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Kai Li, Shaofang Hu
College of Computer Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
ABSTRACT
Twin support vector machine (TWSVM) is an important machine learning method, whose objective is to construct two nonparallel
hyperplanes such that each hyperplane is closer to one of two classes and as far as possible from the other class. As TWSVM solves
two smaller size quadratic programming problems (QPPs), it works faster than standard support vector machine. However, this
method does not consider importance of different data sample, and solution of QPPs still uses the Lagrange multiplier method. In
this paper, we study two fuzzy twin support vector machines, which are FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM respectively, using successive
over-relaxation (SOR) iterative method. Experiments are conducted for both FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM on some UCI datasets. The
results indicate that the speed and accuracy of using successive over-relaxation iterative method for fuzzy twin support vector
machine are superior to those of using the traditional solution method.
Keywords:Twin support vector machine;fuzzy twin support vector machine;successive over-relaxation; Lagrange multiplier

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Email: editoriijcs@ipasj.org

ISSN 2321-5992

iterative method

Kai Li, Shaofang Hu

College of Computer Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China

ABSTRACT

Twin support vector machine (TWSVM) is an important machine learning method, whose objective is to construct two nonparallel

hyperplanes such that each hyperplane is closer to one of two classes and as far as possible from the other class. As TWSVM solves

two smaller size quadratic programming problems (QPPs), it works faster than standard support vector machine. However, this

method does not consider importance of different data sample, and solution of QPPs still uses the Lagrange multiplier method. In

this paper, we study two fuzzy twin support vector machines, which are FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM respectively, using successive

over-relaxation (SOR) iterative method. Experiments are conducted for both FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM on some UCI datasets. The

results indicate that the speed and accuracy of using successive over-relaxation iterative method for fuzzy twin support vector

machine are superior to those of using the traditional solution method.

Keywords:Twin support vector machine;fuzzy twin support vector machine;successive over-relaxation; Lagrange multiplier

1. INTRODUTION

Support vector machine is a machine learning method proposed by Vapnik et al., which is based on the theory of VC

(Vapnik-Chervonenkis) dimension and structural risk minimization principle. Now, it has become a hot topic in machine

learning and is widely applied in many fields. We know that support vector machine is regarded as an optimization

problem, which could be achieved by solving the Lagrange multiplier about quadratic programming problem. However, this

method needs high computational complexity in solving the quadratic programming problem when facing large amounts of

data. To solving them, researchers have presented many efficient learning algorithms and models[1][2]. Recently, Jayadeva

et al. [3] proposed twin support vector machine (TWSVM) which constructs two non-parallel hyperplanes by resolving two

smaller convex quadratic programming problem. Shao et al[4] proposed an improved twin support vector machine by

introducing regularization term in TWSVM. Peng[5] proposed a v-Twin Support Vector Machine (v-TSVM). Afterwards,

researchers have given some reviews about twin support vector machine[6]-[8]. After all, no matter TWSVM or v-TSVM,

they did not consider the influence of different samples on the optimal classification hyperplanes. That is to say, these

methods treat noises as the normal data points. Under this circumstance, we considered the influence of different samples

on the optimal classification hyperplanes aiming at v-TSVM and proposed a fuzzy twin support vector machine[9].

Ding[10] proposed a fuzzy twin support vector machine aiming at TWSVM.

It may be seen that whether it is traditional support vector machine or twin support vector machine described above, a

quadratic programming problem needs to be solved in order to obtain the Lagrange multiplier. In this paper, we study the

iterative method based fuzzy twin support vector machine in order to reduce training time of fuzzy twin support machine.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces twin support vector machine which include TWSVM and

v-TSVM. Fuzzy twin support vector machines and its iterative method are introduced in section 3. Some experiments are

conducted in section 4. Conclusion is drawn in section 5.

2. TWIN SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

Assuming sample set T={(xi ,yi )| i=1,...,m}, where xi Rn and

y i { 1, 1} (i=1,...,m). Matrices

A R m1 n and

B R m2 n denote all of the data points in class +1 and class -1, respectively, and m1 m 2 m .

