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Chapter One

Overview

Project - Definition
A series of activities and tasks that :
Have a specific objective (which may be unique or oneof-a-kind) to be completed within certain specifications
Have defined start and end dates
Have funding limits (if applicable)
Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e.,
money, people, equipment)

Be multifunctional (cut across several functional lines)

Project Management
(PM)- Definition
PM is the application of knowledge, skills,
tools and techniques to project activities
to meet project requirements.

PM is accomplished through the use of


processes such as : intiating, planning,
executing, controlling and closing

PM Processes

PMBOK Guide 2000 edition

Project Management
Project Planning
Definition of work requirements
Definition of quantity and quality of work
Definition of resources needed

Project monitoring
Tracking progress
Comparing actual outcome to predicted
outcome
Analyzing impact
Making adjustments

PMBOK Guide 2000 edition

PM Knowledge Areas

OVERVIEW OF PROJECT
MANAGEMENT

RESOURCES

PERFORMANCE/TECHNOLOGY

Modern Project Management


Competing Constraints
Exemple of project :
Building and designing
Disneyland
What are constraints ?

Cost

Scope

Time

Why is a Project Management


System Necessary?

Project Management
(PM)- Definition
PM is the planning, organizing, directing
and controlling of company resources for
a relatively short time objective that has
been established to complete specific
goals and objectives.
PM is designed to make better use of
existing resources by getting work to flow
horizontally as well as vertically within the
firm
The vertical flow is the responsibility of line managers
The horizontal flow is the responsibility of project
manager who has to communicate and coordinate
activities horizontally between line organizations

MATURITY IN PROJECT
MANAGEMENT IS LIKE A THREE LEGGED STOOL.
THE LEGS REPRESENT THE:

Project Manager
Line Manager(s)
Executive Management (i.e... Project Sponsor)

Maturity cannot exist without stability

The Three-Legged Stool

Senior
Management
(I.e. Sponsor)

Project
Manager
Line
Management

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TOP OF THE THREE - LEGGED STOOL

ORGANIZATIONAL
STRUCTURE

ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOR

TOOLS &
TECHNIQUES

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Multiple Boss Reporting


GM

SPONSOR

PM

APM

LM

LM

LM

FE

FE

FE

APM

PM = Project Manager
APM = Assistant Project Manager
LM = Line or Functional Manager
FE = Functional employee

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Successful Culture
A good daily working relationship
between the project manager and those
line managers who directly assign
resources to projects
The ability of functional employees to
report vertically to their line manager at
the same time they report horizontally to
one or more project managers

A situation that
illustrates the
Project Manager
Line Manager
Interface
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Most projects also have a


project sponsor which
may or may not reside at
the executive levels of
management.
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The Project Sponsor Interface


Project Sponsor:
Senior Management

Priority Projects

Project Sponsor:
Lower/Middle Management

Maintenance Projects

Relationship:

Project
Manager

Project
Team

Project
Sponsor

Project
Manager

Objective Setting
Up-Front Planning
Project Organization
Key Staffing
Master Plan
Policies
Monitoring Execution
Priority-Setting
Conflict Resolution
Executive-Client Contact
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Role Of The
Project Manager
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Negotiating For
Resources
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The Project Kickoff


Meeting
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Establishing The
Projects Policies
and Procedures
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Laying Out The


Project
Workflow And
Plan
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Establishing
Performance
Targets
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Obtaining
Funding
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Executing
The Plan
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Acting As The
Conductor
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Putting Out
Fires
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Counseling And
Facilitation
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Encouraging The
Team To Focus
On Deadlines
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Monitoring
Progress By
Pounding The
Pavement
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Evaluating
Performance
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Develop
Contingency
Plans
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Briefing The
Project Sponsor
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Briefing
The Team
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Briefing The
Customer
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Closing Out
The Project
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Interface Management
Managing human interrelationships within the
project team
Managing human interrelationships between the
project team and the functional organization
Managing human interrelationships between the
project team and senior management
Managing human interrelationships between the
project team and the customers organization,
whether an internal or external organization

As part of interface
management, the project
managers role also includes
integration management.
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Integration Management
Resources

Integration
Management

Capital
Materials
Equipment
Inputs Facilities
Information
Personnel

Integrated
Processes

Products
Services Outputs
Profits

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Project Necessities
Complete task definitions
Resource requirement definitions (and
possibly skill levels needed)
Major timetable milestones
Definition of end-item quality and
reliability requirements
The basis for performance measurement

Results of Good Planning


Assurance that functional units will
understand their total responsibilities
toward achieving project needs.
Assurance that problems resulting from
scheduling and allocation of critical
resources are known beforehand.
Early identification of problems that may
jeopardize successful project completion
so that effective corrective action and
replanning can occur to prevent or
resolve problems.

THE TIP-OF-THE-ICEBERG SYNDROME


DELEGATION
OF AUTHORITY TO
PROJECT MANAGER
EXECUTIVE
MEDDLING

LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF HOW PROJECT


MANAGEMENT SHOULD WORK

LACK OF TRAINING IN COMMUNICATIONS /


INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

MANY OF THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PROJECT MANAGEMENT WILL


SURFACE MUCH LATER IN THE PROJECT AND RESULT IN MUCH HIGHER COSTS
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Problems
Will project management work in all
companies? If not, identify those companies
in which project management may not be
applicable.
Do you think that functional managers
would make good project managers?

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Problems
What attributes should a project manager
have? Can an individual be trained to
become a project manager? If a company
was changing over to a project management
structure would it be better to promote and
train from within or hire from the outside?
Dorale Product Case study A
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Homework # 1

PMP ?
PMI ?
PMBOK ?