”
     
T e e is  p etty tou  of t e ped nt (w o exists, s ys M. De B nville, in t e
e t of t e poet) in t is ve se:

“Il êve à C m , l’ mou  ux inq flè  es fleu ies,
Qui, lo sque soupi e u milieu des oses p  i ies
L dou e V s nt , p mi les bosquets  de s nt l,
Envoie ux inq sens les flè  es du  quois f t l.”
   
 n s none of t is O ient l l nguo , no memo iesof pe fumed
T e B  us of Titi
pl es w e e“te t one  of Indi n C m slowly s ils.” One  nnot elp dmi in
g t e f n y w i  s w t e onque ing god  still  steeped in Asi ti  e se, still un
wkened to mo e vigo ous p ssion by t e fes wind blowing f om T  e. Of ll
t e Olympi
 ns, Di n s been most  often ymned byM. De B nville: is im gin t
ion is unted by t efigue of t e goddess.  Now s e is  m nifest in e  Helleni
 spe t, s Home 
  be eld
 e , “t king e  p stime in t e  se of bo s nd swi
ft dee ; nd wit e  t e wildwood-nymp  s e spo   t e d ug te s of Zeus;
ting
nd Letois gl d t e t, fo  e   ild towe s ove  t em ll, nd is e sy  tobe
known w e e ll e f i ” (Odyssey, vi.). Ag in, A temis  ppe s mo e t oug
 tfu
l, s in t e s ulptu   e of Je n Goujon, tou  ed wit t e s dness
 of moonlig t. Y
et g in, s e is t e we y nd exiled spi it t t  unts t e fo est of Font ineb
le u, nd is st  nge  mong  t e woodl nd folk, t e f des nd  nixies. To  t is
goddess,
 “being
 t iple in e  divided
 deity,”  M. De B nville
 s w itten is ym
n int e   te isti  fo m of t e old F en  b ll de. T e t  nsl to  m y bo 
ow C u e ’s pology—
“And  to me it is g ete pen
 eke  un e,
Syt  yme in Englis t su  s  sete
To folowe, wo d by wo d,t e u iosite
Of B nville, flowe  of t em t t m ke in F  n e.”
“BALLADE SUR LES HÔTES MYSTÉRIEUX DE LA FORÊT

“Still sing  t e mo king fi ies, s of old,
 Bene t t e s de  of t o n nd olly t ee;
T e west wind b e t es upon t em pu e nd old,
And still wolves d e d Din oving f ee,
In se et woodl nd wit  e  ompny.
Tis
 t oug t
 t e pe s nts’  ovels know e  ite
W en now t e wolds   e b t ed in silve
  lig t,
 And fi  st
 t e moon  ise
 b e ks t e dusky
 g ey, 
T en down  t e dells,
  wit blown soft
 i nd b ig t,

And t oug t e dim wood Di n t ids e  w y.
 
“Wit w te -weeds twined in t ei  lo ks of gold
Te st  nge old fo est-f i ies d n e in glee;
Sylp s ove-timo ous  nd ove  -bold 
H unt t e d k ollows we e t e dw f m y be,
 T e wild  ed dw f, t e nixies’  enemy; 
T en,  ’mid t ei  mi t , nd l ug te ,  ff ig t,
nd
T e sudden
 goddess ente  s, t ll nd w ite,
 Wit one long sig
 fo  summe s p ssed w y;
T e swift  feet   te  t e ivy nets out  ig t,
And t oug t e dim wood Di n t ids e  w y.
   
“S egle  ns e sylv n t op ies;  down te wold
S e e st e sobbing of t e st gs t t flee,
Mixed wit  t e musi  of t e unting  olled,
But e  delig t is ll in  ey,
And noug t of ut nd pity  wottet s e  
 Mo e t n t
 e ounds t t follow on te flig t;
T e t llnymp d  ws golden
 bow of  mig t, 
 And t i k s e  ins t e gentle  s fts t t sl y,
S e tosses loose  e  lo ks upon t e nig t,
And Di n t oug t e dim wood t ids e  w y.
Envoi.
  
 in e, let us le ve t e din, t e dust, t e spite,
“P 
T e gloom nd gl e of towns, t e pl gue, t e blig t;
 Amid t e fo est le  ves nd fount in  sp  y
T e e ist e mysti  ome of ou  delig
 t,
And t oug t e dim wood Di n t ids e  w y.”
     
T e pie e is   te isti   ofM. De B nville’s
 genius. T oug is t ong of o
pe  ti  nixies nd sylp s of te b llet t e old Muse sometimes  p sses, st  nge,
but not unf iendly. He,  fo  is p t, s neve  deg  ded t e be utiful fo ms o
f old eligion to m ke t e l ug ing-sto k of fools.  His little pl y, Di ne u B
ois, s g  e, nd g  vity, nd tende ness like t e tende ness of Ke ts, fo  t
e f ilings of immo  t ls. “T e gods e je lous ex eedinglyif ny goddess  t kes
mo t l m n to e p  mou , s Demete   ose I sion.” T e le st t t mo t l
poets  n do is to s ow t e Olympi ns n ex mple of tole  tion.
 
“Les C i tides” ve del yed us too long. T ey  e wonde fully  v ied, vigo ou
s, nd i  , nd full of p omise in m ny w ys. T e p omise s dly beenkept
.
 T e e is mo e se iousness
 in “Les St l tites” (1846), it is t  ue, but t en t
e e is less d ing. T e e is one mosel t t must be quoted,—  f  gment f s io
nedon te i  ndt e simple wo dst t used to wken t e musings of Geo ge S n
d w en s e w s  ild, d n ing wit t e pe s nt  ild en:
“Nous n’i ons plus n bois: les l u ies sont oupés,
Les mou s des b ssins, les n ï des en g oupe
Voient elui e u soleil, en ist ux dé oupés
Les flots silen ieux qui oul ient de leu  oupe,
Les l u ie s sont oupés et le e f ux bois
T ess ille u son du o : nous n’i ons plus u bois!
Où des enf nts joueu s i it l folle t oupe
P miles lys d’ gent  ux pleu s du iel t empés,
Voi i l’ e be qu’on f u  e et les l u ie s qu’on oupe;
Nous n’i ons plus u bois; les l u ie s sont oupés.”
 
In t ese d ys B nville, like Gé  d de  Ne v l in e lie
  times, ons dised. T
epoem
 ‘À l Font  ges,’ full of t e memo ies of  ild ood, sweet nd i  wi
 Geo
t t e i  nd t e ou of sunset, is w itten in f vou ite met e of Rons d’s.
T us Rons d s ys in is ly i  l ve sion of five f mous lines of Home —
“L g esle ni l neige
N’ont tels lieux pou  leu  siége
Ne l foud e on ques là
Ne dév l .”
 
(T e snow, ndwind, nd il
M y neve t e e p ev il,

No  t unde bolt dot f ll,
No   in t ll.)
    
De B nville
  ose t is mete, pid yet mel n oly,wit its s d emp ti   den 
e in t e fou t line, s t e ve i le of is  ildis memo ies:

“O  mps  pleins de silen e,
Où mon eu euse enf n e
Av it des jou s en o 
Tout filés d’o !”
O m vieille Font Geo ges,
Ve s qui les ouges-go ges
Et le doux ossignol
P en ient leu  vol!
   
So
 t is poem oft e fount  in of yout begins, “tout filé d’o ,” nd loses w en
t e dusk is w s ed wit silve —

“À l’ eu e où sous leu s voiles
Les t embl ntes étoiles
B odent le iel  nge nt
De fleu s d’ gent.”
 
T e “St l tites”
  mig t det inone long, but we must p ss on fte  noti ing n u
nn med poem w i  is t e F en  ounte p t of Ke ts’ “Ode to G eek U n”:

“Qu’ utou  du v se pu , t op be u pou  l B  nte,
L ve veine, mêlée à des feuilles d’  nt e,
Fleu isse, et que plus b s des vie ges lentement 
S’ v n ent deux à deux, d’un p s su  et  m nt,
Les b  s pend nts le long de leu s tuniques d oites
Et les  eyeux t essés su  leu s têtes ét oites.”
  
In t e s me volumeoft e definite se ies of poems ome “Les Odelettes,”  min
g ly i s, one of w i  , dd essed to  ile G utie , w s nswe ed in
 T éop  t e well
-known ve ses  lled “L’A  t.”  If t e e d been ny iv l y between t e w ites
, M. De Bnville would dly ve  ed to p int G utie ’s “Odelette”
 beside i
s own. T e tone of it is infinitely mo e m nly: one seems to e  deep, de is
 voi e eplying to tones f  less sweet nd se ious. M. De
ive  Bnville evenged 
imself nobly in l te  ve ses dd essed
 to
 G utie 
 , ve ses w i   iti ise t e
genius of t t wo km nbette , we t ink, t n nyt ing else t t s been w itte
n of im in p ose o   yme.
   
T e less se ious poems of De B nville e, pe  ps,  t e bette  known in t is ou
 y. His fe ts of g  eful met i  l gymn sti s ve been dmi ed by eve y one
nt
w o  es fo  skill pu e nd simple. “Les Odes  Fun mbulesques” nd “Les O iden
tles” e like o n ment l sk ting. T e ut o  moves inm ny i les  nd uts
und ed f ntsti  figu es wit pe fe t ese nd smoot ness.   At t e s me time
, n tu  lly, e does not dv n e no   y is e de s wit im in ny di e tion
. “Les Odes Fun mbulesques” we e t fi st unsigned.  T ey ppe ed in jou n ls
nd m g zines, nd, s M.
 de B nville
 pplied t e utmost ly i  l skill to lig t
topi s of t e moment,
 t ey
 we e t e
 most popul  of “A ti les de P is.” One mu
st dmit t tt ey boe t e Englis e de , nd by t is time long  s  oli e ne

 ess y fo  t e enlig
 tenment even
 of t e P  isi
  n student.  T e ve ses e,pe 
ps, te “bi d-  o us”  of F en  life, but t ey  ve not t e
 pe m nent t ut n
d delig
 tfulness of
 t e “bi  d-  o us”
 in A istop nes.  One s e sily  too mu 
of te C niv l, t e m skedb ll, t e déb deu s, nd t epie ots. T e people
t w om M. De B nville l ug ed  e de d ndfogotten. T e e w s e t in M. P
ul Lim y   of t ose d ys, w o b ked t t e eels of B lz , nd ot e  g e tm
en, in t e Revue des Deux Mondes. In is onou  De B nville w ote song w i 
p odied ll popul  spi  tions to be flowe . M. Lim y   w s supposed to
ve be ome blossom:
“Su  les ôte ux et d ns les l ndes
Voltige nt omme un oiseleu 
Buloz en fe  it des gui l ndes
Si Lim y   deven it fleu !”
      
T e e is mo e of ig spi its t n of  wit in t e ly i , w i  be  me s popul
 
s ou  mode n invo  tion of Jingo, t e god of
 b ttles. It  n ed one nig t t
t M. Lim y   ppe ed t m sked b ll in t e ope  - ouse. He w s e ognised b
y someone in t e owd. T e tu bulent wltz stood still, t e musi  w s silent,
nd t e d n e s of eve y ue owled t t e iti 
“Si P ul Lim y   deven it fleu !”
    
F n y B itis eviewe , known s su   to t e B itis publi , nd im gine t t
publi  t king lively inte est in t e feuds  of men of lette s! P is, to be su
e, w s mo e o  less of unive sity town  t i ty ye s go, nd t e students we 
e e t in to be l gely ep esented t t e b ll.

T e “Odes Fun mbulesques” ont in m ny ex mples  of M. De B nville’s skill in ev
iving old fo ms of ve se—t  iolets,
  onde ux,  nts oy ux, nd b ll des. Most
of t ese we e omposed fo  t e spe i l nnoy n e of M. Buloz, M. Lim y  , nd
M. J quot w o  lled imself De Mi e ou t. T e onde ux e full of puns  in t
e ef  in: “Houss yeou ’est; ly e, l’i e, li e,” nd so on, not ve y ex il 
ting. T e p ntoum, w e e lines e u  lte  n tely, w s bo owed fom t e dist nt 
M l y; but p imitive
 p ntoum, in w i  t el st two linesof e  st nz e t
e fi st two of t e next, o u  in old F en  folk-song. T e popul  t i k of e
petition, ffo ding est to t e memo y of t e singe , is pe  ps t e o igin of
ll ef  ins. De B nville’s
 l te  s ties e di e ted  g inst pe m nent obje 
ts of um nindign tion—t e little
 F  en  deb u  ée,
 t e ypo iti  l f iend of
e tion, t e bloodt i sty  uviniste.  Ti ed of t e fl s y luxu y of t e Empi 
e, is memo y goes b k to is yout —
“Lo sque l lèv e de l’ u o e
B is it nos yeux soulevés,
Et que nous n’étions p s en o e
L F  n e des petits evés.”
  
T e poem “Et T tufe” p olongs t e note of s ti e lw ys popul  in F n e—t e
s tie of S  on, Moliè e, L B uyè e, ginst t e le i  l u se oft e n tio
n. T e Rom nQuestion ws T tufe’s st ong old t t e moment. “F en  inte est
s” dem nded t t It ly s ould be e dless.
“Et T tufe? Il nous dit ent e deux émus
Que pou  tout bon F  nç is l’empi e est à Rome,
Et qu’ y nt pou  ïeux Romulus et Rémus 
Nous tette ons l louve à j m is—le p uv e omme.”
   
T e new T tufe wo sips  St. C ssepot, w o on  e, it will not be fo gotten, “w o
ug
 t mi  les”; but e s is doubts s to te mo  lity of explosive
 bullets.
T e nymp of mode n w f e is dd essed s s e ove s bove t e Genev Conventi
on,—

“Quoi, nymp e du  non  yé,
Tu mont es es pudeu s isibles
Et e petit i  eff  yé
Dev nt les b lles exploisibles?”
 
De B nville w s fo  long lmost lone mong poets in is f eedom  f om Welts  me 
z, f om eg et nd desi e fo  wo lds lost o  impossible. In t e lte  nd stupi
de  o 
uption
  e, s dness nd nge  beg n to vex even is  eless m
of t e Empi
use. S e  d piped in e  time to mu  wild d n ing, but ould not sing to w
ltz of mus oom spe ul to s ndde o  ted  pit lists. “Le S ng de l Coupe”  o
nt ins ve y powe 
  ful poem, “T e
 Cu se of Venus,” ponoun ed on P is, t e  ity
of ple su e, w i  s be ome t e ity of g eed. T is ve se is pp op i te to
ou  own omme i l ente p ise:
“Vends les bois où do m ient Vivi ne et Me lin!
L’Aigle de mont n’est f it que pou  t gibe iè e;
L neige vie ge est là pou  fou ni  t gl iè e;
Le to ent qui bondit su  le o  sybillin,
Et vole, di m nt, neige, é ume et poussiè e,
N’est plus bon qu’à tou ne  tes meules de moulin!”
     
In t e bu ning indign tion of t is poem, M. De B nville e  es is ig est m k
of tt inment. “Les Exilés” is s  ely less imp essive. T e out  st  gods of
Hell s, w nde ing in
 fo est of n ient G ul, emind one
 t on e of t e f llen
deities of Heine, t e de epit Olympi ns of B uno, nd t e l ge utte  n e of Ke
ts’s “Hype ion.” Among g e t exiles, Vi to  Hugo, “le pè e là-b s d ns l’île,”
is not fo gotten:
“Et toi qui l’ ueillis, sol lib e et ve doy nt,
Qui p odigues les fleu s su  tes ôte ux fe tiles,
Et qui sembles sou i e à l’o é n b uy nt,
Sois bénie, île ve te, ent e toutes les îles.”
   
T e o sest note of M. De B nville’s ly e is t t dis o d nt one st u k in t e
“Idylles
 P ussiennes.”
  would not linge  ove  poet
One  y o  p ose omposed
 du in
g te siege,
 in ou s of s me nd impotent s on. T e poet sings ow t e swo d
, t e fl s ing Du end l, is usted nd b oken, ow vi to y is to im—
“ . . . qui se el
D ns un t ou, sous l te e noi e.”
 
He  n sp e tende ly i  to t e memo y of  P ussi n offi e , l d of eig te
en, s ot de d t oug volume of Pind  w i  e  ied in is tuni .
   
It is impossible to le ve t e poet of g iety nd good- umou  in t e mood of t e
p isone  in besieged P is. His “T ente Six B ll des Joyeuses” mke f  mo e
ple s nt subje t fo  l st wo  d. T e e is s  ely mo e delig tful little vo
lume in t e F en  l ngu ge
 t n t is olle tion of ve ses in t  ult
e most diffi
of fo ms, w i  pou  fo t , wit bsolute e se nd flueny, notes of mi t , b n
te , joy in t e sp ing, in lette s, t, nd good-fellows ip.
“L’oiselet etou ne ux fo êts;
Je suis un poëte ly ique,”—
    
e 
ies, wit note like bi d’s song. Among
 t e t i ty-six eve y one will
ve is f vou ites. We ventu e to t  nsl te t e “B ll d de B nville”:
“AUX ENFANTS PERDUS

“I know Cyte  longis desol te; 
I know t e winds vestipped t e g den g een.
Al s, my f iends! bene t t e fie e sun’s weig t
A b en eef lies w e e Love’s flowe s ve been,
No  eve  love  on t t o st is seen!
So be it, fo  we seek f bled  s o e,
To lull ou  v gue desi es wit mysti   lo e,
 To w nde  w e e Love’s
 l by int s, beguile;
T e e let us l nd,t e e d e mfo eve mo e:
‘It m y be we s ll tou  t e ppy isle.’
 
“T e se m y be ou  sepul   e. If F te,
If tempests
  w e k t ei  w  t on us, se ene
We w t  t e bolt of He ven, nd s o n t e te
Of ng y gods
 t t smite us in t ei  spleen.
 Pe  n e e je lous mists e but t e s een
t
T t veils   ef i y o st we would explo e.
t
Come, t oug te se be  vexed,
 nd b e ke s o ,
Come, fo  t e b e t of t is old wold is vile,
H ste we, nd toil,  nd f int not t t e o ;
‘It m y be we s ll tou  t e ppy isle.’
“G ey
 se pents t  il in temples
 dese  te 
W e e Cyp issmiled, t e golden m id, t e queen,
And uined
 is t e p l e of ou st te;
But
  ppy loves flit ound
 t e m st, nd keen
T e s ill windsings t esilken o ds between.
 oes e we, wit we ied e ts nd so e,
He
W ose flowe  is f ded nd w ose lo ks e o .
H ste, ye lig t skiffs, w e e my tle t i kets smile;
Love’s p nt e s sleep
 ’mid oses,
  s of yo e:
‘It m y be we s ll tou  t e ppy isle.’
Envoi.
  
“S d eyes! t e blue se lug s, s e etofo e.
All,singing bi ds, you
  ppy musi pou  ;
A , poets,
 le ve t e so did e t w ile;
Flit to t ese n ient
 gods we still
   do e:
‘It m y be we s ll tou  t e ppy isle.’”
      
Al s! t e mists
 t t veil t e s o e of ou  Cyt e  e not t e summe  ze of W
tte u, but t e smoke nd ste m of omme i l time.
 
It is s ly i poet t t we ve studied  M. De B nville.  “Je ne m’entends  qu’

à l méu ique,” e s ys in is b ll d on imself; but e  n w ite p ose w en e
ple ses.
  
It is in is d  m of G ingoi e ted t t e T éât e F  nç is, nd f mili   in t
 e ve sion of Mess s. Pollo  k nd Bes nt, t t
  M. De B nville’s p ose s owstot
e best dv nt ge. Louis XI. is supping wit is bou geois  f iends nd wit t e
te ible Olivie  le D im. Two be utiful gi ls e of t e omp ny, f iends of P
ie e G ingoi  e, t e st olling poet. P esently  G ingoie imself ppe s. He i
s dyingof unge ; e does  not e ognise t e king, nd e is p omised
  good sup
pe  if e will  e ite t e new s ti i  l “B ll
 de des Pendus,” w i  e sm de
t t e mon  ’s expense. Hunge  ove omes  is timidity, nd, dd essing imsel
f espe i lly to t e king, e ente s on t is goodly m tte :
  
“W ee wide t e fo est boug  s  e sp e d,
W e e Flo  w kes wit sylp nd f y,
A e owns nd g l nds of men de d,
All golden
 in t e mo ning g y;
Wit in t is n ientg den g ey
 A e luste s su  s no mil knows,
W e e Moo  nd Sold n be t e sw y:
T is is King Louis’ o  d lose!
  
“T esew et ed folk wve ove  e d,
Wit su  st  nge t oug ts s none m y s y;
A moment
 still, t en sudden sped,
 T ey swing in ing ndwste w y.
T e mo ning smites  t em wit e   y;
 T ey toss  wit eve y b eeze t t blows,
T eyd n e w e e fi es of d wning pl y:
T is is King Louis’ o  d lose!
 
“All nged nd de d, tey’ve  summonèd
(Wit Hell to id, t t e s t em p  y)
New legions of  n my d e d, 
 Now down t e blue  sky fl mes t e d y;
T e dew dies off; t e foul   y
Of obs ene
  vens g t e s ndgoes,
Wit wings t t fl p nd be  ks t t fl y:
T is is King Louis’ o  d lose!
Envoi.
 
“P in e, w e e le ves mu mu  of t e M y,
 A t ee of bitte  luste sg ows;
T e bodies of men de d et ey!
T is is King Louis’ o  d lose!
    
Poo  G ingoi e s no soone  ommitted  imself, t n e is m de to e ognise t e
te ible king. He ple ds t t, if e must  join t e g stly  my of t e de d,
e oug t, t le st, to be llowed  to finis
  is suppe 
 . T is t eking g  nts,  n
d in t e end, fte  G ingoi  e s won t e e t of t e e oine, e e eives is
life nd f i  b ide wit full dow y.

G ingoi e is pl y ve y diffe ent f om M. De B nville’s   ot e  d  m s, nd it is
notin luded in t e p etty  volume of “Comédies”w i  loses t e Leme   e se ies
of is poems. T e poet s often de l ed,wit n ite  tion w i  s been p
odied
 by
 M. Ri  epin, t t “ omedy is t e  ild of t e ode,”
 nd t t d m w
it
 out
 t e “ly i ” element is s  ely d  m t ll. W ile omedy
 et ins eit
e  t e  o  l ode in its st i t fo m, o  its ep esent tive in t e s pe of ly 

i  ent usi sm (le ly isme), omedy is omplete nd living. G ingoi e, to ou  mi
nd, s plenty of ly i  ent usi sm; but M. De B nville seems to be of diffe en
t opinion.  His epublis ed “Comédies” e mo e emote f om expe  ien e t n G in
goi e, is   te s e ide l e tu es, f mili  types of t e st ge,  like S 
pin nd “le be u Lé nd e,” o  et e e l pe sons,  o  figu 
  es of old myt ology, lik
e Di n in Di ne u Bois, nd Deid  mi in t e pie e w i  s ows  A  illes mong
 w
omen. M. De Bnville’s d  m s ves  ely p ose enoug in t em to suit t e mo
de n t ste. T ey em sques  fo t e deli  te divesion of n ou , nd it is n
ot in t e n tu e of t ings t t t ey s ould iv l te su ess of blt nt buffoon
e ies.  His e liest pie es—Le Feuilleton d’A istop ne ( ted t t e Odéon, De 
. 26t , 1852), nd  Le Cousin du Roi (Odéon, Ap il 4t , 1857)—we e w itten in ol
l bo  tion wit P iloxène Boye , gene ous but indis eet p t on of singe s.

“D ns les s lons de P iloxène
Nous étions qu t e-vingt imeu s,”
 
M. De B nville w ote, p odying t e “qu t e-vingt   mue s” of Vi to  Hugo. T e
memo y of M. Boye ’s ent  usi sm fo  poet y nd is mi ble ospit lity e not u
nlikely
 to su vive bot is ompositions nd t ose in w i  M. De B nville ided
im. T e l tte  poet beg nto w lk lone s pl yw ig  t in  Le Be u Lé nd e (V
udeville,
 1856)— pie  e wit s   ely mo  e subst n e t n t e F en  s enes in
t e old F  n o-It li  n d  m possess. We e t ken into  n impossible
 wo ld of
g y non-mo  lity, we e wi ked old bou geois,   O gon, is d ug te  Colombine,
  
p etty fli  t, nd e  love   Lé nd e, lig t- e ted s  mp, bustle t oug t ei
 little ou . Lé nd e, w o s no notionof being m ied, s ys, “Le iel n’es
t p s plus pu  que mes intentions.” And t e tless Colombine eplies, “Alo s m
ions-nous!” To m y Colombine wit out  dow y fo ms, s  mode n novelist s
ys, “no p t of Lé nd e’s p oflig te s  eme of ple su e.” T e e is so t of t 
eble int  igue.
 O gon w nts to give w y Colombine dowe  less, Lénd e to es  pe
f om t e w ole t  ns tion, nd Colombine to se u e e  dot  nd e  usb nd. T
e
 st engt of t e pie e is  t e b isk  tion
 in t e s ene w en Lénd e p otests t
t e  n’t ob O gon of is only d ug te , nd O gon insists  t t e  n efus
e not ing ex ept is  du  ts to so  ming son-in-l w.  T e pl y is edeemed f
om so didness by te ostumes. Lé nd e is d essed  in t e tti e of W tte u’s “
L’Indiffé
 ent” in t e Louv e, nd we s di
 mond- ilted swo  d.
 T e l dy w o pl
ys t e p t of Colombine m y sele t (delig tful p ivilege!) t e p ettiest d ess
in W tte u’s olle tion.
   
Tis love of t e glitte  of t e st ge isve y   te isti  of De B nville.  In
is Déid mie (Odéon, Nov. 18t , 1876) t e pl ye  s w o took t e  oles of T etis,
A  illes, Odysseus,Deid mi , nd t e est, we e out ed in semi-b  b i   i
ment
 nd  mou  of t e pe iod immedi tely p eeding t
 e G  e o-P oeni  n ( bout
i
t e eigt entu y B.C.). Ag  in we noti  e t e tou   of ped nt y in t e poet.
As fo  t e ply, t e somb   e t e d  in it is lent by t e e  t inty of A 
 illes’ e
ly de t , te f te w i  d ives  im f  om Déid mie’s ms, nd f  om t e se kin
g’s isle to t ele gues unde  t e f t l w lls of Ilion.  Of  omi 
   effe  t t e e i
s plenty, fo  t esiste s of Déid  mie imit te ll
 t e ts by w i  A  illes is
likely   to bet  y imself—g
  sp t e swo  d mong
 t e insidious
  p esents of Odysseu
s,w en e seizes te spe , nd d ink e  one of t em uge  be ke  of wine to 
t e onfusion  of t e T oj ns.
 [70] On
 P  isi n udien  e t e imit tions of t
 of t e Odyssey must ve been t own
e tone  w y. Fo  ex mple, e e is p ss g
e w i  is s ne  being Home i  s F en  ve se  n be. Déid mie is spe king i
n mel n  oly mood:
“Heu eux les époux ois ssis d ns leu   m ison,
Qui voient t  nquillement s’enfui   que s ison—
L’époux ten nt son s ept e, envi onné de gloi e,
Et l’épouse fil nt s quenouille d’ivoi e!
M is le jeune é os que, l gl ive à son f  n !
Cou t d ns le noi  omb t, les m ins teintes de s ng,

L isse s femme en pleu s d ns s ute demeu e.”
   
 t e ustomed ped nt y, M. De B nville, in t e s eneoft e b nquet, m kes
Wit
t e up-be e  go ound de ling out  wit w i  lib tionis m de,
little wine,
nd t en t e fe st goes on in p ope  Home
 i  f s ion. T eseove w oug t det il
s e fo gotten in t e p ting s enes, w ee Déidmie
 t kes w t s e knows to be
e  l st f ewell of A  illes, nd gi ds im wit is swo d:
“L l me de l’épée, en s fo me divine
Est p eille à l feuille ustè e du l u ie !”
   
Let it be noted  t te  of M. De B nville’s mo e se ious pl ys  ends wit t e s
me s ene, wit slig t diffe en es. In Flo ise (neve   put on t e st ge) t e w n
de ing  t ess of H dy’s t oupe le ves e  love , t e young noble, nd t e s el
te  of
 is  stle,  to follow w
 e e t nd e   be kon e . In Di
genius  ne
 u B
ois t e goddess
 “t t le ds t e p 
 e ise life” tu
 ns e  b
 k on E os, w o s su
bdued even e , nd p sses f om t e s ene s s ew ves e  nd in sign of f 
ewell ineff bly mou nful. Ne e  t  gedy t n t is M. De B nville does not  e
to go; nd if t e e is nydeepe  t  gedy in s enes of blood  nd in st ges st e
wn wit o pses, f om t t e bst ins. His Flo ise is pe  pstoo long, pe  p
s too le ned; nd e t inly we e sked  to believe too mu  w en kind of et
e e lised Consuelo is set befo e us s t e p im donn of old H dy’s t oupe:
“Mis Flo ise n’est p s une femme. Je suis
L’ monieuse voix que be e vos ennuis;
Je suis l ly e ux sons dive s que le poëte
F it ésonne  et qui s ns lui se  it muette—
Une omédienne enfin. Je ne suis p s
Une femme.”
  
An t ess w o w s not wom n d little to do in t e omp ny ofS  on’s Angé
lique ndM demoiselle
 de l’Estoile.
 Flo ise, in s o t, is somew t too llego 
i  l nd  ug ty e tue; w ile Colombine  nd Né ine (V udeville, June 1864)
e  t e  t i ksy imps t n women of fles nd blood.  M. De B nville’s st ge, 
on t e w ole, is one of glitte  nd f nt sy; yet  e is too mu  G eek fo  t e
ge t t pp e i tes “l belle  Hélène,” toomu  ly i  d  m tist to ple se t e
ontempo  ies of S dou;
 e lends too mu
  sentiment nd d inty efinement to
  te s s flimsy s t ose of Offenb  ’s d  m .
  
Like ot e  F en  poets, M. De B nville  s o  sion lly deigned to w ite feuill
etons nd iti isms. Not m ny of t ese s  tte ed le ves e olle ted, but one
volume, “L Me  de Ni e” (Poulet-M l ssis et De B oise, P is, 1861),  m y be e
d wit ple su e even by je lous  dmi e s of G utie ’s su  ess s  oni le  o
f t e imp essions m de by sout e n s ene y.

To De B nville ( e does not  on e l it) jou ney  to pl e so f  f om P is
s t eRivie  w s no slig t l bou . Even f om t e oses, t ep lms, t e si en s
e , t e wells of w te  unde t e f onds of m iden- i  fe n, is mind t  vels b
k wistfully to t e ity of is love.
  
“I
 m,I ve lw ys  been, one of t ose devotees of P isw o visit G ee e only
w en t ey g ze on t e f e,so f i  nd so te ible, of t e twi e-vito ious Ven
us of t e Louv e. Oneof t ose obstin te do e s of mytown m I, w o will neve
 see It ly, s ve in t e gl ss t t efle ts t e t wny  i  ofTiti n’s Viol nte
,o  in t t d e d isle of  Al inous
 w e e Lion  do s ows you t e mount in pe ks 
t t w ve inte blue be ind  t e myste
 ious Monn Lis . But t e F ulty  of P y
si i ns, w i   t e ig t to be s epti  l, does notbelieve t t neu
s, I own,  
lgi  n be e led by t e ig sun w i Titi n nd Ve onese ve fixed on t e
 nv s. To me t e F ulty p es ibes t e e lsun of n tu e nd of life; nd e
e m I, ondemned to le n in suffe ing ll t t p sses in t e mind of poet o
    
f P is exiled fom t t blessed pl e w e e efinds t e Cy l des nd t e isl n
ds blossoming, t e v le of Av lon, nd ll t e e venly omes of t e f i ies of
expe ien e nd desi e.”
   
Ni eis Tomi to t is Ovid, but e m kes t e best  of
 it, nd sends to t e edito  
of
  t e Moniteu  lette s mu  mo e dive  ting t n t e “T isti .” To tell t e t u
t , e neve  ove omes  is m zement t being out of P is st  eets, nd in gl
de of t e lowe  Alps e loves to be eminded of is de  ityof ple sue. Only
unde  t e olives  of Mon o, t ose solemn  nd n ient t ees, e feels w t su el
y ll men  feel w o w lk t sunset t  oug t ei  s dow—t e memo y of myste iou
s twilig t of gony in n olive g den.

“Et eux- i, les pâles olivie s, n’est- e p s de es eu es désolées où, omme t
o tu e sup ême, le S uveu  ept it en son âme l’i êp  ble misè e du doute, n
’est- e p s lo s qu’il ont pp is de lui à ou be  le f ont sous le poids impé 
ieux des souveni s?”
     
T e p ges w i M. De B nville onse  tes to t e Vill  S dou, w e e R  el  die
d, m y disen   nt, pe 
  ps, some e de  s of M . M tt ew A nold’s sonnet.
 T e s
ene of R  el’s de t s been spoiled by “imp ovements” in too t e t i l t ste
. All  t esenotes, oweve , we e m de m nyye s go;  nd visito s of t e Rivie 
 , t oug t ey will  find t e little book 
 ming  w e e itspe  ks  of se s nd
ills, will le n t t F  n e s g e tly  nged t e ity w i  s e s nnexed.
As p ti  l m n nd P isi n, De B nville  s p inted (pp.  179-81) e i
pe fo  t e on o tion of t e M seilles dis , bouill  b isse, t e mess t t T k
e  y’s b ll d m de so f mous. It t kes genius,  oweve , to  ook bouill b isse;

nd, to p ody w t De B nville s ys bout is own e ipe fo  m king me  ni 
l “b ll de,” “en employment e moyen,  on est sû  de  f i e unem uv ise, i émédi
blement m uv ise bouill b isse.” T e poet dds t e em k t t “une bouill b i
sse éussie v ut un sonnet s ns déf ut.”
 
T e e em ins one field ofM. De B nville’s tivity to be s o tly des ibed. O
f is “Em  ux P isiens,” s o t studies of eleb  ted w ite s, we need s y no mo 
e t n t t t ey e w itten in  eful p ose. M. De B nville  is not only poe
t, but in is “Petit T  ité de  Poésie
 F  nç ise” (Bibliot èque de l’E  o de l S
o bonne, s.d.) te  e  of t e me  ni  l p t of  poet y. He does not,  of  
ou
se, dv n e p  dox like t t of B udel i e, “t t poet y  n be t ug t in t i
ty lessons.” He me ely inst  u ts is pupil  in t e m te i l p t—t e s nsion,
met es, nd so on—of F en  poet   y. In t is little wo k e int odu es t ese “t 
dition l fo ms of ve se,” w i  on  e  used some t lk in Engl  nd: t e ondel, 
onde u, b ll de, vill  nelle, nd   nt oy l. It m y be wo t  w ile to quote i
s testimony s to t e me it of t ese modes of exp   ession.
 “T is luste
   of fo m
s is one of ou  most p e ious t e su es, fo  e  of t em fo ms   yt mi   w ole
, omplete nd pefet, w ile t t e s me time t ey ll possess t e f es nd un
ons iousg  ew i  m ks t e p odu tions of p imitive times.” Now, t e e is
some t ut in t is iti ism;  fo  it is m k of m n’s e ly ingenuity, in m ny
ts, to seek omplexity (w e e you would expe t simpli ity),  nd yet to lend t
o t t omplexity n inf ntine n tu  lness. One  n see t is  p enomenon in e l
y de o  tive t, nd in e ly l w nd ustom, nd even in t e ompli  ted st u 
tu e of p imitive  l ngu ges. Now, just s e ly, nd even s v ge,  es e ou 
m ste s in t e de o  tive use of olou  nd of  ving, so t e n meless  m ste -
singe s of n ient F  n e m y be  ou  te  e s in de o  tive poet y, t e poet y s
ome
  ll ve s
 de so iété. W et e  it is possible to go beyond t is, nd d pt t
e old F en  fo ms to se ious mode n poet y, it is not fo  ny one but time to
de ide. In t is m tte , s in g e te ffi s, se u us judi  t o bis te  um.
Fo  my own  p t I s  ely believe t t t e eviv l would se ve t e noble  ends
of Englis poet y. Now let us listen g in to De B nville.
    
