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Solutions Manual

to accompany

Unit Operations
of

Chemical Engineering
Seventh Edition
Prepared by
Julian C. Smith
Peter Harriott
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Alternative

solution.

Mass fraction:

Mass of 0.389 m:s:

0.389

x 2291

891.2 kg

891.2/ 1500 = 0.594.

2. 11. Temperature: 1 0C = 50F


Specific volume:
Density:

V:.

= 0.016024 f P/lb (Appendix 7)

= 1 I~= 63.41

lb/f P or

62.41 x 16.018 = 999. 7 kg/m:s


From Eqs. ( 1. 15) and ( 1 .6),

= 1.01325 x 1 o~ Pa = 1.01325

1 atm

g = 9.80665 m/s2

From Eq. ( 1.13),

Substituting in Eq. (2.4),


1.013:1.:5 x 105

Za - Z,,

x 1 o~ kg/m s2

9.8066:5 x 999.7

10.34

10.34 or,

ram

ppen

d.

IX

1,

x 3.281 = 33.91 ft

2. 1 2. From Eq. (2.4 ),


P, - p,,
a

2.13.

Use Eq. (2.7).

9.8066:5

x 78:5 x
1000

10

76.98

. kP

Assume p6= 1 atm. Height Z6

a
Z~ = - 8848 m

M = 29 T = 273.15 K R = 8314.4 7 kg m2/kg mol s2 (See


.

Eq. ( 1.8)). Then the exponent rs From Eq. (2. 7), P~ = 1 I e1.1oa

2. 14.

Large tank:

x -8843

8314.47 x 273.15

1.108

= 1 /3.0283 = 0.330 atm

(a) Radius of small tank: r; = 0.3 m


Volume V,

x :1.9

9 .80665

Length L1

=3m

= 3(1t x 0.32) = 0.848 ml

Vz = 12 V,

= 12

x 0.848

10.12

= 0.3/3 = 0.1 as before,


Volume V2 = xr/ x 1 Or2 = 31.42r2:s

ml

If r2/ L2

rz:s

= 0.322

r2

= 0.685 m

L2

10.12

6.85 m

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i...C -

...

--

....
f..)0

9v
{u

70

C.1

c .;

cs

30
.

-~

o ,'l.

'

~ .<:,

'
'?, . '2..

'

.. '

.",. t.f

1000/-,
3.7 From Appendix 8 nomograph the visc<'ai1ies

are given

in the table on the next page.


The v i scos Le Les of the ha.log'3ns are 2 to 2. 5 times

those of the paraffins.


They show no definite
trend with increasing rr~lecular weight, For rigid
non-interacting spheres: the viscosity

to vary with
ciian1ete:r..

vary with

(J.1'1')'12id,

If o is

where

is predicted

is the hard sphere

proportional to

M11',

fL

should

f.r116

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At duldy= 1000

s 1, f.,= 20.02 x 100(11!.'s = 1062

!-'~pp= 1 062/1 000 = 1.062 Pa s or 1 062 cP.

(b)

For the clay suspension, from Table 3.3, n'


K' = 1590

= 0.185,

g/m s2-n or 1.59 kg/m s2-n

At du/dy= 10 s 1, from Eq. (3.9),


fy= 1.59 X 1 Q
~i~pp =

O.lBS

= 2.43

2.43/1 O = 0.243 Pa so r 243 cP

At duldY= 1 ooo s 1, ty= 1.59 x 1 oooo-11s

= 3.59

~pp= 3.59/1000 = 0.00359 Pa so r 3.59 cP

3. 11. For the conditions of the problem, the Reynalds number can be
calculated to be 2029 ( not necessary for the solution).
(a) If Tis increased to 200 C, the density falls slightly, but the
velocity increases in the same proportion, so there is no effect.
From Eq. (3.6),

the viscosity increases by ( 473/373)06s

= 1.17.

This reduces Re, so flow would be laminar.


(b) If Dis increased to 2.0 cm, the velocity falls by ( 1.5/2)2

or

0.5625, and Re would be reduced to 0.75 X 2029 = 1521.

Flow

would still be laminar.


(c) If

pis increased to 5 atm, the density increases but the

velocity decreases in the same proportion. There is no net


effect, and flow is still laminar.

3.12.

Diameters: D,= 0.15 m


Gap width:

= (0.158

. l!:iu
Sh ear rat.e. -

.1r

- 0.15)/2

D,.n

.,
du

Shear stress: rv= u-d).1

00= 0.158

.1r

0.004 m

x O. 15 x O .:S
0.004

.._8
.J

9 s

_1

O.'.!l x 58.9 = l'.!.4 N/m2


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4. :l.

<a~ rer

nono or tn~ oil. to be flowing downward r


dvld:x. must equal or be great.Gr than zero at x - O.
From Eq. ( 4.42 ~, n0qlec1:ing dp/dy i:n comper Lson
With ('g

-drdv - C. --\.'oB---Bpg
2
B ~ 1 mm=

set dv/ax ~ c1

t ... 20 Jl"IPa-s or O. 5 kg/m-s

0.001

O. Th@n
_ IOOO~

0.00 l ><WO>< Y.~

2 )( 0.05

v"
(bt

At

0 0~~26 m/ s or

mis or 22.06

At ~he ~tationary

c1

IR1

from Eq.

o.

t.Ji.e

m/s

plate, dvldx - o. Also.


