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Rune Symbols and Meanings

Rune symbols were not only used as an alphabetical script in the pre-Christian era, but they were
also used as mystical symbols in the art of divination. Scroll below to learn the meaning of the 24
symbols of the runic alphabet.
The term "runes" refers to the set of ancient North European (especially Scandinavian) alphabets,
which were used to write the various Germanic languages before the introduction of the Latin
script. A special branch of Germanic linguistics that studies these runic alphabets and their history
is known as "runology", and it was first introduced by the Swedish antiquarian and
mystique, Johannes Bureus, who believed that the runic alphabets possessed magical powers. The
earliest epigraphs bearing runic inscriptions date back to around 150 CE, and according to sources,
the script continued to be used till the northern European cultures came completely under the
influence of Christianity (until about 1100 CE). Although after this period, the official use of runes as
an alphabetical script seems to have discontinued in both, northern and central Europe, there are
clear indications that they continued to be used, albeit unofficially, by local people, especially in the
rural areas of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.
We have substantial evidence to prove that, apart from being used as a writing system, the runic
alphabets also had magical associations since historical times. There are certain runic epigraphs
that clearly mention that the runes possess special powers to resurrect the dead. Therefore, an
element of mystery was always attached to the runic symbols, and owing to their supposed powers,
they were also associated with some of the important Nordic deities. And therefore, inscriptions
written in the runic script were given spiritual connotations, which later went on to become the
voice of an oracle; however, they never became a spoken idiom, used rampantly by commoners.
The Runic Symbols: A Brief Overview
The word "rune" means "secret" or "whisper" and is derived from the Gothic word "Runa".
Each and every runic alphabet is believed to possess a special kind of power. Each rune
supposedly bears the power to invoke deities, who can then help with various problems that persist
in the day-to-day life.
The rune reader, thus, acts as a shaman, serving as a connection between the physical and the
supernatural world. In this, the maker of divinations, also uses the power of his/her mind to connect
with the gods and spirits.
Today, runic divinations are very popular, especially in Europe, and various runic reading kits and
guides are available across the world, for those interested in learning.
Currently, there are three major sets of runic alphabets that are used to make divinations.
The earliest of these, and the most popular one is the Elder Futhark, which is also the oldest
among the three. There are 24 alphabets in this set, and these have been primarily found on
inscriptions dating between 2nd century CE and 8th century CE.
The second most popular set is the Anglo-Saxon Futhork that was used between 4th century CE
and 11th century CE, and this is followed by the Younger Futhark, used from 8th century CE to 11th
century CE.
It is important to note that these symbols were not used to predict the future, rather they were
regarded as a way of seeking advice from the gods.
Runes and their Meanings
Owing to the fact that the Elder Futhark is the most commonly used system of runic alphabets, this
write-up will provide you with interpretations of the 24 symbols therein. The 24 runes in the system
have been divided into three distinct families (having eight runes in each), each presided over by a

spirit or a Nordic deity. Each of these families is known as an Aett (tt), and the runes that have
been placed under these Aettir (ttir, plural of Aett), are connected to each other, either by way of
their meanings or through the special powers that they possess. Scroll down for a look at the Elder
Futhark runes, and to know what each of the 24 symbols signify.

Family #1: Freyr and Freya's Aett

Freyr and Freya are the two Nordic deities, who preside over the first family. They are the gods of
fertility and abundance.
Rune #1
Other Name(s): Frey, Feoh
Meaning(s): Wealth, Domestic Cattle
All forms of wealth, riches, and/or material gains are represented by this rune. Wealth
can be financial (such as income, bonus, windfall gains, etc.) or emotional (love, family
ties, etc.). This rune's reversal indicates a loss in fortune and riches, or failure on the
emotional front.
Rune #2

Other Name(s): Urz, Ur
Meaning(s): Power and Strength
This rune represents a wild ox, appreciated for its strength and power. It stands for
internal mental fortitude, will to face challenges, and new beginnings. For men, it
represents manhood and for women, it stands for femininity. When inverted, this
symbol indicates weakness or lack of power.