“In t e ondel,  s in t e onde u nd t e b ll de, ll t e t is to b ing in t
e ef  in wit out effo t, n tu  lly, g ily, nd e  time wit novel effe t nd
     
wit f es lig t  st on t e ent  l ide .” Now, you  n te  no one to do t
t, nd M. De B nville neve  petends to give ny e ipes fo  ooking ondels o 
b ll des wo t e ding. “Wit out poeti  vision ll is me em quete y nd  bin
et-m
 ke ’s wo k: t t is, so f  s poet  y is on e ned—not ing.” It is be  use
e w s poet, not me e  ftsm n, t tVillon w s nd em ins t e king, t e
bsolute m ste , of b ll d-l nd.” About t e onde  u, M. De B nville ve s t t
it possesses “nimble movement,  speed, g  e, lig tness oftou  , nd, s it we e
, n n ient f  g  n e of t e soil, t t must  m ll w o love ou  ount y nd
ou  ount y’s poet y,in its eve y ge.” As fo  t e vill  nelle, M. De Bnville 
del es t t it is t e f i est jewel in t e  sket of t emuse E  to; w ile t
e  nt oyl is kind of fossilpoem, eli  of n ge w en kings nd llego 
ies flou is ed. “T e kings nd
 t e gods e de d,” like P n; o t le st we no
longe  find t em ble, by tou  oy l o  divine, to e nim te t e m gnifi ent 
nt oy l.
  
T is is M. De B nville’s
 pology in p o ly â suâ, t t lig t ly e of m ny tones,
 
in w ose jingle t e ete n l note of mode n s dness is e d so  ely. If e
s lesson to te  Englis ve sifie s, su ely it is  lesson of g iety. T ey
e only too fond of ue nd osem y, nd now nd t en p efe  t e yp ess to  t
e b y. M. De B nville’s muse is ontent to we  oses in e  lo ks, nd pe  ps
m y et in, fo   m ny ye s, l u el le f f om t e n ient l u el t ee w i  on
e s elte ed t e poet t Tu bi .
HOMER AND THE STUDY OF GREEK
 
T e G eek l ngu  ge is  being ousted f om edu  tion, e e, in F  n e, nd in Ame i
 . T e spee   of t ee liest demo  ies is not demo  ti  enoug fo  mode n
n  y. T e e is  not  ing to be g ined, it  is s id, by knowledge of G eek. W
e ve not to fig t t e b ttle of life wit Helleni  w ite  s; nd, even if we
d, Rom i , o  mode n G eek, is mu  mo e e sily le ned t n t e old l ssi  l t
ongue. T e e son of t is omp  tive e se will be pl in to ny one w o, et in
ing v guememoy of is G eek  g  mm , t kes up mode  n G eek newsp pe . He
will find t t t e idiomsof t e mode n newsp pe  e t e idioms  of ll newsp pe
s, t t t e g  mm  is t e g  mm  of mode n l ngu ges,  t t t eopinions e e
xp essed
 in b b ous t  nsl
 tions of b  b ous F en  nd Englis  jou n listi 
li  és o  ommonpl es. T is ugly nd undignified
 mixtu  e of t e n ient G eek
  tes, nd of n ient G eek wo ds wit mode  n  g  mm  nd idioms, nd ste 
eotyped p  ses, is ext emely dist steful to t e s  ol . Mode   n G eek, s it i
s t p esent p inted, is not t e ntu l spoken l ngu ge of t e pe s nts. You 
n e d G eek  le ding ti le, t oug  you  n dly m ke sense  of G eek u 
l b ll d. T e pe s nt spee   is t ing of slow development;  e e is b sis
t
of
 n ient G eek in it, wit l ge elements of Sl voni , Tu kis , It li n, nd o
t e  imposed o  impo ted l nguges.  Mode  n lite  y G eek
 is  yb id of evive
d lssi  l wo ds,  blended wit t e idioms of t e spee
  es w i ve isen sin
e t e f ll of t e Rom n Empi   e. T us, t nks to t e mode n nd f mili
  elemen
t in it, mode n G eek “ s s e is w it” is mu  mo e e sily  le  ned t n n ient
G
 eek. Consequently,  if ny one s need fo
  t e spee   in business
 o  t  vel,
e  n quie s mu  of it s most of us ve of F en  , wit onside  ble e s
e. People  t e efo e gue t t n ient G eek  is p ti ul ly supe fluous in s 
ools. W y w ste time on it, t ey sk, w i  ould be  expended on s ien e, on mo
de n l ngu ges, o  ny ot
 e  b  n  of edu  tion?
 T e e is g e t de l of just
ie in t is position. T e gene  tionof men w o e now middle-ged bestowed mu
 time nd l bou on G eek; nd  in w t, it m y be sked, e tey bette  fo  i
t? Ve y few of t em “keep  up t   G eek.” S y, fo  ex mple, t t one
ei  w s in
fo m wit fifty boys w o beg n t e study—it is odds g inst  five of t e suvivo
s still e ding G eek  books. T e wo ldly dv nt ges of t e study 
 e slig t: i
t m y le d t ee of t e fifty  to good deg ee, nd one
 to fellows ip; but goo
d deg ees m y be tken in ot e  subje ts, nd fellows ips m y be bolis ed, o  “
n tion lised,” wit ll ot e  fo ms of p ope ty.
   
Ten, w y m int in G eek in s  ools? Only ve y minute pe ent ge of t e boys
w o e to mented  wit it  e lly le n it. Only still sm lle  pe ent ge  n
e d it fte  t ey e t i ty. Only one o  two g in ny m te i l dv nt ge by i
t. In ve y t ut , most minds e not f  med by  n tu e to ex el nd to delig t i
n lite  tu e, nd only to su  minds nd to s  oolm ste s is G eek v lu ble.
  
T is is t e  se g inst  G eekput s powe fully s one  n st te it.  Ont e ot
e  side, we m y s y, t oug t e em k m y seem bsu d t fi st sig t, t t to
ve m ste ed G eek, even if you fo get it, isnot to ve w sted time.  It e l
ly is n edu  tion l nd ment l dis ipline.  T e study is so seve e t t it need
s t e e nest ppli  tion of t e mind. T e study  is ve  se to indolent  intelle 
tu l w ys; it will not put up wit “t e e o  t e e bouts,” ny mo e t n m t e
m ti  l ide s dmit of being mde to seem “ext emely pl usible.” He w o w ites,
nd w o m y ventu e to offe   imself s n ex mple, is n tu  lly of most slov
enly nd sl tte nly ment l bit. It is is onst  nt tempt  tion to “s  mp” eve 
y kind of wo k, nd to s y “it  will do well enoug .” He
  t kingt ouble n
tes
d veifying efe en es. And e  n onestly onfess t t not ing in is expe  ie
n e s so  elped,
 in  e t in deg  ee, to ounte  t t ose tenden  ies— s t e l
bou  of t o oug ly le ning e t in G eek  texts—t e d  m tists,
 T u  ydides, some
of t e books of A istotle. Expe ien   e s s tisfied im t t G  eek is of  e l
edu  tion l v lue, nd, p t f om t e knowledged  nd unsu p
 ssed me it of its
lite  tu e, is  seve e nd logi  l
 t  ining of t e mind.
 T e ment l onstitut
ion is st engt ened nd b  ed by t e l bou , even if t e l ngu ge is fo gotten
in l te  life.
   
It is m nifest, oweve , t t t is p t of  edu  tion is not fo  eve ybody. T e
e l edu  tion l p oblem is to dis ove  w t boys G eek will be good fo , nd w
t boys will only w ste time nd d wdle ove  it. Ce t inly to men of lite  y
tu n ( ve y minute pe ent ge), Geek is of n inestim ble v lue. G e t poets
, even, m y be igno  nt of it, s S kespe e p ob bly w s, s Ke ts nd S ott 
e t inly we e, s Alex nd e Dum s ws. But Dum s eg etted is igno  n e;S ott
eg etted it. We know  not ow mu  S ott’s dmitted l xity of style  nd u ie
d  eless bit mig t ve been modified  by knowledge   of G eek; ow mu  of g
 e, pe m nen e, nd gene  lly of  t, is genius mig t ve g ined f om t e l
ngu ge nd lite  tu e of Hell s. T e most Home  i  of mode n men ould  not e d
Home . As fo  Ke ts, e w s bo n G eek, it s been s id; but d e been  bo 
n wit knowledge of G eek,
 e neve  , p ob bly, would ve been guilty of is 
ief lite  y f ults. T is  is not  e  t in, fo  some mode n men of lette
  s deepl
y e d in G eek ve ll t e qu lities of fusti n nd effusiveness w i  Longinu
s most despised. G eek will notm ke luxu iously Asi ti  mind  Helleni , it is
e t in; but it  m y, t le st, elp  to est  in effusive nd   i l g bble.
eto
Ou  Asi ti   eto i i ns migt pe  ps be even  mo e b b ous t n t ey e if
G eek we e se led  book to t em. Howeve   t is m y be, it is, t le st, well t
o find out in s ool w t boys
 e
 wo t inst u  ting in  t e G eek l ngu ge. N
ow, of t ei  wo  t iness,  of t ei   n es  of su  ess in t e study, Home   seems t
e best tou  stone; nd e is e t inly t e most tt  tive guide to t e study.
 
At p esent boys e intodu ed to t e l ngu ge of t e Muses by ped nti  lly w it
ten g  mm s, full of t equee est nd  most id met p ysi  l nd p ilologi  l v
e bi ge. T e ve y Englis  in w i  t ese deplo  ble  books e omposed m y be s
ientifi , m y be omp e ensible by nd useful to p ilologists, but is utte ly
e t-b e king to boys.
    
  mig t be m de f s in ting; t e isto y of wo d, nd of t e p o esses
P ilology
by w i  its diffe ent foms, in diffe ent senses, we e developed, migt be  m d
e s inte esting s ny ot e  sto y of events. But g  mm  is not  t ug t t us:
boys eint odu ed to j gon bout m tte s me ningless,  nd t ey e n tu  ll
y s mu  en  nted  s if t ey we e listening  to  imæ  bombin  ns in v uo.
T e g  mm , to t em, is me e buzz in  os of nonsense. T ey ve to le n
t e buzz by ote; nd ple s nt p o ess t t is— sedu tive initi tion into t
 
e myste ies. W en  t ey st uggle so f  s to be llowed  to t y to e d pie e
of G eek p ose, t ey  e only like t e M   ioness in e  expeien e of bee : s
e on e d sip of it. Ten lines of Xenop on, n  ting  ow e m  ed so m ny
p  s ngs nd took b e kf st, do  not mount
 to mo
 e t n ve y un ef es ing si
p of G eek. Nobody even tells t e boys w o Xenop on w s, w t e did  t ee, nd
w t it w s ll bout. Nobody gives b ief nd inte esting sket   of t e g e
t m  , of  its isto y nd obje ts. T e boys st  ggle long wit Xenop on, kno
wing not w en e o  w it e :
  
“T ey st  y t oug desolte egion, 
And often e f int on t e m  .”
    
One by onet ey f ll out of  t e  nks;  t ey mutiny  g inst Xenopon; t ey  mu mu 
g instt t omm nde  ; t ey
 dese  t is fl g. T ey dete  mine  t t nyt ing is
bette
  t n Geek, t t not ing
  n be wo se t n G eek, nd t
   ey move t e tende
 e ts of t ei  p ents.   T ey  e put to le n Ge m n; w i
  t ey do not le 
n, unlu kily,
 but w
 i   t ey find it  omp  tively
 e sy to s i k. In b  ief, t e
y le ve s  ool wit out ving le ned nyt ing w teve .
    
Up to e t in ge my expe ien es t s  ool we e p e isely t ose w i  I ve d
es ibed. Ou  g  mm  w s not so p ilologi l, bst use nd  id s t e inst um
entsof to tu e employed t p esent. But I ted G eek wit de dly nd si ken
ing t ed; I ted it like bully nd t ief of time. T e ve bs in μυ comple
ted my intellectal discomfitre, and Xenophon roted me with horrible carnage.
I cold have rn away to sea, bt for a strong impression that a life on the oc
ean wave “did not set my genis,” as Alan Breck says. Then we began to read Hom
er; and from the very first words, in which the Mse is asked to sing the wrath
of Achilles, Peles’ son, my mind was altered, and I was the devoted friend of G
reek. Here was something worth reading abot; here one knew where one was; here
was the msic of words, here were poetry, pleasre, and life. We fortnately h
ad a teacher (Dr. Hodson) who was not wildly enthsiastic abot grammar. He wo
ld set s long pieces of the Iliad or Odyssey to learn, and, when the day’s task
was done, wold make s read on, adventring orselves in “the nseen,” and con
string as gallantly as we might, withot grammar or dictionary. On the followi
ng day we srveyed more careflly the grond we had pioneered or skirmished over
, and then advanced again. Ths, to change the metaphor, we took Homer in large
draghts, not in sips: in sips no epic can be enjoyed. We now revelled in Home
r like Keats in Spenser, like yong horses let loose in a pastre. The reslt w
as not the making of many accrate scholars, thogh a few were made; others got
nothing better than enjoyment in their work, and the firm belief, opposed to tha
t of most schoolboys, that the ancients did not write nonsense. To love Homer,
as Steele said abot loving a fair lady of qality, “is a liberal edcation.”
Jdging from this example, I ventre very hmbly to think that any one who, even
at the age of Cato, wants to learn Greek, shold begin where Greek literatre,
where all profane literatre begins—with Homer himself. It was ths, not with g
rammars in vaco, that the great scholars of the Renaissance began. It was ths
that Ascham and Rabelais began, by jmping into Greek and splashing abot till
they learned to swim. First, of corse, a person mst learn the Greek character
s. Then his or her ttor may make him read a dozen lines of Homer, marking the
cadence, the srge and thnder of the hexameters—a msic which, like that of the
Sirens, few can hear withot being lred to the seas and isles of song. Then t
he ttor might translate a passage of moving interest, like Priam’s appeal to Ac
hilles; first, of corse, explaining the sitation. Then the teacher might go o
ver some lines, mintely pointing ot how the Greek words are etymologically con
nected with many words in English. Next, he might take a sbstantive and a verb
, showing roghly how their inflections arose and were developed, and how they r
etain forms in Homer which do not occr in later Greek. There is no reason why
even this part of the lesson shold be ninteresting. By this time a ppil wol
d know, more or less, where he was, what Greek is, and what the Homeric poems ar
e like. He might ths believe from the first that there are good reasons for kn
owing Greek; that it is the key to many worlds of life, of action, of beaty, of
contemplation, of knowledge. Then, after a few more exercises in Homer, the gr
ammar being jdiciosly worked in along with the literatre of the epic, a teach
er might discern whether it was worth while for his ppils to contine in the st
dy of Greek. Homer wold be their gide into the “realms of gold.”

It is clear enogh that Homer is the best gide. His is the oldest extant Greek
, his matter is the most varios and delightfl, and most appeals to the yong,
who are wearied by scraps of Xenophon, and who cannot be expected to nderstand
the Tragedians. Bt Homer is a poet for all ages, all races, and all moods. To
the Greeks the epics were not only the best of romances, the richest of poetry;
not only their oldest docments abot their own history,—they were also their B
ible, their treasry of religios traditions and moral teaching. With the Bible
and Shakespeare, the Homeric poems are the best training for life. There is no
good qality that they lack: manliness, corage, reverence for old age and for
the hospitable hearth; jstice, piety, pity, a brave attitde towards life and d
eath, are all conspicos in Homer. He has to write of battles; and he delights
in the joy of battle, and in all the movement of war. Yet he delights not less
, bt more, in peace: in prosperos cities, hearths secre, in the tender beaty
of children, in the love of wedded wives, in the frank nobility of maidens, in
the beaty of earth and sky and sea, and seaward mrmring river, in sn and sno
w, frost and mist and rain, in the whispered talk of boy and girl beneath oak an
d pine tree.
Living in an age where every man was a warrior, where every city might know the
worst of sack and fire, where the noblest ladies might be led away for slaves, t
o light the fire and make the bed of a foreign master, Homer inevitably regards
life as a battle. To each man on earth comes “the wicked day of destiny,” as Ma
lory nconsciosly translates it, and each man mst face it as hardily as he may
.
Homer encorages them by all the maxims of chivalry and honor. His heart is wi
th the brave of either side—with Glacs and Sarpedon of Lycia no less than with
Achilles and Patrocls. “Ah, friend,” cries Sarpedon, “if once escaped from th
is battle we were for ever to be ageless and immortal, neither wold I myself fi
ght now in the foremost ranks, nor wold I rge thee into the wars that give ren
own; bt now—for assredly ten thosand fates of death on every side beset s, a
nd these may no man shn, nor none avoid—forward now let s go, whether we are t
o give glory or to win it!” And forth they go, to give and take renown and deat
h, all the shields and helms of Lycia shining behind them, throgh the dst of b
attle, the singing of the arrows, the hrtling of spears, the rain of stones fro
m the Locrian slings. And shields are smitten, and chariot-horses rn wild with
no man to drive them, and Sarpedon drags down a portion of the Achæan battlemen
t, and Aias leaps into the trench with his deadly spear, and the whole battle sh
ifts and shines beneath the sn. Yet he who sings of the war, and sees it with
his sightless eyes, sees also the Trojan women working at the loom, cheating the
ir anxios hearts with broidery work of gold and scarlet, or raising the song to
Athene, or heating the bath for Hector, who never again may pass within the gat
es of Troy. He sees the poor weaving woman, weighing the wool, that she may not
defrad her employers, and yet may win bread for her children. He sees the chi
ldren, the golden head of Astyanax, his shrinking from the splendor of the hero
’s helm. He sees the child Odysses, going with his father throgh the orchard,
and choosing ot some apple trees “for his very own.” It is in the moth of th
e rthless Achilles, the fatal, the fated, the swift-footed hero with the hands
of death, that Homer places the tenderest of his similes. “Wherefore weepest th
o, Patrocls, like a fond little maid, that rns by her mother’s side, praying
her mother to take her p, snatching at her gown, and hindering her as she walks
, and tearflly looking at her till her mother takes her p?—like her, Patrocls
, dost tho softly weep.”
This is what Chesterfield calls “the porter-like langage of Homer’s heroes.” S
ch are the moods of Homer, so fll of love of life and all things living, so ri
ch in all hman sympathies, so readily moved when the great hond Args welcomes
his master, whom none knew after twenty years, bt the hond knew him, and died
in that welcome. With all this love of the real, which makes him dwell so fond
ly on every detail of armor, of implement, of art; on the divers-colored gold-
work of the shield, on the making of tires for chariot-wheels, on the forging of
iron, on the rose-tinted ivory of the Sidonians, on cooking and eating and sacr
ificing, on pet dogs, on wasps and their ways, on fishing, on the boar hnt, on
scenes in baths where fair maidens lave water over the heroes, on ndiscovered i
sles with good harbors and rich land, on ploghing, mowing, and sowing, on the
frnitre of hoses, on the golden vases wherein the white dst of the dead is l
aid,—with all this delight in the real, Homer is the most romantic of poets. He
walks with the srest foot in the darkling realm of dread Persephone, beneath t
he poplars on the solemn last beach of Ocean. He has heard the Siren’s msic, a
nd the song of Circe, chanting as she walks to and fro, casting the golden shtt
le throgh the loom of gold. He enters the cave of the Man Eater; he knows the
nsnned land of the Cimmerians; in the smmer of the North he has looked, from
the fiord of the Laestrygons, on the Midnight Sn. He has dwelt on the floating
isle of Æols, with its wall of bronze nbroken, and has sailed on those Phæaci
an barks that need no help of helm or oar, that fear no stress either of wind or
tide, that come and go and retrn obedient to a thoght and silent as a dream.
He has seen the for maidens of Circe, daghters of wells and woods, and of sac
red streams. He is the second-sighted man, and beholds the shrod that wraps th
e living who are doomed, and the mystic dripping from the walls of blood yet ns
hed. He has walked in the garden closes of Phæacia, and looked on the face of g
ods who fare thither, and watch the weaving of the dance. He has eaten the hone
y-sweet frit of the lots, and from the hand of Helen he brings s that Egyptia
n nepenthe which pts all sorrow ot of mind. His real world is as real as that
in Henry V., his enchanted isles are charmed with the magic of the Tempest. Hi
s yong wooers are as insolent as Cladio, as flshed with yoth; his beggar-men
are brethren of Edie Ochiltree; his Nasicaa is sister to Rosalind, with a diff
erent charm of stately prity in love. His enchantresses hold s yet with their
sorceries; his Helen is very Beaty: she has all the sweetness of ideal womanho
od, and her repentance is withot remorse. His Achilles is yoth itself, glorio
s, crel, pitifl, splendid, and sad, ardent and loving, and conscios of its d
oom. Homer, in trth, is to be matched only with Shakespeare, and of Shakespear
e he has not the occasional wilflness, freakishness, and modish obscrity. He
is a poet all of gold, niversal as hmanity, simple as childhood, msical now a
s the flow of his own rivers, now as the heavy plnging wave of his own Ocean.
Sch, then, as far as weak words can speak of him, is the first and greatest of
poets. This is he whom English boys are to be ignorant of, if Greek be osted f
rom or schools, or are to know only in the distorting mirror of a versified, or
in the pale shadow of a prose translation. Translations are good only as teach
ers to bring men to Homer. English verse has no measre which even remotely sg
gests the varios flow of the hexameter. Translators who employ verse give s a
feeble Homer, dashed with their own conceits, and molded to their own style.
Translators who employ prose “tell the story withot the song,” bt, at least, t
hey add no twopenny “beaties” and cheap conceits of their own.
I ventre to offer a few examples of original translation, in which the manneris
ms of poets who have, or have not, translated Homer, are parodied, and, of cors
e (except in the case of Pope), exaggerated. The passage is the speech of the S
econd-sighted Man, before the slaying of the wooers in the hall:—
“Ah! wretched men, what ill is this ye sffer? In night are swathed yor heads,
yor faces, yor knees; and the voice of wailing is kindled, and cheeks are wet
with tears, and with blood drip the walls, and the fair main beams of the roof,
and the porch is fll of shadows, and fll is the cortyard, of ghosts that has
ten hellward below the darkness, and the sn has perished ot of heaven, and an
evil mist sweeps p over all.”
So mch for Homer. The first attempt at metric translation here given is meant
to be in the manner of Pope:
“Caitiffs!” he cried, “what heaven-directed blight
Involves each contenance with clods of night!
What pearly drop the ashen cheek bedews!
Why do the walls with gots ensangined ooze?
The cort is thronged with ghosts that ’neath the gloom
Seek Plto’s realm, and Dis’s awfl doom;
In ebon crtains Phoebs hides his head,
And sable mist creeps pward from the dead.”
This appears pretty bad, and nearly as n-Homeric as a translation cold possibl
y be. Bt Pope, aided by Broome and Fenton, managed to be mch less Homeric, m
ch more absrd, and infinitely more “classical” in the sense in which Pope is cl
assical:
“O race to death devote! with Stygian shade
Each destined peer impending fates invade;
With tears yor wan distorted cheeks are drowned;
With sangine drops the walls are rbied rond:
Thick swarms the spacios hall with howling ghosts,
To people Orcs and the brning coasts!
Nor gives the sn his golden orb to roll,
Bt niversal night srps the pole.”
Who cold have conjectred that even Pope wold wander away so far from his matc
hless original? “Wretches!” cries Theoclymens, the seer; and that becomes, “O
race to death devote!” “Yor heads are swathed in night,” trns into “With Styg
ian shade each destined peer” (peer is good!) “impending fates invade,” where Ho
mer says nothing abot Styx nor peers. The Latin Orcs takes the place of Ereb
s, and “the brning coasts” are derived from modern poplar theology. The very
grammar detains or defies the reader; is it the sn that does not give his golde
n orb to roll, or who, or what?
The only place where the latter-day Broome or Fenton can flatter himself that he
rivals Pope at his own game is—
“What pearly drop the ashen cheek bedews!”
This is, if possible, more classical than Pope’s own—
“With tears yor wan distorted cheeks are drowned.”
Bt Pope nobly revindicates his nparalleled power of translating fnnily, when,
in place of “the walls drip with blood,” he writes—
“With sangine drops the walls are rbied rond.”
Homer does not appear to have been acqainted with rbies; bt what of that? An
d how noble, how eminently worthy of Pope it is to add that the ghosts “howl”!
I tried to make them gibber, bt ghosts do gibber in Homer (thogh not in this p
assage), so Pope, Fenton, Broome, and Co., make them howl.
No, Pope is not lightly to be rivalled by a modern translator. The following ex
ample, a far-off following of a noted contemporary poet, may be left nsigned—
“Wretches, the bane hath befallen, the night and the blight of yor sin
Sweeps like a shrod o’er the faces and limbs that were gladsome therein;
And the dirge of the dead breaketh forth, and the faces of all men are wet,
And the walls are besprinkled with blood, and the ghosts in the gateway are met,
Ghosts in the cort and the gateway are gathered, Hell opens her lips,
And the sn in his splendor is shroded, and sickens in spasm of eclipse.”
The next is longer and slower: the poet has a difficlty in telling his story:
“Wretches,” he cried, “what doom is this? what night
Clings like a face-cloth to the face of each,—
Sweeps like a shrod o’er knees and head? for lo!
The windy wail of death is p, and tears
On every cheek are wet; each shining wall
And beateos interspace of beam and beam
Weeps tears of blood, and shadows in the door
Flicker, and fill the portals and the cort—
Shadows of men that hellwards yearn—and now
The sn himself hath perished ot of heaven,
And all the land is darkened with a mist.”
That cold never be mistaken for a version by the Lareate, as perhaps any conte
mporary hack’s works might have been taken for Pope’s. The difficlty, perhaps,
lies here: any one knows where to have Pope, any one knows that he will evade t
he mot propre, thogh the precise evasion he may select is hard to gess. Bt t
he Lareate wold keep close to his text, and yet wold write like himself, very
beatiflly, bt not with an Homeric swiftness and strength. Who is to imitate 
him? As to Mr. William  Morris, he might be fabled  to render Α δειλοί “n  r n
g w ghts,” but by n that, c njctur s baff  . [91] Or s th s th k n f
th ng?—
    y bar, f r y ur kns n th n ght,

“N r ngwghts,  what a ban    


n y ur h a s an y ur facs, ar shr u , an  c am ur that kn ws n t  ght
R ngs,    n, an b  s bsprnt n th wa s,
 an y ur ch ks ar b grutt   
B  n th  tap stry fa r w v n, an barr w-w ghts wa k n th ha s.

F tch  s an wra  ths f th ch s n  f th N rns, an th sun fr m th ft
      
Shu rs, an vr th m  garth an swan’s bath th c u -sha ws r ft.”
It may b argu  th ugh th s s prhaps a trans at n, t s n t Eng sh,
 that,
n v r was, an n v r w  b. But t s qu t as k H mr as th prf rmanc
  
f P p.

Such as ths, r n t s  vry much bttr than
ths as m ght b w sh , ar ur
ff rts t  trans at H mr. Fr m Chapman t  v a, r Mr. W  am M rr s, thy
 
ar a m nnt y c nsc nt us, an rr n us, an fut  . Chapman maks H mr
a fanc fu , uphu st c, bscur , an garru us E zabthan, but Chapman has f r
 
. P p maks h m a w t, sp r t, ccas na y n b , fu f p nts, an p g

rams, an qur r c c  c nvnt na sms. C wpr maks h m s w, umbr ng, a M 
t n w th ut th mus c. Mag nn maks h m p p an Ir sh j g:—

“Scarc y ha sh bgun t  wash
Whn sh was awar f th gr s y gash!”
   
L r Drby maks h m rspctab  an p n r us. L r Tnnys n maks h m n t s
s, but crta n y n t m r, than Tnnys n an. H mr, n th Laurat’s fw fragm
nts f xpr mnt, s st  a p t, but h s n t H mr. Mr. M rr s, an
v a,
   
mak h m Ic an c, an archa st c, an har t  scan, th ugh v g r us n h s f
ttrs f r a that. B hn maks h m a cr b; an f thr trans at rs n prs t
has bn sa  , w th a hum ur wh ch n f thm apprc ats, that thy rn r H 
mr nt  a knss f th B k f M rm n.
 
H mr s untrans atab . N n f us can bn th b w f Eurytus, an mak th b
w-str ng “r ng swt y atth t uch, k th swa w’s  s ng.”
 
 Th a v ntur 

    
s n v r t  b ach  v ; an , f Gr k s t  b    
sm ss fr m ucat n, n t th
ast f th s rr ws that w  nsu s Eng sh gn ranc f H mr.


THE L ST F SHION BLE NOVEL




Th  t r f a grat mr can nwspapr nc ffr th auth r f ths ns
a c mm ss n t  xp r a st c untry, th
s at f a fa n an f rg ttn c v 
   
sat  
n. It was n t nYucatan, r C ntra  fr ca, r Thb t, r Kaf  r stan, th
s s  at r g n, nc s  p pu ar, s  gau y, s  much fr qu nt an s r .
It was n y th  nab  n v s f th F rt s, say fr m 1835 t  1850, that I
 fash
was r qu st t  xam nan rp rt up n. But I shrank fr m th
    
 c   ssa task.
 
I am n  Mr. Stan y; an th ngth, th   
ff cu t  s, th  ar u usn ss f th
 
ab ur appa  m. Bs  s, I  n t kn w whr that an s, th an f th
   Fash nab  N v , th Kôr f wh ch Thackray’s Lay Fanny F ummry s th

   
y sha. What wr th nams f th  n v s, an wh  wr th auth rs, an 
 un sc v rab  wat r ng-p ac ar th y t  b f
     
n th  c rcu at 
ng 
 brary f what      
un ? W hav h ar f Mrs.
G r , w hav h ar f Tr mayn  , an Em  a Wyn ham
 
, an th Bach r f th  bany; an many f us hav r a P ham, r kn w h m 

ut f Car y ’s art, an th s grat curss wh ch h sp k. But wh  was th r 
   sat f r th p rtra  nab 

g na , r wh  w r th r g na s, that   t f th “Fash  


uth r ss,” La y Fanny F umm ry? an f whatw rk s L r s an L v r  s apar  y
? Th auth r sa s  cr t      
 w th Duk san Dj ûn rs, Marchn ss s an M 
 
n rs, tc. C u , any can  at n a t rary xam nat n nam th pr t typ s?
“Lt mantua-mak rs puff hr, but n t mn,” says Thackray, spak ng f Lay Fan
 
 
ny F ummry, “an  th Fash nab  uth rss s n  m r. B ss , b   ss
th ugh
t! N  m r f  -fa  n v s! Whn w  y u arr v, O happy G  n g!”

W , t has arr v, th ugh w ar    
 nn th happ r f r a that. Th Fash na
   
b N v has c as t  x st, an  nab auth rss kn ws

 th p ac f th fash
h r n  m r . Thack ray p a n y t st La y Fanny. H wr ts ab ut hr, hr b
   
ks, hr crt cs, hr succsss, wth a crtan b ttrnss. Can t b p ss b 
    Barry Lyn n was v t t  March nsss a
that a wr wh ch rath r n g ct      
n M  n rs? La y Fanny s r prsnt as hav ng  t rs an  r v  w rsat hr

 
f t; sh s ts am ng th     
 f w rs, k th S r ns, an ar un h r ar th b n s
 s puff f r th sak f hr b uquts, hr  
f cr t cs c rrupt n ath.  Sh

nnrs, hr affab  t s an c n scns ns. Sh g vs a rv wr a grat garnt
p n, a rn  wh r w th h pac s th t wn. Hr a rrs c mpar
     hr t  “h m wh 

     
s ps by v n.” In n f Mr. B ack’s n v s th r s a a y f th s k n , wh 
capt vat s th tr b f “L g R  rs,” as Mr. B ack ca s th m. Th s a y app
    
ars t  mys f t  b a qu t mp ss b Sh. On has    
 n v rm th r w th h r w
 
     
s, n r c m acr ss h r track, v n, an s n th b   s an th b n s f th s w
h  pr sh n puff ng hr. S m prs ns f rank an fash n hav a tast f r t
h s c ty f s m mn f ttrs, but n th ng n th way f trary puffry s
ms t  c m f t. Of c urs many cr t cs k t  g v th r fr ns an acqua 
    
ntancs an app aus v han , an am ng th r acqua ntanc 
 s mayb a  s f
fash 
      
n wh  wr t n v  s; butw r a n wh r such xtra r nary a u at ns as ugust
us T ms n bst w n La y Fanny. Th fash nab  auth rss s nar y xt nct,
th ugh s m prs ns wr t w a b t thy ar fash nab . Th fash nab  n v
 s as a as a  r na  : L tha r was nar y th ast f th spc s. Thr
ar n v sts wh  wr t ab ut “S    
 c  ty,”t  b sur ,  k Mr. N rr s;but th r


t n s qu t    
ff r nt. Th y  n t sp ak as f Duk s an Ear s w r s m str
angsupr r k n f b ngs; th  r mannr s that f mn accust m t  an una
  
zz  by Ear s, wr t ng f r ra rs wh   n t car whthr th hr  s a r 
r a c mm n    
r. Th y ar “at as,” th ugh n t trr b y “ n Z n.” Thackray h m
s f ntr  uc s p nty f th p rag , but t cann t b sa  that
 
 h s a waysa
         
t as n th r s c  ty. H r m mb rs that th y ar r s, an s n h s guar ,
  
vry ftn, an susp  c us an sarcast c, xcpt, prhaps whn h a s w th a
gnt        
 man k L r K w. H xam n sth m k cur us w  an ma s nth Jar

n s P ant s. H s an acc mp sh natura  st, an n t afra  f th n; b
ut h rmmbrs that th an ma  s r ya , an has a t t . Mr.  N rr s, fr nst
anc, sh ws n th ng f th s m  . Mr. Tr  p was n t afra   f h s Duk s: h
th ught
n n th w rs f a man b caus h was th h gh an pu ssant pr nc f O
      
mn um. s f r m st n v sts, thy n ngr pa nt fash nab  s c ty w th nt
hus asm. Mr. Hnry Jamshas rmark that y ung Br t sh prs fav ur th w r
“bast y,”—a p nt wh ch s n t a ways mprss ts f nt  thr p p  s  k
n y as nt  Mr. Hnry Jams. In ra ng h m y u  n t f rgt that h s Tufts ar
 Tufts. But thn Tufts ar ra y strang an ma s t  th n zns f th Grat
   
Rpub c. 
 P rhaps th m rn ra sm has ma  n v sts srt th w r whr
Duk s an D wag rs ab un. N v sts  n t kn w v ry much ab ut t; thy ar
   
n t w nt t  haunt th   sa ns, an thy prfr t  wr t ab ut th mannrs

g  
wh ch th y kn w. v ry g  n v , n ths strang 
 ru n us tm s,m ghtb w

   
r tt n w th a Duk f r h r ; but n b  y wr t s t, an , f anyb y  wr t t
n th m  rn mannr, t w u n t n th ast rsmb  th  fash nab  n v
 .
   
Hr a curus p nt ar ss. W hav a stu   th ngn us a y wh  ca s h
rs f Ou  a. N w, s Ou  a, r rathr was Ou  a n hr ar y stat sub m, th
 ast f th   fash nab  n v sts, r   Thackray unc nsc us y pr phsy
f hr whn h wr t h s bur squ  L rs an L vr s? Th nk f th y ung ar
    
f Bagn gg, “wh  was  nvr har t  a m r anyth ng xcpt a c u s  n nn
au à a St. Mnéh u , . . . r th b uqut f a f ask f Mé c, f Carb nn ’

s bst qua ty, r a g utt f Marasqu n, fr m th c ars fBr ggs an H bs n.
” W hav mt such y ung patr c ans n Un r Tw  F ags an I a a. But thn th
r s a  ffrnc: Ou a nvr t s us that hr hr  was “b st w th a m thr
  
f xc nt pr nc p s, wh  ha mbu h s y ung  m n w th that m ra  ty wh ch
s s  supr r t  a th va n p mps f th w r .” Buta hr  f Ou  a’s m gh
t as y hav ha a fath r wh  “was struck wn by th s   f th ga ant C  
 f Fun
y.” Th h r s thms vs may hav “ k at
  
ngw  n th Bay         th Pyra
m  s w th ut aw  , at th ps wth ut r v r nc .” Th y  say “C rp  
Bacc  ,”
an th Duca  M ntpu c an  s rp y, “E’ b ss ma crtamnt.” n th 
r cratr m ght c nc vab y rmark“N n cu  v sc nt g t.” But La y Fanny F umm
ry’s 
a  s c u n t r ss as  Ou  a’s a  s : th y c u n t qu t P tr n us  

rb tr; thy ha nvr har f Sut n us. N  ag rpr ucs ts f. Thr 
 
s much f ur  fash nab  auth rss n Ou a’s ar r ta s; thr s p nt

y f th P rag , p nty f qu r Fr nch n  n v s an Lat n yt m r qur;
    

but whr s th é an wh chtaks archæ  gy w th a rush, wh ch st cks at n  a
        
v ntur ,h w v r n b y ncr b ? wh r s th path s, th s mp c ty,th purp  
 sp n ur f Ou  a’s    
 mann r, r mann rs? N, th sp r t f th w r , m rr r
 
ng ts f n th mns f n v  ua s, s mp r , an that s mp r was La y Fanny
F ummry. But t  many th ngs m r p rtnt us than s mpr ng, whn t rf 
ct ts f n Ou  a.
  