T

T

Twin support vector machine seeks two non-parallel hyperplanesw1

x b(1) 0 and w2

x b(2) 0 by solving two

smaller quadratic programming problems such that each hyperplane is closer to the data points of one class and far from the

data points of the other class, where w(1) R n , w(2) R n , b(1) R and b(2) R . The primal problem of twin support vector

machine is expressed as

1

( Aw(1) e1b (1) )T ( Aw(1) e1b (1) ) c1e2T

w , b ,

2

,

s.t.

( Bw(1) e2b (1) ) e2 , 0

1

( Bw( 2 ) e2b ( 2) )T ( Bw (2 ) e2 b ( 2 ) ) c2 e1T

min

2

s.t.

( Aw( 2) e1b (2 ) )T e1 , 0

min

( 1)

(2)

(1)

(1)

,b

(2)

(2)

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where c1 and c2 are positive parameters and e1 and e2 are vectors of ones of appropriate dimensions. The dual problem of (1)

is as follows

1 T

G ( H T H )1 G T ,

2

s.t . 0 c1

max e2 T

where H=[A e1],G=[B e2] and let u=[w(1), b(1)]T. With simple algebra computation, u=-(HTH)-1GT is obtained. It is seen

that although HTH is always positive semidefinite, it may not be well conditioned in some situations. Thus a regularization

term I is introduced to take care of problems due to possible ill-conditioning of HTH. Here, I is an identity matrix of

appropriate dimensions. Therefore, the augmented vector u is given by u=-(HTH+I)-1GT.

Similarly, the dual problem of (2) is also obtained in the following

1 T

H ( G T G ) 1 H T

2

s.t . 0 c 2

max

e1T

where H=[A e1],G=[B e2] and let v=[w(2),b(2)]T. The augmented vector v is given by v=-(GTG+I)-1HT.

For nonlinear classification, Jayadeva et al.[3] expended their results by introducing kernel. Thus, the optimization problem

is as follows

1

|| K ( A , C T ) u (1) e1 b (1) ||2 c1 e 2 T

min

2

s .t . ( K ( B , C T ) u (1) e 2 b (1) ) T e 2 , 0

1

|| K ( B , C T ) u ( 2 ) e 2 b ( 2 ) ||2 c 2 e1T

,

min

2

s .t .

( K ( A , C T ) u ( 2 ) e1b ( 2 ) ) T e1 , 0

Correspondingly, the dual problem is

1 T

T

T

1

T

max e 2 G ( H H ) G

2

s.t . 0 c1

.

1 T

T

T

1

T

max e1 H ( G G ) H

2

s.t . 0 c 2

u

( 1)

(2)

,b

,b

(1 )

(2)

1

1

|| A w (1) e1b (1) || 2 v1 1 e 2 T 2

m in

w

,b

, ,

2

l2

(1)

(1)

( B w (1) e 2 b (1) ) 1 2 , 2 0, 1 0

s .t .

m in

w

(2)

,b

(2)

s .t .

, 1 , 2

1

1

|| B w ( 2 ) e 2 b ( 2 ) || 2 v 2 2 e1T 1 .

2

l1

( Aw ( 2 ) e1b ( 2 ) ) 2 1 , 1 0, 2 0

It is seen that v-twin support vector machine introduces the parameters v1 and v2, which can control support vector and

spacing error and v-TSVM also adds two variables 1 and 2. Its dual problem is

1

T G ( H T H ) 1 G T

max

2

1

s.t. 0 , e2T v1

l2

1

T H (G T G ) 1 H T ,

max

2

1

s.t. 0 , e1T v2

l1

where H=[A e1] G=[B e2].

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When the samples are nonlinear separable, the kernel-generated surfaces are considered instead of planes. The kernelgenerated surfaces are K (xT, CT) u (1) + b (1) = 0 and K (xT, CT) u (2) + b (2) = 0. K is an appropriately chosen kernel. Thus, the

optimization problem is as follows

1

1

|| K ( A, C T )u (1) e1b (1) ||2 v1 1 e2 T 2

2

l2

min

u

(1)

,b

(1)

, 2 , 1

1

1

|| K ( B , C T )u ( 2) e2 b ( 2 ) ||2 v 2 2 e1T 1

2

l1

min

u

(2)

,b

(2)

,1 , 2

( K ( A, C T )u ( 2 ) e1b ( 2) ) 2 1 ,1 0, 2 0

s.t .

max

s .t .