-mov, ng plat~, x ; o , om

and from Eg. { 4.42}.


dv xpg 0.001 x 900 x 9.8066.!>
-

( 4.44 ) .

(OOO x980665) ((O.OOl x0.00)5)- 0.0005~)


2 x O.Oj
,
+( 0.08826 x O.S)

- 0,02206
(c)

88_26

88 .. 26 IIiD/ s

x. = 0. SB 0. 0005

,... - -

ds

-i

2p

2 x 0.05

Half~.fa}' bet,,-reen the plates

8"O,~26

x = 0.

,S

--:

OOOS re,

and dv I dx - 8 8 .. 2 E / 2 - 4 4 .. 13 s-L
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Rate of heat ,generation:

= 3028 \ol = 3028 J/o

0/t - tllt

0: 3028

Prom Appendu 1,

c,. = 0.5 x 1000 x 4.184 ;;; 2092 J/kg-0c


Tetnpe:rat.-ur,e rise:

AT

Sv~';jt1
f~ir-

o,S'

r.
~

in

terns 01

1 7 Z >t 5280

g~ "~.17

~P~

0.10:

0S.

rr"J.x

From Eq.

108

needed

9134

(t-lb

~ 144

/lb-h2

~b.3S

b lit~

~2 ~ 91~4 ~ 10002f
162 x 4. l 7 >C 1 QD )( 2b. SS
< 4.62) ,

Re

from, FLQ.

'ia11ILpfo

4.9'11H

5.10

o.!:>

o.ei.54

Thu~ D

S<"

o. 37

O .. EHS

O. 375 ft.

tvrbulent,

NOTB: F.q. {4.62)

ft
ea.

or 'L5 110.
0.0092

Cl.0074l

o.oo9i

lC

'Cl

1941/D.

o .s7:,

o. 915.f

4m/n D~

Check:

ar,e,:

lb/1t-h

(4 x 7000)/(Tfx

8),1 tP-1:il

.>nd solv

(S.8)

162 lb/ft,

4-.94

2.42::..

:it:

t n Eq.
Cuunt1t1

f-.

x 02.s =

2.0

_...(,\:..

V 4m/TlJ)~r

vte

x 22. 78}

307.8/(2092

O. 064'"<!

5.6.

Q/crl;,

~ o .. 00730

61nee

Re

:.i

<close

49rJ9.

no~Qh

low

,oaumed.

applies to lay t flow and .al$r~ lo

flow when the liquid tills tllle pipe.


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Bypass
V1

Bypassed

= 2.02

ft/s

section

V4=

5.87

ft/s

Rei = 31, 310

Re4 = 363,000

f1 = 0.0063

f4 = 0.0041

f1V/

0.0182

0.0257

Mass flow rate through

mi=

2.02

= 0.0257

bypass:

x 3600 x (1t/4)
= 9,888

f4V42

* 0.16672

x 62.3

lb/h

Total flow rate:


= 6 x 3600 x (n/4)x

mo

469,800

0.66672

lb/h

Fraction of total flow through

.
.
mi/mo=
5.8

9,888

/469,800

bypass:

= 0.021

or 2.1%

D = 2ft

V = 15ft/s

Assume=
Re=

x 62.3

1 cP,

2 x 15 x 62.3

p = 52.3

lb/ft3

= 2.78

x 106

6. 72 x 10 -4
Let

subscript 1 refer to the original

pipe,

2 to

lined pipe.
For k/D

0.0003/2

= 0.00015,

from Fig.

5.10:

f1 = 0. 0032
For smooth pipe,
since 02=

f2 = 0.0023.

From Eq.

(5.7),

1.9ft:
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S.17.

= !!. Z = 12m.

~p5/p
f

0.12m

600m

= 1 x 10-3
f

From

(0.12

mis,

0.613m/s,

5.88

x 104,

x 105V

f = 0.0050

by a factor of 1.25,

= 5.88

x 1.25

to

From Fig.

5.12,

polyethylene

x 104

= 7.35

x 104

= 0.0032

f= 0.0012/0.6132

this will

require about 12

ppm of

oxide.

A 1-foot

Many assumptions
Assume

1.2

then

Re

Basis:

x 10-3)

for smooth tubing,

Re=

is increased

= o.00121v2

x 6oov2i

by trial

V = 0.49

= 998 kg/m3

x 998V)/(l

Fig 5.10,

Pa-s

(12 x o.12)/(2

Re=

5.18.

(5.8),

= l!.ZD/2~LV2

If

From Eq.

cube of packing
and approximations

the surfaces

an average angle

are needed.

of the rings are inclined

of 45.

Then cos~=

0.071

at

and

the average length of the path from top to bottom


of the

cube is 1/0.7071

The total
ft2/ft3

surface

(Table

ft2/ft3

18.1).

= 1.41

area of 1-inch
The wetted

rings is 58
area is 58/2 = 29

The width of a single plate

area and a length of 1.41


ft.

ft.

with this

ft is 29/1.41

= 20.6

Also,
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