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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP
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GPU I D E
WORKSHO I
ANDPEGS
PULLS
SHAKER FINISHES
SHAKER I
REPTICATING
TheShakers
A SHAKER
painted
FINISH
theirfurniture in a variety of colors,
I
COMM()N PEGS
SHAKER
i n c l u d i nrge d ,o r a n g ey ,e l l o wb,l u e a, n db r o w nV. t r t u a lal yl l
of thesepieces werecoated withthin paintsin a washthat
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ttmr'Th
rV-\r-
allowed thewood's

flatfinishthatcanbestained,
is dry.Although
grainto showthrough.
effect,youcanusemilkpaintorlatexpaint.Milkpaintsleave
oiled,orwaxed
milkpaintis available
To replicate

oncethesurface
asa powder
this

thatis
a
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yourownby blending
addedto water,youcanprepare the I
Slel ingredients
SomeShaker
shownin thechartbelow.
Dieces weref inished withvarntsh. Totone I
\l- downa finishthatwastooglossy-and showy-Shaker furni-
turemakers rubbeddownthesurfaces withpumice. Theoil- I
ft-'f-l
tl-*
varnish recipe presented below willimpart a deep,richf inish
withouttoomuchgloss,andoffergoodprotection forthe I
wood.Forbestresults, applythesolution witha rag,let it sit
r+'h
lr-"\"J*
onthesurface for a fewminutes, thenruboff theexcess
a cleanrag.Allow24 hoursforthecoatto cure,sandlightly,
with
t
andrepeat, building upthefinrshin layers. Complete anyfin- I
kt l I l
ishwitha coatof good-qualiiy

(lIT.VARNISH
FINISH
pastewax.
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fl Wood
. 1 p a r tl i n s e e o
d r t u n go i l I
o 2 naric satin varnish

. 3 partssteam-distilled
turpentine I
MILKPAINT
Basicformula(yieldsabout1 quart):
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. 1 r / 2c u p ss k i mm i l k
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. 1 o z .s l a k e dl i m e
o 8 o z .p l a s t eor f P a r i so r c a l c i u mc a r b o n a t e I
Procedure
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. S p r i n k l teh e l i m ei n t ot h e m i l ka n dm i xf o r 3 m i n u t e s .
I
S t i ri n t h e p ' a s t e ' oPf a r i s .
2 . A d dc o i o r i n gs,u c ha s a r t i s t ' sp r g m e n tosr e a r t hp i g m e n t s
t
o n a s c r a pp l e c e
u s e df o r c o o r i n gc e m e n tt;e s tt h e s o l u i i o n
a n dl e t i t d r y , I
3 . L e tt h e o a i n ts r tf o r t h o u r ,t h e nb r u s hi t o n ,
stirring frequently. I
h r s h e l l a tco p r o t e ctth e f i n s h ,
4 . A d da t h i n a y e ro f v a r n t s o
PAINT
LATEX
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Procedure
'| c o l o rt o s e a lt h e w o o d
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. A p p l ya t h i n f i r s tc o a ti n t h e d e s i r e d
a n d l e td r y .
I
w i t hv e r yf i n es t e e w
2 . R u bt h e s u r f a c e i ool.
3 . A p p l ya n o t h etrh i n c o a to f p a i n ta n dr u bw i t hv e r y I
f i n es t e e w
l ool.
4 . A d da l i g h tc o a to f o r a n g e
shellac. I
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THEARTOFWOODWORKING
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THE ART OF WOODWORKING
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TIME-LIFE
BOOKS
I ALEXANDRIA.VIRGINIA

T ST.REMYPRESS
MONTREAL.
NEWYORK
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THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by THECONSUXIANTS I
ST.REMYPRESS

