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Lab Activity 1

Identification of Graphic Symbols.

Aim: To identify Electrical Graphics Components
Activity Procedure: Identify and write out the name below each symbol as
per the sections given below.

Section 1: Connections and network elements

Section 2. Power plant

Section 3. Electronic devices

Section 4. Logic symbols

Section 5. Optic fibre symbols

Section 6. Telecommunication symbols

Section 7. Microwave devices

Section 8. Flowchart symbols

Section 9. Instrument and process equipment symbols.

Line types:

Section 10. Process/Instrument line connections:

Section 11. Instrument bubbles:

Section 12. Process valve types:

Section 13. Valve actuator types

Section 14. Flow measurement devices

Section 15. Process equipment


Lab Activity 2
Electronic Components
Aim: Study and Identification of Laboratory Electronic Components.
Materials Required:
Activity Procedure:
For the resistors, capacitors, inductors/chokes, diodes and transistors the
multimeter will be used to take simple measurements to further the
understanding and appreciation of the components.
1. After identification of the resistor, write down the type, size, colour code of the
resistor and interpret this and write down your result in the space given below.
Your result must be tabulated with a column for calculated and measured

2. Use the multimeter set at appropriate range (write down the range) to
measure the resistance of the resistor and include your result in the table you
created in 1 above.

3. Identify the different capacitors given to you supplying the following
(i) type
(ii) capacitance value
(iii) voltage
4. Set the multimeter range to X1M range. Measure the value of the
capacitance using the meter; allow it to charge from zero to its maximum value
and record this value in the space provided below.

5. Identify the inductors/chokes and write down the value if its is engraved on
the body of the inductor.
6. Set the multimeter to the X1 range and measure the coils resistance.

7. Identify the diodes given to you and supply the following information;
(i). diode Type
(ii). diode marking
(iii). diode number
8. Set the multimeter on the X1 range and measure the forward and reverse
bias resistance of the diode using the steps below;
(i) Check the user manual for your multimeter to determine which lead is
positive and which is negative. Do not assume that the red lead is positive;
depending on the manufacturer, it may not be.
(ii) correctly identified the leads, this should reverse bias the diode, resulting in

a high resistance measurement. Set your multimeter to the "Ohmmeter"

(iii) Identify the cathode (negative) side of your diode. The cathode is usually
marked with an indentation, a line or a longer leg. Most electronics stores have
the manufacturer's parts manuals, and can give you the information you need
once you supply the part number. In some cases, you may need to consult the
diode manufacturer directly.
(iv) Connect the multimeter's positive lead to the anode, and its negative lead to
the cathode. (If your diode is still in the circuit, disconnect the power and one
end of the diode before testing.) As long as you have correctly identified the
anode and cathode, this connection should forward bias the diode, resulting in
low to zero resistance as measured on the multimeter.
(v) Reverse the leads. Attach the negative lead to the anode, and the positive
lead to the cathode. If the diode is working properly, and you have
Tabulate your result showing all the readings in the space provided below.

9. Lead Identification:
(i) For oral shaped transistor; collector lead is identified by a wide space between it and
the base lead. The lead farthest from the collector, in line, is the emitter lead.

(ii) When the leads are evenly spaced and in line, a colored dot usually indicates the
(iii) If the transistor is round, a red line indicates the collector, and the emitter lead is the
shortest lead.
(iv) Where the leads are in triangular arrangement and has a tab, when viewed from
the bottom in a clockwise direction, the first lead following the tab is the emitter
followed by the base and collector.
(v) For power transistor, the collector lead is usually connected to the mounting base.
The base in some package is covered with green sleeving. In some other package,
viewing from the bottom, the emitter lead will be either at 5 oclock 11 oclock position
while the mounting hole occupies the 3 o'clock or 9 o'clock position. The other lead is
the base.
10. For transistor measurements set the multimeter range to the X1 range and place
the probes as follows;
(i) collector and emitter (black probe)
(ii) base and collector (red probe)
(iii) base and emitter (red probe)
Tabulate your readings in a table using the space provided after the procedures.
(iv) Reverse the probes of the multimeter and record your readings. Tabulate your

Transistor Diode Test:

Multimeter transistor test
(a) Set your multimeter or ohmmeter to its diode test setting. Make a sketch of
the transistor showing the leads as 1,2, & 3, and complete the data below;

Meter touching wire 1 (-) and 2 (+): =

Meter touching wire 1 (+) and 3 (-): =
Meter touching wire 1 (-) and 3 (+): =
Meter touching wire 2 (+) and 3 (-): =

For PNP complete the following combination;

E and C high R: 1 (+) and 2 (-): =
C and E high R: 1 (-) and 2 (+): =
E and B forward: 1 (+) and 3 (-): =
E and B reverse: 1 (-) and 3 (+):=
C and B forward: 2 (+) and 3 (-): =
C and B reverse: 2 (-) and 3 (+): =
(b) Measure the conductivity all six ways and record the meter readings in your
table. The meter should only indicate significant conductivity in two of the six
cases. The common lead to those two cases is the base.