Is t that w  n  ngr gap n th ar st cracy 
 a m r ng y, an wr t f th m

cur us     
 y, as f th y w r cr atur s n a Para s ? Is t that Thack ray has c
 g s
nvrt us? In part, sur y, w ar just  as snbb  sh as v r, th  ugh th 
f ur a rat n t ttr t  th r fa , an “a h   us hum”fr m th mb uts  
    
thr  s thrugh th t mp s. In f ct n, n th th r han ,th w r f fash  
n s “p ay ut.” N b  y cars t  ra r wr t ab ut  th
 ar uchss. If a
    
p r c m s nt  a n v  h c m s n, n t as a c r n t cur s ty, but  as a man,
just as  f h wr a nt st, r a st ckbr kr. H s rank s an acc nt; t us
 t  b th ssnc f h s um n us appar t n. I scarc rmmbr a r n a

th many w rks f Mr. Bsant, n r  thy p p  th r mancs f Mr. B ack. M
r. K p ng  s n t a n thm, n r Mr. G rg Mr th much; Mr. Haggar har
 

y gts by n a bar nt, an h wars cha n ma  n Cntra fr ca, an t   s w
th an ax. Mrs. O phant has a Sc tch pr, but h s ss ntrst ng an pr 
m nnt than h s fam  y gh st. N , w hav n y Ou  a ft, an Mr. N rr s—wh  w
  
r ts ab ut p p  f fash n, n  , but wh  has n th ng n h m f th  fas
h nab  n v st.
Is t t  a Rpub
 c, t  Franc
, that w must k f r ur fash nab  n v s—t 
 
 an t  m r ca. Ev ry th r prs
 Maupassant’s ta s has a
Franc
 
n n M. Guy    
“ ,” an s a Marqu s r a V c mt  . s f r M. Pau B urgt, n r a y can b
happy   
w th h m n th f ar ss  fash n. W th h mw m t L r Hnry B hun,

an M. D Casa 
 (a Vc mt ),an a th
 Marqu ss an Marqu ss; an a th p

  an s nt m nta Duch sss, wh s harts ar n y t  g  , an

a b u b u rs,    
wh  g t nt  th m st c mp cat am r us scrap  s. That yung R pub can, M.
B urgt, s ncr y vs a b as n, a p gr,  am n s, ac , s  v r r ss ng c
ass, s  vr baths, ssncs, p matums,  gran ux. S   s Gyp: apart fr m
   
hr w t, Gyp s  ghtfu  t  ra , ntr  uc ng us t th vry bst f ba c mpa
ny. Ev n M. F rtun u B sg b y k s a V c mt , an s part a t  th n b ss
     
, wh   M. G rgs Ohnt s accus f ntr ng th g  n w r  f rank, k
  
a man w th uta w ng garmnt, an f b ng st an at sa am ng h s ar st cr
        appa t  th f n 
ats. Th y r r th s th ngs  b tt r n Franc   yst 
: th
 
natura
 tast f r rank an uxury, sp n ur an r f n m nt. What s Gyp but
a La y Fanny F umm ry réuss ,—Lay Fanny w th th tr f ng a t na qua t s
 
f w t an ar ng? Obsrv hr n b  sc rn f M. G rg Ohnt: t s a fash n
ab  arr ganc.
 
T  my m n , I c nfss, th cay f th Br t sh fash nab  n v sms n f t
h m st thratn ng s gns f th t ms. Evn n Franc nst tut ns  ar
 much m 

   
r p rman nt than h r . In Franc     
th y hav fash nab n v s, an v ry g  n 

v s t : n  man f sns w  ny that thy ar far bttr than ur  ttant
sm f th s ums, r ur r g us an sc a tracts n th sgu 
 s f r manc .

     
If th r s n  n w ta f tr asur an ban ts an f ghts an ns han y, ma
y I hav a fash nab  n v n Frnch t  fa back up n! Evn C unt T  st ï 
s n t  sa n th gnr. Thr s s m unc mm n y h gh f n
nna Karén n.
  
H a s a grat a f psych  gy, t  b sur; s  s M. Pau B urgt. But h
 taks y u am ng smart p p , wh  hav vryth ng han s m ab ut thm—t t s,
   
an an s, an rnts. Is t n t a har th ng that an h nst Br t sh sn b, f h
wants t  m v 
n th h gh
st c rc s
f f ct n, must turn t  Frnch  sts,
 n v 
r Russ an, r m r can? s t th m r can n v s f th é t an th bau m
     
n , th r  ganc s bscur t  Eng sh ys, bcaus that wh ch maks n N
w Y rkr bttr than an thr, that wh ch crats th Uppr Tn Th usan (ar p
hras!) f Nw Y rk, s s  nc nsp cu us. F r xamp   

 , th sc  nt f c nqu r r

    
may v ntur h ms f am ng th n v s f tw  y ung m r can auth rs. F w Eng sh
stu nts mak th s v yag f xp rat n. But    
 th r manc s f ths ng n us


wr t rs    
 ar r a y, r r a y try t  b , a k n f fash nab n v s. It s a
qur ma n f fash n, t  b sur, p p  by th strangst ab r g ns, wh  ta
k an ar   n a anguag m st ntrst ng t  th ph   g st. Hr
 ta k ab ut
p r La y Fanny F umm ryw u hav bn sa
  
 y t  s k,f r h r charact

 rs, th 
     
ugh n b , w r m ra , an h r p n was w   n th s  f Church an Stat .
But ths wstrn
fash nab
 
 s hav m ra s an a ng  f thr wn, ma  n q
ua parts    rr fr m th jarg n
 f th mr can  msan f xpr ss ns
transf
f D ca nc an th Parnass cu t C nt mp ra n. s n pruss ths n v s n
 
 th nks f a nw ta  t  b t  —Th Last f th Fash nab s, wh    away,
  
k th buffa  an th gr   
 s y b ar, n s m cañ n r f r st f th W   W st.


I th nk th s st ngu sh b ng, U t mus h m num v nust 
rum, w  f n th as
t rmnants f th Gnt man y Party ns mIn an tr b, pach s r S ux. I s
 h m ra s t  th rank f ch f, an a ng th r -sk nn an pa nt cava

rs nth  war-path aga
 nst th Vu gar ans f th u t mat Dmcracy. T  p 
ct th s an y ch f w u rqu r th art at nc f a C pr an a Ou  a. Lt
m attmpt—

THE L ST FIGHT OF FOUR H IR-BRUSHES


  
By th s t m th S ux wr f y ng n a rct ns, m w wn by th f r f

Gat  ng an Max m guns. Th scrub f Ltt   B g H rn Crk was strwn w th th

b   s f wr ng brav s. On th v  an v  can c h ghts f M unt Bunc mb,
 
 th
th pa nt t nts wr b az ng mrr  y. But n a m un ab v th
    
 cr k,an anc
 nt f rtr ss f s m  ng-f rg tt n p p , a sma gr up f In an h rs mn, m
     
ght b bsrv , sta y as r cks n th rf unt t   f war. Th f r fr m th
 r W nchstr rpatrs b az ut k th stramrs f th N rthrn L ghts.

    
ga n an aga n th f wr f th Un t Stats army ha charg up th m un , 
     
n y t  r c  n f ght, r t  n th c ff w th th r c rps s. Th F rst Ir 
sh Cu rass rs     
 ha b n ann h at : Parn ’s wn, a as! n th hat f th c m


bat ha turn th r fratr c  a b ack-th rns n M’Carthy’s br ga , an th s t
w  ga antsqua r ns wr m x an br kn, fa ng bnath th b ws f br thr
s strang .
  
But at ast th f r fr m th R mn n th b uff s ackn an grw s  nt. Th
 ammun t n was xhaust. Thr was a m vmnt n th gr up f bravs. Crazy
   

H rs an Ba C y t turn t  F ur Ha r-Brushs, wh sat h s st ta anta,


ast w nn r f th ast Gran Nat na , w th a th  car ss ganc f th
     
 R w.
    
“F ur Ha r-Brushs,” sa  Crazy H rs (an a tar r   wn h s pa nt chk)
, “n ught s ft but f ght.”
 s, angu  y, ght ng a c gartt, wh ch h t 
“Thn f y,” sa  F urHar-Brush
  
k fr m a am n -stu  g  étu , th g ft f th Ka sr n  ays.
       
“Nay, n t w th ut th Wh t  Ch f,” sa  Ba C y t; an h s z th r ns f
F ur Ha r-Brushs, t  a h m fr m that str ckn f  .
    F ur Ha r-Brushs, “j n su s n 
 us êt s tr p v  uxj u,
“V  m nam ,” murmur

E uar
 II., n  Char s E uar à Cu  n. Quatr-br sss murt, ma s  n s

r n pas.”
     
Th In an r as h s h  , baff  by th ru t n an th ca m c urag f h
s capta n.
 tracks,” h sa ; an, sw ng ng r un s  that h s h rs c nca  h s b 
“I mak    
 
y, h ga p
 wn th b uff, an
 thr  ugh th m r can cava ry, scattr ng a
  
th fr m th arr ws wh ch h s un r h s h rs ’s n ck. 

F ur Ha r-Brushs was a n.


 
Unarm , as vr, h sat, sav f r th hunt ng-wh p n h s r ght han .
 
“Sca p h m!” y  th Fr n y Cr ws.
  

“Nay, tak h m a v: a sm r kn ght nvr back st !” cr  th ga ant

m r cans.
 
Fr m th r m st r   a c urt us cava r, Capta n J hn Barry, th sch  ar, th
h r  f sw r an pn.

  
“Y  th, S r Kn ght!” h sa  , ff ng h s kép  n mart a c urtsy.
    
F ur Ha r-Brushs rp  t  h s sa ut, an was pn ng h s curv an  cat
ps t  spak, whn a chanc bu t struck    

h m fu n th br ast.H thr w up
   
h s arms,
 r , an f . Th ga ant m r can, ap ng fr m sa t  gr un
, rush t  ra s h s ha .

Thr ugh th war-pa nt h rc gn s h m.

“Grat Havn!” h cr  , “ t s—”
“Hush!” wh sp r F ur Ha r-Brushs, w th a wary sm  : “ t
nns y  Vr 
 
f th B us  unnam . T thm that I f n harnss.”
        
 
H  , n  . Un r h s fathr an pa nt c ak Barry f un that   nn s y
  
, v r car fu f h s f gur      
 , v r ya n v , th ast f th Dan   s, y t w
r th c rst f Ma am  T èr. It was wt w th h s f-b  .
 
“S  s,” sa  Barry, “th ast Eng sh gnt man.”

TH CKER Y
   
“I th ught h w s m p p ’s t wrng nt  cts an sp n  cu t vat gn us
 
s r s up n s mp , b aut   
   fu f un at ns h  n ut f s ght.” Thus, n h s L
tt rs t  Mrs. Br kf  , Mr. Thack ray wr t , aft r v s t ng th crypt f Cant
rbury Cathra , w th ts “charm ng, harm n us, p wrfu c mb nat n f archs
  
an shafts, baut fu wh chvr way y u sthm v p , k af n mus c.”
Th s m  app  s t  h s wn charact r an g n us, t  h s wn an prhaps t  t
    
hat f m st grat auth rs, wh s w rks ar ur p asur an c mf rt n th s tr u
b s m w r . Thr ar cr t cs wh  pr fss a s r t  har n th ng, r as 
tt  as may b, f th vs f grat art sts, whthr thr nstrum 
nt f art w
    
as th p n, r th brush, r th ch s , r th str ngs  
an r s f mus c. W t
h th s cr t cs p rhaps m st f us agr, whn w ra b ks that g ss p ab ut S

h y, r C  r  g, r Byr n. “G v us th r p try,” w say, “an av th 
r charactrs a n: w  n t want tatt  ab ut C a r 
 an chatt r ab ut Harr  t

   
; w want t  b happy w th ‘Th Sky ark’ r ‘Th C u .’” P ss b y th s nst nc
t s c rrct, whr such a p  t as Sh y s c ncrn , wh s f, k h s p 
try, was as “th f f w ns an t s,” wh s gn us, un k th sky ark’s,
was m r tru t  th p nt f havn than th p nt f h m. But rf ct n sh 
ws us that n th wh  , as Mr. Thackray says, a man’sgn us must b bu   
n th f un at ns f h s charact r. Whr that gn us a s w th th m ng  st
      
uff f human f —s rr w,  s r , v , hatr ,k nn ss, mannss—thn th f un
at n f charact r s sp c a y mp rtant. P p  ar s mt ms g a that w

kn w s  tt  f Shak  ar th man; yt wh  can ubt that a tru rv at n
 sp 
f h s charact r w u b n t ss w rthy, n b  an charm ng than
   
 th g n ra

 
ff ct f h s p  ms? In h m, t s c rta  
n, w sh u a ways f n an xamp f
n b  ty, f gnr s ty, f char ty an k nnss an s f-f rgtfu nss. In

, w f n ths qua t s, as a ru , n th b graph s f th grat sympatht 
c p  ts an mn f gn us f th pn—I  n t say n th vs f rb s f gn 

        ns f rct t
 “m t r c p  ts” 
us, k Byr n. Th sam bass, th sam fun at
u , f h n ur, f g  nss, f m anch  y, an fm rth, un r  th art f M  
èr, f Sc tt, f F  ng, an as h s c rrsp n nc sh ws, f Thackray.

It sms pr bab  that a c mp t b graphy f Thackray w   


 nvr b wr
 ttn.
It
 was h s w sh t  v n h s w rks a n : thatw sh h s sc nants r spct;
  
      
an w must
  pr bab y rgar th Ltt rs t  Mr. an Mrs. Br kf   as th astp
r vat an auth nt c r c r f th man wh ch w  b g v n, at ast t  th s g n
rat n. In ths Lttrs a sympatht c rars w  f n th man thy hav
 man w th a hart s  tnr that th w r  ftn
ng kn wn fr m h s wr t ngs—th    
r v h m back nt  a b tt rn ss f pp s t n, nt  an assum har nss an f
 
ns v cyn c sm. Thr ar rars s  un uck  y c nst tut that thy can s n

th ng n Thackray but th s b ttrnss, th s cru sns f mannss an
p wr
f ana ys ng shabby m t ns, snak ng van t s, c ntmpt b  amb  t ns. f
us must ftn f w th rgrt that h a w hms f t  b ma  t  unhappy b
y th spctac  ffa  ngs s  c mm n n th w r h knw bst, that h w t 
 
n thm t ng an ash  thm t c mp acnt y. On h ps nvr t  ra “L v
th W  wr” aga n, an n g a y sk ps s m f th spchs f th O Campa
gnr n “Th Nwc ms.” Thy ar trr b , but n t m r trr b  than f. Y
t t s har t  unrstan h w Mr. Rusk n, f r xamp , can t such scns an
  
charactrs h   fr m h s v w th k n nss, gnt nss, an p ty fThack 
 ray’s
        
rs must p n a y s that ar n t w  fu y c s , an sh u
natur . Th L tt
at ast v rc m vry prju c.

In th Lttrs w s a man tra y hungr ng an th rst ng aftr affct n, a
ft r v —a man cut ff by a cru str k f fat fr m h s natura s  ac, fr m
    
th cntr f a h m.
  
“G  t k fr m m a a y ar,”
      
h says, n th m st t uch ng m y f gg 
 r an p try, ma  “ nsta f wr
t ng my Punch th s m rn ng.” L s ng “a a y ar,” h tak s r fug as h may,
  
h f n s c mf rt as h can,    
 na th affct ns w th n h s r ach, nth s c 

  
ty f an  c  g fr  n an f h s w f , n th v fa ch  r n,  b g nn
ng w th h s wn; n a gnr us k ng f r a g  w rk an f r a g  f w
s.

D  any man 
f ttrs xcpt Sc tt vr wr t f h s r va s as Thack 
 ray wrt


f D ck ns? rt sts      
 ar a j a us rac . “P tt r hat s p tt r, an p  t hat s p
t,” as Hs  sa  s  ng ag . Th s ja usy s n t mr nvy,  t s r a y
a str ng sns f h w th ngs ught t b n, n any art, t uch  w th a natura

prfrnc f r a man’s wn way f ng thm. N w, what c u b m r un k
than th “ways” f D ckns an Thackray? Th subjcts ch sn by ths grat au
th rs ar n t m r vrs than th r sty s.  Thack
  
 ray wrt s k a sch ar,
n t n th narr w s ns , but rath r as a stu nt an a mast r f a th r f nm
   
nts an rs urcs f anguag. D ckns c p s th chaff f th strt, r h r
  
ams nt  m  ramat cs, “ r ps nt  p try”—b ank vrs at ast—an t uchs a
w th pcu art s, w m ght say mannr sms, f h s wn. I hav ftn th ught
, an vn tr  t  act n th th ught, that s m amus ng mag nary ttrs m gh
t b wr ttn, fr m charactrs f D ckns ab ut charactrs f Thackray, fr m cha
ractrs f Thackray ab ut charact 
rs f D ckns. Thy m ght b supp s t  m
  
t ach th r n s c  ty, an   r. Can y u n t fancy Capta n C s

b ach
th
scr   
t gan n D ck Sw v r, B anch m ry n gn s, Pn n Dav  C pprf  , an t
   
hat “t gr” Strf rth? What w u th fam  y s  c t r f “Th Nwc ms” hav
t  say f Mr. Tu k ngh rn? H w w u G rg Warr ngt n apprcat Mr. P ckw ck?
Ys, th tw  gr at n v sts wr as pp s as
tw mn c u b— n mannr, n
sty , n kn w g f b ks, an f th w r . n yt h w a m rab y Thackra
  
y wr ts ab ut D ckns, n h s ttrs as n h s b ks! H w h  ghts n h m!
H w man y s that mu at n wh ch nab s an auth r t  s a th 
 p  nts n h
s r va , an n t t  carp at th m, but t  pra s , an b st mu at t  k nr f
   
f rt!
 
C ns  r th s passag. “Hav y u ra D ckns? O! t s charm ng! Brav D ck
ns! It has s m f h s v ry pr tt  stt uchs—th
      
 s n mtab D cknst uch s

   
wh ch mak such a gr at man f h m, an th r a ng f th b k has n an th r
auth r a grat a f g  .”
  
Thack
ray s just as gnr us, 
 an p rhaps m r cr t ca , n wr t ng f Kngs y

 
. “ f n , h n st, g -a-h a f w, wh  charg s a subj ct h art  y, mp tu us
y,w th th gratst c urag 
 an s mp c ty; but w th narr w ys (h s ar xtra
  
r nar  y brav , b u an h nst),an w th tt  kn w g f th w r , I th
 
nk. But h s sup r r t  us w r ngs n many ways, an I w sh I ha s m f
 
h s h nst p uck.”
 
I hav ftn wsh that grat  auth rs, whn th r ays    
 f cr at n w r v r, w
  
h n “th r m n s gr w gr y an ba  
 ,” w u c n sc n t t us th h st ry f
th r bks. S r Wa tr Sc tt  s mth ng fth s k n n th prfacs t  th
 ast  t n f th Wavr y N v s pub sh ur ng h s f. What can b m 
      
r nt r st ng than
 h s acc unt, n th ntr   uct n t  th “F g ,”
 rtun s f N 
f h w h w rk , h w h p ann , an f un a h s p ts an p ans v rr  n
   
 
by th m n at th n f h s pn! But S r Wa tr was fa  ng whn h bgan th
s trary c nfss ns; g  as thy ar, h cam t  thm t 
at. Yt ths
ar n t c nfss ns wh ch an auth r can mak ar y. Th pagan ztcs n y c nf
ss nc n a ft m— n   ag, whn thy ha fwr tmptat ns t  fa t 
 
th r  vs: thn thy ma  a c an brast f t nc f r a . S  t m ght
b w th an auth r. Wh  h  s n h s crat v v g ur, w want t  har ab
   ut h 
s fanc  prs ns, ab ut Pn nn s, Batr  x, Bcky, n t ab ut h ms f, an h w h
 nvnt thm. But whn h has pass h s bst, thn t s h wh  bc ms f

ntrst; t s ab ut h ms f that ww sh h mt  spak, as far as h m  st y m
   
ay. Wh  w u n t g v “L v th W  w r” an “Ph  p” 
f r s m aut b graph c
a an trary prfac s t  th  r n v s? Thy n n t hav bn m r g t
  
st c than th “R un ab ut Paprs.” Thy w u hav ha far m r charm. S m t
 
h ngs cann t b c nf ss
. W    n t ask wh  was th r g na S r P tt Craw y,

r th r g na B anch m ry. But w m ght arn n what m  , n what c rcum
 
stancs th auth r wr t th s passag r that.

Th Lttrs c nta   
 n a f w n t s f th sk n , a f w t rary
 
 c nf ss ns. W h
 

ar that Emmy S y was part y sugg st by Mrs. Br kf  , part y by Thack ray
’s m thr, much by h s wn w f. Thr scarc  
 sms r m f r s  many  mnts 
 
n Emmy’s p rs na ty. F r s m r as n a  s v hr n t, n r   m
  
 n a r hr
. I hav bn hr fa thfu kn ght   
vr s nc Iwas tn yars  an ra “Van 
ty Fa r” s m what st a th  y. Why  s n k h r xcpt bcaus sh s such
  
a th r ugh w man? Sh s n t c vr, sh sn t vry baut fu , sh s unhappy,
an sh can b j a us. On p t s hr, an that s ak n t  a m r tn r snt
 
mnt; n p t s hr wh   sh s ts n th c rnr, an Bcky’s grn ys f att
r hr af f a husban; n p t s hr n th p vrty f hr fathr’s h us, n
th fam us batt  vr Daffy’s E x r, n th sparat n fr m th y ungr G rg
. Y u bg n t  w sh s m grat j y t  c m t  hr: t  s n t c m una y;
     
y u kn w that D bb n ha ba quartrs f an h ur w th th s a y, an ha t  s
gu s a tt  f h s tn rnss f rhs wn aught   
  r. Y s, Emmy s m r c mp 

 
x than sh s ms, an p rhaps t n    thr  a  s t  c ntr but th var us
mnts f hr prs n an hr charactr. On f thm, th ja us n, nt a t
uch t  H n Pn nn s, t  Laura, t  La y Cast w  . Pr bab y th s may b th
ras n why
s m prs ns s k Thackray s . H s vry bst w mn ar n t ang
s. [109] r th vry bst w mn ang s? It s a p us p n n—that b r rs 
n hrsy.
Whn th  rs bgan t  b wr ttn, n 1847, Thackray ha h s w rst yars, n
 L tt 
a w r y sns, bhn h m. Thy wr past: tht ms whn h wr t n Ga gn
an  f r t n francs a ay. Has any trary ghu s ntrr h s  tn-franc

art c s n Ga gnan ? Tht m f “Barry  Lyn n,” t , was vr. H says n th
  
ng f that mast rp  c , an n y a w r ab ut “Th  Grat H ggarty D am n.” “I
 
hav bn r-ra ng t. Up n my w r an h n ur, f t sn’t mak y u cry,
I sha hav a m an p n n f y u. It was
wr tt n at a t m f grat aff ct 
  
n, whn my hart was vry s ft an humb . mn. Ich hab auch v   
 g  bt.”
    
Of “P n nn s,” as t g  s n, h wr t s that t s “awfu y stup  ,” wh chhas
n t bn th vr ct fth ags. H p cks up matr a s as h passs. H n
s w th sm ff crs, an prhaps h stat ns thm at Chattrs. H mts M ss
   suggsts a v passag btwn Pn an B anch. Why 
G---,
  an h r c nv rs
h s k fa r w mn s ? It  runs a thr ugh h s n v s. Bcky s fa r. B a
  
nch s fa r. Outs   th  y         b n 
   w c vrs f “P n nn s,” yu s th  a, an
m rma  , “amus ng,an c v r, an prav

,” ragg ng th v r t  th s
th nut-br wn ma h ng h m back. ng na, f th “R s an th R ng,” s
th B cky f ch  h  ; sh s fa r, an th g  Rsa ba s brun. In wr t ng
  
“Pnnn s”     . H k vr h s wn “back numbrs,
 h ha a s ngu ar xpr  nc  
” an f un “a passag wh ch I ha uttr y f rg ttn as f I ha nvr ra r w
r ttn t.” In L ckhart’s “L f f Sc tt,” JamsBa antyn says that “whnth 

 
‘Br  f Lamm rm r’ was f rst put nt  h s han s n a c mp t shap , h     
n t rc  ct n s ng  nc  nt, charactr, r c nvrsat n t c nta n .” Th
at s t  say, h rmmbr n th ng f h s wn nvnt n, th ugh h s mm ry f t

h tra t na parts was as c ar as vr. Ba antyn rmarks, “Th h st ry f
th human m n c nta ns n th ng m r      
w n rfu .” Th  xp r nc f Thack
ray s

a para t  that f Sc tt. “P n nn s,” t must b n t , was nt rrupt by
  
a svr  nss, an “Th Br   f Lammrm r” was ctat by S r Wa tr whn
n grat 
phys ca pa n. On n ccasnThack ray
 “ t up n a vry stup  part
f ‘P n nn s,’ I am s rry t  say; an y t h w w wr ttn t s! What a sham
 
 th auth r  n’t wr t a c mp t g  st ry! W  h   bf r  ng s ? r

 
c m back fr m mr ca an  t?”
   
D  h vr wr t “a c mp t, g  st ry”? D  any n vr  such a th ng as
    
wr t a thr -v  um , n v , r a n v f qua ngth,wh   “a c mp t,
    ch was 
g  st ry”? Prbab y n t; r f any m rta v r succ n th task, t was

th grat 
xan r Dumas. “Th Thr Musk trs,” I tak av t  th nk, an
  
“Twnty Yars ftr,” arc mp t g  st r s, g  fr 
 m b g nn ng t  n , st 
  
r  s fr m b g nn ng t  n w th ut a br ak,  w th ut n  
ss p s  . P rhaps 
n may say as much f r “O M rta ty,” an f r “Qunt n Durwar.” But Sc tt an

Dumas wr b rn st ry-t rs; narrat v was th ssnc f th r gn us at t
s bst; th currnt f r manc r  s f t y n, bar ng w th t prs ns an v
nts, m rr r ng scns, but nvr cas ng t  b th ma n th ng—th cntra ntr
st. Prhaps narrat v k th s s th ch f succss f th n v st. H s tr
umphant whn h carr s us n, as W  f, th fam us cr t c, was carr  n by th
 t  f th I a, “ n that pur an rap  currnt f act n.” N b y w u  c
a mth s spc a mr t f rThackray. H s n f th gratst f n v sts;
h sp ays human natur an human c n uct s  that w f rgt urs vs n h s p
rs ns, but h  s n t mak us f rgt urs vs n th r f rtuns. Whthr C 
   
v s r s n t marry Eth , r Esm n , Batr x, s n t v ry grat y xc t
 ur cur s ty. W cann t r ng th b s f r C v’s sc n w ng as th v 
  
agrs c brat th br  a f Pam a. It s th v pmnt f charact 

 r, t
 
s th auth r’s c mm nts, t s h s wn  
na ty an h s unmatch an n m t
 p rs
ab  sty  , that w n ur a m rat  n an aff ct n. W can tak up “Van ty Fa r,

” r “Pn nns,” r “Th Nwc ms,”  just whr th b k pns by chanc, an r
a thm w th  ght, as w may ra M nta gn. Whn n says 
 n cantak
 up a
     
b k anywh r , t g n ra y m ans that n can a s  ay t wn anywh r . But 
t s n t s  w th Thackray. Whnvr w mt h m h h  s us w th h s charm, h
s hum ur, h s  qunc,h s tn rnss. If h  has n t, n th h ghst gr,
 
th narrat v p wr, h s p ssss, n a gr prhaps by n any thr wr t
r f Eng sh, that k n f p t c qua ty wh ch s n t nc mpat b  w th pr s
wr t ng.

     
 
gr
at a has b n sa ab ut pr s p  try. s aru , t s v ry p r stuff
. s pr s t has a t n ncy t  run nt  b ank v rs ; as p  try t s h gh y rh
t r ca an s f-c nsc us. It w u  b nv  us an m ght b rr tat ng t  s
 ct xamp s fr m m rn mastrs f pr s-p try. Thy hav nvr bn p ts.
      
But  th pr s f a p  t k M t n may b , an s, p  tca n th tru sns
; an s , up n ccasns, was th pr s f Thack ray. S m xamp s ngr a wa 
ys n th mm ry, an w w th th r mus c n th har ng. On I hav qu t
 swhr; th passag n “Th Nwc ms” whr C v, at th ctur n th P t

ry f th D mst c ffct ns, g vn by S r Barns Nwc m, ss Eth , wh m h
has st.

      
“ n th past, an ts ar h st r s, an y uth an 
 tsh p s an pass ns, an
     
t ns an ks, f r v r ch ng n th h artan pr s nt n th m m ry—th s ,  
  ubt, p 
n r C  v saw  an har as h 
 k acr ss  
 th gr at gu f f t m a


n part ng an gr  f,an b h th    
 w man h ha v f r many y ars.” “Th g
 f us ar n th farthr s  
rat gu f f t m  , an part ng,
 an gr  f,”—s m   
f t, an ur  s vs, an  ur  happ nss, an ur  affct ns by n ,
gr w nar, gr w c ar, n wan thn, at th s ght f a fac mt by chanc 
 n th
   
w r , at th chanc s un f a v c . Such ar human f rtun s,an human s rr 
ws; n t th  w rst,n t th
 gratst, f r ths  vs  n t —thy v 
n x  , an ar th b tt r parts f ur s u s. N t th gratst, n r th w rst
  
 
f s rr ws,f r sham s w rs, an h p ss hungr, an a f a f barrn t
 w th ut stract ns, w th ut j y, must b far w rs. But f th s myr a t
rag s f th f f th p r, Thackray s n t wr t. H w far h was awar
 f thm, h w p y h f t thm, w ar n t nf rm. H s h ghst tragy s

that f thhungr f th hart;h s m st n b  pr s s un s n that mt ng  f
Harry Esm n w th La y Cast w  ,
n th mm rta sp ch wh ch has th bur n,
  
“br ng ng y ur shavs w th y u!” that scn app   
 ars t m n  ssun qu ,


n  ss unsurpassab     
, n  ss p rf ct, than th “O t  th N ght nga ” f K

ats, r th Lyc  as f M  t n. It wr suprf u us t  ngr vr th hum ur f
Thackray. On y Shakspar an D ckns hav grac th anguag w th s  many
happy mm r s f qur, p asant p p , w th s  many qua nt  phras
s, ach f w

h ch has a k n f fr mas nry,an wh n utt r , r r ca , mak s a fr n s
      
f Thack ray nt  fam  y fr  n s f ach th r. Th say ngs f Mr. Harry F kr
    
, f Capta n C st   ar fam  y phrass, thy v
 gan, f Gumb , ar a k 
mp r shab an a ways n w, k th w r s f S r J hn, th fat kn ght, r f
 
Sanch  Panza, r f D ck Sw v r, r that thr Sanch  
 , Sam W r. Thy hav
     
that Shak sp ar an g ft f b ng v r appr pr at , an un y ng y fr sh. 

Ths ar am ng th gracs f Thackray,    that n m tab  sty , wh ch
 th s an   r  
a ways t mpts an a ways baff s th a m r ng an spa r ng c py st. Wh
  
 
h f n th tr ck f t, f th w r s wh ch ar nvar ab y th bst w r s, an
nvar ab y fa xact     
  y nth b st p ac s? “Th b st w r s n th
 bst p acs,

” s part f C  r  g ’s f n t n f p  try; t s a s  th ss nc f Thackr

ay’s pr s . In th s L tt rs t  Mrs. Br kf  th sty s prc s y th sty
       
 f th n v s an ssays. Th sty , w th Thackray, was th man. H c u  n
t wr t thrw s. But pr bab y, t  th ast, th s prfct n was n t mchan c
a , was n t atta n w th ut ab ur an car. In Dr. J hn Br wn’s w rks, n h s
ssay n Thackray, thr s an xamp  f a pr f-sht n wh ch th mastr ha
  
s ma  c rrct ns, an th s c rrct ns br ng th passag up t  h s accust m
v , t  th r g na ty f h s rhythm. Hr s th p c:—

  

“ n thr F n s, an thr s c f f wh ch Tmpus ax has v ur ! n I may
hav t  wr t th w r nc r tw c, prhaps, an thn an n f En s. [F n t
 s vr an Inf n t bg nn ng.] Oh, th tr ub s, th cars, th nnu , [th
  
c mp cat
 ns,] th rpt t ns, th  c nvrsat  ns vr an vr aga n, an
hr an  
 th r a th
  ghtfu passags, th ar, th br f, th f rvr-r
 
m mb r !


  
“[ n thn]  fw chaptrs m r, an thn th ast, an bh  F n s ts f c m
   
ng t  an n , an th Inf n t b g nn ng.”

“H w k mus c th s,” wr ts Dr. J hn Br wn—“ k n try ngth sam a r n  
     
ff r nt ways, as t w r , s arch ng ut an s un ng a ts pths!” Th w r s 
wr a m st th ast that 
 Thack ray
     
 t , prhaps th v ry ast. Th y r p y,
wr
   
as t w r , t  th r w r s wh ch h ha wr tt n ng b f r t  Mrs. Br kf  .
  
“I n’t p ty anyb  y wh  avs th w r ; n t vn a fa r y ung g r  n hrpr
m ; I p ty th s r ma n ng. On h r j urny, f t p ass G  t  sn hr, p
   
n n t thr’s n  caus f r gr f, that’s but an arth y c n t n. Out f 
 
ur st rmy f, an br ught narr th D v n ght an warmth, thr must b a
    
s r n c mat . Can’t y u fancy sa  ng nt  th ca m?”

    
h! n whr  s sha w f n th G  n Br  , “pass n ss br  , v n Tran
qu  ty.”

  
s human natur prs stnt y man s a m ra , an , as, t  say truth, 
 Thack ray w
     
as c nstant y m t ng th  man , what s th ss n f h s f an h s wr t ng
s? S  p p  may ask,an yth w fut   s th answr! L f has a ffrnt m
an ng, a ffrnt r  , a ffrnt rp y f r ach f us. Thr s n t n

sph nx, but many sph nxs—as many as thr ar w mn an mn. W must a answ
r f r urs vs. Pasca has n answ 
 r,“B
 v!” M  èr has an thr, “Obsr
   
v !” Thack ray’s answ r s, “B g  an  nj y!” but a m anch  y nj ymnt was
h s. Dr. J hn Br wn says:

“H s prs stnt stat, spc a y f r th atr ha f f h s f, was pr f un y
    
m rn , th r s n  th r w r f r t. Th s ar s n part fr   
m t mp ram nt, fr 
m a qu ck sns f th tt nss an wrtch  nss f mank n . . . Th s f ng
, act ng n a harsh an     n th sæva n gnat  f Sw ft; ac
   savag natur , n  
t ng n th
 k n y an s ns t v natur f Mr. Thack ray, t n y t  c mpass

nat sa n ss.”


grat part f h s f, an m st f h s happ 
 n ss,

 ay n v . “Ich hab
 auc

   
h v  g  bt,” h says, an t s a hazar us k n f happ n ss that 
     att n s g
r at aff ct n. Y ur cap ta s a ways at th m rcy f fa  ur s, f ath, f j
a usy, f strangmnt. But h ha s  much v t  g v that h c u  n t but
trust th s pr  us nvstmnts.
   
Othr tr ub s h ha that may hav bn vrs ns fr m th s. H  n t a wa
ys k p that man y c mm n s ns n r gar t  cr t c sm, wh ch h sh ws n a tt
    
r t  Mrs. Br kf  . “D  y u ra th Spctat r’s sarcast c n t c f ‘Van t

y Fa r’? I n’t th nk t s just, but th nk K nt u (R nt u ?) s a vry h ns
t man, an rathr nc n t  a svr y w th h s pr vat fr n s st h sh 
u fa nt  th thr xtrm: t  b sur h kps ut f t, I man th thr
xtrm, vry w .”

That s th way t  tak unfav urab  cr t c sms—n t t  g   c ar ng that
 a man 
s y ur nmy bcaus h s n t k y ur b k, y ur ba a s, y ur  y s, y ur
        an k ng apart?

s rm ns, what y u p as. Whycann tp p k p t ratur  


m I b un t  th nk J ns a ba c t z n,a ba man, a ba h ush  r,bcaus h
s p try avs m c  ? N  h rgar m as a ma v  nt grn-y m nstr,
b caus I n’t want t  r a h m? Thackray was n t a ways tru n h s atr y
  
ars t  ths xc nt pr nc p s. H was tr ub  ab ut tr f s f cr t c sms
  s n t w rth n t c ng, st  ss w rth rmmbr ng an rc
an g ss p, bagat 
r ng. D  n t t us rc r thm, thn.