Ian Ingersoll owns a cabinetmakingshop in WestCornwall,


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PUBLISHER KennethWinchester Connecticut,that specializesin Shakerfurniture.
PRES/DENT PierreLdveill6
GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmakingat Montreal
I
SeriesEditor PierreHome-Douglas technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeof New
SeriesArt Director FrancineLemieux Zealand,he hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. I
SeniorEditor Marc Cassini
Editor
Art Directors
Andrew fones
Normand Boudreault, ShakerFurniture.
T
Jean-PierreBourgeois, p. cm.- (The art of woodworking)
Michel Gigudre Includesindex.
ISBN0-8094-9s33-3
I
Designers HdldneDion, Jean-GuyDoiron,
FrangoisDaxhelet 1. Furniture making-Amateurs' manuals.
Picture Editor ChristopherJackson 2. Furniture,Shaker-Amateurs' manuals. I
Writers fohn Dowling,Adam Van Sertima I. Time-Life Books.
ContributingWriter
Cont r ibuting Illu strators
fune Sprigg
GillesBeauchemin,Michel Blais,
IL Series.
TTl95.S481995
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CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION 1T6 SHAKERCTASSICS


118 Wall clock
L2 SHAKERDESIGN 129 Stepstool
1 8 A galleryof Shakerfurniture 135 Shakerboxes
138 Pegboard
24 CHAIRS
26 Enfield sidechair 140 GTOSSARY
34 Rushseat
38 Shakerrocking chair 142 INDEX
44 Thpeseat
48 Meetinghousebench 144 ACKNOWTEDGMENTS

56 TABTES
58 Tiestletable
68 Drop-leaftable
78 Candlestand

86 PIE SAFE
88 Anatomy of a pie safe
90 Making the caseworkframes
94 Raisingthe panels
97 Assemblingthe safe
104 Shelving
106 Tin-paneldoors
INTRODUCTION

David Lambon
REDEFINING
SHAKERSTYLE
f *ur fortunate enoughto liveattheCanterbury ShakerVillage in NewHampshire
L for 14years, from 1972to 1986. My parents rantheVillageMuseum andwewere
givenhousingin theChildren's House, builtin 1810.Ihadtheprivilege of knowing
seven Shaker Sisters andlistened to theirbeliefsandmemories of theolddays. While
livingthere,lfoundmyselfexploring andstudying thearchitectural elements of the
buildings, aswellasthefurniturein thecollections.
Whilelivingin theseuniquesurroundings, I hadtheexceptional opportunityof
apprenticing with anOldWorldcabinetmaker fromMadrid,Alejandro delaCruz.
His teachings emphasized tradition,classicism, andintegrityin work,design, and
living.Thisapprenticeship providedmewith a directionandfocusfor studying
Shaker andotherclassic designs.At thesametime,it allowed meto constructively crit-
icizesomeoldpieces andto rebuildor redesign themby usingbetterconstruction
methods, whilestillretaining theiroriginalcharmandattractiveness.
Likethearchitectural elements of antiquirythebeautyandtruthof Shaker design
aremostevidentin basicforms.Theoveralllines,proportions, andstance canbe
seenin a simplepieceof furniturelikethecandlestandshownin thephotoatright.
Details, if theyaredonewell,adda furtherdimension andwill notobscure or clut-
terthegeneral form.
I donotbelieve thattheShakers setoutto develop theirowndesigns; rather, their
beliefsreshaped formswith whichtheywerealready familiar.Shaker designcanbe
seenasa stripped-down Federal style,withemphasis onHepplewhite andSheraton
elements. Federal stylewasconcurrent with thebeginning andthedevelopment of
theShaker religious movement. Thekeycabinetmakers of eachShaker villagewere
alsofreeto develop theuniqueflavorof eachcommunity's workwhiletakingdirec-
tion fromtheleadcommunityof MountLebanon, NewYork.
Whilea gooddealof Shaker designcharmliesin itsnaivet6, evenmoredepends
on thecabinetmaker's complete masteryof theform.Creatingfurnituredesigns
requires athoroughunderstanding ofthedesign process,andbeingableto "getinto
theheads" of theoldmasters to understand whycertaindesign decisions weremade.
It alsorequires a goodunderstanding of furnitureconstruction usingpastandpre-
senttechniques. It isimportantnotjustto acknowledge apieceasa masterpiece and
copyit, butto findout wltyitisamasterpiece, byaskingmanyquestions aboutit. The
answers will provideyourbuildingblocksfor creating yourowndesigns in anysryle.

