Anatomy & Physiology | Mitosis | Cell (Biology)

By: Maria Nazarethe S.

Alganion, RN

What is the difference between Anatomy & Physiology?

2

Anatomy
• The study of the structure and shape of the body and parts and their relationship with one another. • Gross anatomy
– Studying easily observable structures

• Microscopic anatomy
3

4

Physiology
• The study of how the body and its parts work or function.

• Neurophysiology • Cardiac Physiology

5

Levels of Structural Organization
• • • • • • Atoms Cells Tissues Organ Organ System Organism
6

Organ Systems
• Integumentary system

9

Integumentary system
• • • • • External covering in the body Waterproofs the body Protects and cushions tissues from injury Excrete salt and urea Helps regulate temperature

10

Organ Systems
• Skeletal system

11

Skeletal system
• • • • Framework Support & Protection Hematopoiesis Storehouse for minerals

12

Organ Systems

• Muscular system

13

Muscular System
• Contracts • Allows movement

14

Organ Systems
• Nervous system

15

Nervous System
• Fast acting control system • Mastermind

16

Organ Systems
• Endocrine system

17

Endocrine System
• Slower acting control system • Produce hormones

18

Organ Systems
• Cardiovascular system

19

Cardiovascular System
• Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other substances to and from the cells

20

Organ Systems
• Lymphatic system

21

Lymphatic System
• Returns fluid leaked from the blood to the blood vessels so that blood can be kept circulating through the body.

22

Organ Systems
• Respiratory system

23

Respiratory System
• Keeps body constantly supplied with oxygen • Remove CO2

24

Organ Systems
• Digestive System

25

Digestive System
• Tube from mouth to anus • Breakdown food and deliver the products to the blood fro dispersal to body cells

26

Organ Systems
• Urinary System

27

Urinary System
• Removes nitrogen containing waste from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.

28

Organ Systems

• Reproductive System

29

Reproductive System
• “Go forth and multiply” • For survival of the species

30

Homeostasis
• The body’s ability maintain a relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is consciously changing.

31

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
• Receptor
– Determines the level at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response

32

33

34

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
• Control Center
– A sensor that monitors and respond to changes in the environment

35

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
• Effector
– Provides the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus

36

Negative Feedback Mechanism

37

Positive Feedback Mechanism
• Increase the original stimulus and to push the variable farther from its original value

38

Give an example of a positive feedback mechanism?

39

Anatomy Language
• Directions: Try to identify the anatomical location of using the Anatomical Terms.

40

Fingers
• Digital

41

Nose
• Nasal

42

Navel
• Umbilical

43

Breastbone
• Sternal

44

Armpit
• Axillary

45

Arm
• Brachial

46

Cheek
• Buccal

47

Hands
• Carpal

48

Eyes
• Orbital

49

Chest
• Thoracic

50

Posterior surface of the head
• Occipital

51

Posterior knee area
• Popliteal

52

Shoulder blade
• Scapular

53

Calf
• Sural

54

Spine
• Vertebral

55

Anterior surface of elbow
• Antecubital

56

Neck region
• Cervical

57

Thigh
• Femoral

58

Area where thigh meets body trunk • Inguinal

59

Anterior knee
• Patellar

60

Lateral part of the leg
• Peroneal

61

Genital region
• Pubic

62

Ankle region
• Tarsal

63

Posterior knee area
• Popliteal

64

Body Cavities
• Contains few large internal spaces or cavities • Dorsal Cavity • Ventral Cavity

Regions of the Abdomen
• • • • • • • • • Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric Right hypochondriac Left hypochondriac Right lumbar region Left Lumbar region Right iliac region Left Iliac region

Four Abdominal Quadrants
• • • • RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ

75

The Cells
Cellular Basis of Life

Cell
• Basic unit of life • Started about 350 years ago when Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope

Structure of the Cell
• Cell membrane/Plasma Membrane
– Have proteins that act as receptors – Acts as carriers

• Cytoplasm
– Fills the cells and holds the cell contents

The Organelles
• • • • • • • • Nucleus Nucleolus Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondria Centrioles Lysosomes Golgi Apparatus

Name Cell Membrane

Description Outer layer of the cell; composed mainly of lipids and proteins Colloidal suspension that fills the cell Large, dark staining body near the center of the cell Composed of DNA and proteins Small body in the nucleus Composed of RNA, DNA and protein

Function Limits the cell Regulates what enters and leaves the cell Hold cell contents Contains the chromosomes with the genes Needed for protein manufacture For storage & transport Holds ribosomes Manufacture proteins

Cytoplasm Nucleus

Nucleolus

Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of membranes in the cytoplasm Ribosomes Small bodies attached to ER Composed of RNA and protein

Name Mitochondria Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Centrioles

Description Large organelles with folded membranes inside Layers of membranes Small sacs of digestive enzymes

Function Convert energy from nutrients into ATP Put together special substances such as mucus Digest substances within the cell

Rod-shaped bodies (usually Help separate the 2) near the nucleus chromosome in cell division Short, hairlike projections from the cell Create movement around the cell

Cilia

Flagellum

Long, whiplike extension from the cell

Moves the cell

Cell Functions
• Protein synthesis
– DNA – RNA
Other Functions: Cell Division

DNA

RNA

Cell Division
• • • • • • Mitosis Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

Movement of Cells
• Diffusion
– Constant movement of molecules from a region of a relatively higher concentration to one of lower concentration

Movement of Cells
• Osmosis
– Water moves rapidly through a cell membrane – Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane

Movement of Cells
• Filtration
– Passage of water containing dissolved materials through a membrane as a result of mechanical (“pushing”) force on one side

Movement of Cells
• Active Transport
– Movement into and out of cell with a carrier – It allows cell to take in what it needs from the surrounding fluids and to release materials from the cell

Movement of Cells
• Phagocytosis
– Engulfing of relatively large particles by the cell membrane and the movement of these particles into the cell

Movement of Cells
• Pinocytosis
– Droplets of fluid are engulfed by the cell membrane

93

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.