1

T R ( S T S ) 1 R T

2

1

0 , e2 T v1

l2

1

T S ( R T R ) 1 S T

max

2

1

s.t . 0 , e1T v 2

l1

3. FUZZY TWIN SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND ITS ITERATIVE MENTHOD

In the fuzzy twin support vector machine, all the samples are given weights depending on their contribution on hyperplanes.

By this method, the classification performance on twin support vector machine is improved. Here, two kinds of fuzzy twin

support vector machine including FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM.

3.1 Fuzzy twin support vector machine FTWSVM

The optimization problem of FTWSVM is represented as

1

(1) T

(1)

( Aw(1) eb

) ( Aw(1) eb

) c1SAe2T

1

1

,

2

(1)

(1) T

s.t. (Bw e2b ) e2 , 0

1

( Bw(2) e2b(2) )T ( Bw(2) e2b(2) ) c2SBe1T

min

w ,b ,

2

,

s.t. ( Aw(2) e1b(2) )T e1, 0

min

(1 )

(1)

w , b ,

(2)

(2)

where SA and SB denote fuzzy membership of the sample points, c1SA and c2SB in the objective function determined the

importance of training support vector machine. Their dual problems are written as

1 T

T

T

1 T

max e2 G ( H H ) G

2

,

s.t. 0 c1S A

1 T

T

T

1

T

max e1 H (G G ) H

2

.

s.t. 0 c2 S B

When the samples are nonlinear separable, the kernel matrix K (xT, CT) =(xT) (CT) is introduced. The kernel-generated

surfaces are K (xT, CT) u (1) + b (1) = 0 and K (xT, CT) u (2) + b (2) = 0. Where CT = [A B] T, K (x, y) is the kernel function. The

optimization problems of solving the classification surface are

1

|| K ( A, CT )u (1) e1b(1) ||2 c1S Ae2T

min

2

s.t. ( K ( B, CT )u (1) e2b(1) )T e2 , 0

u

( 1)

,b

( 1)

min

u

( 2)

,b

( 2)

s.t.

1

|| K ( B, C T )u (2) e2b(2) ||2 c2 S B e1T

2

( K ( A, C T )u (2) e1b(2) )T e1 , 0

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1 T

R ( S T S )1 R T ,

2

s.t . 0 c1 S A

1 T

T

T

1 T

max e1 S ( R R ) S .

2

s .t . 0 c 2 S B

T

max e 2

As the parameters c1 and c2 can only control the empirical risk, the parameters v1 and v2 are introduced. And they can

control support vectors and spacing errors.

3.2 Fuzzy v twin support vector machine v-FTWSVM

For v-FTWSVM, the optimization problem is

1

1

|| Aw(1) e1b(1) ||2 v11 SBT 2

min

w , b , ,

2

l2

(1)

(1)

,

s.t. ( Bw e b )

(1)

(1)

2 0, 1 0

1

1

|| Bw(2) e2b(2) ||2 v2 2 S AT 1

2

l1

min

(2)

,b

( 2)

, 1 , 2

s.t.

( Aw(2) e1b(2) ) 2 1

1 0, 2 0

Correspondingly, the dual problem is

1

T G ( H T H )1 GT

2

,

SB T

s.t. 0

, e2 v1

l2

1 T

T

1 T

max H (G G) H

2

S

.

s.t. 0 A , e1T v2

l1

When the data samples are nonlinear separable, the kernel-generated surfaces are K (xT, CT) u (1) + b (1) = 0 and K (xT, CT) u

(2)

+ b (2) = 0. Where CT = [A B]T, K (x, y) is the kernel function. The optimization problem of solving the classification

surface is

1

1

|| K ( A, C T )u (1) e1b(1) ||2 v1 1 S BT 2 ,

min

2

l2

max

( 1)

,b

(1 )

m in

u

(2)

,b

(2)

s .t .

, 1 , 2

1

1

|| K ( B , C T ) u ( 2 ) e 2 b ( 2 ) ||2 v 2 2 S A T 1 .

2

l1

( K ( A , C T ) u ( 2 ) e1b ( 2 ) ) 2 1 , 1 0, 2 0

max

s.t.

max

s.t .