DavidLambwasresidentcabinetmaker at CanterburyShaker
Village,NewHampshire,between1979and 1986.He now
buildsShaker-inspired
furniture at hisshopin Canterbury.
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Iohn Wilsonperfectsthe
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SHAKERBOX I
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in apatternbookonShaker woodenware byEjnerHandberg
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T mu sawShaker boxes
L n 1977whenI wasteaching furnituremakingatLansing Community Even
College. I
aslinedrawings, thesesimple,elegant ovalcontainers, craftedfromcherryin grad-
uatedsizes, wereintriguing.All boxesholduniversal appeal,butto havethemnest I
insideeachotherappeals to thechildin allof us.
Up to thispoint,I hadbeena carpenter
andhadspentanotherdecade teaching
in residential
construction
socialanthropology.
for 10years,
LittledidI knowwhen
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I beganto followmycuriositF
fectavenue for expressing
in Shaker ovalboxes thattheywouldbecome
thosethreeskills-workingin wood,interpreting
theper-
othercom-
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munities'lifeandwork,andteaching. Butthatis exactly whathashappened to me I
overthelast15years.
Byspecializing in Shaker
trends:a growingawareness
ovalboxes,
of Shaker
I wasfortunateto takeadvantage
design, thepopularityof woodworking
of three
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hobby,andaninterestin instructionin leisureactivities.
thedoorsfor freelance box-making seminars.
Thiscombination
By1986I wasteaching
opened
30workshops
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ayearin manypartsof thecountry,aswellasin Canada
pantsmakea nestof fiveboxes.
andEngland. Thepartici-
It is fulfillingto beableto masterthetechnique of
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makingabox,andevenmoresoto perfect
firstboxclass,
it in makingfive.In thel2yearcsincethe
I havetaughtmorethan4,000peoplethistraditionalcraft.
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My memoryof firstattempting to buildthemisof bandsbreaking,
projectto an abruptend.It takesmorethanlinedrawings to master
bringingthe
technique.
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VisitingShaker sitesin NewEngland,Irecalla rareopportunityto watchboxmak-
er|erryGrantatHancock ShakerVillage. Hegavemeasample of thetinycoppertacls
thatarethehallmarkof theboxlap.These areasscarce ashen'steeth,astheexpres-
siongoes. At *re time,CrossNailCompany wastheoneremaining tackmanufacturer,
andmadethemonlyon special order.It tooka minimumof 50poundsto order,
andwithover750taclato theounce, thatwasanincredible supply. Wth 12taclsneed-
edto makea box,it alsorepresented a lifetimeof boxmaking.
Today, Shaker boxes havebecome mylifeandsupplying theboxtradewithqual-
ity materials nowoccupies moreof mytimethaneithermakingboxesor teaching.
Morethanjustbeinggoodbusiness, makingShaker boxeshasleftmewiththecon-
victionthatpassing on our skillsisa responsibility eachof usmustaccept.

JohnWilsontaughtsocialanthropology at Purduebefore turning


his attentionto teachingShakerboxmakingfull time in 1983.
Hisseminarshavebeenheldat theSmithsonian, in Shakervillages
throughoutAmerica,and in England.He ownsand operates The
HomeShopon EastBroadwayHighrq,in Charlotte,Michigan.
INTRODUCTION