(C) if the transistor is an NPN (base is + lead in both cases) or a PNP (base is
lead in both cases). Also, your low est meter reading will often indicate the
base/collector junction and thus which lead is the collector.
(d) Look at the data sheet for this transistor to see if you were correct.


Activity Excercise
Identify the following components writing down the name of each group.

For the board shown below, identify all the components marked 1 - 10. Write out
your answers in the space given below the board.


Lab Activity 3
Semiconductor Identification System
Aim: Identifying Electronic Components by Number
Materials Required:
Different Electronic Components
1. Count the number of leads or pins on the part. If it has two leads and a part in
the middle forming a straight line, this is either a resistor or diode.
A resistor has five or six colored bands and no numbers. If it has a single stripe
or mark closer to one end, the part is a diode.
A capacitor has two values, capacitance and voltage, clearly printed on it. It may
have a straight line shape, a can or disk shape with both leads pointing down. If
the part has three pins it is a transistor.
Note that some transistors with metal cases have two pins, the third being
the case. Parts having eight or more pins are integrated circuits. These
are more complicated to decode.
2. Read all the codes printed on the body of the part and write them down. Use a
magnifying glass to read small print. The device may have a company name or
logo next to the number. Note this also.
3. Decode the part number. According to the JEDEC system, numbers that
begin with a "1" are usually diodes, with confirmation that the device has two
leads. If it begins with a "2," the part is a transistor. An "N" following the "2"
means it was made in the U.S. and an "S" means the part was made in Japan.
Codes beginning with "TIP" indicate Texas Instruments power transistors.
Transistors coming from vintage equipment frequently begin with the letter "A"
or "B." An "A" indicates germanium, and "B" is a silicon transistor.
4. Find the decoded part number in a distributor's semiconductor catalog. Once
the device is narrowed down to a diode or transistor, go to the section for that
type of part. Some catalogs are organized by manufacturer, so the company
name may be useful. The catalog provides the part's exact type and
How to Identify Diode Markings
1. Identify the cathode and the anode. One side of the diode may have several

bands. The side to which the bands sits closest is the cathode. If the diode has
no colored bands, look for a spot, marking, the word "cath," the letter "k" or an
unusual shape or tapering on the cathode end. Note that the direction of current
flows from the anode to the cathode.
2. Hold the diode with the cathode (and the colored bands) on your left.
3. Inspect the colored bands, which you can translate into the identification
number of the diode. The right-most band indicates the suffix letter, and all
bands left of this band represent numbers. The only exception to this rule occurs
when the right-most band is black, which indicates the lack of a suffix letter and
that the diode is designated by numbers only.
4. Translate the colored bands into the relevant numbers using the following
code: black = 0, brown = 1, red = 2, orange = 3, yellow = 4, green = 5, blue = 6,
violet = 7, grey = 8 and white = 9.
5. Translate the suffix letter (if used) using the following code: brown = A, red =
B, orange = C, yellow = D, green = E, blue = F, violet = G, grey = H and white = J
(no "I" appears).
6. Add "1N" to the beginning of the identification number. The "1" indicates a
diode (as opposed to "2" for a transistor and "3" for a tetrode), and the "N"
identifies the component as a semiconductor. For example, a diode with yellow,
green, red and violet bands would have the code 1N452G.
Transistor Identification
Transistors can be identified by a Joint Army-Navy (JAN) designation printed
directly on the case of the transistor. The marking scheme explained earlier for
diodes is also used for transistor identification. The first number indicates the
number of junctions. The letter "N" following the first number tells us that the
component is a semiconductor. And, the 2- or 3-digit number following the N is
the manufacturer's identification number. If the last number is followed by a
letter, it indicates a later, improved version of the device.
For example, a semiconductor designated as type 2N130A signifies a threeelement transistor of semiconductor material that is an improved version of type

Note: You may also find other markings on transistors that do not relate to the
JAN marking system. These markings are manufacturers' identifications and
may not conform to a standardized system. If in doubt, always replace a
transistor with one having identical markings. To ensure that an identical
replacement or a correct substitute is used, consult an equipment or transistor
manual for specifications on the transistor.

Pinouts identification of some common Transistor packages.