Rune #3
Other Name(s): Thor
Meaning(s): A thorn or giant
This represents a force or tower of strength needed to take up challenges. Emotional
forces like anger and hate can be controlled and used, but your own strengths can end
up destroying you. This rune has a very ambiguous meaning; it can be viewed both, as
a positive and negative symbol.
Rune #4

Other Name(s): As(s), Os, Aesir
Meaning(s): Ancestral god (Odin)
This rune represents Odin (Norse god of magic and Shamanism) and stands for
communication, revelation, and divine prophecies. It essentially represents words or
messages conveyed through speech. When reversed, it represents the god of
mischief, Loki, and hence, warns against tricks and deceit.

Rune #5
Other Name(s): Raidho, Rad, Reidh
Meaning(s): Wagon or chariot
One's life can take many twists and turns, and different directions. Life's journey is
represented by this rune. It tells you how your decisions can change your path. It also
symbolizes the need to change oneself through a journey of self-awareness. Its reverse
can mean stagnation or lack of change.
Rune #6
Other Name(s): Kaunaz, Ken, Kano
Meaning(s): Fire, torch
This is a rune of burning light, heat, and warmth (physical and mental), and stands for
an awakened and enlightened mind. It represents mind, opening itself to new ideas,
revisioning of old thoughts, creativity, and exploration. Its reversal signifies a loss of
awakened knowledge and loss of one's path.
Rune #7

Other Name(s): Gyfu, Geofu
Meaning(s): Gift

The spirit of giving through physical gifts or emotional help is reflected in this rune. It
stands for an act of generosity, a boon, or a skill. It also follows the "what goes around,
comes around" philosophy, where an act of kindness should always be returned, and
you owe the giver, gratitude. One good deed leads to another, so doing good to others
is also advised.
Rune #8

Other Name(s): Wyn
Meaning(s): Joy
The spirit of happiness, feelings of well-being, being loved by someone, reveling in the
relationship, and enjoying good health and wealth is represented by this rune.
Emotions and feelings are represented by this rune over materialistic wealth. If
reversed, it symbolizes difficulties and obstacles in the path of happiness.

Family #2: Heimdall's Aett

Heimdall, according to the Norse mythology, is the watcher of the underworld and keeper of the
rainbow bridge that leads to heaven. He presides over the second family.
Rune #9

Other Name(s): Haegl, Hagal, Haal
Meaning(s): Hail
This rune symbol represents one of the harsher forms of weather, and suggests that
the things are going to change. It symbolizes a disruptive force that may affect your
life. Reversal suggests that the storm will fade away, and peace and calm will prevail.

Rune #10

Other Name(s): Nyo, Nyd
Meaning(s): Need
Need may mean a want, wish, or a necessity that has to be addressed. Need can also
mean desperate circumstances or hardships that one must solve or handle. This rune
urges one to realize what one truly needs to survive and live, and to acknowledge
what is important and what is not.

Rune #11
Other Name(s): Isar, Is
Meaning(s): Ice
It symbolizes an icicle. It is meant to represent the coldness and frigidity of ice, and
suggests that one must tread carefully across such bodies. This rune can mean
freezing or suspension of plans. It also suggests that delaying certain plans may reap
fruitful results.
Rune #12

Other Name(s): Jeraz, Ger
Meaning(s): Year, good harvest
The fruit of labor or reward for effort is what this rune represents. Jera depicts the
success and fruition of plans. After planning and carrying out steps and working, one
can expect a suitable harvest or yield, according to this symbol.

Rune #13
Other Name(s): Eihwas, Erwaz, Eo
Meaning(s): Yew tree
This rune indicates the strength and fortitude of the yew tree against hostile forces. It
is the rune of protection and defense, even in the face of an ambush. It represents
knowledge and skill through difficult times, and the spirit and mindset needed to
endure troubles.
Rune #14

Other Name(s): Perth, Pertho, Pertra
Meaning(s): Dice cup, chance, womb
This is the rune of mystery and chance. It suggests that the future is always
ambiguous and unknown, and the appearance of this symbol means a hidden matter
or underlying secret that may lead to an unpredictable outcome. Inverted, it
symbolizes hidden agendas, unexpected failures, and losses.