W cann t xpct f r Thackray, w cann t vn s r f r h m, a p pu ar ty k
 
that f Dck ns. If v r any man        
    wr t f r th pp , t was D ck ns. Wh r
can w f n such a b n fact r, an wh  has ght n s  many v s w th such m r
r mnt as h? But Thackray wr t, k th mass  f auth rs, f r th trary c
   
ass—f r a wh  hav th s ns f sty , th   ght n th b st anguag. H
 
w  n ur wh  Eng sh t ratur n ur s, wh   Eng sh c v  sat n asts.
      
W cann t xpct a th w r t  shar ur affct n f r th s hum ur st wh s
m rth spr ngs fr m h s m anch  y. H s r gn, h s  ucat n, h s f n th 
s unsat sfy ng w r , ar n t th f, th  ucat n, th 
 r g n f th gr
 at
maj r ty f human  k n . H cann t r ach s  many ars an h arts as Shak sp ar
   

r D ck ns, an s m f th s wh m h rachs w  a ways an  nv tab y m sju

   
g h m. Ma s c’ st m n h mm , n may say, as La F nta n sa   f M   
 èr . Of
m  rn wr trs, putt ng Sc tt as  , h s t  m th m st fr n y an sympatht
c. Grat gn us as h was, h was a s  a pnman, a j urna st; an j urna sts
an pnmn w  a ways    
k t 
h mas th r b g br thr, th man n th r wn

  
n f wh m th y ar pr u st. s v ut Cath   cs  n t a ways w rsh p th  g

ratst sa nts, but th fr n st sa nts, th r wn, s  w scr bs burn ur ch
ap ncns t  St. W  am Makpac. H c u    a that any f us c u   ,
  
 
an h  t nf n t y bttr. p  c f vrs f r Punch,a paragraph, a car
catur  , w r n t b n  ath th gn ty f th auth r f “Esm n .” H ha th k n
   
n ss an h pfu nss wh ch I, f r n, hav nvr m  t a j urna st wh  ack .
H was ag  Eng shman; th     
 b y w th n h m n v r   ; h v ch  r n, an


b ys, an a tt s ang, an a b x ng match. If h ha fa  ngs, wh  kn w th
m bttr than   
 h ? H w ft nh s at nc th
  b y at th sw sh ng b ck an Dr.

B rch wh   s n t spar th r  ! L t us b v w th that b v phys c an,

 
ur  fr n Dr. J hn Br  wn, that “Mr. Thackray was much gratr, much n b r
than h s w rks,
 gr at an n b as th y ar.” Lt us part w th h m, rmmbr n
 
g h s wn w r s:

“C m wa th rwant, 
 c m g  r  ,


L t y ung an  acc pt th r part,


n
bw b f r th awfu W  ,
n bar t w th an h nst hart.”
DICKENS

“I cann tr     
a D ckns!” H w many p p mak th sc nf ss n, wth a fr nt f
brass,  an  n t s m t  kn w h w p r a f gur th y cut! G rg E t says th
at a ffrnc f tast n j ks s a grat caus  f mst c sc mf rt.
 
  
ffrnc f tast n b ks, whn t s c   an v gr us, braks many a p ss 
b fr  n sh p, an
n ps many a y ung k ng n th bu . I w u n t w  ng y
 
sm nt  
rant. man mayn t kS ph c s, mayspak srspctfu y f V r
g  , an v n sn r at Hr  tus, an
      
 y t may b  n ur . But h r sh ( t s
 
 
usua y sh ) wh  c nt mns Sc tt, an “cann t r a D ck ns,” sa p rs n w th wh 

m I w u fa n hav n  furthr c nvrs. If shb a a y,  an  
 f n m tsh r

      
at nn r, sh must f c urs b b rn w th, an “suff r g a  y.” But sh ha
s ug
a gu f that n th ng canbr  g; sh may b fa r, c vr an p pu ar, but s
h s nathma. I f t war s hr ( r h m f h wars a bar ) as Buck aw  
 
t war s th prs n wh  sh u mak nqu r s ab ut that br  a n ght f Lammrm 
r.
  
But th s a m ss n s n t man that n s s  a  f th tr b f Char s—that
n
s a D ckns t pur an s mp , c nv nc an v ut—any m r than Mr. Mat
thw rn  was a W r sw rth an. D ckns has many such w rsh pprs, spc a y
(an th s s an argumnt  n fav

ur f th fa th) am ng ths wh  kn
 w h m n h s
f . H must hav ha a w n rfu charm; f r h s fr  n s n f ar h s t
   
rary part sans,    
  hs unc mpr m s ng part sans, v n t  th s ay. Th y w  hav
n  ha f-h art a m rat n, an sc ut h m wh  tr  s t  sp ak f D ck ns as f an
  thy sc rn h m wh  cann t ra D ckns at a
art
st n t f aw ss, n  ssthan
. t n t m th s h n urab nthus asm (as am ng th W r sw rth ans) t k th

shap f “n ss m tat n.” That   

s v r; n y h r anth
r s an m tat r

  
f th mast r ft n th an .  h s wn g n us was n  t carryh s man 
n r sms; th mann r sms w th ut th g n us w r an arm ur that n  v t Dav 
      
  
ha pr v , that n n c u w ar w th succ ss. 

Of a grat wr t  tt, D ckns  man t  wh m th w r 


 rs s nc Sc   s pr bab y th 
w s m st grat tu . N th  r has caus s  many sa h arts t  b ft

 up n
 
aught r; n  thr has a  s  much     
 m rth t  th  t 
s m an p rp x  f f
mn, f pr an r
ch, f arn an un arn . “ vast h p has pass acr s
s th w r ,” says fr  Musst; w may say that 
w th D ck ns a happy sm  ,

a j y us augh, w nt r un   
 th s arth. T hav ma  us augh s  frqu nt  y, s 
nxt ngu shab  y, s  k n y—that  s h s gr at
 g  . It w
  b sa  , an
w th a grat a f truth, that h has purg us w th p ty  an t rr r as w a
s wth aught r.    
 But  t s b c m ng p a n that h s c mman f t ars s ss ass
ur than f  , an I cann t h nst y rgrt that s m f h s path s—n t a ,
by any mans— s s ng ts charm an ts crta nty f appa . D ckns’s hum ur
   y prs na xpct
was rar  y t  bv us; t was ss nt a    , rg na , qua nt, un 
, an h s wn. H s path s was n t nfr qu nt y r v fr m s urc s p n t  a
th w r , an capab  f b ng rawn fr m by vry c mm np ac wr trs. L tt
 N s an D mbys, ch  rn unhappy, vrthr wn ar y n th mê é f th w r
    
, an y ng am ng wp ng ra rs,n  ngr affct us as  thy affct anthr
gnrat n. Mrs. Bchr St w an th auth r f “M sun 
 rst 

 ,” nc ma s 

        
m p p w p k anyth ng by th s s mp m ans. Ou  a can  t; p nty f
p p  can  t. D ckns vs byv rtu f what n nbut h can : by v rtu
f Sa ry Gamp, an Sam W r, an D ck Sw v r, an Mr. Squrs, w th a th 
  
usan thr  fr n s, f wh m w can nvr wary. N  m r than C  patra’s c
an cust m sta  th r nf n t var ty.
    s rt, wh ch p ays
I n t say  thatD ck ns’ path s s a ways f th t fac  
r un ch  r n’s ath-b s. Oth r path s h has, m r f n an n t ss gnu n
 
. It may b m rb  an c ntmpt b  t  f “a grat nc nat n t  cry” vr
 
Dav  C pprf  ’s b y sh nfatuat
 n fr Strf rth; but I f t. Strf rt
   
 a “t g r,”—as Maj r P n nn s w u hav sa  , a t g r w th h s cur y ha r
h was
an h s ambr s a wh sk rs. But wh n a tt b y s s h s h art t  a b g b y
h s n t th nk f th s. Tra s th ught f t. “Sham, J. Strf rth!” cr
   th ushr. Tra s ha n t st h s har
 Tra s, whn Strf rth bu   
t, n r s t up th b g by as a g  n th shr n thr f. But b ys  ths
  th 
 
ngs;m st f us hav ha ur St rf rths—ta , str ng, han s m , brav  , g -hum
   
ur . Far ff acrss th yars I s   
 th fac  f such an n , an r m mb r tha 
 
t m t n wh ch s scr b  n “Dav  C pp rf  ,” chap. x x.,t war s th n

f th chapt    
r. I n’t kn w any th r n v st wh  has t uch th s y ung an
abs  ut y  s ntrst b f f a tt  b y n a b g n—t uch t s  k n

y an sr us y, that s thr s a h nt f t n “Dr. B rch’s Sch  Days.”
 
But D ckns s a ways xc nt nh s b ys, f wh m h
has  rawn zns f typ
s—a cap ta . Thr s T mmy Tra s, f r xamp . n h w can p p  say th
at D ckns c u n t raw a gnt man? Th b y wh  sh ut , “Sham, J. Strf  r
th!” was a gnt man, f n may prtn t hav an p n n ab ut a thm s  f
f cu t. ThD  gr an Char y Bats ar  ghtfu b ys—  
 sp c a y Bats. P p
, n th g   ays, wh nh was th pr w ng b y, an f ught H rbrt P ckt,
    
was n t ss attract 
  v , an
   
 H rb rt hms f, w th h sth ry an pract c f t

 
h art 
f s f- f nc —c u N s n hav b n m r brav , r Sh y (as n Mr.
Matthw rn  ’s p n     
n) m r “ n ffctua ”? Ev n th b ys at
 
D th b ys Ha a
   
r ach f th m qu t  st nct. D ck ns’s b ys ar a m st as ar t  m as Thac
kray’s—as tt  Raw n h ms f. Thr s nxcpt n. I cann t ntrst my
s f n L tt  D mby. L tt  Dav  C pprf  s a jw f a b y w th a turn
f r b ks. D ubt ss h s crat  ut f D ckns’s mm r s f h ms f as a c
h  . That   n Dav  s snt t  Cr
 s tru path s aga  n, an n t v rwr ught, wh

ak ’s, an h s p r tr ub m th r ar har y say far w t  h m. 

 
n th s br ngs usback t  that batab  th ng—th path s f D ckns—fr m wh ch
n has b n w th rawn by th attract ns f h s b ys. L tt  D mby s a pr z
  
 xamp  f h s path s. L tt  N s an thr. Jffry, f th E nburgh Rv
    
w, wh  cr t c s “Marm n” an th “La y f th Lak” s  v n ct v y, sh t
ars vr L tt  N . It s a mattr f tast, r, as Sc nc m ght say, f th
 achryma g ans as v p n ach n v ua . But th achryma g ans f
   
th s amatur ar n t v p n that rct n. L tt  D mby an L tt  N
av m w th a pa r f ry y s. I  n t “m t v sb y” v r L tt  D mby,
      
k th wak-y y ung man wh  t k ut h s b ks an trunk t  th c ach. Th
 p r tt  chap was fb  an fvr sh, an ha rams f try ng t  st p a r
   
vr w th h s ch  sh han s, r t  ch k t w th san . It may  
 b v ry g  pat
h  gy, but           
 I cann t s that t s at a  r ght path s. On s n t k cpy
t  b ma  ut f th suffr ngs f ch  rn r f an ma s. On’s hart har n
s: th bjct s t  man fst, th tr ck s t  asy. C nc v a ch  f D mb
y’s ag rmark ng, w th h s atst brath, “T thm that  
 th p ctur n th st

 
a rs at sch  s n t D v n
n ugh!” That s n t th  r um f nfancy, that
s art-cr t c sm: t s th thnæum n Mr. H  man Hunt. It s n t tru 
 t  nat
  
ur ; t s n t g  n art: t s th k n  fth ng that app ars n Sun ay-sch 
b ks ab ut th v rtu us tt  b y wh   . Thr s m r tru 
 path s n ma
   
ny a pag f “Huck b rry F nn.” Y t th s s what J ffr y gush    v r. “Th r
has bn n th ng k th actua yng f that swtPau .” S  much can ag nf
b  th nt ct, that h wh  ha kn wn Sc tt, an yt n bb  at h s fam, 
scn t  am r ng th fb st f fa s snt mnt.
s f r L tt  N , wh  a
   
s  has caus f  s f tars  t  b sh , hr cas s suff c nt y  ustrat
by th p ctur n th f rst  t n (“Mastr Humphry’s C ck,”, 1840, p. 210):

“‘Whn I  
   that has v th ght,

Put n ar m s m th ng


n ha th sky ab v t a ways.’ Th s
W r hr w r s.”

 
“Dar, gnt , pat nt, n b  N was a !”
 

Th path s s ab ut as g  as th pr s, an that s b ank vrs. r th w r
    
s n
th f rm r qu tat n n th ast k anyth ng that a tt g r w u sa 
y? Grman snt mnta st m ght hav sa  thm; Obrmann m ght hav murmur t
  r m mnts. Lt us try a p c f mst c path s by an thr han
h m n h s wak 
. It s th awn f Watr .
     
“Hart-sta n an sham  
 ck n, h st
 -str
  at th b ’s f t, an k at th
 
s p ngg r . H w ar h —wh  was h —t pray f r n s  sp t ss!   
           G  b ss
h r! G  b ss h r! H cam t  th b s  , an k at th han , th tt
 s ft han, y ng as p, an h bnt vr th p  w n s ss y t wars th g
nt  pa  fac. Tw  fa r arms c s tnr y r un h s nck as h st p  w
 
n. ‘I am awak, G rg,’ th p r ch  sa  , w th a s b.”

Ikn w I am mak ng nm s f a arg pr p rt n f th ra rs f th s pag. “
O us, snr ng bast!” s th qu tat n wh ch thy w app y, prhaps unc nsc
us f ts r g n, t  a cr t c wh  s humb  but wu fa n b h nst, t  a cr 
t c wh  th nks that D ckns has h s wak p acs, an that h s path s s n f t
hs. It cann t b h p . Each f us has h s auth r wh  s a fav ur t, a fr 
n, an   , wh s mmacu at prfct n h ma nta ns aga nst a c mrs. F r
xamp , th ngs ar urg aga nst Sc tt; I rc v thm n th att tu f th 
af ar f St.
ugust n, wh  st ps n ar w th h s ta  an prsss th th

r aga nst th ust.  
 Th sam wthM   èr: M. Schrr uttrs  c mp a nts aga nst

M  èr ! H w u n t c nv nc m , v n f I wr c nv nc . S , w th rgar
   
t  D ckns, th tru b vr w  n t stn, h w  n t b prsua  . But f
any n
f s a tt   
 shak n, t h mtry t an th
r way. Thr s a charact
r n M. ph ns Dau t’s “Fr m nt J un t R ss r îné”—a charactr wh , p p
 
 say, s takn b   y fr m D ckns. Th s s Dés ré D b , th f rm g 
 
r , th aughtr f un raté, a prtnt us mbc   act r. Sh s pr, stunt
, ab       
 r us, t  ng at a sma n ustry; sh s n v , s r j ct , sh tr  s
rs f, sh  s. Th squnc f as s n D ckns’s v n; but r
t
  r wn h 
a th       
  ta , an  I th nk y u w s h w tt th th ng  s v r n ,h w s mp
an unf rc t s, c mpar  w th ana g us p rs ns an sc n s n th w rk f
th Eng sh mastr. Th  tc y f “p ag ar sm” has bn ra s , f c urs
, by cr t ca crét ns. M. Dau t, as I unrstan what h says n “Trnt
ns
     n h wr t “Fr mnt Jun”—crta n y
Par s,” ha n t r a D ckns  at a , wh
ha n tr a “Our  Mutua Fr  n .” But th r s s mth ng f D ckns’s gn us n

    r n han by th Frnchman, 
M. Dau t’s,
  an that s m th ng sk pt muchb tt 
s m r sub r nat t  th pr nc p s f tast an f truth.
 
On th thr han , t  b n w th th s p nt,    
  k at D b , th fath
r f
   
Dés ré , an c mpar h m w th D ck ns’s
sp n  str  rs, w th Mr. V nc nt Cru 
mm s, an Mr. Lnv  , an th rst. s n Dés ré s  n D b , M. Dau 
t
  
’s p ctur s much th m r truthfu . But t s truthfu w th a b tt r k n f 
truth. N w, thr s n th ng n t gn a an  ghtfu n Crumm s an Mrs. Cru
mm s an th Infant Phn mn n. H  
r D ckns has g t nt  a rg n un k th
rg n f th patht c, nt  a w r that w c m s charg r car catur, th w r
   
f hum ur. W  n t kn w, w nvr mt Crumm ss qu t s  uns ph st cat
as V ncnt, wh  s “n t a Pruss an,” wh  “can’t th nk wh  puts ths th ngs nt
 th pap 
 rs.” But w  mt stag p p  wh  c m  
 v ry n ar t  th s naïv 
 té 
   
f s f-a v rt s m nt, an s m f wh m ar just as sma as Crumm s s  ght
fu .
 
Hr, n  ubt,  s D ckns’s f rt. Hr h s gn us s a pur g  , n h s su
ccssfu stu s r nvnt ns f thhum r us, f charactr parts. On tra
y s n t kn w whr t  bg n r n n n’s a m rat n f r th s crat v p w
r that p p  ur fanc s w th such tr ps f ar an mp ss b  fr ns. “P
 
ckw ck” c ms practca y f rst, an h nvr surpass “P ckw ck.” H was  ap
r st ry-t r, an n “P ckw ck”h ha n  st ry t  t ; h mr y wan r
  
at a vntur n that mrr r Eng an wh  
 ch wasb f r ra ways
 
w r . “P ckw ck” 
   
s th ast f th st r  s f th r a that b
g n n th wan r ng, a m ss, a
     
v ntur us r manc s f Gr c , r n P tr n us rb t r, an that v w th th   
f f
“G B as” an “D n Qu x t,” f “L R man C m qu,” f “T m J ns” an  “J
sph n rws.” Ths ta s ar pr grsss a ng h ghways br st ng w th  a v nt
ur, an am ng nns fu f c nfus n, Mr. P ckw ck’s affa r w th th a y w th
y w cur -paprs b  
ng a m  xamp . Th ugh “T m J ns” has a p t s  xc

nt, n  p t s n  h r , an n  c ns cut v st ry s rqu r . Dtach x

p r  nc s, vagrants f vry rank that c m an g , as n ra f, ar
   
 a th
    
mat r a f th artst. W th such mat ra s Dck ns was xact ysu t ; h was  
at h m n h gh-r a an an, strt an f  -path,  
  n nns an y m n’s warm
   
h sp tab h us s. N v r a hum  
 ur scap h m, an h ha such a w a th f fun
an h gh sp r ts n ths g a ays as n v rany th r p ss ss bf r. H wa
s n t nth ast a b k sh man, n t n any gr a sch  ar; but  Natur
 taught
      
h m, an wh   h wr t w th Natur f r h s t ach r, w th m n an w m n f r h s 
mattr, w th vrs n f r h s a m, h was unsurpassab —nay, h was unappr ach
ab .
   
H c u n t rst hr; h was, aftr a , ach  f an ag that  grw sa , an 
arnst, an th ughtfu . H saw abuss r un h m— njust c, an pprss n, an

cru ty. H  ha a hart t  wh ch th s th ngs wr n t n y abh rr 
 nt, but, as
        
t w r , ma n ng. H kn w h w gr at an nf u nc h w  , an wh  can b a  
m h m f r us ng t n any caus  h th ught g  ? Vry p ss b y h m ght hav b
n a gratr art st f h ha bn ss f a man, f h ha bn qu t  s ntr
st, an ha nvr wr ttn “w th a purp s.” That s c mm n, an vn rathr

bs  t cr t ca ta k. But whn w rmmbr that F  ng, t , vry ftnwr 
t “w th a purp s,” an that purp s thpr tct n f th p r an unfr n  ;
an whn w rmmbr what anart st F  ng was, I  n t s h w w can b am
D ckns. Occas na y h ma  h s art an h s purp s b n s  happ  y that h 
s w rk was a th bttr f r h s bnv  nt ntnt ns. W w Mr. Squrs, Mr
s. Squrs, Fanny Squrs, Wackf r an a , t  D ckns’s n gnat n aga nst th
 nfar us sch  p rats f h s t m. If h s ss succssfu n attack ng t
  
h C urt f Chancry, an vry much ss succssfu st  w th th R Tap an
C rcum          
cut n Off c affars, that may b m r y b caus h was ss n th hum
ur, an n t bcaus h ha a purp s n h s m n . Evry n f a man’s b ks c
ann t b h s mastrp c. Thr s n th ng n trary ta k s  ann y ng as th
sp tfu j y w th wh ch many p p  c ar that an auth r s “w rk ut,” bca
us h s ast b k s ss happy than s m that wnt bf r. Thr cam a t m 
    that f many p p , sm
n D ck ns’  car r wh n h s w rks, t my wn tast an
ab ur , art f c a — n fact, m r r ssfa  ur s. Ths b ks rang fr m “
 
D mby an S n,”  thr ugh
 
 “L tt D rr t,” I ar n tsay t “Our Mutua Fr n .”


 s afra that “E w n Dr  ,” t ,sugg
On sts th ma a y wh ch S r Wa t r a
ra y tct n h s wn “Pvr  f th  Pak.” Th ntns stra n n th facu
  
t s f D ckns—as auth r,  t r, ra r, an man f th w r —c u n t but t
 n h m; an yars must t . “Ph  p” s n t w rthy f th auth r f “Esm n
 

,” n r “Dan  Dr n a” f th authr f “S  as Marnr.” t that t m—th t m


 
f th D rr ts an D mb ys—B ackw  ’s Magaz n pub     w th
    sh  a “R m nstranc

B z”; n r was t qu t sup rf u us. But D ck ns
ha abun anc f ta nt st  t
 sp ay—ab v a n “Grat Expctat  
 ns” an “ Ta  f Tw  Ct  s.” Th f r

   
m r s, aft r “P ckw ck,” “C pp rf  ,” “Mart  n Chuzz w t,” an “N ch  as N ck
by”—aftr th c ass cs, n fact—th m st  ghtfu f D ckns’s b ks. Th s
t ry s mbr   , n  ubt. What ar w t  th  
nk f Est ? Has th m nx any
    
purp s ? Is sh a k n f Eth N wc m f  f ? It s n t asy t  say; s 
t  , f r a st ry f D ckns’s th p t s c mparat v y c ar an nt g b .
   
F r a stu y f a ch  ’s f, f th natur D ckns rw bst—th r vr an t
h marshs—an f r p nty f h nst xp s v fun, thr s n  at r b k f D c
k ns’s  k “Grat Expctat ns.” M ss Hav sham, t , n hr m u y br a sp 
 
n ur, s ra y mprss v; n t k Ra ph N ck by an M nk n “O vr Tw st”— 
a b k f wh ch     P p an Pumb ch k an
  th p t r ma ns t  m a mystry. [128]    
Mr. W ps an J  ar a mm rta , an caus  aught r n xt ngu shab . Th r
ar ty f th s bk, by th way, n ts f rst  t   
n—thusua brary thr v 
     
um s— s rath r ff cu t t  xp a n. On v ry s m s s t c m nt  th mark
t, an thn t s h gh y pr c.
 
I hav mnt n mr than nc th bscur ty f D ckns’s p ts. Th s ff cu
   
ty may b acc unt f r n a v ry f att r ng mann r. Wh r     w s urs vs
 
? N t n th bar h gh-r a , but am ng an s, b tw n h g s hung w th r ss, b
      
ackbrr s, mrn ng g      
r  s, wh r a ab ut us s s  fu  f p asur that ur
 
att nt n s stract an w m ss ur way. N w, n D ck ns— n “O v r Tw st,
” n “Mart  n “N ch  as N ck by”—thr s, as n th ans, s m
 n Chuzz  w t,”
uch t v rt an b gu  , that w cas
      
 t  car v ry much wh r th r a a s—

 
a r a s  fu f happy marv s. Th ark, p tt ng v  a ns— k th tramp wh 
fr ghtn S r Wa tr Sctt s  t rr b y, ash cam fr m M ss Ba  ’s at Hamp 
st a —p r ut fr m b h n th h g s n w an thn.
     
 But w ar t  much
 amus
by th ght harts that g  a th   
 way, by th D  g r an Crumm s an Mrs. Gam

p, t  car much f r what Ra ph, an M nk,  an J nas Chuzz w t ar p tt ng.  It
may n t b that th p t s s c nfus , but that w ar t  much vrt t  c
ar f r th p t, f r th ncr b  mach nat ns f Ur ah Hap, t  ch s an th
r xamp . Mr. M cawbr c ar ths up; but t s Mr. M cawbr that h nrs

us fr m h ng thm.

Th s, at ast, s a n t unfr n y xp anat n. Yt I cann t but b v that,
th ugh D ckns t k grat pa ns w th h s p ts, h was n t a grat p ttr. H
   r f rst an f rm st. W can h 
was n t, anym r than Thack  ray, a st ry-t 
n ur m n s v ry thr a f Mr. W  k  C  ns’ wb, r f M. F rtuné u B 
 
sg by’s,
 r f M. Gab r au’s—a grat wavrs f ntr gus. But D ckns g s
ab ut ark n ng h s ntr gu, g v ng t an xtra kn t, an xtra tw st, h nt ng h

r, m n us y augh ng thr, t  w gt myst f  an b r, an g v urs v
s up t  th fun f th hum urs, n ffrnt t  th st n s f v  a ns an v 
 

ct ms. L k at “E w n Dr  .” c nstantwar ab ut th p  


t rag s n th
 magaz
n s. I b  v , f r n , that E w n Dr  was r susc tat ; but t g v s m n 
       
     D ck ns’s h nts,n s, muttr ngs, f rb 
p asur  . H was t  unnt r st ng.  
ngs,  n t at a mpr ss n k that pn ng an arkn ng f th awfu 
m ns n “Th Br  f Lamm rmr.” H r Sc tt—unc nsc us y, n  ubt—us th
     
vry mannr f H mr n th O yssy, an n whr was h s gn us m r H mr c.
That was r manc.
Th “Ta  f Tw  C t s” s a grat tst f th fa th—that s n D ckns ts. O
f a h s w rks t s th fav ur t w th th wr ng s rt! La s prfr t. Man
y p p  can ra t wh  cann
  t th
rw s ra D ckns at a . Th s n ts f p
r v s that t s n t a g  xamp f D ckns, that t s n t cntra , that t
 
s an ut y ng pr v nc wh ch h c nqur . It s n t a fav ur t f m n. Th
hum ur f th hum r us charactrs r ngs fa s—f r xamp , th  
 fun f th r sur

   
r ct n-man w th th w f wh  “f ps.” But S  n y Cart n has rawn many t ars
   
wn ch ks n t accust m t  what Mr. B. n “Pam a” ca s “p ar y fug t v s.” 

It s mt ms str ks n that crta n waknsss n ur grat n v sts, n Thac
kray    
 as w asD ck ns, wr caus by
 th r mth  f pub cat n. Th gr n
an y w av s f ur sh 
n th tr s f r tw  wh   yars. Wh  (xcpt


xan r th Grat) cu wr t s  much, an yt a g
 ? D  w 
n t a f tha
    
t “Dav  C pp rf  ” sh u hav b n c mpr ss ?  
s t  “P n nn s,” Mr. Thack
ray’s ba ha th whn h wr t t m ght w caus a crta n angu r n th at
r pags. M r vr, h frank y   n t car f r th st ry, an b uff y says, n


th prfac, that h rsp t C  n tam nt a m st at th f t f th ga w
s. D ckns t k h ms f m r narn st, an, hav ng s  many pags t  f  , c n

sc nt us y ma  Ur ah Hap w n an wr gg  thr ugh thm a .

T try t s  
 b ts n th sun, an t  p ck h  s n Dck ns,
 sms ungrat 
fu ,
an s n   
an ungrat fu task; t  n m rta man hav m r p p w m rth,  
p asur, f rgtfu nss f car, kn w  g f f n strang p acs. Thr nv
r was such an thr as Char s D ckns, n r sha w s h s k s nr than th
 k f Shakspar.
n h w a t  nat v gn us an har w rk; h w
 
a m st n th ng t  tratur, an that tt  w rgrt. H was nf unc by C
ar y , h a pt h s m th  f n cknam s, an f hamm r ngw th w ar s m tr
      
at n n s m pcu ar ty—f r xamp  
 , n Cark r’s t th,
 an th patr arch’s wh
t ha r. By th way, h w ncr b s a th Cark r p s   n “D mby”! Su
   

r y D ckns can nvr hav ntn  E th, fr m thf rst, t  bhav as sh 
  
! P p may hav nf u nc     
h m, as th y nf u nc Sc tt ab ut “St. R nan’s W
 .” It has bn sa  that, sav f r Car y , D ckns was n ttrs a s f-ta
  
ught art st, that h was n  man’s pup  , an b rr w fr m n n. N  ubt th s
mak s h m ss acc ptab t  th t rary c ass than a man f tt rs, k Thac
       

kray—than a man n wh s trasur chambr f mm ry a th wa th f th M 

gs was st r, k Sc tt. But th nat v nak gn us f D ckns,—h s har
 
t, h s m rth, h s bsrvat  n, hs ghtfu h gh sp r ts, h s ntrp  ath n
g f wr ng, h s ch va r us s r t  r ght t,—ths th ngs w  mak h m f r v
r, w h p an b v, th ar ng f th Eng sh p p .

DVENTURES OF BUCC NEERS



M st f us, as b ys, hav nv  thbuccanrs. Th gratst f a b ys, Can 
n K ngs y, nc wr t a p as ng an rgrtfu p m n wh ch th Last Buccanr
rprsnts h ms f as a k n f p ctursqu ph  anthr p st:—
   


“Th r w r f rty craft n vs that w  r b th sw ftan st ut,




 furn sh w  w th


sma arms, an cann nsr un ab ut;
n a th usan m n n vs ma  aws  s  fa  r an fr,
T  ch s th rva ant capta ns an  by thm ya y.  
Thnc w sa   aga nst th Span ar w thh s h ar s f p at an g  ,
Wh ch h wrung w th cru t rturs fr m In an f  k f  ;
L kw s th mrchant capta ns, w th 
 h arts as har as st n,
Wh  f g m n an k -hau th m, an starv thm t  th b n.”
   
 
Th buccanr s “a ga ant sa  r,” acc r ng t  K ngs y’s p m—a R b n H  
   
wh  pr ys n y n th w ck   
r ch, r th cru an P p sh Span ar
f th watrs,
, an th xt rt nat sh p wnr. F r h s wn part, whn h s n t rscu ng p 
r In ans, th buccanr vs ma n y “f r c mat an th affct ns”:—

   

“Oh, sw t t was  n v s t  h ar th an war brz,


sw ng w th g  t bacc  n a n t b tw n th trs,
  
W th a ngr  ass t  fan y u, wh    
 y u stn t  th

 rar 
    
Of th br ak rs n th r f uts  that n v r t uch th sh r .”
  

Th s s  ghtfu y y c, k th vs f th Tah t an shphr s n th n
     
t -Jac b n—th sh ph r s wh s ccupat n was a s n cur , as th r w r n  sh p     
n Tah t .

Ytth v cat n was n t ra y s  t uch ng y ch va r us as th p t w u hav
       wr ttn th h st ry a
us
  m. On  Jsph Esqu m ng, h ms f a buccan r, has
n scr b th xp ts f h s c mpan ns n p a n pr s , warn ng agr y uths

   ght  n t gr w n vry tr,” as many raw rcru ts hav b
that “p  c s- f- 
 v . Mr. Esqu m ng’s acc unt f ths mattrs may b purchas , w th a gra
  
t a  s that s nstruct v an ntrta n ng, n “Th H st ry f th Buccan
rs n
mr ca.” My  t n ( f 1810) s a umpy tt  b k, n vry sma typ
, an qu t a cr w f pub shrs t k part n th vntur. Th  r  t ns
 
ar  ff cu t t  pr cur f y ur p ckts ar n t stuff  w th p cs- f- ght.

Y u  n t ft n f n v n th s v  um , but “wh n f un mak a n t f,” an y 
    
u hav a rp y t  Can n K ngs y.

   
char tab   Sc tch ay, wh  har  ur gh st y f  v  sp kn f, rmark
    
that, “If w w r a as  g nt an c nsc  nt us as th D v  , t w u b b   
ttr f r us.” N w, th buccanrs wr crta n y m  s f   gnc an c nsc

nt usnss  n th

 r wn n ustry, wh ch was t  trturp p   t  thy gav u
 an th n t  run th m thr ugh th b  y, an sp n th sp  s vr
   
p th r g   s,
r nk an c . Excpt Damp r, wh  was a c vr man, but a p r buccanr (Mr.


C ark Russ has        
    wr ttn h s  f ), th  y w r th m st h  us y ruth ssm sc
r ants that v r sgrac th arth an th s a. But th r c urag an n uran
c wr n  ss n tab  than th r gr an cru ty, s  that a m ra can b squ
z vn ut f ths aban n m scrants. Th s   rs an sa  rs wh  ma
th rway w th n gunsh t f Khart um,     s
    v rcmng th rst, hung r, h at, th
rt, an th ga ant ch  r n f th s rt,  n t f ght, march, an suff r m r
 brav y than th sc unr s wh  sack Ma ra b  an burn Panama. Th r g 
  
qua  t s wr n  ss ast un ng an xmp ary than th r a m st ncr b   w
              
ck
 n ss. Th y  n t ab ut n hamm cks much, st n ng t th an  w
war
n am ng th w  s—th tru buccanrs. T  t th truth, m st f thm ha n 
part cu ar caus t  v th human spc s. Thy wr ftn Eur pans wh  ha b
n s   nt  s avry n th Wst In an p antat ns, whr thy arn ss ns
f cru ty by  suff

 rng t. Thus
  
 Mr.J s ph Esqu m ng, urh st r an,  was b

  
at n, t rtur , an n ar y starv t  ath n T rtuga, “s  I t rm n , n t kn
w ng h w t  gt any vng, t  ntr nt  th r r f th p rats r r bbrs 
   f th s s, much p t  by K ngs y’sbuccanr,
f th s a.” Th p r In ans
ha a hab t f st ck ng th r pr s nrs a vr w th th rns, wrapp n  y c

tt n, whrt thy thn st f r. “Ths cru t s many Chr st ans hav sn w
h   thy v am ngths barbar ans.” Mr. Esqum ng was t  s, an nf c
t, p nty f th s k n f t rmnt, wh ch was n t ut f th way n r unusua . On
 p antr a n ha k   vr a hunr f h s srvants—“th Eng sh   th s
am w th th rs.”

buccanr v yag  bgan n sta ng a sh p, c  ct ng spra s, an t rtur 
 rs’ f cks, wh ch wr sa t
ng th ca hr
smn t  thy gav up th r mast 
as pr v s ns. rt c s f srv c wr thn rawn up, n th pr nc p  “n  pr
y, n  pay.” Th sp  s, whn takn, wr ya y  v  as a ru , th ugh Cap

ta n M rgan, f Wa s, ma  n  m r scrup  ab ut rbb ng h s crw than ab ut ba
rb cu ng a Span sh pr  st. “Thy ar vry c v  an char tab  t  ach thr, s
 
 that f any n wants what an thr has, 
  w th gr at w  ngnss thy g v t t 
n an th
r.” In th r mattrs th y  n t n th ast rsmb  th ar y Ch
     
r st ans. f w n ck-nam Th P rtugus may b takn as ur f rst xamp 
f th r c mm n ab  qua t s.
 

W th a sma sh p f f ur guns h ha takn a grat n f twnty guns, w th 70,
   
000 p  c s- f- ght . .. H h ms  f, h wvr, was prsnt y captur by a arg
  
r vss , an mpr s n n b ar . B ng car ss y watch , h scap n tw 
arthn jars (f r h c u  n t sw m), rach th w s n Campchy, an wa k
         -
f r a hun  r an tw nty m s thr  ugh th bush. H s n y f was a f wsh
f sh, an by way fa kn f h ha a arg na  , wh ch h wh tt t  an 
g n
a st n. Hav ng ma  a k n f raft, h struck a r vr, an pa  t  G  ph  T
 
r st,whr h f un c ngn a p rats. W th twnty f ths, an a bat, h r
turn t  Campchy, whr h ha bn a pr s nr, an actua y captur th ar
  
g sh p n wh ch h ha a n capt  v! Ba uck pursu h m, h wvr: h s pr z
was        
  st nast rm; h r ach Jama  ca n a can  , an n v r aft rwar
 s wasc n
c rn as a r n any affa  r f st nct n. N t v n O yss us ha m r r s u
rc, n r was m r ng-n ur ng; but F rtun was Th P rtugus’s f .
Braz   an , an thr buccanr, srv as a p rat bf r th mast, an “was b 
    
v an rspct by a .” B ng ra s t  c mman , h t k a p at sh p; but t

h s succss was f n ffrnt    
 s rv c t h s th rw s am
 charactr. “H
 ab 
 
w u ft n app ar f  sh an brut sh wh n n r nk,” an has b n kn wn t  r a
st Span ar s a v n w  n sp ts “f r n t sh w ng h m hg yar s whr h m ght
sta sw n.” On canhar y supp s that K ngs y w u hav rgrtt th s b
uccanr, vn f h ha bn th ast, wh ch un uck 
  y h was n t. Hs hab t 
f s tt      
 ng n th str t b s  a barr  f b r, an sh t ng a pass rs-by wh 
wu n t r nk w th h m, pr v k rmark, an was an act tstab  t  a fr 
n s f tmpranc pr nc p s.
    