1. Identify the different Transistor packages giving the name in each box in
figure xbd
2. For each of the package identified, give examples of each package under the
following headings; package type, NPN type transistor, PNP type transistor etc.
Tabulate your result in the space below.


Experiment 4
Creating a Printed Circuit Board I
Aim: Etching Circuit Boards Using a Laser Printer
Materials required:
How to Etch Your Own Circuit Boards Using a Laser Printer
Laser Printer, Tinsnips, Copper Clad Board, Glossy Paper, Clothes Iron,
Abrasive Pads, Razor, Permanent Marker, Plastic Tub, Hydrochloric Acid
(muriatic Acid), Hydrogen Peroxide, Acetone, Paper Towels, Tape And Scissor
Links to Video Tutorials;
Procedure to Etch a Circuit Boards Using a Laser Printer
1 Design the Circuit using Fritzing: This is most user friendly application for
beginner PCB design. The really useful thing about Fritzing is that you can build
the circuit on a breadboard and the application will automatically generate a
PCB file for you to manipulate.
2 Layout the PCB: Layout by determining the preferred location of the
components on the board. This will depend on where you plan to mount the
board, the project enclosure, and whether you have any buttons or switches
that need to be accessed.
3 Silkscreen: The silkscreen layer is the layer of white text and design printed
over the traces of a circuit board. They usually provide clues for how to orient
components on the board or display the logo of the manufacturer. Fritzing has
already created the silkscreens for the components automatically. If you want to
add your design, scroll down the component menu on the right side of the
window. Select silkscreen from the boxes and import the image you wish to add.
Solid color images work best.
4 Get Image Files by clicking "Export for PCB" at the bottom of the window. This
will give you two images files. One is the silhouette of the copper traces for the
circuit. The other is the silhouette of the silkscreen pattern.
5 Print using a laser printer and glossy photo paper, print out a copy of your

copper trace image. Laser printers work by mixing plastic and pigment and then
heating the plastic until it melts onto the paper. We are going use the highest
toner setting to get the maximum amount of plastic onto our photo paper.
6 Prepare Board by Scouring the copper surface of the board with steel wool to
remove the thin layer of oxidation. After scouring, clean the board with a paper
towel and isopropyl alcohol. This ensures the plastic ink can make a strong
bond with the copper board.
7 Cut and Tape your photo paper image so that it can fit neatly on the copper
surface of the board. Tape the image face down so that all of the traces are
contained within the copper boundary.
8 Iron: Place the board with the image taped to it on a flat hard surface. Set your
iron to maximum heat with no steam. Press down on the paper so that you push
it into the copper board. Hold the iron to the board with force for 10 minutes,
periodically using the tip of the iron to press down the areas of the paper where
the traces are located.
9 Soak and Peel: After ten minutes, immediately place the board in a bath of
water. Be sure to use gloves. Allow the board to soak for 15 minutes. After 15
minutes, remove the board and gently scrape off the layers of paper. You should
be able to peel off most of it in one shot if you start from the edge.
10 Use your etch-resistant marker to fill in any gaps in the traces. Also use it to
make the contact pads larger and easier to drill.
11 Etch: Place your board, now with black traces, into a plastic container. Pour
ferric chloride into the container until it covers the surface of the board. The
ferric chloride will eat away at the exposed copper and leave our circuit copper
behind. This can take up to 45 minutes to finish.
12 Once you have removed all the paper you can, place the board in a bath of
acetone for 10 minutes. When the time is up, remove the board and gently
scrub away the plastic and remaining paper. Note that the etch-resistant marker
is the first part to wash off.
13 Drill the holes using a drill bit of the same size as the holes left in your copper
14 Solder: Check to see if your components fit into the proper holes on the
board. Because of the way PCB images are oriented, every thing should be
placed down through the blank side of the board and out through the copper
etched side.

Lab Activity 5
Creating a Printed Circuit Board II
Aim: Making PCBs Using Photoresist
Materials required:
Laser Printer, Tinsnips, Copper Clad Board, Glossy Paper, Clothes Iron,
Abrasive Pads, Razor, Permanent Marker, Plastic Tub, Hydrochloric Acid
(muriatic Acid), Hydrogen Peroxide, Acetone, Paper Towels, Tape And Scissor
Links to Video Tutorials;
1. After designing a proper board (one that does not violate any conductive
or developing rules), print a MIRRORED image of the PCB layout, actual
size. The printout should print only where traces are needed; blank or empty
places on the printout will eventually contain no copper and be completely
etched to the fiberglass under layer. This can be done either with a
transparency or a piece of paper.
2. While in low-UV light (in the presence of an incandescent is preferable)
remove any protective covering from the PCB and place it on the opaque
containment backing, with the photoresist facing up.
3. Place the transparency/paper INK SIDE DOWN on the PCB so that all
desired traces and features are on the PCB. Placing the image face-down on
the photosensitized PCB allows for the closest possible contact between the
printed image and the UV-sensitive PCB..
4. Secure the image and PCB by placing the CLEAN acrylic piece on top of the
backing and secure with screws or other appropriate fasteners.
5. Once secured, expose the light to UV light. In order to ensure even exposure
and minimize the effects of any shadowing or uneven exposure, turn the entire
containment 90 degrees about every minute or so.
6. Once the PCB has been exposed for an appropriate amount of time, take the
entire board out of the containment device while in the presence of low-UV light.
7. Add the PCB to a developer solution until the appropriate features and traces