1

T R ( S T S ) 1 R T

2

,

S

0 B , e2T v1

l2

1

T S ( RT R) 1 S T

2

S

,

0 A , e1T v2

l1

3.3 Iterative method

Successive over-relaxation iteration is a method to solve system of linear equations. It is a fast iterative method which is

based on Gauss-Seidel iteration using the weighted average. Mangasarian et al. [11] studied the traditional support vector

machine using this method in order to improve the training speed of SVM. Shao et al. researches on twin support vector

machine with successive over-relaxation method.

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The above dual quadratic programming problems based on FTWSVM can be transformed into following form

min

1

2

P e

s.t. S { | 0 Ce}

T

P is decomposed into L+E+L , where the nonzero elements of constitute the strictly lower triangular part of the symmetric

matrix P , and the nonzero elements of ERmm constitute the diagonal of P. Thus, the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained

using iterative method:

i 1 ( i wE 1 ( P i e L ( i 1 i ))) # ,

In solving , first choose w(0,2) to ensure convergence. Then start with any 0Rm, compute until ||i+1-i || is less than

some prescribed tolerance , where (.)# denotes the 2-norm projection on the feasible region.

if i 0

0

(( )# )i i

if 0 i c1 ( S A )i , i 1,..., m2

c ( S )

if i c1 ( S A )i

1 A i

if i 0

0

(( ) # )i i

if 0 i c2 ( S B )i , i 1,..., m1

c ( S )

if i c2 ( S B )i

2 B i

Correspondingly, the above dual problems based on v-FTWSVM can be transformed into following form

1 T

P

min

2

s.t. S { | 0 Ce}

Here, we use the following formula to solve the Lagrange multipliers

i 1 ( i wE 1 ( P i L ( i 1 i )))# .

The value range of Lagrange multiplier is

v

1

(( )# )i i

(SB )i

l2

,

(SB )i

if v1 i

, i 1,..., m2

l2

(S )

if i B i

l2

if i v1

v

if

v

i

2

2

(SA )i

(( )# )i i if v2 i

,

i

1,...,

m

1

l1

(SA )i

(S )

if i A i

l1

l1

4. EXPERIMENT

4.1 Experimental data and methods

In order to verify the performance of fuzzy twin support vector machine based on iterative method, we choose 10 datasets

from UCI database to conduct some experiments, as seen in Tab. 1. In experiment, tenfold cross-validation method is used

and the kernel functions chosen are linear kernel and Gaussian kernel, respectively. For the convenience of comparison, we

also select TWSVM, FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM to experiment.

Table 1: Characteristic of data sets

Datasets

heart-statlog

sonar

ionosphere

banknote_authenticatio

Instance

s

270

208

351

1372

Attribute

s

14

60

35

6

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n

diabetes

breast_cancer

housing

wholesale_customers

vertebral_column

parkinsons

768

683

506

440

310

197

9

11

15

9

7

24

The experimental results are depicted in Tab. 2 to Tab. 4, where TWSVM, FTWSVM and v-FTWSVM solve the Lagrange

multipliers using traditional method, whereas TWSVM-S, FTWSVM-S, FTWSVM-S and v-FTWSVM-S solve the Lagrange

multiplier using successive over-relaxation method. In addition, Tab. 2 depicts the experimental results of linear

separability. Tab. 3 and Tab. 4 are the experimental results using linear kernel and Gaussian kernel function.

Table 2: Accuracy of classifiers(%)