Franç s L’O nn s, fr m s uthrn Franc, ha b  n k napp , an s as a s a
 
v n th Car bb   
Is an s. R c v r ng h s fr  m, h p un r th Span sh, s
ays my buccan r auth r, “t  h s unf rtunat ath.” W th tw  can s h captu
  
r a sh p wh ch ha bn snt aftr h m, carry ng tn guns an a hangman f r h 
     
s xpr ss b n f t. Th s hangman, much t  th f w’s chagr n, L’O nn s put t
 ath k th rst f h s pr s nrs. H s grat ach vmnts wr n th Gu f
     
f V n zu a r Bay f Maraca b . Th gu f s a str ng p ac ;th m uth, n  w 
r than a gun-sh t, sguar by tw  s an s. Far up th n t s Maraca b ,
a t wn f thr th usan p p , f rt f  an surr un  by w  s. Yt farthr
up s th t wn f G bra tar. T  attack ths  was a sprat ntrpr s; but
L

’O nn s st  past  an fr ght n th t wnsf  k nt  th w  s. s
  
 th f rts,
a ru th Span ar s ma th p rst rs stanc; thr wr xamp s f c urag
  
, but n n f c nuct. W th str ng f rts, havy guns, many mn, pr v s ns, an
  
ammun t n,
 thy qua   bf r th sprat va ur f th p rats. Th t wn
s wr sack , thfug t vs hunt ut n th w  s, an th m st ab m nab  t 
rturs wr app  t  mak thm btray th r fr  n s an rva th r tr
asurs
   
. Wh n thy w r s  nt,       
 rha n  tr asur s t  c ar , th y w r hack , tw s
t , burn , an starv t  ath.

Such wr th mannrs f L’O nn s; an Capta n M rgan, f Wa s, was vn m r
ruth ss.
  n aftr Maraca b  f ; nw battr 
G bra tar was w f rt f  an strngth   
s wr ra s , th way  thr ugh th w  s was barr ca  , an n  fwrthan ght
hun r mn wr un r arms t  rs st a sma p rat f rc, xhaust by bauc
h, an hav ng ts rtrat cut 
 ff byth f rts at
  
 th muth f th gr at sa t-wa
t r ch. But L’O nn s  n t b nch: h t  th m n thatau ac ty was th 

   th f rstwh gav gr un. Th mn chr
r n h p , a s  that h w u p st   
nthus ast ca y, an a party f thr hun r an f fty an  . Th barr ca
 way thy c u  n t f rc, an n a nw y cut path thy mt a str ng battry w
  
h ch f r grap. But L’O nn swas nv ncb . H tr   that   trck wh ch
   
rar y fa  s, a sham r tr at, an ths ur  th Span 
 ar s fr m th r arthwrk
n th path. Th p rats thn turn , sw r  n han , s w tw  hun r f th 


n my, an captur         
ghtguns. Th t wn y  , th p p f t  th w  s, 
an thn bgan th wnt sp rt f trtur ng th pr s nrs. Maraca b thy rans
m afrsh, bta n a p  t,pass  
 th f rts w th
   
 as , an rturn aft rsa

ck ng a sma pr v nc . On a v  n b ng c ar , th y part 260,000 p  c
 
s- f- ght am ng th ban , an spnt th p  ag n a rv f thr wks.
at rput” by th s c nuct, but I rj c t  a that n a ra
 nn s “g t gr
L’O
     
 n N caragua  h “m s rab y p r sh ,” an m t what Mr. Esqum ng ca s “h s
unfrtunat  ath.” F r L’O nn s was r a y an ungnt man y charactr. H

w u hack a Span ar t  p cs, tar ut h s hart, an “gnaw t w th h s tth
k a ravn us w  f, say ng t  th rst, ‘I   
w  s rv y u a a k f y u sh
 
w m n t an th r way’” (t  a t wn wh ch h  s gn attack ng). In N caragua h
 was takn by th In ans, wh , b ng nt r y n th Span sh s , t r h m t 
    
p cs an burn h m. Thus w ra y must n t b  u  by th 
 pr f ss ns 
    
f Mr. K ngs y’s s nt m nta buccan r, w th h s p ty f r “th In an f  k f 
.”
 
Excpt Dn s Sc tt, a w rthy ban t n h s ay, Capta n Hnry M rgan s th f rs

t rn wn Br t sh buccan   
  r. H was a y ung W shman, wh , aftr hav ng bn s
  s, b cam a sa  r f f rtun . W th abut f ur hun r

 as a s av n Barba
m n h assa   Pu rt  B 

. “If ur
 
 numb r s sma ,” h sa  , “ ur h arts

    
ar gr at,”
  an s  h assa  

th th r c ty an p ac f arms wh ch Spa
      n th n
p ss ss n th WstIn  s. Th ntranc f th harb ur was pr t ct by tw 
str ng cast s, ju g as “a m st mprgnab  
 ,” wh  M rgan ha n  art  ry

 
f any ava  aga nstf rtr ss s. M rgan ha th uck t  captur a Span sh s  
 
r, wh m h c mp  t  par y w th th    
   garr s n f th cast . Ths h st  rm
an b w up, massacr ng a ts  f n rs, wh  w th ts guns h sarm th
s str f rtrss. Whn a but fat n a nw assau t, ths ght f th Eng 
sh c  urs      capt v m nks an nuns carry th sc
an mat h m afr sh.  H ma th
a ng a rs; n th s unw nt xp t th
 
 p r r  gus f k st many f th
 
r numb rs. Th wa was   f at , th ugh th G vrn

  m unt , th s   rsw r  
r fught k a Span ar f th  sch  , s w many p rat  s w th h s wn han
  
, an p st   s m f h s wn m n f r c war c . H    
 at h s p st, r fus n
g quartr,an fa ng   k a gnt man f Spa n. M rgan, t , was n t want ng
n f rt tu : h xt rt 100,000 p cs- f- ght fr m th G vrn r f Panama, a
n snth m a p st  as a samp  f th gun whrw th h t k s  grat a c ty.

H a  that h w u rturn an takth  s p st  ut f Panama; n rwas h s
s g  than h s w r . In
Cuba h  v   250,000 p  c s- f- ght, an a grat b

 
ty n th r tr asur .  f w w ks saw t a n th han s f th tavrn-kp
 

rs an w m n f th p ac .  

M rgan’s nxt prf 


 rmanc
was a nw sack f Maraca b , n w much str ngr thanL’
O nn s ha    t s, n t f t t  b t  ,
    f un t.  ft r th m stappa ng cru  
h r turn , pass ng th cast s at th m uth f th p rt by an ng n us strata

g m. Runn ng b at     thm b
  a aftr b at a fm n t  th an s  , h br ught  
ack by st a th,  a ng th garr s n t  xp ct an attack  fr m that quart r.Th
   
guns w r mass t  an war , an n  s n r was th s n than  M rgan sa  up
thr ugh th chann w th but tt  ss. Why th Span ar s  n t c s th
passag w th a b m s n t appar. Pr bab y thy wr g a t  b qu t f M rg
an n any trms.

 
gr at Spansh f t h r ut by th ngn us mp ymnt f a f r-sh p. In
a atr xp t n a str ng p acwas takn by a cur us  
 acc  nt. On fth b

 
uccan rs was sh t thr ugh th b  y w th an arr w. H  r w t ut, t 
 wrapp 
n c tt n, f r t fr m h s muskt, an s  st ght t  a r f an burn th t 
wn.
   
H s ra n Panama was xtra r naryf r th n uranc f h s mn. F r ays th
y v  n th ath r f b tt s an b ts. “S m, wh  wr n v r ut f th r
         
m th rs’ k tchns,

 may
 
 ask h w th s p rat
s c u at an
  gst ths p cs
 
f ath r, s  har an ry? Wh m I answ  c u th y nc xprnc what
 r—that

hung r, r rath r fam n s, th y w u fn th way, asth p rats  .” It
    
was at thc s f th s march that th In ans r v w  bu s am ng thm; but
thy car vry tt  f r ths nw a s f th Span ar s: bf, n any f rm
, was n y t  w c m.
 
M rgan burn  
 th fa r c ar h us s f Panama, but stth p at sh
  p w th a
th g  an s  v r ut f th church s. H w h t rtur a p r wrtch wh  chan

c t  war a pa r f taffty tr usrs b ng ng t  h s mastr, w th a sma s 
vr ky hang ng ut, t s bttr n t t  rpat. Th mn n y g t tw  hun r p

     
 c s- f- ght ach, aft r a th r t  , fr th   a th f
    rW shmanwas n
, an b  k h s cr ws,  n  ss than h p un r th Span ar s, w th ut rm rs
  
. F na y, h sn ak away fr m th f t w th a sh p r tw ; an t s t  b f
   
ar that Capta n M rgan ma rathr a g  th ng by  nt f h s ncr b  cru
 ty an v  a ny.

    m ng, wh m Capta n M rgan a s  srt; f r wh  w u


n s w av Mr. Esqu

ng r ng wh n thr s n t vn h n ur am ng th vs? ur ng as th p ra
t’s pr fss n s, w must n t f rg t that t ha a samy s , an was by n  m
ans a rum an p cs- f- ght. n thr s s mth ng rpu s v t  a gnr u

s natur n r ast ng mn bcaus thy w  n t sh w y u whr t  sta h gs.



THE S G S

“Th gnra ra r,” says a frank cr t c, “hat    
 s th v ry nam  f a Saga.”  Th

      
g n ra r a r, nthat cas , s t  b p t  , an , f p ss b , c nv rt . Bu  
t, just as Pasca a m ts that th scpt c can n y bc m r g us by v ng as
f h wr r g us—by stup 
 fy ng hms
 f, as Pasca p a n y puts t, w th h 
y wat r—s  t s t  b f ar that th r sbut a s ng  way f w nn ng vr th
    
gnra ra r t  th Sagas. Prach ng an xamp 
 , as n th s br f ssay, w 
  
n t ava  w th h m. H must tak Pasca ’s a v c , an v f ran h ur r tw
 as f h wr a vr f Sagas. H must, n br f, g v that  tratur a
fa r chanc. H has n w h s pp rtun ty: Mr. W  am M rr s an Mr. E r kr Mag
nuss n ar pub sh ng a sr s f chap trans at ns—chap n y n c n f th r
a m—a Saga L brary. If a gnra rar tr s th f rst ta  n th f rst v  u
 
m, st ry f “H war th Ha t,”— f h tr s t h nst y, an st  can mak n  w
  
ay w th t, th n t h m tak c mf rt n th  ctr n f Inv nc b  Ign ranc.

  
L t h m g  back t  h s fav ur t t ratur     
    f g ssp ng r m n sc nc, r f r a
st c n v s. W hav  a , pr bab y, a r p f th N rthm n’s b  n us, but
n that gnra ra r th b  s rmant.
What s a Saga?      ya r manc. I
  It s n th r qu t a p  c  f h st ry n r wh 
   
t s a v ry  st  ry f th ngs an a v ntur s that r a y happ  n , but happ  n
s  ng ag , an n t m s s  sup rst t us, that marv s an m rac s f un th
 r way nt  th gn. Th bst Sagas ar th s f Ic an, an th s, n tra
 
ns at ns, ar th f nst
 ra ng that th natura man can s r. If y u want
tru p cturs f f an charactr, wh ch ar a ways th sam at b tt m, r tru
 p cturs f mannrs, wh ch ar a ways chang ng, an f strang cust ms an s
t b fs, n th Sagas th y ar t  b f un. Or f y u k ta s f ntrpr s
, f f ght ng by an an sa, f ght ng w th mn an basts, w th st rms an gh
 
 
sts an f n s, th Sagas ar fu f th s ntrta nmnt.
 
Th st r s f wh ch w ar sp  ak ng
 wr f rst t  n Ic an , prhaps
 fr m 95
0 t  1100 B.C. Whn N rway an Sw n wr st  hathn, a th usan yars ag ,
thy wr p ssss by fam  s f n b  b rth, wn ng n  mastr, an  ftn at
war w th         
 ach th  r, wh n th m n w r n t sa  ng th s as, t  r b an k  n
Sc t an , Eng an , Franc , Ita y, an away ast as far as C nstant n p , r far
thr. Th ugh th    
y w r w  s a r bb
rs an warr rs, thy wr stur y farmrs,

gr at sh pbu  rs; v ryman f th m, h wvr wa thy, c u bh s wn carp
  
 n

t r, sm th, sh pwr ght, an p ughman.   
Th y f rg th r wn g  sh rt sw r s,
hamm r th r wn arm ur, p ugh th r wn f  s. In sh rt, thy v k
 Oyssus, th hr  f H mr, an wr qua y sk   n th arts f war an p
ac. Thy wr m ghty awyrs, t , an ha a m st cur us an m nut systm 
   
f aws n a subjcts— an , marr ag,mur r,  
 tra , an s  frth. Th s aws
     
w r n t wr tt n, th ugh th p p ha a k n f tt rs ca run s. But th 
y  n t us thm much f r cumnts,but mr y f r carv ng a nam n a sw r -
     
b a , r a t mbst n, r n gr at g   r ngs such as th yw r n th r arms. 
Thus th aws x st n th mm ry an ju gmnt f th  st an w sst an m 
    
st r ght us m n f th c untry. Th m st mp rtant was th aw f mur r. 
 If
n man s w an thr, h was n t tr  by a jury, but any r at n f th a k
  h m“at s ght,” whrvr h f un h m. Evn n an Ear ’s ha , Kar  struc
kth ha ff n f h s fr n Nja  ’s Burnrs, an th ha b un  n th b a
r , am ng th tr nch rs f m at an th cups f ma r a . But t was p ss b
    
, f th r at ns f a s a n man c nsnt, f r th s ayr t  pay h s pr c—v
ry man was va u at s  much—an thn rvng was n t takn. But, as a ru , 
n rvng  ca  f r an thr. Say Hrut s w Hrap, thn
t  s w Hrut, an G s

 
 s w t , an Kar  s w G s , an s  n t  prhaps tw  wh   fam  s wr
 xt nct an thr was pac. Th g  s wr n t ffn by mans aughtr pn
  
y n, but  wr angry w th trachry, c war c, mannss, thft, prjury, an
vry k n f shabb nss.

Th s was th stat f affa rs n N rway wh  
n a k ng ar s , Har  Fa r-Ha r, wh
tr  t  br ng a th s pr u p p un r h m, an t  mak th m pay taxs an
      
v m r rgu ar y an qu t y. Thyrv  
t atth s, an wh
n thy wr t 
w ak t  fy th k ng thy s t sa  an f t  Ic an . Th r n th n y n
      
rth, btwn th sn w an f r, th h t-watr spr ngs, th v  can  f Hc a, th
 grat r vrs fu f sa m n that rush  wn such fa s as G  n F t, thr th
y v th r  -fash n f, cru s ng as p rats an mrchants, tak ng f r
 gn srv c at M ck  Garth, r n Eng an r Egypt, f  ng th w r  w th th
  
s un f th r sw r s an th sky w th th sm k f th r burn ngs. F r thy f
ar n thr G  n r man n r gh st, an wr n  ss cru than brav; th bst
   
f s  rs, augh 

ng at athan t rtur , k th Zu us, wh
  
  ar a k n f b
ack V k ngs f fr ca. On s m f th m “B rsark’s gang” w u fa —that s, th
y w u  bc m n a way ma, s ay ng a an sunry, b t ng th r sh  s, an
 
p ssss w th a fur us   
 str ngth b y n that fmn, wh ch ft th
 m as wak as
    nm s,
  r n wh n t pass away.
ch
 Th s Brsarks w r  ut aws,
  
a
   m n’s
an t  k  th m was r ck n a gr at a v ntur , an a g  . Th w mn wr

 w rthy f th mn—b  , quarr s m, rvngfu . S m wr ya , k Brgth
  
ra, wh  f rsaw h w a hr sns an hr husban wr t  b burn ; but wh  w u
n t av thm, an pr sh n th burn ng w th ut a cry. S m wr as brav
 as H war’s w f, wh  nab  hr husban,   an ch   ss, t  vrthr w th
wa thy bu y, th s ay r f h s n y s n. S m wr trachr us, as Ha gra
   
th Fa r.  
 Thr husban s sh ha , an was th ath f vry man f thm. Hr
ast  pacfu f mn.  
 r was Gunnar f L th n ,th bravst an mst  
Onc sh
 a m an th ng, an h s app h rfac . Sh n v r f rgav h m. t ast n
m s bs g h m n h s h us. Th rs wr  ck —a was qu t w th n. On
 f th nm s c mb up t  a w n w s t, an Gunnar thrust h m thr ugh w th
    
h s anc . “Is Gunnar  at h m?”

 sa  th b s  g rs. “I kn w n t—but h s anc

s,” sa  th w un man, an  w th that ast j st n h s ps. F r ng
Gunnar kpt thm at bay w th h s arr ws, but at ast n f thm cut th 
 arr ws
 
tr ng. “Tw st m a str ng wth thy ha r,” h sa  t  h s w f , Ha g r a,wh s  
y w har was 

v ry ng 
 an baut fu . “Is t a mattr f thy f r ath?”
  
sh ask . “ y,” h sa  . “Th    st m, an I w 
 n I rm mbr that b w th u gav 
s thy ath.” S  Gunnar  , v rc m by numb rs, an th y k   Samr, h 
  
 
s h un , but n t b f r Samr ha k  a man. 
      
S  thy v a ways w th sw r r ax n han —s  thy v , an f ught, an 
.
 
Thn Chrst  an tywas br ughtt  thm fr m N rway  by Thangbran , an f any man
sa  h   
 n t b  v a w r f t, Thangbran ha th sch  b y argum  nt, “W 
  
y u f ght?” S  th y f ught a u n a h  m r s an , that n b  y m ght nt
rfr—h  m-gang thy ca  t—an Thangbran usua y k   h s man. In N rwa
     
y, Sa ntO af  th k, k  ng an t rtur ng th s wh  h 
 by th   g  s
  
—Th r, O n, an Fr ya, an th r st. S , part y by f rc an part y b caus th 
y wr s mwhat t r f b sh, h rsf ghts, an th rst, thy rc v th
 w r f th wh t Chr st an wr bapt s, an v by wr ttn aw, an  

n t avng thms vs by th r wn han s.
   y   n t f rgt th   t ms, th   fus a
 y w r Chr st
Th  ans n w, butth     
n f ght  ngs an Brsarks, an a ngs w th gh sts,an w th a b  s that a
rs an wr ught h rr b   th ngs, haunt ng h us s an strang ng mn. Th Ic  a
      
n c gh sts w r ab -b   , w “mat r a s ,” an Gr tt r an O af H war ’s
s n fught thm w th strngth f arm an  g f st . Tru st r s f th an
c nt ayswr t  at th f rs   n th n ss w ntr n ghtsby st ry t 
rs r Sca s. It was     
   th ughta s n f rany n t a t r th s  str s, but
as g n rat  ns pass m r an m r w n rfu  matt rs cam nt  th g n . It
was b v that th a Gunnar, th fam archr, sang w th n h s ca rn r “H
  
w,” th m un whr n h was bur  , an h s fam us b  r cutt ng spar was
sa  t hav bn ma  by mag c, an t  s ng n th n ght bfr th w un ng f
mn an th wak ng f war. P p  wr th ught t  b “sc n -s ght ”—that s,
t  hav pr pht c v s n. Th n ght whn Nja ’s h us was burn h s w f saw
a th mat n th tab  “ n g r f b  ,” just as n H mr th pr pht Th 
c ymnus bh b  fa ng n g uts fr m th wa s,bf r th s ay ng f th
W rs. Th Va kyr s, th Ch srs f th s a n, an th N rns wh  w v th f
ats f mn at aghast     
  y m w r s nby v ng y s. Inth grav
 s whr tr
    th Barr ww ghts w t, gh ststhat w r s nt n s vr th

asur s w r h ar
g  : w tchw v s chang thms vs nt  w  vs an th 
 r m nstr us an ma s, an
f r many w ks th h r  s S gny an S nfj t  ran w  n th gu s f w  vs.
   
   
Thsan many thr marv s crpt nt  th Sagas,  an ma th stnrs f a
    
shu r f c  b s  th gr at f r that   n th c ntr f th ska  r
 
 burn
ha wh r th ch  f sat, g v ng m at an r nk t  a wh  cam, whrth w m
    
span an th Saga man t  th ta s f ng ag . F na y, at th n f th
n 
m  ags, ths Sagas wr wr ttn wn n Ic an c, an n Lat n ccas na
y, an many f thm hav bn trans at nt  Eng sh.

Un uck  y, ths  trans at ns hav h thrt bn xpnsv t  buy, an wr n t
a ways t  b ha  as  y. F r th w s w r , wh ch ra s nwspaprs a ay an

ha f th n ght,  s n t car much f r b ks, st  ss f r g  b ks, ast


f a f r  b ks. Y u can mak n  m ny ut f ra ng Sagas:  
 th y hav n t
  
h ng t  say ab ut st cks an shar s, n r ab ut Pr m M n st rs an p  t cs. N 
r w  thy amus a man, f n th ng amuss h m but acc unts f racs an mur 
rs
      
, r g ss p ab ut Mrs. N k s’s n w n v , Mrs. St k s’s n w r ss s, r La y J n
s’s  am ns. Th Sagas n y t h w brav mn— f ur wn b  vry k y—
         
v , an v , an f ught, an v yag , an  , bf r thr was much ra n
g r wr t ng, wh     
n th y sa  wthut st am, trav wthut ra  ways, an wa
rr han -t -han , nt w th h  n ynam t an sunk t rp  s. But, f r st r

s f ga ant f an h nst purp s, th Sagas ar am ng th bst n th w r .
Of Sagas n Eng sh n f th bst s th “V  sunga,” th st ry f th N f ungs
an V  sungs. Th s b k, thanks t  Mr.W  am M rr s, can b b ught f r a sh 
  ng. It s a strang ta  n wh ch g  s hav th r parts, th ta  f that 
st Trasur Hunt, th Hunt f r th g   f th warf
nvar . Th s was guar
   bn a man, an wh  was k   by th hr
by th  
 s rp nt,
Fafn r,wh  ha  nc  
 S gur . But n var  ha curs  th g  , bcaus h s nm s r bb h m f t


t  th v ry ast r ng, an ha n  p ty. Th n th brav S gur was nv  v n
    
th v   uck. H t waswh  r
   thr ugh th f r,an w k th fa r nchant
Brynh  , th Sh   -ma  n. n sh v h m, an h hr, w th a th r ha
   
     t  an thr man, S gur
rts, a ways t th ath. But by  fat sh was
marr    
’s ch  f fr  n , an S gur t  an th 
rw man.
  n th w m n f t ja usy  a
n quarr ng as w m n w  , an th y ragg th fr n s nt  th f u , an n
 mans ay ng aftr an thr bf , t  that grat mur r f mn n th Ha f

  
t , th K ng. Th curs cam n n an a f thm—a curs f b  , an f
v  vs, an f w tchw rk str y ng g  an ba, a far ss, an a fa
n n n r ru n.
 
Th “V  sunga Saga” has th s un qu an unpara   ntrst, that t g vs th
sp  f th h gh st p c g n us, strugg ng ut f savagry nt  c mp t
    
 ctac 
an fr an c nsc us human ty. It s a mark f th savag nt ct n t t  

scr m nat abrupt y btwn man an th wr an ma s. In th  
 ta s f th w
 
       
r p p s, th charact rs ar just as ft n b asts as m n an w m n. N w, n th
 ar r an w  r parts f th “V  sunga Saga,” ttrs an rag ns p ay human
 
parts. S gny an h s sn, an th m thr f th  
 r n my, put n th sk
 ns f w

 v s, b c  m w  v s, an pass thr ugh h   us a v ntur s. Th st ry rks w th
   
b  ,an rav ns w th ust f b  . But whn S gur arr vsat fu yars f
manh  , th barbar sm y  s p ac, th Saga bc ms human an c nsc us.
 
Ths gn s a tt   
 w th v . But n th “V sunga Saga”  th prmannt 
  
nt r st s th tru an  ath ss v f S gur an Brynh  : th r sparat

 n
by mag c arts, th r v va f th r pass n t  at, th man’s rs gn an hr
 
c acqu scnc, th f rcr pass n f th w man,    
 wh  w  n th r b ar h r fa
    
t n r acc pt h r b ss at th pr c f h n ur an h r p ght w r .
 nt mr y n r m rn mr y, but f a
Th s tuat n,th n  us, s n thr anc 
t m . S gur , hav ng at ast sc v r th nt n wh ch h was
   
       trapp , was
c nt nt t  mak th b st f marr ag an f fr  n sh p. Brynh  was n t. “Th
harts f w m   
n ar th h arts f w  vs,” says th anc nt Sanskr t c mmntary 
n th       whn sh ha
 R g V a. But th sh -w  f’sh art br k, k a w man’s,   
caus S gur ’s s ay ng. B th man an w man fac f , as th y c nc v t, w t
h ys prfct y c ar.
 
Th mag c an th suprnatura w  s ar acc  nta , th human hart s ssnt a
an t rna . Thr s n sc n k th s n thp cs f Grc. Th s s a p
      
ass n that H mr  n t w up n. In th I a an O yssy th rpntanc 
f H n s fac  ; sh taks f as  y. C ytmnstra s n t br ught n th st
ag t spakf r hrs f. In th s rspct th p c f th N rth, w thut th ch
arm an th  ghtfu nss f th S uthrn p c, xc s t; n th s an na cr
ta n bar vrac ty, but n n th ng  s. W cann t put
   
 th G rman c g n n t
     
h v fth Gr k, f r var  ty, f r many-s  w s m, f r chang ng b auty 
f a th usan c   urs. But n th s n  pass n f v th “V  sunga Saga” xc

s th I a .

Th Grk an th N rth  
 rn st r  s ar
 a k n n th ng. Fat s a -p wrfu


vr g  s an m n. O n cann t sav Ba r; n r Tht s, ch  s; n r Zus, Sa


  
rp n. But n th Sagas fat s m r c nstant   
 y pr snt t  th m n . Much  s

th ught f b ng “ ucky,” r “un ucky.” H war ’s “g  uck” s t  b r a nh
s fac by th w s, vn whn, t  th c mm n gaz, h sms a ha f-para yt c 
tar , y ng f gr f an ag.
   Sagas. Thy s  m “n w ,” as p p
Fat an v  uck g th hr s f th   
 say,—un
 ss, whn a brav man s  wn t   n thb h has strwn f th
 b  s f h s f s, y u ca that n ng w . S   Grtt r th Str ng. E

vn fr m a b y h was   
 str ng an pass nat , sh rt f t mp r, qu ck f str k, b

ut ya , brav , an a ways un ucky. H s w rst uck b gan aft r h s w G am.

    
Th s G am was a w ck
 h ath
 n h r sman,
 wh  w u n t fast n Chr stmas
 Ev. S

 n th h  s h s a b  y was f un , sw  n as gr at as an x, an as b u a
 
s ath.
     
What k   h m th y  n t kn w. But h haunt thfarmh  
 us , r  ng th r 
 
f, k ck ng th s  s w th h s h s, k  ng catt an
str y ng a th ngs.
Thn Grtt    
 r cam that way, an h s pt n th ha . t n ght  th
 a G am ca
m n, an Gr tt r ar s , an t  t th y w nt, strugg ng an ash ng th furnt

ur t  b ts. G am vn ragg Grtt r t  th  r, that
 h m ght s ay h m un 
   
f r a h s f rc Gr tt r y  grun . Th   vry thrs
r th sky,an      n n th 
h  h su n y gav way wh n G am was pu ng har st, an th y f , G am un
rm st. Thn Grtt r rw th sh rt sw r, “Kar ’s m,” that h ha takn fr 
m a haunt  grav, an stabb th a th ng that ha v aga n. But, as G a
   
m ay a- y ng n th sc n ath, th m n f n h s awfu  
  y s,an Grtt
 r


saw th h rr r f th   
m, an fr m that h ur h c u n t n ur t b n th ark

, an h nvr ar t  g  a n. Th s was h s ath, f r h ha an v  c mpan
n wh          ugh h was
   btray h m t  hs n m s; but wh n th y s t n Gr  tt r, th
t r an s ck f a w un , many   w th h m. N  man  k Gr tt r th St


r ng, n r s w s  many n h s ath.

Bs  s th s Sagas, thr s th bst f a , but th ngst, “Nja a” (pr n un
c “Ny u a”), th st ry fBurnt Nja . That s t  ng t  sktch hr, but t
t s h w, thr ugh th har harts an ja usy f w mn, ru n cam at ast n
 
th  
 g nt Gunnar, an th rck ss Skarph n f th ax, “Th Ogrss f War,”
an h w Nja , th w sst, th m st pacfu , th m st r ght us f mn, was burn
 w th a h s h us, an h w that v   was avng n th Burnrs f Kar 
.
   
Th s t f Nja ’s h us s y     
t t b s n,aft r th s n n hun
 r y ars, an

th        
tt g n wh r Kar  h  wh n h ap thr ugh th sm k an th f am th
atma  h s sw r -b a  b u. Ys, th v ry b ack san that B rgth ra an h r m
a  s thrw n th f r  s th r yt, an rmnants f th why thy cast n th

f ams, whn watr fa   thm. Thy wr st  thr bn  
ath th arth  whn a
    

n Eng sh trav r ugup s m f th gr un ast y ar, an t s sa  that an


 f Nja . Th st ry f h m an
m r can g nt man f un  a g  r ng n th
 h us    
f h s brav s ns, an f h s s avs, an f h s k n r , an f Quns an K n
  
gs fN rway, an f th c m ng f th wh t Chrst, ar a n th  
 “Nja a.” Th
at an th thr Sagas w u bar b ng sh rtn f r gnra ra rs; nc thy
wr a that th p p  ha by way f b ks, an thy k 
 th m ng. But, s

h rt n  rn t, th y ar brav b ks f r m n, f r th w r  s a p ac f batt
    
 st  , an f s war. Ths  hr s knw t, an  n t sh rk t, but f
 
ught t ut, an ft h n urab  nams an a g ry that  w  ns yar byyar. F

r th st ry fNja an Gunnar   y t  th
 
an Skarph  n was  t  by Capta  n Sp 
guar
 s f Th  r , K ng f byss n a. Th y k t w ;
an w th qu r a t
  
r nam san chang s 
f th ta , that Saga w  b t  n byss  
           n a, an  th n
c carr a thr ugh fr ca wh r wh t m n hav n v r wan r . S  w  , s 
ng-n ur ng a rn wn c u b g vn by a nam ss Sagaman.

CH RLES KINGSLEY
   
Wh n I was v ry y ung, a st ngu sh Rv w was st  y ungr. I rmmbr ra
ng n f th ar st numbrs, b ng thn mys f a b y f tn, an c m ng n
a rv w f a n v . Nv r,
    
as t s m t  m , r s ms t  my m m ry, was a p
   
r n v m r h av  y han : an y t I f t that th b k must b a b k t  r
a n th vry ar st pp rtun ty. It was “Wstwar H !” th m st fam us, an 
prhaps th bst n v , f Char s K ngs y. Oftn n has ra t s nc, an
t s an xamp  f th s arg, r ch,   
 w -f r manc s, at wh ch y u can cut a
  
n c m aga n, as t w r , ay ng t wn, an tak ng t up n ccas n, w th th
 crta nty f b ng xc t, amus—an prach at.

Lat y I hav      
H !” an s m f K ngs y’s thr b ks, “Hypat 
   r -r a “W stwar        
a,” “H r war th
   Wak ,” an th  pms, v r aga n. Th  p asur nth m s
n t g n
n , but t s m  f  . On must b a b y t  th nk K ngs y a hum
ur st. t thag f tw v r tn yu tak th c m c passags wh ch h c nsc 
nt us y pr v  s, w th ut b ng vx r ffn  ; y u tak thm mr y n th
way f bus nss. Btt
r th  ngs ar

 c m ng: strugg s w th 
 th Inqu s t n, st 
 
rms at s a, u s, th  rma a, wan r ngs n th L tus an f th tr p ca wst

; an f r th sak f a th s a
b y puts up g  -natur y w th K ngs y’s hum 
ur. Prhaps h vn gr ns vr myas “bury ng a trnat y h s fac n th pasty
an th pasty n h s fac,” r h tr s t  f vrt by th E zabthan wag
g r s f Frank. But thr s n  fun n thm—thy ar mchan ca ; thy ar w rs

 than th hum urs f Sc tt’s S r Prcy Shaft , wh ch ar n t f n.

Th sam sns f vryth ng n t b ng qu t s  xc nt as n rmmbr t h
      
aunts n n “H r war th Wak , th Last f th Eng sh.” K ngs y ca s h m “ 
th Last f th Eng sh,” but h s ra y th f rst f th trary V k ngs. I
n th ssay n th Sagas hr I hav tr  t  sh w, vry mprfct y, what th N
rsmn wr actua y k. Thy caught K ngs y’s fancy, an h s “Hrwar  ,” t
h ugh b rn n Eng sh s  , s ra y N rs—n t Eng sh. But K ngs  y  n t w
r t ab ut th V k ngs, n r ab ut h  s E  zabthan hr s n “Wstwar H !” n a

prfct y s mp , stra ghtf rwar way. H was a ways th nk ng f ur wn t ms
an rfrr ng t  thm. That s why vn th rathr ruff an y Hrwar s s  gr
at an nmy f sa nts an m nks. That s why, n “Hypat a” (wh ch pns s  w
     
), w hav th s pr  g us y u , stup  , p ant c, an c nc t rf ct ns
f Rapha Bn Ezra.  That s why, n a K ngs y’s n v s, h s prptua y  
xc t ng h ms f n f nc f marr ag an
 
 th fam  y f, as f any m nk sh

as ab ut th b ss nss f bach rh  wr vr k y t  r v th grat n

g -Sax n rac nt  c nvnts an m nastr   
s. That s th v ry ast th ng w ha

v t  b afra  f;but K ngs y was afra  f t, an was t rna y attack ng 
  
vryth ng P p sh an m nk sh.
         
B ysan y ung p p , thn, can ra “W stwar H!” an “Hypat a,” an “Hrwar
 th Wak ,” w th far m r p asur than th r rs. Th y hurry n w th th a
   

v ntur s, an  n t st p t  ask what th m ra s ngs man. Thy f rg v th h
um ur f K ngs y bcaus
  t s w mant. Thy gt, n sh rt, th ra g  
   
f th s ra y grat an n b  an man y an b un r ng gn us. Thy tak p asu
  
r n h s v f str ng m n, ga ant f ghts,  sprat nc untrs w th human f 
s, w th rag ng sas, w th pst  nc, r n haunt f rsts. F r n a that 

s g  f h s ta nt— n h s c urag, h s frank spch, h s v f sp rt, h s c
ar ys, h s v t n t  f   an w , r vr, m r, sa, an st rms—K ngs y
 
s a b y. H has th brav, rathr hasty, an n t vr w - nf rm nthus asm
f s xt n, f r p rs ns an f r caus s. H sawan pp n nt ( t m ght b Fathr
    
Nwman): h s hart ust f r a f ght; h ca  h s pp nnt nams, h thrw h
s cap       
 nt  th r ng, h t k h s c at ff, h f ught, h g t a t rr b  sc  nt 
f c
rubb
 ng. It was k a s xth-f rm b y match  ng h ms f aga nst th champ 
n. n thn h br n  ma c. H t k h s fat brav y. Nay, ar wn t 
ft w th a c nfus f ng that h was n t far n th wr ng, th ugh h ha s  mu
ch th w rs f th f ght?