Rune #15
Other Name(s): Elhaz, Eolh, Algir, Elgr
Meaning(s): Elk, protection
This rune symbol closely resembles the antlers of the mighty elk, an animal that is
always aware of its surroundingslooking out for danger, yet capable of facing any
threat. It is also likened to a hand, raised in a defensive gesture. This rune represents
protection and defense against elements of harm. If reversed, it can indicate unsafe
defenses or vulnerability to an attack.
Rune #16
Other Name(s): Sowulu, Sigel, Sugil
Meaning(s): The Sun
This rune symbolizes of might and strength. It also symbolizes the rising or awakening
of one's spirit from darkness, and tells you that success and goals will be reached. This
rune represents power and vitality, revitalizing your life force, and providing you with
the energy to attain your goals. It is also indicative of light after dark.

Family #3: Tyr's Aett

The third family that comprises the last eight runes is presided over by Tr, the Norse god of law
and heroic glory.
Rune #17

Other Name(s): Teiwaz, Tyr
Meaning(s): Honor, justice, bravery
This rune represents the Norse god of War, Tr. It protects those who fight for justice,
whether in a physical battle or in a battle of wits. It symbolizes triumph and victory in
any competition, provided one plays fair. Its reversal symbolizes defeat and suggests
one to retreat.

Rune #18
Other Name(s): Berkanan, Beorc
Meaning(s): Birth and rebirth
It represents Berchta, the Norse goddess of the birch tree, and stands for fertility. This
rune symbolizes the chance of a new beginning or something old rejuvenating itself.
Recovery and renewal of objects, ventures, and personal relationships is indicated by
this symbol.
Rune #19

Other Name(s): Eh(e)
Meaning(s): Horse
This is the rune of travel and change. It suggests that a person is on a route to
prosperity. However, if this rune is reversed, it indicates loss of momentum and
backward movement.

Rune #20
Other Name(s): Manwaz
Meaning(s): Mankind
This rune represents the spirit of humanity, in general. It also symbolizes your
individuality and spirit, and the treatment you give/get to/from others. Its reverse
stands for solitude, and isolation from people around you.

Rune #21
Other Name(s): Lagu
Meaning(s): Water


This is the main rune of water in all its forms, from a tiny pond to the mighty ocean.
Water has high tides, flows, and ebbs. It cleanses everything in its path. This rune of
water indicates inner cleansing by means of learning through life's ups and downs.
When reversed, it suggests possibilities of madness, obsession, despair, illness, and

Rune #22
Other Name(s): Inguz, Ing
Meaning(s): Earth
This rune symbolizes peace, unity, togetherness, and strengthening of relationships by
means of love and respect. It also represents mental relief and peace of mind that may
result in new beginnings. It suggests that for starting a new venture, the person has to
have mental peace and should be devoid of anxiety.
Rune #23

Other Name(s): Dag, Daeg
Meaning(s): Day, dawn
This rune indicates the beginning of a new day or light after dark. A new direction,
hope, a new start, and a satisfying end is conveyed. It suggests that it is time to step
out in the open and to look out for new opportunities. This is also the rune of balance,
certainty, and security.

Rune #24
Other Name(s): Othila, Odal, Othel
Meaning(s): Ancestral property, inheritance
This rune indicates ancestral wealth and chances of inheriting the ancestral property.
The gains might not always be monetary; heritage, power, etc., can also be inherited.
Its reversal indicates an empty inheritance.
Blank runes are traditionally not used for divinations, and sources tell us that these are relatively
newer additions to the rune sets we get these days. If you have a blank rune, save it in case you
loose one of the tiles/stones.
Traditionally, to cast runes, a priest of Odin would spread out a white cloth and lay the rune stones
on it. Then with his eyes blindfolded or raised upwards, he would pick three runes from the cloth
and predict the outcome of a venture or answer a question, based on their interpretations. Today,
this occult knowledge has come a long way, and many people around the world seek help of these
ancient symbols, in order to find solutions for their problems.

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