|une Spriggreflectson
A SHAKERLIFE

hen I waslittle and shareda room with my sisterI yearnedto havea room
of my own.I was19whenthat dreamcametrue,and oh, what a room it
was,in anearlyl9th-CenturyShaker buildingin Canterbury, NewHampshire.
My roomwasa classic Shaker interior,with built-incupboards anddrawers, a
pegrailaroundthewalls,andrareslidingshutters. Everything overheadandunder-
footwastheworkof Shaker Brothers whohadusedlocalpine,maple,andbirchand
a combination of handtoolsandwater-powered machinery in anefficientand
sophisticated system of man-made pondsandmillsbehindthevillage. Aftera cen-
turyandahalfof continual use,thepegswerefirm in theirsockets. Thedrawers slid
smoothly with aslighttugonthesinglecenter pull.Thewholeeffectwasoneof spa-
ciousness, airiness,andlightness. Thisroomwasworththewait.
BythetimeI arrivedat Canterbury in 1972asa summerguidein themuseum,
theshakers9cletyhadlongsinceflourishedandfaded.Thecanterburyshakers
wereestablished in 1792astheseventh of whatbecame 19principalsettlements in
America. when I came,thehalf-dozen shakers wholivedthere- all in their70s,
80s,and90s-wereoneof thelasttwoShaker familiesin existence.(Theotherwas
sabbathdayLake in Maine.)Thesisters weredelightful-energetic, humorous, and
unstintinglykind.TherewerenoBrothers atCanterbury. Thelastonehaddiedin the
1930sandthewomenjokedthattheyhad"workedthosepoormento death."
while woodworking hadpassed into historywith thelastof theBrothers, the
sistersheldtheworkof the"oldshakers" in highregard. A lifetimeof usingShaker
desks,tables,
workcounters, chairs,
andcupboards hadgiventhemahands-on appre-
ciationof the-qualitiesthathaveearned Shaker designrespect worldwide:strength,
lightness,anda simplerightness of proportion. Ergonomic? Youbet.we heldour
breathwhenever thefragilebut unstoppable Eldress wentup anddownthestairs
with herbadkneeandcane,but thebreadthof thesteps, thegentlerise,andthe
sturdy,elegant handrailkeptheruprightandsafe.
"Hands
to workandheartsto God,"a homilyof Shaker founderMotherAnn
Lee,wasa roadmapfor goodlife.My Shaker friendsaregonenow,buttheirwork
endures astestimony to thebeautyandwisdomof thatsimplemessage.

lune SprigghasbeenstudyingtheShakers for mostof her


life,and shewasCuratorof Collectionsat HancockShaker
Villagebetyveen1979and 1994.Her latestbookwithpho-
tographerPaulRocheleau,
ShakerBurlt,ispublishedby
MonacelliPress.
Shelivesin Pittsfield,Massachusetts.
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I T h. Shakers arerecognizedtodayas firstandforemost asoroducers of sim- serviceuniquein civilizedAmericafor its
I oneof America's mostinteresting pleandwell-made furniture.Butin their groupdancing,a sort ofsacredline or
t communal religious Thanks
societies. hevdav from 1825to 1845,thevwere circledancethat gaveall membersequal
to thevigorouscropofbooks,articles, beiteri<no*nfor theiroriginalbiendof opportunityto express the Holy Spirit.
I andexhibitions thathavesproutedup celibacyandcommunalism, adeepcom- This ecstaticdance scandalized many
sincetheShakers' celebra-
bicentennial mitmentto Christian asprac-
principles conventionalobservers, includingRalph
T mostpeople
tionin 1974, thinkof them ticedbyChristtdisciples,andaworship WaldoEmersonand Charles Dickens.

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T By themid-l9th Century,whenthelithographshownabovewasmqde,
I With its backward-Ieaning rearlegs
andcurvedsla*,theEnfleldsidechair
thefreneticdancingthat oncemarkedShakerworship-and gavethemtheir
name-had beenreplaced with morereserved
linedances.As in all Shaker
T shownat left wasbuiltfor simplicity
and comfort.Therushseatson eaily
werestrictlydivided.Thewomanin stylishVictoriandress
activities,thesexes
in theforegroundwasprobablyinvitedby theShakers theirworship.
to observe
I Shakerchairslikethisonegradually
gaveway to canvastapeseating.