Such
 was K ngs y: a manw th a b y’s hart; a hatr f cru ty an njust c, a
n a s  w th a brav, n m tab  b f that h s wn c untry  an hs wn caus
         
w r g nra y n th r ght, what v rth quarr . H v Eng an k a m st  
rss,         
 an hat hr n m  s, Spa n an th P p , th ugh v n n th mh saw th
  
g  . H s f r v r sc  ng th Span sh f r th r cru t  s t  th In ans, b
ut h fn s ur ngs t  th Ir sh, wh ch (at that      

t m ) w r n th r m r n 
  
r ss ppr ss v than th   
 Span sh p rf rmancs n m r ca. “G  t, ur s  !”
y u a ways har th s g  K ngs y cry ng; an n’s hart g s ut t  h m f r 
t, n an ag whn vryb  y ftn pr vs h s wn c untry t  b n th wr ng.
S mp , brav, rs  ut, man y, a tt  g vn t  “r bust  
 usnss,” K ngs y tra
     
nsf gur a th s qua t  s by p ss ss ng th s u an th h art f a p  t. H
 was n t a vry grat p t, n, but a tru p t— n f th vry sma ban
wh  ar cut ff, by         ,
      a gu f that
 can n v rb pass , frm m r wr trs fv rs 
h w v r c v r, ucat , m  us, ng n us, am ab , an r f n . H ha t
        
h r a spark f f r , th tru n t ; th ugh th spark m ght s m br ak nt  f
am, an th n t was n t a ways c ar. Nvr t us c nfus tru p ts w th w
r trs f vrs, st  ss w th wr trs f “p t c pr s.” K ngs y wr t a gr
at a f that-prhaps t  much: h s scr pt ns f scns ar n t a ways as
   
g  as n Hrwar ’s r   r un th Fns, r whn th 
 ta , Span

 sh ga n sta
        
gg rs fr m th r v ng f man t  th v ng anc f G  ,t  h r m thr ugh th m
st, t  hr rst n th sa. Prhaps n y a p t c u hav wr ttn that pr s;
t s crta n n  wr tr f “p t c pr s” c u hav wr ttn K ngs y’s p ms.
H s s ngs ar h s bst th ngs; thy ra y ar s ngs, n t mr y yr c p ms. T
hyhav th mr t f b ng tru y ppu ar, whthr thy ar r mant c, k “Th

      
San s ’ D ,” wh ch actua y r pr  uc s th b st qua t  s f th  ba a ; 
r whthr thy ar patht c, k th “D  ’s S ng,” n “Watr Bab s”; r whth
r thy attack an abus, as n th s ng f “Th Mrry Br wn Hars”; r whthr t
 
hy s ar h ghr, as n “Dp, p L v, w th n th n wn abyss ab  ng”; r wh
thr thy ar mr n b  n nsns, as n “L rra n L r”:—
      ga ant ass was sh,

“Sh mast r y ung V n ct v ; h, th 


n k pt h m stra ght an w n th rac , as nar as nar c u b;

 
But h k   hr at th br k aga nst a p  ar w  w tr ;
h k   hr at th br   brut, f r a th w r  t  s,

Oh,
  k, th
n n  n but th baby cr  f r p r L rra n L r.”
 
Th truth ab ut Char s K ngs y sms t  b that h rathr ma  a brav an ch
ry n s n th s n ght-batt  f m rn f, than that h  rct any m vmn
 
t f f rcs. H kpt chr ng, as t wr, an wav ng hs sw r w th a c ntag 
us nthus asm. B ng a p  t, an a man b th f h art an f s nt mnt, h was 
    
qua y attach t  th bst th ngs f th  w r an t  th bst f th nw w
r , asfar as n can f rcast   
 t s t b . H v th stat
 what
  y h ms 
 
f Eng an , th anc  nt gra uat  r r f s c  ty, th sp rts f th past, th m

 tary tr umphs, th patr t c g r s. But h was a s  n th s   f th p 

r: as “Pars n L t” h attmpt t  b a Chr st an S c a st.
N w, th S c a stsar th p p  wh  want t  tak vryth 
 ng;th Chr st ansa
  
r th p rs ns wh   
   n t wantt g v m r than th y f n c nv n  nt. K ngs y
a th, an
h ms f was ra y t  g v, an  g v , h s t m , h s ab ur, h s h
pr bab y h s m ny,      
  t  th p r. But h was  by n m ans m n  that  thy shu
swa w up th  Eng an w th church an cast , man
r-h us an tw r, w a t
h, bauty, arn ng, rf nmnt. Th man wh  wr t “ t n L ck,” th st ry f
th  starv ta  r-p t, was th man wh  nar y wpt whn h har a f x bark, a
   r. H ha a p t’s p  t 
n rf ct that th ays f f x-hunt ng wr numb 
cs, C  n Nwc 
 m ’sp  t cs. H was f r Eng an , f r th p r, f r th r ch,
     
f r thst  r  h us s fth ch va ruspast,f r th c ttag , f r th ha ;a
n was a aga nst th  as f Manch st r, an f Mr. Jhn Br ght. “My fath r
,” h says n a ttr, “w u hav put h s han t  a spa  r an ax w th any m
an, an s  c u I prtty w , t , whn I was n my pr m; an my  st s 
n 
s n w w rk ng w th hs wn hans at farm ng, prv us t  m grat  ng t  S uth m
  
r ca, wh r h w   th    
ru g ry f h s wn catt -p ns an sh pf  s; an 
f I wr twnty-f ur an unmarr  I w u g  ut thr t , an w rk k an En
g shman, an v by th swat f my br w.”
 
Th s was th r ght s   f h s v f th V k ngs; twas thus thy v , whn
n t at war—thus
 that vry gnt man wh  has y uth an ha th sh u w rk, w nn
ng n ww r s f r h s c ass, n p ac f th s m srab , vr-cr w  , braw ng

Eng an . Th s, I th nk, was, r sh u hav bn, th ra ss n an mssag
f K ngs y fr th gnrat nst  c m. L k Sc tt th sc n f an  kn ght
y n,h ha that r p f w  b  wh ch r vs mn fr m t wn nt  th a r a
n th  srt, whrvr thr ar savag an s t  c nqur, basts t  hunt, an a
   s n f a c rgyman, an a c rgyman h m
har y f t  b v . But 
 h was th
s f. Th sp r t that sh u hav g n nt  act n wnt nt  ta kng, prach ng
  
, wr t ng—a s urcs f grat p asur t  th usan s f p p , an s  n t wast
. Y t th s wr n t th natura ut ts f K ngs y’s f: h sh u hav b

n a s   r, r an xp rr; at ast, w may b v that h w u  hav prfr
    
r such f rtun. H  h s bst, th bst h kn 
 w, an t s a nth s 

 
f man n ss, c urag , k n n ss.    
P rhaps h tr  t  many th ngs—sc  nc , h st
ry, fa ry ta s, r g us an p  t ca  scuss ns, r manc, p try. P try
  
was what h  bst, r manc nxt; h s sc nc an h s h st ry ar ntrta n ng
, but w th ut auth r ty.
   
Th s, whn n ra s t aga n, sms a c  , unfr n y st mat f a man s  ar
nt an s  gnu n, a wr tr s  v vac us an c urag us as K ngs y. Evn th
 r y rv wr bars t  h m, an t  h s br thr Hnry, a bt h ws t  fw 
 
f th r gnrat n. Th truth  s wsh u ra K ngs y; w must  n t cr t c s

    
h m. W must acc  pt h m an b g a f hm, as w accpt a w n y, sunny autumn
 w st p
ay—b
 aut  fu an
  b ust r us—t  b nj  y an strugg wth. If  nc 
an rf ct, an  h s tat, hsms t  prach t  much, an w th a c nf  nc w
h ch h s kn w  g f th w r an fh st ry s n t just fy. T  b at n w
th K ngs y w must b b ys aga n, an that m mntary chang 
 cann

 t but b g
 
f r us. S n n ugh—t  s n—w sha r p back n manh  , an n a th f
   
f cu t s an rag ns that K ngs y r v away by a b ast n h s ch va r us an
chry h rn.


CH RLES LEVER: HIS BOOKS, DVENTURES ND MISFORTUNES


Sur y t s a p asant th ng that thr ar b ks, k thr nj ymnts, f r a
ags. Y u w u n t hav a b y prfr wh st t  fvs, n r t bacc  t  t ff,
n r T  st ï t  Char s Lvr. 
 Th anc nts
 rck n Tyrtæcus a f n p t, n t
 
that h was part cu ar y m  us r r f ct      
     v, but that h gav m n h art t 
f ght f r th r c untry. Char s L vr has n as much. In h sb graphy, by
Mr. F tzpatr ck, t s t  that a w  w a y ha but ns n, an f rh m sh 
  Th b y was t m  an nrv us, an sh fanc
bta n an app ntm nt  at W  w ch.
 that sh must f n f r h m s m thr pr fss n—prhaps that f tratur.
 
But h n ay chanc n Lv 
r’s n v s, an thy put s  much hart nt  h m
that h s charact r qu t a t r , an h b cam th bravst f th brav.
    
  
Lvr mayn t  as much f r vry n, but h s tach c ntmpt f angr, r
rath r,  ght n t: a gay, sp ntan us, b y sh k n f c urag —Ir sh c urag
 
at ts b st. W may gt m r g  fr m that than harm fr m a h sta s f mu
      n t v
ch punch an
  many r nk ng b uts. Th s ar n  ng r n fash n an ar  
ry gay r a ng, p rhaps, buth s st r  s an s ngs,h s u s an batt s an hu
nt ng scns ar as mrry an as g  as vr. W  as thy sm n th ra ng
, thy ar n t far fr m th truth, as may b gathr ut f “Barr ngt n’s Mm 
rs,” an th r ta s f th rck ss Ir sh f s m  ghty yars ag .
  
Thr wr tw  mn n Char s Lvr—a g a man an a sa man. Th ga ty was f 
r h s y uth, whn h p ur ut h s “L rrqurs” an “O’Ma  
 ys,” a th m rth

 
an m m r  s f h s byh   
, a th ta s f f ght ng an f ast ng h g an f

r m battr , sas n   warr  rs,  
  
k Maj r Mns n.Ev n th n, Mr.Thack
r
ay, wh  kn  
 w h m,  an  k an augh at h m, r c gn s thr ugh h s m rr m nt
“th fun f sa nss  bnath.” “Th auth r’s charactr s n t hum ur, but snt
mnt . . . xtrm  cacy, swtn ss an k n nss f hart. Th sp r ts ar
 
 m st y art f c a , th f n s sa nss, as appars t  m t  b that f m st Ir
 
sh wr t ng an p p .”  Evn n “Char  s O’Ma y,” what a tru, arkp ctur
     r vr n th v wastun r th
 s f th u b s  th br a , angry
that
w  gr y sky! Char s has sh t h s pp n nt, B  k n, an w th C ns  n, h s s

c n, s mak ng h s scap. “C ns  n cr  ut sun y, ‘T  nfam us, by J
 
v: w ar mur r mn!’”
 
“‘What  y u man?’ sa  I.
  
“‘D n’t y u s that?’ sa 
 h , p ntng t  s m th ng b ack wh ch f at fr m a
  
p  at th pp s t s  f th r v r.
“‘Ys; what s t?’

“‘It’s h s c at thy’v put up n an ar, t  sh w th p p  h’s k   —that’s  a
       
. Ev ry man h r ’s h s t nant; an k th r ! th y’r n t g v ng us much u
bt as t  th r ntnt ns.’

“Hr a trmn us y burst f rth frm th mass f p p  a ng th sh r, wh 
  
ch,r s ngt  a t rr f c cry,

sank gra ua y wn t  a w wa  
   ng, th n rs an
f s v ra t m s, as th Ir sh  ath-cry f  th a r, an r s t  h av n,
as f mp r ng vnganc n a mur rr.”
 
Passags kth  s, an thatwh ch f  ws—th angr us v yag thr ugh th st r
m n th f    Shann n, an thr ugh th r 
fs—ar what Mr. Thackray may hav
    
ha n h s m n wh n h sp k  f L v r’s un r y ng m anch    
     y. L k  th r m n
w th v ry h gh sp r ts, h ha h urs f g m, an th sa n ss an th th ughtfu
nss that wr n h m cam f rth thn an nf rm h s atr b ks. Ths ar
 
far m r carfu y wr ttn, far m r cunn ng y c nstruct , than th  chapt 
 r
    
s wr tt n fr m m nth t  m nth as th f t t k h m, w th n  m r p an r pr m t
at n than “P ckw ck.” But t s th ar y st r s that w rmmbr, an that h
 vs by—th pags thr wn ff at a hat, whn h was a v y ct r w th fw
 
pat nts, an was n t vr-attnt v t  thm. Ths wr th ays f Harry L rr
qur an T m Burk; charactrs that ran away w th h m, an t k th r wn path
 
thr ugh a mrry w r f vrs n. L k th kn ghts n S r Th mas Ma ry, ths
 hr s “r  at avntur,” r  amaz ng h rss that ra n  ap, b t an I
r sh st n wa n a m unta n crst, r b t th bay nts f a Frnch squar.
  r has n t bn wh  y succssfu n p as ng th cr t cs, a
 L v r’s b graph
Mr.
n h  s n t s m t  affct vry cr t ca a rs h ms f, but h t s a stra gh

tf rwar ta . Th f f Char s Lvr s th natura 
 c mm ntary n
h s n v

s. H was b rn at Dub n n 1806, th  s n f a bu  r r arch t ct.  t sch 
h was vry much f gg , an th s ar that h srv ths attnt ns, f
   
r h ha hgh sp r ts by n th pat nc f m n s. Han s m,mrry an c 
    
v r, h r a n v s n sch  h urs,w r a r ng, an s t up as a an  
       
y. Ev n t
h n h was n v w th th y ung a y wh m h marr  n th n . t a f ght w
th b ys f an th r sch  , h an a fr n p ac a m n unr th gr un ccup
 
 by th nmy, an b w thm, m r r ss, nt  th a r. Many an ybr w wa
s s ng ff nthat fata ay, wh   
 n, f rth n y t m , ths rmanc
r f th wa
   
rs “sm p w r.” H aft rwar s p a  
f r h s party
b f r th w rthy p  
c mag strat, an sh w gratpr m sas a barr str. t Tr n ty C  g,Dub

n, h was fu f h s fun, ma ba a s, sang  th m thr ugh thstrts n sg


u s ( k F rguss n, th Sc tt sh p  t), an n n ght c  ct th rty sh  n
     
gs n c pprs.

Th r g na f Frank  Wbbr, n “Char s O’Ma y,” was a chum f h s, an h t
k part n th w n rfu pract ca j ks wh ch h has ma  mm rta n that n v
 .
 
Fr m Tr n ty C  g, Dub n, Lvr wnt t  Gött ngn, whr h f un fun an f 
ght ng n ugh am ng th Grman stu nts.  Fr m that h urh b cam
   a c t zn f
 
th w r , r, at ast, f Eur p , an p rhaps, 
 k th prph ts, wasm st h n
ur wh n ut f h s wn c untry. H r turn t 
Dub n an tk h s gr n
    
m c n, aftr p ay nga fam us pract ca j k. crta nm ca pr fss r w
as w nt t  ctur n b . On n ght h ft t wn un xpct  y. Lvr, by
      
 chan
c, cam ar y t  ctur, f un th Pr fss r absnt, s pp nt  h s b , put
nh s n ghtcap, an t  k th  c ass h ms f. On an thr ay h was stan ng u
  
ts  th F un ng H sp ta w th a fr n ,a sma man. N w, a k n f stn c

ra f r f un ngs was bu  t uts  th      th
      r, an ,wh n a baby was p ac  
r n, a b rang. L v r ft up h s fr  n , p pp h m nt  th cra , an
  
ha th j y f s ng th pr m s ng nfant p ck  
ut by th p rt r. 

It sms a qur ucat n f r a man f ttrs; but, k S r Wa tr Sc tt whn
  
r v ng n L  s a , h “was  mak ng h ms f a  th
 t m.” H was c  ct 
ng myr a s f   xp r  nc s an tr asur s f an c t s;h was arn ng t  kn 
      

w m n f a s rts; an  a c untry ct r, h ha xpr ncs f mss t
 at r, as
ab s, fhunt ng, an f a th ways f h s rmarkab  c untrymn.
  
 Wh n ch 

 
ra v s t h s str ct h stuckt  h s w rk  k a man f h art   an c urag . B
ut th usua tasks f a c untry ct r war  h m; h ng ct thm, h bcam
  
unp pu ar w th th auth  r t s, h marr  h s f rst v an rturn t  Bruss
 s, whr h pract s as a phys c an. H ha a ra y bgun h s f rst n tab 
b k, “Harry
 L rrqur,” nth Un vrs ty  Magaz n. It s mr y a str ng f I

r sh an th r st r  s,  ff r nt—a p ctur ga ry fu f p r
 
 g  , ba , an n 
tra ts f pr  sts, s   rs, p asants an  charactrs. Th p t s f n  mp

rtanc;w ar n t ntrst n Harry’s v affa rs, but n h s scrap 
 s, a v

   
ntur s, u s at h m an abr a . H f ghts p p by m stak    wh m h   s n t

kn w by s ght, h appars n para  w th h s fac b ackn , h w ns arg p  s
at trnt t quarant, h sp ss f c prs f c art an b w s f punch, an
      
th sh p n a th usan h  s pr v   h m w th v   k  nys. Th cr t cs a
n th auth  rs th ught  tt  f th mrry m y, but th pub c nj y t, an
          th b k t  a w  rnss f “P ckw 
f  th r v  w rs. On pap 
 r pr frr
cks”; an as th s p n n was a vrt s v
rywhr by M’G ashan, thpub shr,
Mr. D ckns was vry much ann y n  . uth rs ar as  y ann y . But Lv
r wr ts ut p acat pur s, an thr was a trmn us f ght at Rugby btwn t
 
w  b ys, th “S ggr W  ams” an “T m Br wn” f th pr  ,f r th p ssss 
n f “Harry L rr qu r.” Wh n an auth r has th b ys f Eng an n h s s  , h
   
can augh  at th     
 cr t cs. Nt that L v r augh : h , t,was as  yv x , an
 
much pr ss , wh nth r v  ws assa  h m. Nxt h b gan “Char s O’Ma 
 
y”; an f any man ra s th s ssay wh  has n t ra th “Ir sh Drag  n,” t h 
 
m b g n at nc. “O’Ma y” s what  y u can r c mm n t  a fr  n . H r s v
   
       s, pract ca j ks at c  g (g 
 sp c  s f v rs n: u s an st p chas
ry 
 pract ca j k s, n tb by traps  an app -p  b s); hr s f ght ng n th


P n nsu a. If any stu nt     batt  n
   s n ubt, t h m try chapt r x v.—th

th D ur . Th s s, n , xc nt m  tary wr t ng, an n n t far c mpa
r s n as art w th Nap    warm t  hs w rk; h s h

  r’sfam us h st ry. L v r has
art s n t; h ha th b st nf rmat n fr m an y -w tnss;
 
 an th br
 f bg
        
nn ng, n th p ac f natur b f r th str f f m n, s a m rab y p  t ca . 
    
T  rach th Frnch, un r Su t, W s y ha t  cr ss th   p an rap   D ur
, n fac f th r f r, an w th ut rgu ar transp rt.  
 “H ar th  . W
 
      
hat must hav b n h s c nf  nc n th m n h c mman ! what must hav b n h
s r anc n h s wn gn us!”
  
Y u h  y ur brath as y ura , wh   Eng sh an Grmans charg, t  at ast
th f    
 s w n, an th ust f th Fr nch c  umns r tr at ng n th
   stanc
b ws wn th r a t  Spa n.
  
Th Grat Duk ra th s passag,an marv  h w Lvr knw crta n th ngs th
at h t s. H arn th s, an much m r, th hum urs f war, fr mth r g 
na f Maj r M ns n. Fa staff s a n n th tratur f th w r , but f
vr thr cam a atr Fa staff, M ns n was th man.
n whr hav y u such
 
an Ir sh Sanch  Panza as M cky Fr, that n pn nt m nstr , r suchan Ir sh
D  Vrn n as Baby B ak? Th cr t cs may pra s Lvr’s th ughtfu an carfu
atr n v s as thy w  , but  “Char s O’Ma y” w  a ways b th pattrn f
a m  tary r manc . Th an c t f “a v rtu us waknss” n O’Shaughnssy’s f
   
athr’s charactr w u a n mak th f rtun f many a st ry. 
 Th truth  s, 
 
t s n t asy t  ay wn “Char s O’Ma y,” t  av ff r a ng t, an gt 
   
n w th th acc unt f Lvr.
  
H s xc nt an  ghtfu n v scarc y rc v n fav urab  n t c fr m
th pr ss. Thsmay hav b n b caus t was s  p pu ar; but Lvr bcam s  n
     
  n t k t  k at th paprs. Whn h wnt back t  Dub n a
 us
rv  that  h  
n t a magaz n thr, h was m r f rc y assa   than vr. It s ff

cu t f r an Ir shman t  wr t ab ut th Ir sh, r f r a Sc t t  wr t ab ut th
  
Sc tt sh, w th ut hurt ng th f ngs  f h s cuntrym
n. Wh   th r trary
 
br thr n ar a      t  th n wspapr scr bs f ths ga

v th yar n t v ry  ar
ant nat ns; an thus J ffr y was m r s v r t  Sc tt than h n hav bn,
 
wh   th Ir sh prss,  t app
ars, ma  an ns aught n Lvr. Mr. Thackray m
 
 
t L v r n Dub n, an h m nt   “L rrqur’s m  tary
      ns th s unk n b hav ur.    
pr p ns t  s hav b n bj ct t  str ng y by  h s squ amsh H b rn an brthr n
   
. . . But s L rr qu r th n y man n Ir an wh  s f n f m  tary sp ctac
s? Why  s th Nat n pub sh ths  fy ng an Chr st an war s ngs? . . .

 
n wh  s t that prats ab ut thIr sh at Watr , an th Ir sh at F ntn y,
an th Ir sh at Sr ngapatam, an th Ir sh at T mbuct ? If Mr. O’C nn ,
k a w s rht r c an, ch ss, an vry pr pr y, t  f attr th nat na m  
tary pass n, why n t Harry L rrqur?”
   
Why n t, n  ? But Mr. Lvr was a succssfu Ir shman f ttrs, an a g 
 
many thr Ir sh gnt mn f ttrs, h nst D  an an h s fr n s, wr n t
succssfu . That s th hum ur f t.
  
Th ugh y u, my y uthfu ra r, f I hav n,  n t tst J ns bcaus h s
     
n th E v n, n r Br wn b caus h has “g t h s cap,” n rSm th b  h 
    caus
s Gr k Iamb cs k S ph  c s; th ugh y u rath r a m r an app au th s champ
  

ns, y u may f v ry ff r nt y whn y u c m t  th rty yars r m r, an s
  
 thr mn  ng what y u cann t  , an ga n ng pr zs by n y ur grasp.
n
   
th n, f y u ar a rv wr, y u “w  f n fau t w th a b k f r what t s
   
n t g v ,” as thus, t  tak Mr. Thack ray’s xamp :— 
 
“La y Sm gsmag’s n v s amus ng, but am  
ntab y  f c  nt n g  g ca nf rm
at n.” “Mr. L v r’s n v s ar trashy an w rth ss, f r h s facts ar n t b r
   
n ut by any auth r ty, an h g vs us n  nf rmat n ab ut th p  t ca stat
 f Ir an. ‘Oh! ur c untry, ur grn an b v, ur baut fu an pprs
 
s ?’” an s  f rth.
It was n t a t gthr a happy t m that      
   L v r pass at h m. N t n y   h s
nat v cr t cs b ab ur h mm st ungru g ng y f r “T m Burk,” that v v  an ch
va r us r manc, but hma  nm s f auth rs. H  t a magaz n! Is n t
    f wa ng thr ugh wagg n- a s f that pur unm t gat
that n ugh? H w ar    
rubb sh wh ch p p  ar prm tt t  “sh
 t” at  t r a rs. H w much
  u
st thr s n t t  h w f w par s! H  n t rturn MSS. punctua y an p  
 
t y. Th ff c cat c u  t thv  untr c ntr but ns fmany a magaz n
, but Lvr was vn m r casua an car ss than an xpr nc ff c cat.
H      
Mr. Thackray f r that  ghtfu par
 gr w crabb , an tr  t  quarr  w th
 y “Ph  F garty,” n ar y as g  as a gnu n st ry by Lvr.
  
Bst by cr t cs, bur squ by h s fr n , h chang h s sty  (Mr. F tzpatr c
        
k t s us) an b cam m r sbr—an n t s  nt rta n ng. H actua   y pub sh
a cr t c sm f B y , f St n ha , that psych  g ca  pr g, th ar ng f cu
tur an f M. Pau B urgt. Harry L rrqur n Stn ha !— t bggars b f. H
 nar y f ught a u w th th gnt man wh  s sa  t  hav suggst Mr. Pck

sn ff t  D ckns! Yt thy ca h s ar y n v s mpr bab . N th ng c u b
ss p aus b  than a c mbat btwn Harry L rrqur an a gnt man wh , vn r
m t y, rsmb  th fathr f Chrry an Mrry.
 
Lvr wnt abr a aga n, an n F rnc r th Baths f Lucca, n Tr st r Sp
z a, h pass th rst f h s f. H saw th Ita an rv  ut n f 1848, an
  
t a  t  h s m anch  y. Th s s p a n fr m n f h s n v s w th a cur 
 H wr t t at th sam t m as “Th Da t ns,” an h
ush st ry—“C n Cr gan.”           
  n t sgn t. Th r v w rs pra s “C n Cr gan” at th  xp ns f th  s gn
w rk, r j c ng that L v r, as “Th Da t ns” pr v , was xhaust , an that a
nw Ir sh authr, th auth r f “Cn Crgan,” was c m ng t  c  
ps h m. In sh
 
rt, h c ps hms   
  f, an h  n t k t. H s r ght han wasj a us
 ng, h wvr u an n
f
what h s ft han   . It s ms  that
 any
 human b 
v us, fa   t  tct Lvr n th rap  an v vac us a vnturs f h s Ir sh
“G  B as,” h r  f n f th v ry b st am ng h s b ks, a p c n t unw rthy
    
f Dumas. “C n”    Da t ns” n th m rn ng; an t
 was wr tt naft r m  n ght, “Th
h r can b n  ubt wh ch s t f h urs was m r fav urab  t  Lvr’s gn us.
   
Of c urs h k “Th Da t ns” bst; f a p p , auth rs appar t  b th r
wn w rst cr t cs.


It s n t p ss b  vn t  cata gu Lvr’s atr b ks hr. ga n h r v a
pa r f n v s abrast—“Th D  s” an “S r Jasp 
r Car w”—wh

 ch c nta n sm f
 
h s m st p w rfu s tuat ns. Wh n a m stan  man, sa , utw rn n b  y, st
ra tn  
 n c rcumstanc s, h st  pr  uc
 xc nt ta s n th s atr mann

 
r—“L r K  g bb n,” “That B y f N rc tt’s,” “ Day’s R    ,” an many m r. Th
s ar th th ughts fat r man f th w r , wh  has  n an s  
 n vryth n

g that such m n s an  . H says that h gr w fat, an ba , an grav ; h w
  
    
r t f rth grav an th  ba , n t f r thhapp r w r wh ch  s y ung,
 an c
ur y,an    at ast, t s sa  , n h s s p; an t s a  tha
 m rry. H  
t h  what Harry L rrqur w u n t hav n—h ft h s affa rs n prfct

r r.
 
Lvr v n an ag s  fu f grat n v sts that, prhaps, h s n t pr z
       
as h sh u b . D ck ns, Bu w r, Thackray,Tr  p , G rg E t, w r h s  
c ntmp rar s. But whn w turn back an ra h m nc m r, w s that  
 L v r
  
, t , was a w rthy m mb r f that fam us c mpany—a r manc r f r b ys an m n.

THE POEMS OF SIR W LTER SCOTT


Y        
st r ay, as th  sun was vry br ght, an  th r was  n  w n , I t k a f sh ng-r

 n chanc an Sc tt’s p  ms, an r w nt th m  f St. Mary’s L ch. E
vry h  , vry tuft f hathr was rf ct n th ak, as n a s  vr m rr 
r. Thr was n  s un but th app ng f th watr aga nst th b at, th cry f
th b ackc ck fr  m th
 h  , an th p asant p ash f a tr ut r s ng hr an
th r . S  I r a “Th Lay f th Last
          
       M nstr ” vr aga n, h r , n th m 
f th sc n s wh r th st ry s a  an wh r th f ghts w r f ught. F r wh
n th Bar n wnt n p  gr mag,


“ n t k w th h m th s  v sh pag
T  Mary’s Chap f th L ws,”

t was t  th ru n chap hr that h cam,
r, bs  ur Lay’s ak,

“F r th
   
n
ff
 rng h ha sw rn t  mak ,
n h w u pay h s v ws.”
  
But h s nmy, th La y f Branks m, gathr a ban ,
  
“Of th bst that w u r   at hr c mman ,”
   
an thy a cam fr mth c untry r un . Branks m, whr th a y v , s t
w
nty m 
s ff, t war s th s uth, acr ss th rangs f n y grn h  s. Ha
  
r n, wh r hr a y, Wat f Har n, ab  , s w th n tw v m  s; an D ra n

, whr W  am w t, s narr st  ; an J hn f Th r stan ha h s squar
t wr n th hathr, “whr v ctua nvr grw,” n Ettr ck Watr, w th n tn m
 s. Th s g nt m n, an th r k nsf  k an r ta nrs, b ng at fu w th th
       
Krs, tr  t  s ay th Bar n, n th Chap f “L n St. Mary f th Wavs.”
  
“Thy wr thr hun r spars an thr.
Thr ugh D ug as burn, up Yarr w stram,
Th r h rss pranc, th r ancsg am.
Thy cam t  St. Mary’s   
 Lak r ay;

But th chap  was v  , an th Bar n away.
Thy burn th chap f r vry rag,

  
n curs L r Cranst un’s g b n-pag.”

Th Sc tts wr a r ugh c an n ugh    
 t  burn a h  y chap b caus th y fa   t 
k  th r n my w th n th sacr wa s. But, as I r a aga n, f r th twnt 
     
th t m, S r Wa tr’s p m, f at ng n th n y brast f th ak, n th h
art f th h  s whr Yarr w f ws, am ng th tt  grn m uns that c vr t
   
h ru ns fchap an cast
  an a y’s b wr, I ask mys f whthr S r Wa t
r was n  a grat an  ghtfu p t, r wh      
th r h p as sm s  much bcau

s I was b rn n h s wn c untry, an hav n   r p f th b  f h s B r r r
bbrs n my wn v ns?
It s n t a ways p asant t  g  back t  p acs, r t  mt p p , wh m w hav
  
v w , ng ag . If thy hav chang tt , w hav chang much. Th
tt  b y, wh s f rst b k f p try was “Th La y f thLak,” an wh  natura
y b v that  thr was n  pt k S r Wa tr, s sa y chang nt  th m

an wh  has r a mst    n many s  s, that Sc
 fth wr ’sp  ts, an wh
 h ars,
tt s utw rn an m t  s rv b v n. r th y r ght r wr ng, th
 cr

t cs wh  t us, ccas na y, that Sc tt’s g  n v s mak up f r h s ba v
 
rs, r that vrs  
 an pr s , a must g ? Pr  captu ct r s, by th ra r’s
  
tast , th y stan r fa ; y t v n p ss m sm can scarc y b  v that      
           th Wav
r y N v s ar m rta . Th y w r nc th j y f v ry c ass f m n s; th y ca
nn t c as  t  b th j y f th s wh  c ng t  th prmannt y g  , an can un
rstan an f rg v apss, car ssnsss, an th  sur y trary fash n 
f a f rmr ag. But, as t  th p ms, manyg v thm up wh  c ng t  th n v s
. It  s n t f    
 w that th p  ms ar
 ba . In th f rst p ac, thy ar f t
 v n p try has pass
w  k n s— yr c an narrat v. Nw,  th fash n f narrat 
away f r th pr s nt. Th tru Gr k pcs ar ra by a fw n Gr
  
k; by pr
 
haps f w r st  n trans       
 at ns. But s  t rm n ar w n t t 
r a ta  s n
vrs, that pr s rn r ngs, vn f th p cs, nay, vn f th tt c ramas,
hav c m m r r ss nt  v gu. Th s acc unts f r th c mparat   
 v n g ct 

f S r Wa t r’s ays. Th y ar       
 sp k n f as Wav r y N v s sp  . Th s must
a ways b th p n n f ra rs wh  w  n t subm t t  st r s n vrs; t by
n  mans f  ws that th vrs s ba . If w mak an xcpt n, wh ch w must,
n fav ur f Chaucr, whr s thr btt   
r v rs n st ry t ng
 nth wh  

f Eng sh t ratur ? Th     n,” r “Th La y f th

 r a rs wh sps “Marm
Lak ,”  s  b caus th y s k st r  s t  n p  try. Fr m p try thy xp
    
ct thr th ngs, spc a y a ngr ng charm an mag c f sty , a rf ct v t
urn, “cr t c sm f f.” Ths th ngs, xcpt s  far as   
f can b crt c s

     
n act n, ar a  n t  th Mus f narrat v . St r  s an p ctur s ar a sh
 ffrs: Sc tt’s p cturs, crta n y, ar frsh n ugh, h s ta s ar xc nt
n ugh, h s mannr s suff c nt y  rct. T  tak xamp s: vry n wh  wan
 
ts t  ra Sc tt’s p try sh u bg n w th th “Lay.” Fr m pn ng t  c s t
nvr fa trs:—

“N n an twntykn ghts f fam
Hung th  
 r sh  s nBranks m Ha ;

N n an tw nty squ  r s f nam
Br ughtth r st s t  b wr fr m sta ,
N n an twnty y mn ta
Wa t , ut us, n thma . . .
Tn f thm wrshath 
 n st ,
W th b t sw r , an spur n h ;
 
Thy qu tt n t th r harnss br ght
N thr by ay n r yt by n ght:
Thy ay wn t  rst
Wth c rs t ac,  
P  w  n buck r c  an har ;
 
Th y carv at th m a  
 

  th W  g v s fst , 
n th y rank th r w n thr ugh th h mt barr .”

Nw, s n t that a brav bg nn ng? D s n t th vrs c ank an ch m k sw 
  
r sh ath n spur, k th b ts f champ    
    ng h rs s? 
Th n,wh n W  
 am f D  
ra n s s nt n h s n y m  n ght r  acr ss th haunt m rs an w  s, 
s th vrs n t ga p k th havy arm ur h rs?
  
“Uncha ng  , thnc pass  D ra n,

T  anc
 nt R   ’s fa r ma n,
Whr  , fr m m unta 
  ns fr , 
 
D wn fr m th ak s   rav ng c m ;
Each wav was crst w th tawnyf am,
L k th man f a chstnut st ,
 
In va n! n  t rrnt, p r br a , 
 pr’s r a ;

M ghtbar th b  m ss-tr

tth f rst p ung th h rs sunk



 w,
n th wat r br k ’r th sa -b w.”

 
Ths ast tw  ns hav th vry m vmnt an n t, th
p havy p ung, th 
 
st  sw r f th wat r. W      c ms r n f 
 
I kn w th chs wh nc  
; many a tr  ut hav I tak n n  , ng ag . Th s, f c urs , caus s a fav ur
, a prs na b as t wars am rat n. But I th nk th p try ts
ab  prju c 

f 
s g  , an st rs      
  th sp r t, vn f th s wh  kn w n t  m r, th m th r
f  , that  s ark am ng th m anch  y h  s.

Th   
th c urag f Sc tt’s 
 sp r t s st rr thr ugh ut by th ch va 
ryan
    m n
an f h s w m n. Thus th La y f Branks m a r ss s th Eng sh nva rs wh 
hav takn hr b y pr s nr:—
“Fr th y ung 
 h r fBranks m’s n,
G  b h s a  , an G  b m n;
 

Thr ugh m n  fr n sha mt h s m;
  
H r , wh  I   
v , n  f  f ns r  m.
Thn f thy  L r s th r
  purp s urg ,
Tak ur f anc u an h gh; 
Our s gan s th r yk-wak rg,
Our m at, th grav whr thy sha .”

   
y, an th ugh th m nstr  says h s n  v p t, an th ugh, n  , h sh n
s m r n war than n a y’s b wr, s n t th s a n b  stanza n tru v, an
  

w rthy f what  Ma ry wr ts n h s “Mrt ’ rthur”? Bcaus hr Sc tt s
paks f r h ms f, an f h s wn unhappy an mm rta affct n:—

“Tru v’s th g ft wh ch G  has g vn
T  man a n bnath th Havn.
It s n t Fantasy’s h t f r,
Wh s w shs, s n as grant 
 , f y;

It v th   s r
  nt n f  rc ,
W th a s r t ck n t :
It s th scrt sympathy,
Th s  vr nk, th s   
k n t  , 

Wh chh art 
 t  h art an m n t  m n ,
In b  y an n s u can b n .”
        a
Truth an fa
  th, c urag an ch va ry, afr  f n th h  san by th str 
ms, a shr w bra n, an p n h art, a k n w r f r fr  n r f  man, th s ar w
haty u arn  fr m th “Lay,” f y u wantt  arn ss ns fr m p try. It s a
ru    
gn , p rhaps, as th  cr t cs sa  at nc, whn cr t cs wr  sa nfu
   
f w zar pr sts an a s mag ca . But t s a ath ss gn , I h p; t
     
app a st  v ry y ung h art that s n t ar y sp  by w cunn  ng, an cyn 
c sm, an v f ga n. Th m nstr ’s wn pr phcy s tru, an st  , an a w
ays,
“Yarr w, as h r  s a ng,
Bars bur n t  th m nstr ’s s ng.”


ft rth “Lay” cam  “Marm n, a Ta  f F n F  .” It s far m r amb t 
 
us an c mp cat than th “Lay,” an  s n t much w rs wr ttn. S r Wa tr wa
s v r a rap  an car ss p  t, an as h t k m r pa ns w th h s p t, h t 
    
k ss w th h s vrs. H s fr n s rpr v h m, but h answr t  n f th
m—
 
“S nc ft thy ju gmnt c u rf n
 
My f attn th ught an cumbr us n,


St k n, as sthy w nt, att n,


n n th m nstr spar th fr  n :
Th ugh w  as c u , as str am, as ga ,
  
F w f rth, f w unr stra n , my ta !”

  
ny n wh  kn ws Sc tt’s c untry kn ws h w c u an str  
am an ga a sw p
at nc     
wn th va y f Ettr ck r f Tw . W st w n , w  c u , r r v
r, thy p ur f rth as by n mpu s—f rthfr m th far- ff h  s. H t h s v
rs swp ut n th sam st rmy s rt, an many a “cumbr us n,” many a “f at

tn th ught,” y u may n t, f y u w  , n “Marm n.” F r xamp —

    

“ n th nk what h must n xt hav f t,


t buck ng f th fa ch n b t.”