Datasets

TWSVMS

heart-statlog

84.446.80

sonar

77.006.10

ionosphere

88.485.74

banknote_authenticatio

n

97.740.23

diabetes

76.032.45

breast_cancer

95.152.11

housing

78.312.55

wholesale_customers

86.362.93

vertebral_column

76.131.58

parkinsons

82.833.50

Datasets

TWSVMS

TWSVM

FTWSVMS

heart-statlog

84.812.00

84.444.32

85.923.60

sonar

77.263.40

77.2610.1

0

75.513.10

ionosphere

74.653.26

88.032.81

78.044.25

banknote_authenticatio

n

97.410.32

97.300.47

97.740.78

diabetes

59.804.51

64.972.52

64.657.54

breast_cancer

65.004.15

65.034.72

65.327.05

housing

84.182.08

84.141.62

84.183.75

wholesale_customers

83.860.68

83.682.45

86.090.46

vertebral_column

79.031.29

78.062.00

80.961.93

parkinsons

75.336.01

74.836.33

74.161.96

TWSVM

82.596.2

1

75.516.3

0

74.404.2

0

97.160.2

4

65.101.0

8

94.722.4

7

78.348.0

6

81.360.4

6

76.078.0

6

88.501.1

6

FTWSVMS

84.813.40

77.362.30

76.453.45

97.810.30

77.065.18

95.613.92

79.180.73

83.185.22

78.392.91

89.163.34

FTWSVM

84.442.1

2

76.415.2

1

74.382.6

3

97.380.8

9

73.044.1

5

95.471.4

9

85.400.8

5

82.271.2

7

76.453.8

7

89.161.0

0

v-FTWSVMS

vFTWSVM

84.072.22

84.072.22

77.516.50

76.944.30

77.212.71

74.643.10

97.820.25

96.870.58

76.063.45

75.922.03

95.182.73

94.722.08

78.782.53

85.540.75

89.403.35

89.320.68

77.746.45

75.806.27

83.501.67

83.162.16

v-FTWSVMS

vFTWSVM

86.294.32

85.564.45

77.464.50

77.463.14

78.383.42

74.964.50

97.740.56

97.380.67

76.185.48

65.093.16

65.067.64

64.996.07

81.246.73

81.256.50

85.221.36

84.311.14

80.002.26

79.354.21

72.672.30

72.501.00

FTWSVM

85.562.8

4

75.512.3

0

74.933.6

0

97.530.6

8

64.434.0

7

65.045.8

4

83.611.0

3

85.911.6

0

80.642.0

0

79.161.5

0

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ISSN 2321-5992

Datasets

TWSVMS

heart-statlog

82.964.67

sonar

89.646.11

ionosphere

87.463.40

banknote_authenticatio

n

99.050.10

diabetes

76.065.01

breast_cancer

64.275.08

housing

79.282.07

wholesale_customers

87.951.82

vertebral_column

78.711.30

parkinsons

75.331.00

TWSVM

FTWSVMS

84.442.1

3

80.323.2

2

86.737.4

0

97.670.2

1

65.123.0

8

64.024.5

6

79.236.2

6

83.860.9

1

78.323.6

1

85.671.1

7

85.724.32

82.363.67

93.162.12

98.100.37

77.604.82

65.725.81

85.391.73

87.720.68

80.351.65

85.505.83

FTWSVM

v-FTWSVMS

vFTWSVM

85.184.51

84.814.32

78.273.46

76.462.13

92.573.20

92.321.31

99.050.10

98.250.09

74.975.06

65.14.05

65.716.25

65.64.17

78.462.37

77.281.74

87.270.72

84.090.91

81.292.62

78.060.97

77.006.33

76.831.01

85.653.4

4

80.612.4

0

92.583.1

0

97.890.1

4

77.224.5

1

65.025.8

1

80.755.2

3

83.640.6

8

80.001.2

9

85.501.1

6

From the results of Tab. 2 to Tab. 4, we can see that whether the data set is linear separable or nonlinear separable, the

accuracy using fuzzy twin support vector machine based on iterative method has increased basically. For example, for

ionosphere in the Tab. 4 the accuracy of the FTWSVM algorithms is 92.58%, while the accuracy of the FTWSVM-S

algorithms is 93.16%. The accuracy of the v-FTWSVM algorithms is 92.32%, while the accuracy of the v-FTWSVM-S

algorithms is 92.57%. To show the time performance of twin support vector machine based on iteration method. Table 5

shows the time of algorithms using different methods. We can see that fuzzy twin support vector machine based on iterative

method runs faster than that of based on traditional method. For example, for heart-statlog, the time of v-FTWSVM

algorithms is 0.23, while the time of v-FTWSVM-S algorithms is 0.13.The time of FTWSVM algorithms is 0.42, while the

time of FTWSVM-S algorithms is 0.19.

Moreover, we also give total average running time for all datasets using different fuzzy twin support vector machine, as

seen in Fig.1. It is seen that fuzzy twin support vector machines based on iterative method including FTWSVM-S and vFTWSVM-S are superior to those based on traditional method.