are the only visible portions on the PCB. Keep agitating the developer solution
until only the desired features and traces are visible. This could take from 30-90
seconds, depending on thickness of paper, exposure time, and complexity of
the transferred image. Additionally, the developing solution and container is a
simple mixture of 1g NaOH / 100 mL H20 in a glass beaker (large enough to hold
the entire PCB). Developing the image requires the PCB to be submersed in the
solution. Furthermore, the solution may be reused several times (5-10) before
requiring disposal.
8. Immediately after developing the image on the PCB, immerse the board in
water to stop the developing process. By not properly rinsing the solution off the
PCB, the developer still dissolves the photoresist and can possibly dissolve
necessary traces and features.
9. In a glass beaker, add an appropriate amount of water necessary to
adequately cover a fully submersed PCB.
10. To this water add Ammonium Hydroxide in a concentration of 3-8 g/ mL
water and fully dissolve.
11. Add the developed PCB to the solution stirring frequently. Depending on the
concentration of the solution as well as the size of the PCB, developing times
range from 45-200 minutes.
12. Once all unwanted copper has been etched away, fully rinse the PCB to stop
the etching process and remove the etching chemical. Because of the
environmental as well as health-related impacts of ammonium hydroxide, all
solutions and waters contaminated with this compound need to be properly
disposed of. Handling and disposal of the compound requires proper glove and
possibly respiratory protection as the chemical is an organic oxidizer. Disposal
of the solutions requires all liquid contaminates be absorbed by means of paper
towels or other disposable sponges and contained in chemical resistant plastic
bags. All rinsing liquids and solids in contact with the ammonium hydroxide
solution need to be disposed of in a similar fashion. Only after these agents and
chemicals have been properly sealed can they be disposed of in the garbage
13. With the rinsed and dried PCB (now fully etched), dip or rinse it in an acetone
in order to remove any inks, marks, or photoresist that remains. After cleaning
with acetone, rinse the PCB a final time in water and pat dry. The remaining PCB
should be complete and ready for use.


Lab Activity 6
Understanding A Residential Electrical Plan I
Aim: Understanding The Symbols in an Electrical Plan

Figure 1. Ground Floor Plan

Figure 2 Living Room section of the drawing

Activity Procedure:
1. From figure 1 measure all the dimensions of the external walls with a ruler
and write down the value using a scale of 1cm:1000m.

2. In figure 2 identify all the symbols represented in the living room.

3. Develop a complete legend for the diagram in figure 1.
4, Supply every detail of step 2 and 3 in the space provided below.


Experiment 7
Understanding A Residential Electrical Plan II
Aim: Understanding The Symbols in an Electrical Plan

Activity Procedure:
1. From figure 1 measure all the dimensions of the internal walls of all the
bedrooms with a ruler and write down the value using a scale of 1cm:1000m.
2. Develop a complete legend for the diagram in figure 3.
3. Supply every detail of step 2 in the space provided below.


Lab Activity 7
Understanding A Residential Electrical Plan III
Aim: Understanding The Symbols in an Electrical Plan

Activity Procedure:
1. Develop the Legend for the residential plan in the diagram/plan section.
2. Develop the load schedule for the lighting plan
3. Develop the load schedule for the socket plan.
4. Develop the ditribution board circuit diagram for the lighting circuit.
5 Develope the distribution board circuit diagram for the socket circuit.


Load Schedule For The Lighting Plan

Load Schedule For The Socket Plan.

Distribution Board Circuit Diagram For The Lighting Circuit.

Distribution Board Circuit Diagram For The Socket Circuit.


Lab Activity 8
Safety Symbols Identification
Aim: To Identify Basic Safety Symbols
Activity Procedure:
1. Identify the safety symbols below.
2. For the safety symbols you have identified give the name for each of them
against each of them.

3. Classify the following symbols.