Th “Lay”
 s a ta that n y vrs c u t ; much f “Marm n” m ght hav b

n t n pr s , an m st f “R k by.”       
   But pr s c u n v r g v th p ctur  
f E nburgh, n r t th ta f F  n F ght n “Marm n,” wh ch I v r  y b
v s th bst batt -p c n a th p try f a t m, bttr vn than th
 stan f
as by th sh ps n th I a, bttr than th s ay ng f th W rs
   
n th O yssy. N r c u pr s g v us th hunt ng f th r an th ng g
a p vr h  s   an  va
wn y, w th wh ch th “La y f th Lak” bg ns, 
  
  
p n ng th r by th   nchant gat s f th H gh
  an s t  th w r . “Th La y f

th Lak,” xcpt n th      
 batt -p  c , s t  n a ss rap  m tr than that 
  
f th “Lay,” ss var  than that f “Marm n.” “R k by” v s n y by ts s n
gs; th “L r f th Is s” by Bann ckburn, th “F  fWatr ” by th  
 r pu
 
s f th Cu rass  rs. But      
 a
th p  msar nt rsp rs w th s ngs an ba a
s, as th baut fu ba a f “  c Bran ”; an Sc tt’sfam rsts n ths far
m r than n h s atr v 
rs f  r manc
s. C m ng mm at y aftr th vry t
  
   v r v , k Hay y, Sc ttwr t s ngs an ba a sas w  a
   
 stp  ts wh
am
n fr , as m anch  y r gay, as vr shphr sang, r g psy car   , r w tc
h-w f m an , r  f rg tt n m nstr ft t  th w r , mus c w th n  makr’
  
s nam. F r xamp , tak th Out aw’s rhym—
  
“W th burn sh bran an muskt n,
S ga ant y y u c m,

I r a y u f r a b  ragn
That sts th tuck f rum.
I st n  m r th tuck f rum,
N  m r th trumpt h ar;
But whn th bt  s uns h s hum,
   

My c mra s tak th sp ar. 


n
, h, th ugh Br gna banks b fa r,
n Grta w  s b gay,

Y t m ck   ma n ar,
 must th 
W u r gn my Qu n f May!”
H w mus ca , aga n, s th s!—
“Th s m rn s mrry 
 Jun , I tr w,
 
Th r s s bu ng fa n;
But sh sha b m n w ntr sn w,
Er w 
 tw  m t aga n. 
H turn h s charg r as h spak,
 
Up n th r v 
rshr ,
 
H gav h 
s br  -r ns a shak,
Sa  , ‘ u f r vrm r,

  My v!
 u f r vrm r!’”

Turn ng fr m th gn s n vrs, t t n t b f rgttn that Sc tt was a gra
t yr ca p  t. Mr. Pa grav s n t t  n  nt a ju g ,an h s “G  n Trasu
    

ry” s a t uchst n, as w as a trasur, f p t c g  . In  th s v  um W r
sw rth c ntr buts m r yr cs than any th   
r p t: Sh y an Shak
spar c m

  
n xt; th n S r Wa t r. F r my part I w u g a y sacr 
     f c a f w f W r sw rt
h’s fr af w m r f Sc tt’s. But th s may b pr ju c . Mr. Pa grav s n t
prju c , an w s h w h gh s h s va u f r S r Wa tr.
 
Thr ar sc rs f s ngs n h s w rks, t uchng an sa, r gay as a huntr’s w
ak ng, that t f v y th ngs st by tra t n, an f un by h m n th m 
 
rs: a ths—n t pr z by S r Wa tr h ms f—ar n h s g ft, an n that f n
 thr man. F r xamp , h s “Ev f St. J hn” s s mp y a mastrp c, a ba
a am ng ba a s. N th ng but an  s ng m vs us k—

 s th nks ’ F rth, sh sa ,

“ r th 
r th s th bn s ’ D!”

  

H m ght hav n m r f th bst, ha h vry grat y car . n am ng p 
    
ts, h ha n th r van ty n rj a usy; h th ught   
    tt  f h swn v rs anfu
h
s wn fam : w u that h ha th ught m r ! w u that
 h ha b n m r car
f what was s  prc us! But h turn t  pr s; ba  p try farw .
“Yt, nc aga n, farw , th u M nstr Harp,
  n, f rg v my fb  sway.

Y t, nc aga    


n  tt r ck I f th  c nsur sharp
May  y cav  at an  ay.”
    
P p  st  cav   y, c mp a n ng that Sc tt  n t f n sh, r  n t p  s
h h s p cs; that h was n t Kats, r was n t W r sw rth. H was h ms f; h
was th   
 Last M nstr , th at st, th gr at
  st, th n b st f natura p ts c 

 
nc rn w th natura th ngs. H sang f fr, f  rc, an war k f, f str
 
ams yt r ch n sa m n, an m rs n t yt ccup  by brwrs; f n y p acs
 n th ng gry tw  ghts f th N rth; f crumb ng t wrs whr nc
haunt  
w t th La y f Branks

 m r th F wr f Yarr w. Natur summ up n h m ma
  fa ths; an bf r th grat t m f Brta nwh
ny a past ag a w r f anc  nt
 y  , t  Br tan, as t  Gr c, sh gav hr H mr. Whn h was  , an t
 
r , an nar h s ath—s  w rn w th tr ub  an ab ur 
 that h actua y s gn

     
h s wn nam wr ng—h wr t h s at st v rs , f r a a y. It n s—
“My c untry, b th u g r us st  !”
    
an s  h  , w thn th s un f th wh spr f Tw , f rs ng th yars w

h n h s c untry w u n  m r b g r us, th nk ng f h s c untry n y, f rgtt
 
ng qu t th pr vat s rr w f h s wn atr ays.
P p  w  t y u that Sc tt was n t a grat p t; that h s b  t s sh t, h s
fam pr sh ng. L tt  h car f r h s fam! But f r my part I th nk an h p
 that Sc tt can nvr  , t  mn gr w up nt  manh  w th ut vr hav ng b
n b ys—t  thy f rgt that
 
“On g r us h ur f cr w  f
Is w rth an ag w th ut a nam!”


Thus, th    
 charg s aga nst S r Wa t r’s p  try ar , n th
 wh  , tt  m r tha
n th  cr t ca fa acy f b am ng a th ng f r n t b ng s mth ng  s. “It
 
taks a    
 s rts t mak a w r ,” n p  try as n  f . S r Wa tr’s s rt s a

v ry g  s rt, an nEng  sh t ratur tsp ac was mpty, an wat ng f r
h m. Th nk f what h  . Eng sh p try ha ng bn vry tam an c mm np
ac, wr ttn n c up ts k P p’s, vry art f c a an smart, r sns b  an
s w. H cam w th p ms f wh ch th mus c sm t  ga p, k thun r ng
  
hfs an r ng ng br  s f a rush ng b r r tr p. Hr wr g b n, ghst, a

n fa ry, f ght an f ray, fa r a  s an tru v rs, ga ant kn ghts an har
b ws, b az ng bacns n vry h  crst  an n th
 bart san f vry t wr.
H r was a w r ma a v aga n that ha b n a f r thr hun r yars—a
      
w r f mn an w mn.


Thy say that th archæ  gy s n t g  . rchæ  gy s a sc nc; n ts app 
cat n t  p  try, Sc ttwas ts sc v r r. Othrs can nam th p ats f a c a
  
t f arm ur m r arn y than h, but h ma  mn war thm. Thy ca h sG 
th c art fa s, h s arm ur pastb ar ; but 
 h put v ng mn un 
 r h s cast

 r
     
fs, v ng m n nt  h s br astp at s an tas ts. Sc  nc a vanc s,  kn w
g bc ms gn ranc; t s p try that  s n t  , an that w  n t  , w
h  —

“Th tr 
 p pr   
Of E  n ks v r Strathc y .”

JOHN BUNY N
  
Dr. J hns n nc t k B sh p Prcy’s tt  aughtr nh s kn, an ask h r
what sh  th ught f th “P  gr m’s Pr grss.” Th ch  answr that sh ha n
  
t ra  t. “N ?” rp  th D ct r; “thn I w u n t g v n farth ng f r y
u,” an h st hr wn an t k n  furthr n t c f hr.

Th s st ry, f tru, pr vs that th D ct r was rathr nt  rant. W must n t
xc mmun cat p p  bcaus thy hav n t ur tast n b ks. Th maj r ty f

p p   n t car f r b ks at a .
 
Thr  s a scn ant f J hn Bunyan’s a v n w, r thr was at y, wh  nvr
ra th “P  gr m’s Pr grss.” B ks ar n t
n h s 

n . Nay, Bunyan hms f

  
, wh  wr t s xty w rks, was n  gr at r a r. n Oxf r sch  ar wh v s t h m
n h s stu y f un n  b ks at a , xcpt s m f Bunyan’s wn an F x’s “B 
k f Martyrs.”
  
Yt, tt  as thw r n gnra cars f r ra ng, t has ra Bunyan m r t
han mst. On hunr thusan c p s f th “P  gr m” ar b v t  hav b
n s  n h s wn ay, an th st ry hasbn  n nt  th m st savag anguag
s, as w as nt  th s f th c v  s w r .
       
 J hns n, wh   n t k D ss nt rs,pra s s th “ nv
Dr.  nt n, mag nat n, a
n c n uct fth st ry,” an kn w n  th r b k h wsh ng r xcpt “R b ns
n Crus ” an “D n Qu x t.” W , Dr. J hns n w u n t hav g vn a farth ng
f r m, as I am qu t c ntnt w th th prsnt 
 ngth f ths mastrp cs.
  wr tt n a c nt nuat n f th

Whatb ks  yu w sh ng  r? I w sh H m r ha
O yss y, an t  us what
O yssus  am ng th far- ff mn wh  nvr tast


 sa

t n r h ar f th s a.   an  p c aftr th s a p c, h w g  t w u hav
   
     th mag nat n f Dant t  c nt nu
b n—fr
   m Hm r! But t w u  hav tax  
th
 a v ntur s f Chr st an an h s w f aftr thy ha nc cr ss th r vr a

n r ach th c ty. 

J hn Bunyan has bn m r f rtunat than m st auth rs n n f h s b graph s.
H s f has bn wr tt n by th Rv. Dr. Br wn, wh  s n w m n str f h s  
         r R un
c ngr
 gat n at B f r ; an an xc nt f  t s. Dr. Br wn  s n th
h a n r Cava  r; f r th ugh h s, f c urs  , n Bunyan’s s  , h s n t t
  
hr w st n s at th b aut fu Church f Eng an .
  
Pr bab y m st f us ar  n Bunyan’s s   n w. It m ght b a g  th ng that w
sh u a w t g th r nr g us unty, but h st ry sh ws that p p  cann
t b br b nt  br thrh  . Thy tr  t  bu y Bunyan; thy arrst an m
   
s n h m—unfa
pr   r y v n n aw, acc r ng t  Dr. Br wn, n t unfa r y, Mr. Fr 
u th nks—an h w u n t b bu  .
  
What was much m r xtra r nary, h w u n t b mb ttr . In sp t f a ,
h st  ca Char s II. “a grac us Pr nc .” Wh n a subjct s n c nsc nc
    
 at var anc w th th aw, Bunyan sa , h has but n c urs—t  accpt pacab
  
y th pun shmnt wh ch th aw awar s. H was nvr s ur , nvr angr by t
      
w v y ars f uranc , n t xact y n a aths m ung n, but n vry  unc mf r
tab  quartrs. Whn thr cam a br f nt rva f t  rat n, h  n t ccu
 
py h ms f n braw ng, but n pr 
 ach ng, an k ng aftrth mannrs an m ra
  
s f th tt “church,” nc u ng n w man sagr ab chargs
 
     wh  br ught
   c
aga nst “Br th r H n y v .” Th church c    th r was nth ng n th
that
     
harg s, but s m h w th nam f Br th r H n y v   s n t nsp r c nf  nc .


m st vryb  y kn ws th ma n facts f Bunyan’s f. Thy may n t kn w that
h was f N rman scnt (as Dr. Br wn sms t  succ n pr v ng), n r that th

 Bunyans cam vr w th th C nqur r, n r that h was a g psy, as thrs h  .

On
 Dr. Br wn’s  sh w ng, Bunyan’s ancst rs st th r ans n pr css f t m
       
an chang , an Bunyan’s fath r was
      a tnk r. H pr f rr t  ca h ms  f a b
raz  r—h  s was th rath r un xp ct tra t  wh ch Mr. D ck pr p s appr nt c 
ng Dav  C pprf  .

Bunyan h ms f, “th w n r us bab,” as Dr. Br wn nthus ast ca y sty s h m, w
  n N vmbr 30th, 1628. H was b rn n a c ttag, ng fa n, an
as chr  st n  
har by wasa marshy p ac, “a vr tab  s ugh f sp n .”  Bunyan may hav

     
ha t n m n wh n h wr t f th s ugh wh r Chr st an ha s  much tr ub 
.
H was n t a trav   man: a h s kn w  g f p p  an p acs h f un at
 
h s rs. H ha s m sch  ng, “acc r ng t  th rat f thr p r mn’s ch
 rn,” an assur y t was n ugh.
 
Th grat c v  war br  k ut, an Bunyan was a s  r; h t s us n t n wh c
h s  . Dr. 
 Br wn an Mr. Lw s M rr  s th nk h was n that f th Par amnt,
but h s  fath   s rathr m r 
  r, th t nk r, st  f r th K ng. Mr. Fr u
nc n t  h  that h was am ng th “gay ga ants wh  struck f r th  cr wn.”
H  s n t s m t  hav bn much un r f r, but h g t that kn w  g f th

    n h s s g f th C ty f Mans u . On can ha
 aranc f war wh ch h us
app  
r y th nk that Bunyan k war—crta n y n t fr m c war c, but fr m g  nss

f h art.
    
In 1646 th army was sban  , an Bunyan wnt back t  E st w v  ag an h s t
  
nk rng, h s b -r ng ng, h s anc ng w th th g r s, h s p ay ng at “cat” n
a Sun ay aftr srv c.
    
H marr  vry y ung an p r. H marr  a p us w f, an ra a hr bra
 Pathway t  H av n,” an “Th Practc f P  ty.” H bcam
    
ry—“Th  P a n Man’s
v ry v ut n th sp r t f th Church fEng an , an h gav up h s amusmnt
 
s. Thn h f nt  th S 
ugh f Dsp n , thn h wnt thr ugh th Va y f
th Sha w, an batt  w th p  y n.
  
P p  hav w n r why h fanc  h ms f such a s nnr? H c nfsss t  hav 
ng b n a ar an a b asph m r. If I may guss, I fancy that th s was
    
 m r y t
   
h t rary g n us f Bunyan s k ng f r xpr   
 ss n. H s   s,I w u g ba ,
wr trmn
us r mancs, w  f ct ns t  f r fun,  n v r  s f c war c 
rf r ga n. s t  h s b asphm s, h ha an xtra r nary p wr f anguag, a
n that was h w h gav  t p ay. “Fancy swar ng” was h s n y trary safty-
va v , n th s ar y ays, wh n h p ay cat n E st w Grn.
    
  
Thn h har a v c art fr m havn nt  h s su , wh ch sa  , “W  t th u a
v thy s ns an g  t  havn, r hav thy s ns an g  t  h ?” S  h f n r
pntanc, an pass th s awfu yars f mnta t rtur, whn a natur sm

t  tmpt h m t  th Unkn wn S n.
  
What  a th s man? It mant that Bunyan was w th n an ac f ma nss.
It happns t  a crta n pr p rt n f mn, r g us y br ught up, t  suffr k
 Bunyan. Thy har v cs, thy ar afra  f that awfu unkn wn n qu ty, an
  
f trna ath, as Bunyan an C wpr wr afra  .
 
Was t n t D Qu ncy wh  was at sch  w th a bu y wh  b v h ha bn gu
 ty f th unpar nab ff nc ? Bu y ng s an ff nc much ss par nab 
       t
han m st mn ar gu  ty f. Th r bst p an ( n Bunyan’s m sry) s t  t
p 

y n that th Dv  s an ass, t   th r w rk an spak th truth.

Bunyan
 gtqu t f h s trr r at ast, br f y by b v ng n th g  nss f G
 . H   
 n t say, k Mr. Car y , “W     
 , f a my f ars ar tru , what th
n?” H s was a Chr st an, n t a st ca v ranc .
  
Th “church” n wh ch Bunyan f un sh tr ha f r m n str a c nvrt maj r n
a R ya str g m nt. It was a qua nt tt c mmun ty,th m mb rs v ng k
     
th ar y sc p s, c rrct ng ach thr’s fau ts, an kp ng a svr y 
n ach thr’s vs. Bunyan bcam a m n str n t; but, Pur tan as h was, h
 ts h s P  gr ms anc n j yfu ccas ns, an vn Mr. Ray-t -Ha t wa tz

s w th a y ung a y f th P  gr m c mpany.


s am n str an tachr Bunyan   
 bgan t  wr t b ks f c ntr v rsy wth Quak r

  
s an c rgym n. Th p nts bat ar n ngr mp rtant t  us; th ma n th 
ng was that h g t a pn nt  h s han , an f un a pr pr ut t f r h s gn us
, a bttr way than fancy swar ng.
  
If h ha n t b  n cast nt  Bf r ja  f r prach ng n a c ttag, h m ght n
vr hav ram h s mm rta ram, n r bc m a that h was. Th  surs
 
f ga  wr ng. In that “ n” th Mus cam t  h m, th fa  r k n Mus f th
 H m Baut fu . H saw a that c mpany f h s, s  k an s  un k Chaucr
  
’s: Fa thfu , an H pfu , an Chr st an, th f wsh p f f n s, th trucu 
 n
   
t Cava  rs f Van ty Fa r, an G ant D spa r, w th h s gr   vus crabtr cu g 
; an thr p p  h saw wh  ar w th us  a ways,—th
 han s m Maam Bubb , an
th y ungw manwh s nam was Du , an Mr. Wr y W sman, an Mr. Fac ng B 
thways, an Byn s, a th prs ns f th c m y f human f.

H hars th ang c s ngs f th C ty by n th r vr; h hars thm, but  rp
 
 
at th m t  us h cann      
 t, “f r I’m n p  t,” as h says h ms f. H b h th c
arth y Para s f natur
untry f Bu ah, an th D ctab   M unta ns, that  
whr w m ght b happy yt, an wan r n  farthr, f th w r w u t us—fa
r m unta ns n wh s str ams Izaak Wa t n was th n v n cast ng ang .
    
   
It s p asant t  fancy h w Wa t n an Bunyan m ght hav mt an ta k , un r a
         
p an tr byth Ous , wh  th May sh w rs w r fa ng. Sur y Bunyan w u
 th g    man t  F rma st; an crta n y Wa t n w u  hav
n t hav k n
 nj y trav ng w th Chr st an, th ugh th b k was by n n f h s ar b s

h ps, but by a N n-c nf rm st. Thy wr ma  t  k but 
 n t t c nvrt

 ach 
      
th r; n matt rs cc s ast ca th y saw th pp s t s  s f
th sh  . Each
wr t a mastrp c. It s t  at t  pra s “Th C mp t ng r” r th “P 
gr m’s Pr grss.” Y u may put ngnu ty n th rack, but sh can say n th ng n
w that s tru ab ut th bst r manc that vr was w t  a g ry, n r ab 
 
ut th bst  y f  Eng sh f.

Th p p  ar v ng n w—a th p p : th n sy bu y ng ju gs, as f th 
 F
   
r nch R v  ut nary C urts, r th Hang ng Curts aft r M nmuth’s war; th  mu
r, grav Pur tan g r s; an Matth 
w, wh  ha th gr ps; an azy, fck ss Ign
    
ranc, wh  cam t  s   an n , p r f w; an stur y O H nst, an t m 

Mr. Far ng; n t s ng  prs ns, but zns, ar s n th mm ry.

Thy c m, as frsh, as v v  , as f th y wr ut f Sc tt r M  èr; th T nk
r s as grat a mastr f charactr an f ct n as th gratst, a m st; h s st
     
y  s pur, an p a n, an s un , fu f   ms, an vn f s mth ng k
   s ang. But vn h s s ang s c ass ca .
 
Bunyan s vryb  y’s auth r. Th vry Cath  cs hav th r wn  t n f th
 
P  gr m: th y hav cut ut G ant P p , but     
    hav b n t g  -natur t  ns rt 
G ant Pr t stant  n h sp ac . Unh ra , unann unc , th ugh n t uncr t c s 
 
(th y accus th T nkr f b ng a p ag ar st, f c urs ), Bunyan utsh n th
C urt w ts, th arn , th p ts f th Rst rat n, an vn th grat th 
g ans.
   

H s th rb ks, xc pt “Grac b un ng” (an aut b graphy),  “Th H  y War,” an
“Mr. Ba man,” ar n y kn wn t  stu nts,   
    n r much r a by th m. Th fash n
f h s th  gy, as f a th  gy, pass away; t s by v rtu f h s mag na
t n, f h s r manc, that h vs.

Th a g ry, f c urs, s fu f f aws. It w u n t hav  
 b n man y f Chr 
  
st an t  run ff an sav h s wn s u , av ng h s w f an fam  y. But Bunyan 
shrank fr m sh w ng us h w ff cu t, f n t mp ss b , t s f r a marr  ma
  
n t  b a sa nt. Chr st ana was
    r a y w th h m a thr ugh  that p  gr mag ;an
h w h must hav b n hamp r by that w man f th w r ! But ha th a g 
ry c ung m r c s y t  th sk rts f truth, t w u hav chang fr m a r man
c t  a sat r, fr m “Th P  gr m’s Pr grss”t  “Vanty Fa r.” Thr was t  m
uch v n Bunyan f r a sat r st f that k n ; h ha just n ugh f r a hum ur 
st.

B rn
 n an thr c ass, h m ght hav bn, h w u hav bn, a wr tr m r rf
n n h s strngth, m r un f rm y xc nt, but nvr s  un vrsa n r s  p 
pu ar n th bst sns f th trm.

In th chang f t ms an b f t sn t mp ss b  that Bunyan w   
v am 
    
ng th c ass wh m h ast th ught f a r ss ng—sch  ars, v rs f w r y t
ratur—f r v t n an p vrty ar part ng c mpany, wh   art nurs t  c v
 sat n pr shs.

    
r w b
tt r r w rs f r n  ngrb v ng as Bunyan b v , n  ngr s
ng that byss     
 f Pasca ’s p n b s  ur armcha rs? Th qu st n s n y a f 
rm f that w   r  , D s any th  g ca r ph  s ph ca p n nmak us b
ttr r w rs? Th vast maj rty f mn an w mn ar tt  affct by schm
an th r s f th s f an th nxt. Thy wh  vn ask f r a rp y t  th
s 
r   ar th fw: m st f us tak th asy-g ng m ra ty f ur w r f ra g
u  , as w tak Bra shaw f r a ra  way j urn  
y. It s th f w wh  must fn u

t an answ r: n that     
 answ r th r v s p n ,an th v s f th rs ar ns
ns b y ra s t war s th r v . Bunyan w u n t hav bn a w rs man f h
ha shar th fa th f Izaak  

Wa tn. Izaak ha hs r p y t a qu st ns n
 
th Church Cat ch sm an th  rt c s. Bunyan f un h s n th th  gy f h s
sct, appa ng m r str ng y than    
 rth  xy t  a natur m r b c s than Iza
 
ak’s. M n k h m, w th h
s n m tab c urag , w  n v r ack a s  ut n f
th puzz  f th  arth. t w rst thy w  v by aw, whthr thy ar t 
 
sp ak f t as G  ’s aw, r ar n t. Thy w  a ways b ur a rs, ur Cap

ta n Gratharts, n th p  gr mag t  th c ty whr,  r un  , w must a
at ast arrv. Thy w  n t fa  us, wh   ya ty an va ur ar human qua
t s. Th ay may c nc vab y c m whn w hav n  Chr st an t  march bf r u
s, but w sha nvr ack th c mpany f Grathart.

TO YOUNG JOURN LIST


Dar Sm th,—
  
Y u nf rm m that y u s r t  b a j urna st, an y u ar k n n ugh t  ask
my a v c. W , b a j urna st, by a mans, 
 n any hn st an h n urab b

    
ranch f th pr f ss n. But  n t b an av s r ppran a spy. Y u may f y
nt  a pass n whn y u rc v th s vry p a n y w r  a v c. I h p y u w 
; but, f r svra ras ns, wh ch I n w g  n t  stat, I far thaty u w n’t.
I far that,  thr by natura g ft r by acqu r hab t, y ua ra y p ssss t
h mprturbab
     
   t mp r wh ch w  b s  us fu t y uf y u  j n th army 


f sp  s an av s r pp rs. If I am r ght, y u hav ma up y ur m n t  r fus
t tak ffnc 
 , as ng as by nt tak ng ffnc y u can wr gg  y urs f f rwa
 
r n th ban f j urna st c r pt  s. Y u w      
 b r v ng n m, n that ca
s , s m ay; y u w   n wa t f r m w th a rty b u g n, an st a n m
   
ut f a swr. If y u , prm t m t  assur y u that I n’t car. But f
y u ar a ra y n a rag, f y u ar ab ut tar ng up th s p st , an ar sta
rt ng t  assau t m prs 
 na y, r at ast t  answ
r m fur us y, thn thr 
  
s v ry h p f r y u an f r y ur futur      
   . I th r f r v ntur t  stat my r as 
ns f r supp s ng that y u ar nc n t  b g n a c urs wh ch y ur fath r, f h
 wr a v, w u  p r, as a h n urab  mn n th r harts must p r

t. Whn y u wrat th Un vrs ty ( t m c ngratu at y u n y ur gr) y 
u  t , r h p t   t, Th Bu - g. Itwas n t a vry br  ant n r a v
ry w tty, but t was an xtrm y “racy” pr ca  
 . It sp k f a m n an  
  
ns by th r n cknam s. It was fu f s c n -han s ang. It  c ntan many pr
s na anc ts, t  th tr mnt f many p p . It pr nt garb an sp t f
u vrs ns f pr vatc nvrsat  ns  n pr  vat affa rs. It  n t vn spar
   
t  mak c mmnts n a s, an n th ta  s f mst c f n th t wnan
n th Un vrs ty. Th c p s wh ch y u snt m I g anc at w th xtrm sgu
st.

In my t m, m r than a sc r f yars ag , a s m  ar pr  ca , but a much m r
 c vr pr  ca , was put f rth by mmbrs f th Un vrs ty. It c nta n a

n v wh ch, vn n w, w u b w rth svra  -g tt  
n gunas t th mak

 rs

f th chr n qu scan  
 a us . But n b  y b ught  t, an t  an ar y ath.
T ms hav a tr , I am a f gy; but th  as f h n ur an cncy wh ch f 
g s h  n w wrh by y ung mn n th s xt s f ur cntury. I kn w vry
w that ths  as ar bs  t. I am n t prach ng t  th w r , n r h p n
g t  c nvrt s c ty, but t  y u, an pur y ny ur wn pr vat, sp r tua nt
rst. If y u ntr n th s path  f tatt , mn ac ty, an ma c, an f, w th
y ur c v rn ss an ght han, y u ar succssfu ,s c ty w  n t turn ts ba
  
ck n y u. Y u w  b far n many quartrs, an w c m n thrs. Of y u
r paragraphs p p  w  say that “ t s a sham, f c urs, but t s vry amus
ng.” Thr ar s  many   
 sham s n th w r , shams n tat a amus ng, that y

u may s n  harm n a ng t th numb r. “If I n’t   t,” y u may argu, “

s m n  s w  .” Un ubt y; but why sh u y u  t?

Y u ar n t a starv ng scr bb r; f y u trm n t  wr t, y u can wr t w ,
th ugh n ts  as  y, n many t p cs. Y u hav

 n tthat ast sa
xcus f hun

g r, wh ch     
 r v s p r w m n t  th str ts, an mak s unhappy m n act as pub c
b abs an sp s. If y u tak t  th s mét r, t must b bcaus y u k t, w
h ch mans that y u nj y b ng a stnr t  an rp rt r f ta k that was n v
 

r m ant f r any      
ars xc ptth s n wh ch t was utt r . It m ansthat th h 

sp tab  b ar s n t sacr f r y u; t mans that, w th y u, fr n sh p, h n u
r, a that maks human f bttr than a w sm k ng-r m, ar n y va uab  f
r what th r btraya w  br ng. It mans that n t vn th w far f y ur c
untry w  prvnt  
 y u fr m runn ng t  th Prss w th any
 
 s cr t wh ch y u may
   
hav b n ntrust w th, r wh ch y u may hav surpr s . Itm ans, th s p cu
ar k n f pr fss n, that a th ngs 

p n an xc
  nt, an c nsp cu us t  a
m n, ar w th y u f n  acc unt. rt, t ratur, p  t cs, ar t  cas t 
 
ntrst y u. Y u ar t  schm t  surpr s g ss p ab ut th pr vat vs, r
ss, an ta k f art sts, mn f ttrs, p  t c ans. Y ur pr fss na w rk w 
s nk b w th v f srvants’ g ss p n a pub c-h us par ur. If y u h
appn t  mt a man f kn wn nam
, y u w  watch h m, w  stn t  h m, w 
 
try t  sn ak nt  h s c nf  nc, an y u w  b ab, f r m ny, ab ut h m, an y
 
ur b ab w  nv tab y b mn ac us. In sh rt, k th m st p t ab  utcas
ts f w mank n , an , w th ut th r xcus, y u w  v by s ng y ur h nur
. Y u w       
    n t suffr much, n r suff r ng. 
Y ur c nsc
   nc w   v ry sp  
y b s ar w th a r -h t r n. Yu w  b n th r a wh ch a s fr m m r
sh n ur t  cr m ; an y u may f n y urs f actua y pract s ng chantag , an
xt rt ng m ny as th pr c f y ur s  nc. Th s s th wst p: th vast
 
maj r ty, vn f s c a m uchar s,  n t s nk s  w as th s.
Thpr fss n f th cr t c,       
   v n nh n urab an p n cr t c sm, s b s t w 
th ang rs. It s ft n har t  av   say ng an unk n th ng, a cru th ng,wh
ch s smart, an wh ch may vn b srv . Wh  can say that h has scap t
h s tmptat n, an what man f hart can th nk f h s wn fa w th ut a sns
f sham? Thr ar, I a m t,auth rs s ant patht c t m, that I cann t trus
t mys   
 f t  r v w th m. W u that I ha nvr rv w thm! Thy cann t b
s  ba as th y s m t  m : th y must hav qua t s wh ch scap my bsrvat n.


Thn thr s th tmptat n t  h t back.  S m n wr ts, unjust y r unk n
y as y u thnk, f y u r f y ur fr  n s. Y u wa t t  y ur n my has wr tt
  
n a bk, an thn y u hav y ur nn ngs. It s n t n natur that y ur rv w
sh u b fa r: y u must nv tab y b m r n th k- ut fr fau ts than mr 
ts. Th ér ntag  
  , th “smash ng” f a trary f  s vry  ghtfu at th m
m nt, but t  s n t k w n th ght f rf ct n. But ths  s ar
 
 mr pcca  s c mpar w th th c nf rm hab t f rgar ng a mn an w
 
mn as fa r gam f r prs na tatt  an th satng f pr vat sp t. N b  y,
prhaps, bg ns w th th s ntnt n. M st mn an w mn can f n ra y s ph str
s. If a rp rt ab ut any n rachs th r ars, thy say that thy ar  ng


h m a srv c bypub sh ng t an nab


ng h m t  c ntra ct t. s f any m 
rta vr stn t  a c ntra ct   
 n! n thr ar charg

 s—that f p ag ar sm
 
, f r xamp —wh ch can n v r b    spr v , v n f c ntra ct ns w r stn
t  by th pub c. Th accusat n g s vrywh     
 r , s c p   nt  vry pr nt

  
rag; th c ntra ct n  s w th th a  y ath f a s ng n wspap r. Y u ma
y rp y that a man f sns w  b n ffrnt t  fa s accusat ns. H may, 
r may n t b,—that s n t th qust n f r y u; thqust n f r y u s whthr
y u w  c rcu at nws that s fa s, pr bab y, an sp tfu , crta n y.
  
In sh rt, th wh   affa r rgar s y urs f m r than t rgar s th w r . P 
  
nty f p s n s s  : s t w f r y u t  b n f th m rchants?   Is t th
        
bus n ss f an ucat g nt man t  v by th tra f an av s r ppr an a
 
b ab? In th M m rs f M. B w tz h t s y u h w h bgan hs 
    
 ustr us c
arr by pr cur ng th pub cat n f rmarks wh ch M. Th rs ha ma  t  h m.
      hns n.” Is that th k n
H thn “w nt t  s M. Th  rs, n t w th ut s m appr
f m t n wh ch y u w sh t b hab tua n y ur xpr nc? D  y uth nk t

agrab  t  bc m sham-fac whn y u mt p p  wh  hav c nvrs w thy u
frank y? D  y u nj y b ng a snak, an f ng k a snak? D  y u f n b
ush ng p asant? Of c urs y uw  s n s thp wr f b ush ng; but s tha
t an agrab  pr spct? Dpn n t, thr ar sc mf rts n th pr grss t 
th brazn, n th j urny t  th sham  
 ss. Y u may, f y ur tatt  s p  t 
    
ca , b c m s rv c ab t  m n ngag   n gr at affa rs. Thy may vn ask y u

 th r h us s, f that s y ur amb t n. Y u may urg that thy c n n y ur
t
 
s, an ar  vn art an part n thm. But y u must a s  b awar that thy
  n t n f th s wh  w    th 
ca y u, an th nk y u,  a rpt  . Y u ar 
v  ’s w rk w th  v  ’s wags; but  y u sr us y th nk that th wags
  ut th
ar w rth th gra at n?
  
Many mn th nk s , an ar n t n thr rspcts ba mn. Thy may vn b k n
y an gn a . Gnt mn thy cann t b, n r mn f  cacy, n r mn f h n ur
. Thy hav s  thms vs an th r s f-rspct, s m w th as (thy ar th
 ast b amab ), s m w th a strugg . Thy hav sn bttr th ngs, an prh

aps va n y ng t  rturn t  thm. Ths ar “St. Satan’s Pn tnts,” an th r
rm rs s va n:

V rtutm v  ant, ntabscantqu r cta.
 
If y u n’t w sh t  b f th s sma c mpany, thr s n y n c urs pn t 
y u. N v r wr t f r pub cat n n n f prs na tatt . Lt a mn’s p
  
rs ns an pr vat vs b as sacr t  y u as y ur fathr’s,—th ugh thr ar

tatt rs wh  w u s paragraphs ab ut th r wn m th    
rs f th r w r a mark

    
t f r th war . Th r s n  ha f-way h us n th s r a . Onc b gn t pr nt p
r vat c nvrsat n, an y u ar  st— st,  that s, t
 cacy an gra ua y,
t  many th rth ngs xc ntan f g  r p rt. Th wh   qust n f r y u 
   
s, D  y u m n ncurr ng th s amnat n? If thr s n th ng n t wh ch appa s
an rv  ts y u, f y ur c nsc nc s sat sf  w th a fw ra y s ph sms, r
f y u n’t car a p n f r y ur c nsc nc, fa t !