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Thedininghall at thePleasantHill communityin Harrodsburg,
K lE
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MotherAnn'sNewOrder Aspreached byAnn Leeandherfol- at NewLebanon, NewYork.TheNew
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The Shakerstracetheir history in lowers,Shakerlife wasoneof hardship kbanon communitywas
Americato1774, whenfounder
"Mother
andself-denial.
to become
BeingaShakermeantliv- spiritualcapitalof the Shaker
the
world
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Anrt''Leeemigrated to NewYorkfrom ing a celibatelife with no possibilityof throughthenefi century.
By1800, mis- I
Manchester, England,with eightfol- bearingchildren,andworkingselflessly sionaries hadhelpedestablish a dozen
lowers.The39-year-old daughterof a andequallyalongside one'sBrothersand Shaker communities throughoutNew I
Midlandsblacksmith,Ann Leewas Sisters.
It alsomeantlivingin isolation England,includingonesin Enfield,
promptedto cometo theNorthAmeri- from theoutsideworld,renouncing all Connecticut;Harvard,Massachusetts; I
cancolonies, accordingto herfaithfirl privateproperty, andtakingsolacein the andCanterbury, NewHampshire. By
believers,byavisionof thesecond com- purityof communityandprayer. 1825,19principalvillageswereflour- I
ing of Christ.Shewassickened by the AlthoughAnn dieda scant10years ishingfrom Maineto pointswestin
corruptionof the Old World,andthe afterarrivingin Americaandhermove- Kentucky andOhio.In 1840,anesti- I
changes wroughtby the Industrial mentremained relatively
smallduring mated4,000Shakers wereputtingtheir
Revolution thatwerealteringthecon- herlifetime,converts beganto join in handsto work andheartsto Godin T
ditionsofhumanlifebeyondallprevious drovesin theyearsfollowingherdeath. America's largest,
bestknown,andonly
experience.Shesoughtto establishanew By1787,thefirstlarge-scale communal alternative to mainstreamlifethatexist- I
orderof life in theNewWorld. Shaker Familyhadgathered nearAlbany edon a trulynationalscale.

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I In spiteofeffortsto attractnewcon- 70years. By1900,theShakers
haddwin- ment or a self-conscious schoolof
I verts,theShakers'numbers beganto dledto 2,000members asShakervil- design. In fact,theirfurniture,liketheir
declinebeforetheendof theCivil War. lagesclosedtheir doorsoneby one. architecture andclothing,wasderided
In 1875,Tyringham, Massachusetts,was Today,justonecommunity survives,
at in its dayfor anexcessively utilitarian
I the firstShakercommunityto close
offi- Sabbathday Lake,Maine,wherefewer lackof style.Today,attractedbythesim-
I cially.In a centurythat witnessed so thana dozenmembers carryon the plicityof theirdesigns, theworldhas
manyrevolutionary changes in Amer- Shaker traditions. begunto recognize theachievements of
I ican life it proveddifficult for the Shaker woodworkers, suchastheclocks
Shakers-whochangedso little-to HarmonyofProportion madeby BrotherIsaacNewtonYoungs
I maintainthemomentumof theirfirst TheShakers
werenot anesthetic
move- of NewLebanon, andthesewingdesks

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T Thespiritualcenterof Shakerlife,themeetinghouse,
is asmodestand unpretentious
asanyShakerbuilding.