Table 5: Running time(second)

Datasets

heart-statlog

sonar

ionosphere

banknote_authenticatio

n

diabetes

breast_cancer

housing

wholesale_customers

vertebral_column

parkinsons

vFTWSVM

0.23

0.24

0.72

FTWSV

M

0.42

0.39

0.71

v-FTWSVMS

0.13

0.06

0.25

FTWSVMS

0.19

0.18

0.28

78.43

77.96

31.43

30.65

11.47

6.03

3.71

2.25

0.9

0.24

12.5

6.68

3.43

2.2

0.9

0.32

5.72

1.73

1.11

0.43

0.19

0.05

6.2

1.74

1.16

0.44

0.18

0.05

12

Second

10

8

6

4

2

0

v-FTWSVM

FTWSVM

v-FTWSVM-S

FTWSVM-S

Figure 1 Total average running time for all datasets using different fuzzy twin support vector machine

Page 16

A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Email: editoriijcs@ipasj.org

ISSN 2321-5992

In summary, the classification performance of fuzzy twin support vector machine based on iterative method is comparable

to that of fuzzy twin support vector machine based on traditional method. And their running time is much faster than that of

this paper, we study fuzzy twin support vector machine based on iterative method. At the same time, we also compare their

performance with those using traditional method. Experiments are done for TWSVM, FTWSVM, and v-FTWSVM on UCI

datasets. The experimental results indicate that the performance based on successive over-relaxation iterative method is not

only improved, but also its accuracy is comparable to those using traditional method. Of course, what we have obtained is

only the results of binary classification data or small-scale data. In future, we need to further study multiple classification

dataset or large-scale dataset.

References

[1] T. Le, D. Tran, W. Ma, et al, "Robust support vector machine," International Joint Conference on Neural Networks

(IJCNN), pp. 4137-4144, 2014.

[2] V. Bloom, I. Griva, B. Kwon, et al, "Exterior-point method for support vector machines," IEEE Transactions on Neural

Networks and Learning Systems, 25(7),pp. 1390-1393, 2014.

[3] R.K. Jayadeva, R. Khemchandani, S. Chandra, "Twin support vector machines for pattern classification," IEEE Trans.

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 29(5),pp. 905910, 2007.

[4] Y.H. Shao, C.H. Zhang, N.Y. Deng et al, "Improvements on twin support vector machine," IEEE Transaction on

Neural Networks, 22(6),pp.10459227, 2011.

[5] X. Peng, "A v-twin support vector machine(v-TSVM)classifier and its geometric algorithms," Information Sciences,

180,pp.3863-3875, 2010.

[6] S.F. Ding, J.Z. Yu, B.J. Qi, et al, "An overview on twin support vector machines," Artificial Intelligence Review,

42(2),pp.245-252, 2014.

[7] D. Tomar, S. Agarwal, "Twin support vector machine: a review from 2007 to 2014," Egyptian Informatics Journal,

16,pp.5569, 2015.

[8] Y. Tian, Z. Qi, "Review on: twin support vector machines," Annals of Data Science, 1(2),pp.253-277, 2014.

[9] S.F. Ding, "An improved twin support vector machine," Journal of Liaoning Shihua University, 32(4),pp.1672-6952,

2012.

[10] K. Li, N. Li, X.X. Lu, "Twin support vector machine algorithm with fuzzy weighting," Computer Engineering and

Applications, 49(4),pp.162-165, 2013.

[11] O.L. Mangasarian, D.R. Musicant, "Successive overrelaxation for support vector machines," IEEE Transactions on

Neural Networks, 10(5),pp.1032-1037, 1999.

AUTHOR

Kai Li received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in mathematics department electrical engineering department

from Hebei University, Baoding, China, in 1982 and 1992,respectively. He received the Ph.D. degree

from Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China, in 2001.He is currently a Professor in college of

computer science and technology, Hebei University. His current research interests include machine

learning, data mining, computational intelligence, and pattern recognition.

Shaofang Hu received the bachelor degree in computer science and technology from Industrial and

Commercial College HeiBei University, Baoding, Hebei, China, in 2013, and she is currently pursuing

the M.E. degree in the computer science and technology, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China. Her

research interests include machine learning, data mining, and pattern recognition.

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