V us rz n! Y u w  pratt  n pr nt ab ut mn’s pr vat vs th r h  
      
n m t v s, th r wa stc ats, th r w v s, th r b ts, th r bus n ss s,  
 th r 
nc ms. M st f y ur pratt  w  nv tab y b s. But g  n! n b  y w k
ck y u, I p y rgrt t say. Y u w  arn m ny. Y u w  b w c m n
s c ty. Y u w  v an  c ntnt, an w th ut rm rs. I  n t supp s
that any part cu ar nf rn  w  awa t y u n th futur


 f. Wh vr watchs
   
th s w r “w th arg r th r y s than urs” w  ubt ss mak a wanc f r

y u, as f r us a . I am n t pr t n ng t  b a wh t bttr than y u; pr bab y
 
I am w rs  n manyways, but n t n y ur way. Putt ng t mr y as a mattr f
tast , I n’t k th way. It maks m s ck—that s a . It s a s n wh ch I
 
canc mf rtab y amn, as I am n t nc n t  t. Y u may  put t n that 
ght
; an I hav n  way f c nvrt ng y u, n r, f I hav n t ssua  y u, f ss
ua ng y u, fr m c nt nu ng, n a argr sca , y ur pract cs n Th Bu - g.
MR. KIPLING’S STORIES
 
Th w n b wth whr t st  th. But th w n f trary nsp rat n has rar
 y shakn th bunga ws f In a, as, n th ta s f th  Jsu t m ss nar 
s, th mag ca a r sh k th fra  “m c n tnts,” whr Hur n c njur rs prac
   
t s th r mystr s. W th a w r f r manc an f charactr at th r rs,
   
Eng shm n n In a hav s n as f th y saw t nt. Th y hav b n busy   ng 

vrn ng, n mak ng war, mak ng pac, bu  ng br  gs, ay ng wn r a s, an w
r t ng ff c a rp rts. Our tratur fr m that c nt nnt f ur c nqu 
 st has

b n spars n       
, xc pt n th way f b graph  s, f h st r  s, an f rath
r ca an un nt g b  fact æ. Excpt th n v s by th auth r f “Tara,”
     

an
  S r H nryCunn ngham’s br  ant sk tch s,  such as “Dustypr ,” an S r f
r Lya ’s p  ms, w m ghta m st say that In a has c ntr but n th ng t  ur
f nr tratur. That  haunt f h st ry, th wa th f charactr br ught 
ut n thatc nfus n f racs, f r  g ns, an th  an nw, has bn wa t
h
unt uch , a tr asur -h us s a : th s pag  a trs hav nv
       
r b n shak

 n.
  
t ast th r c m s an Eng shman    
 w th y s,w th a pn xtra r nar  y ft,
an bsrvat n marv us y rap  an kn;  an , by g   uck,th s Eng shman h
as n  ff c a ut s: h s n thr a s    r, n r a ju g ; h s m r y a man
f ttrs. H has  sur t  k ar un h m, h has th p wr f mak ng us s
 what h ss; an, whn w hav st In a, whn s m nw p wr s ru ng whr
 w ru , whn ur mp r has f  w that f th M gu s, futur gnrat ns
 
w  arn fr m Mr. K p ng’s w rks what In a was un r Eng sh sway.
     that ths t ny mastrp cs n pr s a
 s n fth surpr
It  s s f t ratur
n v rs w r
p ur , “as r ch m n g v that car n t f r th r g fts,”
 
  nt  th
c  umns f ng -In an j urna s. Th r th y w r th ught c vr an ph mra
       
—part f th chattr f thwk. Th subjcts, n  ubt, sm s  fam  ar, t
hat thstrngth f th han ng, th br  anc f th 
 c  ur,
 
 w r scarc
 y r
c gn s . But Mr. K p ng’s v  um s n  s n r r ach Eng an than th p p  
      

nt  wh s han s thy f w  
r c rta n that hr wr th bg nn ngs f a nw 
  
t rary f rc . Th b ks ha th strang n ss, th c  ur, th var ty, th prfu

 
m f th East. Thus t s n  w n r that Mr. K p ng’s rput grw up as rap 
 
y asth mystr us mang  tr f th c njur rs. Th    
 r w r cr t cs, f c urs

   
, r a y t  say that th th ng was m r y a tr ck, an ha n th ng f th sup rna
tura . That p n n s n t k y t  h  ts gr un . Prhaps th m st svr
f th   gnt man, wr t ng Fr 
 cr t cshas b n a y ung Sctch      nch, an wr t ng t
w n rfu y w , n a Par s an rv  w. H ch s t  r gar Mr. K p ng as tt
but an m tat r f Brt Hart, r v ngh s p pu ar ty ma n y fr m th n v
an x t c charactr f h s subjcts.
N  ubt, f Mr. K p ng has a trary p

r g n t r, t
s Mr. Br t Hart .  m ng h s ar     
  r v rs s a f w ar what  an m 
tat r f th m r can m ght hav wr tt n n In a. But t s
a w  ju gmnt wh
   
ch tracs Mr. K p ng’s  succ
ss t  h s us, f r xamp , f ng -In an phras
s an scraps f nat  a cts. Th
prsnc f ths  mnts s am ng th ca

  v    t us y pr v nc 
us s wh  chhav ma  Eng shm n th nk ng -In an  t ratur    
a , an In a a b r . Mr. K p ng,  nth th r han , mak s us r gar th c nt 
 
n nt wh ch was a b r an nchant   an , fu f marv s an mag c wh ch ar ra
. Thr has, n  , ar sn a tast f r x t c tratur: p p  hav 
 bc m
    
a v t  th strang n ss an fasc nat n f th w r b y n th b un s f Eur p  
 an th Un t Stats. But that s n y bcaus mn f mag nat n an tra
ry sk  hav bn th nw c nqur rs—th C rtss an Ba b as f In a,
fr ca,



ustra a, Japan, an th s s f th s uthrn sas. such c nqur rs, wh
    f M. P  rr L t , r w th th car ssnss f M
 
th r th  y wrt w th th p  sh 
r. B  r w  , hav , at ast, s n n    
w w r s f r th ms v s;hav gn ut 
 f
th str ts f th v r-p pu at  an s nt  th p n a r; hav sa  an r  
    
n, wa k an hunt ; hav scap fr m th f g an smk f t wns. Nw strngt
h has c m fr m frshr a r nt  th r bra ns an b  ; hnc th n v ty an b
u yancy f th st r s wh ch thy t . Hnc, t , thy ar rathr t  b c unt
 am ng r mant c sts than ra sts, h wvr ra s th ssnt a truth f th 
  
r b ks. Thy hav f un s much t  s an t  rc r , that thy ar n 
t tmpt
        n charactr. grat
t  us th m crscp , an p r f r v r n th m nut
a fr a sm, sp c a y nFranc , attracts  b caus t s n v , b caus M.
  
Z  a an th   a s  f un n w w r s t  c nqur. But crta
 
  rshav       n prv ncs n
th s w r s w r n t unknwn t, but w r v  untar  yn g ct by, ar  r x
p rrs. Thy wr th “Ba Lan s” f  f an charact  r: sur y t s w sr t 
 
sk qu t nw ra ms than t  bu  mu huts an ungh  s n th “Ba Lan s.”
 
Mr. K p ng’s w rk, k a g  w rk, s b th ra an r mant c. It s ra b
caus h ss an f s vry sw ft y an kn y; t s r mant c, aga n, bcaus

h hasa sharp yf r th ra ty f r manc, f rth attract n an p ss b  
ty fa v ntur    h s y ung. If a r a r wants t  s ptty charac
   
   , an b caus
t rs sp ay n a th r m annsss, f th s b ra sm, sur y crta n f Mr
 

. K p ng’s pa nt an fr sky matr ns ar ra st c n ugh. Th samy s   f
ng       t ca —th s ang f p p 
-In an   f : th ntr gu s, am r us rs m -p
wh  scr b n ng as “mang nggarbag ” th “gam s f tnn s w th th svnth

c mman m nt”—h has n t ng ct any f ths. Pr bab y th sktchs ar tru
 
n ugh, an p ty ’t s tru: f r xamp , th sktchs n “Unr th D ars” an
 
n “Th Ga sbys.” That w rthy pa r, w th th r fr n s, ar t  mys f as unsym
  
path t c, a m st, as th charact rs n “La C nquêt   P assans.” But Mr. K p 
ng s t  much a tru ra st t  mak  th r s f shnss an ptt nss unbr kn,
   , m st, an har-w rk ng s   r; a
 asng. W kn w that “Ga y” s a brav
unc  
n , wh n h s tt s   y br  (wh  pr f rs b ng k ss by a man w th wax m 
 
ustach s) s nar t  ath, crta n y I am narr t  tars than whn I am b 
  
g t attn th b f L tt  D 
mby r f L tt  N . Pr bab
  
 y th r sa g
 
r at a f s angy an unr f n   
 -In an s c  ty; an ,
n  ubt, t  sk tch
ng
t n ts tru c  urs s n t by n th pr v nc f art. t w rst t s r 
m
 , n part, by ts c nstancy  n th prsnc f var us pr  s—fr m  sas, a
n fr m “th bu tf y ng wn th pass.” Mr. K p ng may n t b,an vry pr 
 
bab y s n
t, a ra r f “Gyp”; but “Th Ga sbys,” spc a y, ra s k th w
rk f an ng -In an sc p , tramm  by crta n Eng sh c nvnt ns. Th
m r Phar sa c ra sts—th s f th str ct st sct—w u  pr bab y w c m Mr.
   
K p ng asa y ungr br thr, s  far as “Un r th  D  ars” an “Th Ga sbys” ar
 c ncrn , f h wr n t ccas na y w tty an vn f ppant, as w as ra

st c.  But, vry f rtunat y, h has nt c nf n h s bsrvat n t  th  su
    
r s an p asur s f S m a;h has k ut a s  n war 
       an n sprt, n th
f f a nat v tr b s an cast s; an has v n g anc acr ss th b r rs f
“Th Un sc vr C untry.”

 
m ng Mr. K p ng’s sc vr s f nw k n s f charact 
rs, pr bab y th m st p 
pu ar s h s nv nt n f th
Br t sh s   r n In a. H avrs that
   
h “ v s


that v ry str ng man, Th 
mas tk ns”; but h s aff ct n has n t b n h m t 
th fau ts f th b  v. Mr.
tk ns r nks t  much, s t  car ss a ga an
  
t n v, has bn  ucat  thr t  much r t  tt , an has thr fau ts
    n, part y t  th fvr s
, part  y u ,appar nt y, t r c nt m tary  rgan sat 
h an uns  tt stat f th c v  s w r . But h s st  brav, whn h s
 
w ; st  ya , ab v a , t  h s “trusty chum.” Ev ry Eng shman  must
h p  that, f Trnc Mu vany  n t tak th c ty f Lungtung Pn as scr b
   
, y t h s ra y, an w  ng s t  tak t. Mr. Mu vany s as hum r us as M
 
cky Fr , but m r m anch     
    yan m r trucu nt. H has, p rhaps, “w n h s wa
y t  th myth ca ” a r a y, an s n t s  much a s   r, as an ncarnat n, n t
f Kr shna, but f many s  r y qua t s. On th thr han  , Pr vat
 Orthr
     
s, sp c a y n h s fr nzy, s ms t  sh w a th truth, an much m r than th 
 f f, a ph t graph. Such, w prsum, s th s   r, an such ar h s xp
r ncs an tmptat ns an rpntanc. But n b y vr ram f t ng us


a th s, t  Mr.  K p ng cam. s f r th  s  r n act n, th “Tak ng f L

ungtung Pn,” an th “Drums f th F r an ft,” an that thr ta  f th ba
tt  w th th Pathans    
 n th g rg , ar am ngth g f ghts f f ct  n. Thy

st rth sp r t, an th y sh u b str but ( n a t n, f c urs , t  th
“S   r’sP ck t B k”) n th ranks f th Br t sh army. Mr. K p ng s as w
  
nf rm ab ut th s  r’s w mn-k n as ab ut th s  r: ab ut D nah Sha

as ab ut Trnc Mu vany. Lvr nvr nstruct us n ths matt rs: M cky
Fr , f h vs, r  s away; but Trnc Mu vany s tru t  h s  w man.

Ga ant, ya , rck ss, va n, swagg 
 r ng, an tn r-hart , T   Mu vany
r nc
    
, f th r w r n ugh f h m, “w u tak St.    
     P t rsburg n h s raw rs.” Can
w b t  grat fu t an auth r wh  has xt n , as  Mr. K p ng n h s m  tary
sktchs has xtn  , th fr nt rs f ur kn w  g an sympathy?
  
It s a mr qust n f n v  ua tast; but, fr my wn part, ha I t  mak a
   
sma s ct n fr m Mr.K p ng’s ta s, I w u nc u m r f h s stu  
       s 
n B ack than  n Wh t , an many f h s xcurs ns b y n th pr bab an natura
. It s ff cu t t  hav n spc a fav ur t n th s k n ; but prhaps th
st ry f th tw  Eng sh a vntur   
 rs am ngth fr mas ns f unkn wnKaf r stan

( n th “Phant m R ckshaw”) w u tak a v ry h gh p ac . Th gas-h at  a r f

th In an nwspapr ff c s s  ra , an nt  t c ms a wan rr wh  has s
n nw facs f ath, an wh  carr s w th h m a ha that has w rn a r ya cr 

wn. Th c ntrasts ar f bruta f rc; th gn s am ng th b st f such str
ang fanc  s. Th n thr s, n th sam v  um , “Th Strang R   f M rr wb 
       
Juks,” th m st ra fu n ghtmar f th m st awfu Bunkr n th ra ms f f
ancy. Th s s a vry ar y w rk; f n th ng  s 
f Mr. K p ng’s x st , h s
mmry m ght v by t, as s th mm ry f thmr can Ir shman by th “D a
m n Lns.” Th sham mag c f “In th H us f Su hu” s as trr b  as tru n
cr mancy c u  b, an I hav a fa b ss f r th “B sara f P r.” “Th Gat
 f th Hunr S rr ws” s a ra st c vrs n f “Th Eng sh Op um Eatr,” a
 

n m r p wrfu by nt f ss rht r c. s f r th sktchs f nat v f—f
r xamp , “On th C ty Wa ”—t  Eng sh r a rs thy ar n  ss than rv at 
   
ns. Thy tst fy, m r vn than th m  tary st r s, t  th auth r’s sw ft a
n c 
rta nv s n, h s c rta nty n h s ffcts. In br f, Mr. K p ng has c nq
u r w r s, f wh ch, as t w r , w knw n t th x stnc.
   
 
H s fau ts ar s  c nsp cu us, s  much n th surfac, that thy har y n t 
  
b nam . Thy ar cur us y vs b  t  s m ra rswh  ar b n t  h s mr t
s. Thr s a fa s a r f har nss (qu t n c ntra ct n t  th snt mnt n
h s ta s f ch  sh f); thr s a kn w ng a r; thr ar mannr sms, such
as “But that s an thr st ry”; thr s a sp ay f s ang; thr s th t  
btrus v kn ck ng f th na  n th ha . Evryb  y can mark ths rr rs; a f
w cann t vrc m th r ant pathy, an s  s a grat a f p asur.

It s mp ss b  t  guss hw Mr. K p ng w  far f h v ntur



s n n f th
       bth n th c nt
 n v s, f th rth  x ngth. Fw m n hav succ
usua

an th n v . Mr. Br t Hart s m t t  th c nt ; M. Guy  Maupassant  s
pr bab y at h s bst n t. Sc tt wr t but thr r f ur sh rt ta s, an n
y n f ths s a mast         
 rp  c . P  n v r att mpt a n v . Hawth rn s a m
 
st a n n h s c mman f b th k n s. W can v n y n th h p that Mr.K
p ng, s  sk   n s  many spc s f th c nt, s  v g r us n s  many k n s
f vrs, w  a s  b tr umphant
 n th n v : th ugh t sms un k y that 
ts sc n can b n Eng an , an th ugh t s crta n that a wr tr wh
  
 s  cuts t
 th qu ck w  n t b happy w th th n v ’s a m st nv tab  “pa ng.” Mr.
Kp ng’s ngst ff rt, “Th L ght wh ch Fa   ,” can, prhaps, har y b c n
s  r a tst r t uchst n f h s p wrs as a n v st. Th cntra ntrst
s n t p wrfu n ugh; th charactrs ar n t s  sympatht c, as ar th ntr
st an th charactrs f h s sh rt p cs. Many f ths prsns whav mt s 
ftn that      
  th y ar ntm r pass ng acqua ntanc s, but a r a y f n n us th

ya ty u t   fr  n s.

FOOTNOTES:
 

[70] Th subjct has bn much m r grav y trat n Mr. R brt Br  gs’s “ c
h  s n Scyr s.”
 
[91] C njctur may cas, as Mr. M rr s has trans at th O yssy.

[109] F r H n Pn nn s, s th “Lttrs,” p. 97.
 
[128] Mr. Hn y has at y, as a ya D ckns t, bn fn ng th p ts f
D ckns, an h s trag
 y. Pr  captu ct r s; f th ra r ks thm, thn t
 
h y ar g  f r th ra r: “g  abs
    
  ut , nt f r m th ugh,”
 prhaps. Th p
 
t f “Mart n Chuzz w t” may b g  ,
but th c n uct f  Mart n w u str 
k m as mprbab  f I mt t n th 
 “rab an N ghts.” That th cratr f P
cksn ff sh u hav  s m s  s s r us y, as f Mr. P cksn ff ha bn a

  tak n h
Tartuff , n t a ght, s ms cur us.

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(tra mark/c pyr ght) agrmnt. If y u  n t agr 
 t ab  by  a
th t rms f th s agr m nt, y u must c as us ng an r turn r str y
     
a c p s f Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctr n c w rks n y ur p ssss n.
If y u pa  a f f r bta n nga c py  f r acc
ss t  a Pr jct

Gut nb rg-tm ctr n c w rk an y u  n t agr t  b b un by th
    
    
t rms f th s agr m nt, y u may bta n a r fun fr m th p rs n r 
nt ty t  wh m y u pa  th f as st f rth n paragraph 1.E.8.
  rg" s a rg str tramark. It may n y b
1.B.
 "Pr j ct Gut nb 
us n r ass cat n any way w th an  ctr n c w rk by p p  wh 
agr t  b b un byth trms f th s agrmnt. Thr ar a fw
 
th ngs that y u can  w th m st Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctr n c w rks
vn w th ut c mp y ng w th th fu trms f th s agrmnt. S

paragraph 1.C b w. Thr ar a t f th ngs y u can  w th Pr jct
Gut   rg-tm ctr n c w rks f y u f  w th t rms f th s agrmnt
   
 nb
an h p prsrv fr futur accss t  Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctr n c

w rks. S paragraph 1.E b w.

 
1.C.
Th Pr jct Gutnbrg L trary rch v F un at n ("th F un at n"
r PGL F), wns a c mp  at n c pyr ght n th c   n f Pr jct
 ct 
   
Gut nb rg-tm ctr n c w rks. N ar y a th n v  ua w rks n th
 

 n ar n th pub c ma n n th Un t Stats. If an
c 
 ct    
n v ua w rk s n th pub c  ma n n th Un t Stats an y u ar
cat n th Un t Stats, w n t c a m a r ght t  pr  
v nt y u fr m
 
c py ng, str but ng, p rf rm ng, sp ay ng r cr at ng r vat v
w rks bas n th w rk as ng as a rfrncs t  Pr jct Gutnbrg

ar rm v . Of c urs, w h p that y u w  supp rt th Pr jct
Gutnbrg-tm m ss n f pr m t ng fr accss t   ctr n c w rks by
fr y shar ng Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm w rks n c mp anc w th th t rms f
th s agrmnt f r kp ng th Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm nam ass c at w th
th w rk. Y u can as  y c mp y w th th trms f ths agrmnt by
kp ng th s w rk n th sam f rmat w th ts attach fu Pr jct
Gutnbrg-tm L cns whn y u shar t w th ut charg w th thrs.
1.D. Th c pyr       
 ght aws f th p ac wh r y u ar cat a s g vrn
what y u can  w th th s w rk. C pyr ght aws  n m st cuntr  s ar n
a c nstant stat f chang.  If y u ar uts   th Un t Stats, chck
th aws    
 f y ur c untry n a t n t  th t rms f th s agr m nt

b f r  wn a ng, c py ng, sp ay ng, p rf rm ng, str but ng r
crat ng r vat v w rks bas 
 n th s w rk r any thr Pr jct
Gut nb rg-tm w rk. Th F un at n maks n  rprsntat
  
 ns c ncrn ng
th c pyr ght status f any w rk n any c untry uts  th Un t
 
Stats.

1.E. Un ss y u hav rm v a rfrncs t  Pr jct Gutnbrg:

1.E.1. Th f  w ng sntnc, w th act v nks t , r thr mm at
accss t , th fu Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm L cns must appar pr m nnt y
whnvr any c py f a Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm w rk (any w rk n wh ch th
phras "Pr jct Gutnbrg" appars, r w th wh ch th phras 
 "Pr jct
         
Gut nb
  rg" s ass cat ) s acc ss , sp ay , p rf rm , v  w ,
c p  r str but :

Th s B k s f r th us f any n anywhr at n  c st an w th
a m st n  rstr ct ns whats vr. Y u may c py t, g v t away  r
r-us t un r th trms f th Pr jct Gutnbrg L cns nc u 
w th th s B k r n n at www.gutnbrg. rg
   
1.E.2. If an n v  ua Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctrn c w rk s r v
fr m th pub c ma n ( s n t c nta n a n t c n cat ng that t s
p st  
 w th prm ss n f th cpyr ght
 
 h  r), th w rk can b c 
 p 
an 
str but t  any n n th Un t Stat s w th ut pay ng any f s
r chargs. If y u ar r str but ng r pr v  ng accss t  a w rk
w th th phras "Pr jct Gutnbrg" ass c at w th r appar ng n th
w rk, y u must c mp y  thr w th th rqu rmnts f paragraphs  1.E.1
thr ugh 1.E.7 r bta n prm ss n f r th us f th w rk an th
Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm tra mark as st f rth n paragraphs 1.E.8 r
1.E.9.
  
1.E.3. If an n v  ua Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctr n cwrk s p st
   
w th th p rm ss n f th c pyr ght h  r, y ur us an  str
 but n
must c mp y w th b th paragraphs 1.E.1
 thr ugh 1.E.7 an any a t na
trms mp s by th c pyr ght h  r.


t na trms w  b nk
t  th Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm L c   
  ns f ra w rksp st w th th
p rm ss n f th c pyr ght h  r f un at th b g nn ng f th s w rk.

1.E.4. D  n t un nk r tach r rm v th fu Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm
L c ns t rms fr m th s w rk, rany f  s c nta n ng a part f th s
  
w rk r any thr w rk ass c at w th Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm.
  
1.E.5. D  n t c py, sp ay, prf rm, str but r r str but th s
 ctr n c w rk, r any part f th s  ctr n c w rk, w th ut

pr m nnt y sp ay ng th sntnc st f rth n paragraph 1.E.1 w th
act v nks r mm at accss t  th fu trms f th Pr jct
Gutnbrg-tm L cns.
 
1.E.6. Yu may cnvrt t  an str but th s w rk n any b nary, 
c mpr     
 ss , mark up,n npr pr  tary r pr pr  tary f rm,  nc u ng any
w r pr css ng r hyp rt xt f rm. H w v r, f y u pr v  acc ss t  r
str but c p 
s f a Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm 
 w rk n a f rmat th r than

"P a n Van  a SCII" r th r f rmat us  n th ff c a v rs n
p st n th ff c a Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm wb s t (www.gutnbrg.  rg),
y u must, at n  a t na c st, f r xpns t  th usr, pr v   a
c py, a mans f xp rt ng a c py, r a mans f bta n ng a c py up n
rqust, f th w rk n ts r g na "P a n Van  a
SCII" r thr

 
f rm. ny a trnat 
 f rmat must nc u th fu Pr j ct Gut nb rg-tm
 
 
L c ns as sp c f    n paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7. D  n t charg af f r accss t , v w ng, sp ay ng,
p rf rm ng, c py ng r str but ng any Pr j ct Gut nbrg-tm w rks
  
un ss y u c mp y w th paragraph 1.E.8 r 1.E.9.
     
1.E.8. Y u may  charg a r as nab f f r c p s f r pr v  ng 

acc ss t  r str but ng Pr j ct Gut nb rg-tm ctr n c w rks pr v 
that

- Y u pay a r ya ty f f 20% f th gr ss pr f ts y u r v fr m 
th us f Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm w rks ca cu at us ng th mth 
y ua ra y us t  ca cu at y ur app cab  taxs. Th f s
w t  th 
 wn
  
 r f th Pr j ct Gut
nbrg-tm tra mark, but h
has agr  t  nat r ya t
 s un r ths paragraph t  th

Pr j ct Gutnbrg L trary
 
 rch v F un at 
n. R ya ty paym nts


must b pa  w th n 60 ays f   
 w ng ach at n wh ch  y u
prpar ( r ar ga y rqu r t  prpar) y ur pr  c tax
rturns. R ya ty paymnts sh u b c  

ar y mark as such an 
     
snt t  th Pr jct Gut nb rg L t rary rch v F unat n at th
a rss spc f  n Sct n 4,
"Inf rmat n ab ut nat ns t 
th Pr jct Gutnbrg L trary rch v F un at n."
  
- Y u pr v   a fu rfun f any m ny pa  by a usr wh  n t f s
y u n wr t ng ( r by -ma  ) w th n 30 ays f rc pt that s/h
 s n t agr t  th trms f th fu Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm
  rqu r such a usr t rturn r
Lc ns . Y u must     n a phys ca m um
 y a c p  s f th w rks
str  p ss ss
an sc nt nu a us f an a accss t  thr c p s f
Pr j ct Gutnbrg-tm w rks.

  
- Y u pr v  , n acc r anc w th paragraph 1.F.3, a fu rfun f any
   
m n y pa  f r a w rk r a r p ac m nt c py, f a  f ct n th

 ctr n c w rk s  sc vr an rp rt t  y u w th n 90 ays
f rc pt f th w rk.
- Y uc mp y w th a thr trms f th s agrmnt f r fr
str but n f Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm w rks.

1.E.9. If y u w sh t  charg a f r str but a Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm
 ctr n c w rk r gr up f w rks n  ffrnt trms than ar st
f rth n th s agrmnt, y u must bta 

n prm ssn n wrt ng fr m
    
b th th Pr j ct Gut nb rg L t rary rch v F un at n an M cha
       
Hart, th wn r f th Pr j ct Gut nb rg-tm tra mark. C ntact th
F un at n as s t f rth n S ct n 3 b w.
1.F.
  
1.F.1. Pr jct Gutnbrg v  untrs an mp ys xpn cns  rab 
ff rt t   nt fy,  c pyr ght rsarch n, transcr b an pr fra

pub c ma n w rks n crat ng th Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm
c  ct n. Dspt ths ff rts, Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctr n c
w rks, an th m um n wh ch thy may b st r , may c nta n
"Dfcts," 
 such as, but n t  m t t , nc mp t , naccurat
   r
c rrupt ata, transcr pt    
   n rr rs,
a c pyr ght
  r th r nt   ctua
pr p rty nfr ng m nt, a f ct  v r amag sk r th r m  um, a
c mputr v rus, r c mputr c  s that amag r cann t b ra by
y ur qu pmnt.





 
1.F.2. LIMITED W RR NTY,
     DISCL
   OF D M GES - Exc pt fr th "R ght
IMER
f R p ac m nt r R
fun " scrb n paragraph 1.F.3, th Pr j ct
Gutnbrg L trary  rch  v F un at n, th wnr f th Pr jct
 
Gutnbrg-tm tra mark, an any thr party str but  ng a Pr j ct

     
Gut nb rg-tm ctr nc w rk un r th s agr m nt, sc a m a 
ab  ty t
 y u f 
r amag
s, c sts an xpnss, nc u ng ga
f
s. YOU GREE
TH T
YOU
H VE NO REMEDIES
FOR NEGLIGENCE,

STRICT
LI BILITY, BRE CH



OF W RR NTY OR

BRE CH
OF CONTR CT
EXCEPT THOSE
PROVIDED


IN P R GR
PH
F3. YOU GREE TH T THE FOUND
TION, THE
TR
DEM RK OWNER,
ND
NY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS GREEMENT
WILL NOT BE
LI BLE TO YOU



FOR CTU L, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTI L, PUNITIVE OR
INCIDENT


L D M GES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
D M GE.


1.F.3. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPL CEMENT OR REFUND  - If y u sc vr a
fct n th s  ctr n c w rk w th n 90 ays f rc v ng t, y u can
  
rc v a rfun f th m ny ( f any) y u pa f r t by sn ng a
wr ttnxp anat n t  th prs n y u rc v th w rk fr m. If y u
rc v th w rk n a phys ca m um, y u must rturn th 
m um w th
    
y urwr tt n xp anat n. Th p rs n r nt ty that pr v  y u w th
th   fct v w rk may  ct t  pr v   a rp acmnt c py n u f a

rfun. If y u rc v th w rk  ctr n ca y, th prs n r nt ty
pr v  ng t t  y u may ch s t  g v y u a sc n pp rtun ty t 
rc v th w rk  ctr n ca  
 y n u f a r fun . If th s c n c py
 
  
s a s  f ct v , y u may man a r fun n wr t ng w th ut furth r
pp rtun t s t  f x th pr b m.
   
1.F.4. Excpt f r th m t r ght f rp acmnt
r r fun s t f rth

n paragraph 1.F.3, th s w rk s pr v   t  y u S-IS , WITH NO OTHER

W
RR
NTIES OF NY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING

BUT NOT LIMITED TO
W RR NTIES OF MERCH NTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR NY PURPOSE.
  
1.F.5. S m stats  n t a w sc a mrs f crta n mp 

warrant s r th xc us n r m tat n f c rta n typ s f amags.
   
If any sc a mr r m tat n st f rth n th s agrmnt v  ats th
aw f thstat app cab  t  th     
 s agr m nt, th agr m nt sha  b

    
nt rpr t t  mak th max mum sc a m r r m tat n p rm tt by
th app cab  stat aw. Th nva  ty r unnf rcab  ty f any
pr v s n f th s agrmnt sha n t v  th rma n ng pr v s ns.
   
1.F.6.
 INDEMNITY - Y u agr t  n mn fy an h   th F un at n, th
 
tra mark wn r, any ag nt r mp y   f th F un at n, any n 

pr v  ng c p  s f Pr j ct Gut nb rg-tm  ctr nc w rks n acc
   
 r anc

w th th s agr     
 m nt, an any v  unt rs ass c at w th th pr  uct n,
pr m t n an str but n f Pr jctGutnbrg-tm  ctr n c w rks,
harm ss frm a ab  ty, c sts an xpnss, nc u ng ga fs,
that ar s rct y r n rct y fr m any f th f  w ng wh ch y u 
r caus t  ccur: (a) str but n f th s r any Pr
  
jct Gut nb rg-tm

w rk, (b) a t rat n, m  f cat  n, r a t ns r t ns t  any
Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm w rk, an (c) any Dfct y u caus.
Sct n 2. Inf rmat n ab ut th M ss n f Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm

Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm s syn nym us w th th fr str but n f
 ctr n c w rks n f rmats raab  by th w st var ty f c mputrs
    an nw c mputrs. It x sts
nc u ng bs  t,  , m   -ag   
b caus f th ff rts f hun r s f v  untrs an
     nat ns fr m
 
p p n a wa ks f f . 
 
V  untrs an f nanc 
 a supp rt t  prv  v  unt rs w th th

ass stanc   
 th y n , s cr t ca t  r ach ng Pr j ct Gut nb rg-tm s
g a s an nsur ng that th Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm c  ct n w 
rma n fr y ava 
ab  f r gn  
rat ns t  cm . In 2001,th Pr jct
Gut   rg L t rary rch v F un at n was cr at  t  pr v  a s cur
  
 nb
an p rmannt futur f r Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm an futur


 gnrat ns.

  
T  arn m r ab ut th Pr    L t rary rch v F un

  j ct Gut nb rg     at n
an h w y ur ff rts an nat ns can h p, s S ct ns 3an 4
an th F un at n wb pag at http://www.gutnbrg. rg/fun ra s ng/pg af.

Sctn 3. Inf rmat n ab ut th Pr jct Gutnbrg L trary rch v
F un at n


Th Pr jctGutnbrg L trary rch v F un at n s a n n pr f t
501(c)(3)  ucat na crp rat  n rgan z

 unr th aws f th
stat f M ss ss pp  an grant  tax xmpt status by th Intrna
  
Rvnu Srv c. Th F un at n s EIN r f ra tax  nt f cat n
numbr s
64-6221541. C ntr but nst th Pr jct Gutnbrg
L trary rch v F un 
at n ar tax 
 uct b  t  th fu xtnt
p rm tt by U.S. f ra aws an y ur stat s aws.
  
 
Th F un at
n s pr nc pa ff c s cat at 4557 M an Dr. S. 
Fa rbanks, K, 99712., but ts v  untrs an mp ys ar scatt 
r
  
thr ugh ut num r us cat ns. Its bus n ss ff c s cat at 
809 N rth 1500 Wst, Sa t Lak C ty, UT 84116,  (801)
 596-1887,
ma 

bus n ss@pg af. rg. Ema 
  c ntact 
nks an up t  at c ntact
nf rmat n can b f un at th F un at n s wb s t an ff c a
pag at http://www.gutnbrg. rg/ab ut/c ntact

F r a t na c ntact nf rmat n:
Dr. Grg ry B. Nwby

Ch f Excut v an D rct r

gbn wby@pg af. rg
Sct n 4.
Infrmat 
   
n ab ut D nat ns t  th Pr j ct Gut nb rg

L t rary rch v F un at n
   
Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm p 
ns up n an cann t surv v w th ut w 

spr a pub c supp rt an nat ns t  carry ut ts m ss n f
ncrasng th numb r f pub c  ma n an cns w rks that can b
     f rm accss b  by th w st
fr y str but n mach  n r a ab  
array f qu pm nt nc u ng ut at qu pmnt. Many sma nat ns
 
($1 t  $5,000) ar part cu ar y mp rtant t  ma nta n ng tax xmpt
status w th th IRS.
 
Th F un at  n s c mm tt
 t  c mp y ng w th th aws rgu at ng


char t  s an char tab  nat ns n a 50 stats f th Un t
Stats. C mp anc rqu rmnts ar nt un f rm an t taks a
c ns  rab  ff rt, much pap  
rw rk an manyf s t  m t an k p up

    
w th th s r qu r m nts. W   n t s  c t nat ns n cat ns

whr w
hav n t rc v wr ttn c nf rmat n f c mp anc. T 
SEND DON TIONS r trm n th status f c mp anc  f r any
part cu ar stat v s t http://www.gutnbrg. rg/fun ra s ng/ nat
 
Wh   w cann t an  n t s  c t c ntr but ns fr m stats whr w
hav n t m t th s  c tat n rqu rmnts, w
  
 kn w f n  pr h bt n
aga nst accpt ng uns  c t nat  ns fr m n rs n such stat s wh 
appr ach us w th ffrs t  nat.
 
Intrnat na nat ns ar gratfu y accpt , but w cannt mak
       
 mnts cnc rn ng tax tr atm nt f nat ns r c v fr m
any stat
uts  th Un t Stat s. U.S. aws a n swamp ur sma staff.

P as  th Pr jct Gutnbrg Wb pags f r currnt nat n
 ch ck 
     
m th  s an a r ss s. D nat ns ar accpt  n a numb  
      r f th r
ways nc u ng ch cks, n n paym nts an cr t car nat ns.
T  nat, p as v s t:  
http://www.gutnbrg. rg/fun ra s ng/ nat

Sct n 5. Gnra Inf rmat n b ut Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm  ctr n c
w rks.
Pr fss r M cha S. Hart s th r g nat r f thPr jct Gutnbrg-tm
c ncpt f a brary f  ctr n c w rks
 that
 c u b fr
  y shar
w th any n. F r th rty yars, h pr  uc an str but Pr jct
Gut nb rg-tm B ks w th n y a s n tw rk f v  untr supp rt.
    
 
Pr
 jct Gutnbrg-tm B ks ar ftn crat fr m svra pr nt
 t ns, a f wh ch ar c nf rm as Pub c D ma n n th U.S.
  
un ss a c pyr ght n t c s nc u  . Thus, w  nt ncssar  y
kp B ks n c mp anc w th any part cu ar papr  t n.
M st p p  start at ur Wb s t wh ch has th ma n PG sarch fac  ty:
http://www.gutnbrg. rg

Th s Wb s t nc u s nf rmat n ab ut Pr jct Gutnbrg-tm,
 nat ns t  th Pr jct Gutnbrg L trary

nc u ng h w t  mak  


rch v F un at n, h w t  h p pr  uc ur nw B ks, an h w t 
       
subscr b t  ur ma  n ws tt r t  h ar ab ut n w B ks.