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SHAKE,RDESIGN I
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and rockingchairsof BrotherFreegift thing theydid to freethemselvesfrom sort of artisticfreedornthat allowed


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Wellsof Watervliet, NewYork. thevainandunnecessary, whichto them buildersto designand makewhatever
Simplicityis thequintessential hall- meantavoidinggrossmaterialism. This theywanted.Theyseldomautographed
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markof Shakerdesign.Comparedwith wasno meanfeatin theGildedAsethat theirpiecesbecause theytook no pride
theopr.rlent complexiry of a QueenAnne gavebirthto Victorianaandconspicuous in beingrecognized asindividualarti-
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highboy,for example, a Shaker chairis a consumption. TheShakers eschewed the sans.Reliqious convictions
alsoforbade
paragonofaLrsterify: fourlegs,threeslats,
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a handfulofstretchers, anda fewyards
of canvas tanefor the seat.In a world
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that seemsto growincreasingly more
complexand chaoticyearby yearit is
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not difficLrltto seewhythesirnple,har-
r.r.ror.rior-rs
linesof Shakerftirniturecon-
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tinueto holdtheirappeal.
Shakerartisans alsodistinguished
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themselves by thequalityof theirwork.
Theyrarelyneededto hurry andwere
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in factencour-aged to takethetimeneed-
edto do thejob properly. Thecornmu-
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nal ftrmilystructuregaveindividuals
fieedomfrom thoughtsof purchasing,
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narketing,sales, andallrelated business
coucerns-anexperienced business staff
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took careofall t[at. Shaker woodwork-
ersreceived freetrainingfrom veryfine
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craftsmen, olderBrotherswho taught
them in an apprenticeship system.
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Shakers generally workedin big,hand-
some,state-of-the-art workshops with
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thebesttoolsandmachines available;a
communal economy, thriftyliving,and
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an abhorrence ofbuyingon creditusu-
allymeantplentyof capitalto investin
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thebest.TheShakers'were alsocapable
of irrverrtirrgthebestlthetablesaw,for
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example, wasthebrainchild of a Shaker
sister.It comesasno sururisethatmanv
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woodworkers todayspeakenviously at
tinresof theirShaker counterparts.
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A Lackof Ornamentation
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The relisiousmotivationbehindthe
simplicityof Shakerdesignis an obvi-
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ousone.The Shakers soughtin every- I
BrotlrcrClutrlesGreaves outsidethe
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corpettyshLtp,
Harrcock SlnkerVilLrge,
Pittsfield,
N'lassaclusetts,
ilr theenrly1900s.
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I a licenseto decoratewith carving,inlay, Believingthat all things visible
painting,exoticimportedwoods,or any revealedthe stateof the spirit within,
I othertype of appliedornament.The Shakers took greatcarewith whatthey
Shakerstraditionally regardedthese madesothat its near-perfection would
I embellishments asa wasteof time and both honorandemulatetheexcellence
resources. Indeed,the few ornamental of God'sown creation.Aboveall else,
I touchesto be found on Shakerfurni- Shakerfurnitureanddesignis imbued
ture-such asexposeddovetailingand with the spirit of its makers,pro-
I the ubiquitous,neatlyturned drawer claimingtheir optimism and faith in
pulls and rail pegs-invariablyhad a the future. By spendingobviouscare
I utilitarianpurpose. and time on humble,usefulthings,
the Shakersclearlyannouncedtheir
I beliefin a futureworth living and in
Usuallymadewith bentmaplesides the ability of future generationsto
I andquartersawn pinetopsandbottoms, keeptheir craft alive.
ovalboxeswereusedto storeall types On thefollowingpagesis an illustrat-
I of dry goods.Theywereconstructedin ed galleryof someof themostenduring
graduatedsizessothat eachonecould oiecesof furniture that serveas the
I bestoredinsidethenextlargersize. Shakers'legacyto modernwoodworking.

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I A tall clockserves
asa boundarybetweenthemen'sand women's sleeping
areasin theCentre
FamilyDwellingat PleasantHill, Kentucl<y.
ClocksalsodividedtheShakers' daily livesinto
I prescribed segmentsTherewerespecifictimesfor rising eating working and sleeping.

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A GALLERYOF SHAKERFURNITURE I
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TABTES
ANDCHAIRS I
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Dining room benah I
Euilt to accommo-
date aeveraldinera I
around a table
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Trestle table (pa6e 5b)
Themost, commonetyle of thaker I
dtntnqroom table. Euilt with 7lueleao
joinery and knockdownhardware,f,hte
table can be dteaaaembledwhenit ia
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not needed;the leqo,feet, and treetle
runninqalon4the top'e undereideare I
poeitionedto maxtmizele4room
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Candle stand
Qase78)
Thetrtpod deei4n
I
4iveathie li4ht-
weight.table Dropleaf table (page 68) I
qood etability ALtached to the top with
rulejoinLo,the Ieaveeof I
thio table can be exLended
whenneededor dropped
down to gave gpace
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Revolving chair Enfield aide chair Rocking chair


I Aleo called ewtvel etoola (pase 26) (paqe3O)
or revolverg, thege Made with a back- Haeeteam-bent
I chaira were uged tn
c)haPer nffirca ahnna
ward tilt to provide
comforL wtthout
rear legeand aoltd'
wood rockere;the
and achoolroome bendtn4I;hechatr'e tape eeaf,inqie
T rear leqe.Early ver' availabletn a vari-
a t o n al i k eL h eo n e ety of colors and
I ahownfeatured rush patterns. Also
eeata; the thakers made tn a ladder-
t Iater reliedon can'
vae Lape,aa tn Lhe
back veraion

rockinqchatr ahown
t aL rtghL

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Meetinghouae bench
I Accommodated the faithful durinq
thaker reltgtoue eervrcee; wtth its
With theirshortbacks,thesplint-seat
I eolid ptne aeat., Lhte etmple and
lt7htweiqht chatr could be moved out diningchairsshownabovecanslideunder
of the way easily when neceaoary a tablewithoutanysacrifice
of comfort.
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SHAKERDESIGN I
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CASEWORK Work etand


Featuree a
I
drawer with
Ketractable
work aurface partitiona and I
piqeonholeeon
top for etorinq I
aewinqauppliee:
the rim around
the workaurface
I
prevente iteme
from fallin7 off I
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Sewing deak
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Featurea a retractable work aur-
face; with drawera on adjacent I
aidee of the deak, two people
could workon it at the aametime I
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As canbeseenin thisroomat HancockShakerVil-
Iagein Massachusetts, theShakers sparedno effort
Pie safe (page bO)
Traditionallyuaed to store bakedqoode:the
I
toprovidea sense of orderand tidinessin theirliving
spaces.Floor-to-ceilingcabinetsensuredthat there
piercedtin door panelakeptthe contente
fresh whilepreventing verminfrom enterin4. t
wasa designated placefor everything. Adjuatable ahelveaadded flexibility
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I Waahatand
Uaedby thakera for
I pereonaIhy4iene
beforebed:deeiqned
to holdan earthen-
I warepttcher and bowl

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I Alao knowna6 a aecretary'
on-cheat;l;heLop aectionfeatured ehelvin7
r and eeveralptqeonholeofor organrzedItoraqe

I Workbench
Featured a epaciouowork eurface on top and
storaqe drawera below:the boardjack olidee
I eide-to-eideto holda workpiecealonq front ed4e
of the benchtn conluncLionwith the face viae

I 2l
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SHAKERDESIGN
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HOUSEHOLD
ARTICLES
Yarn reel (paqeTB)
t
Ueedin textile makinq,
Step atool
this devtcefeatured a T
columnand leqdeei4n
(pase129)
Asaembledwith
borrowedfrom Lhe can-
dle eLand
I
aturdy throuqh
dovetaila,theae I
mtni-atepladdere
enabledthakere
f^ rea.h +ha +^h
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ehelves and doora
of floor-to-ceilin4 t
cagework: three-
and four-etep ver-
9ton9 were aleo
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common
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Oval baekets t
joinery
WiLhtheir awallowLail
and coppertacka, theae I
containerewereoold rn the
LhoueandaLo the outaide
world;aesembledmuch like
I
thaker boxee(page 138)
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Footetool
Drying rack
Ueuallymade from pine, t
Alonq wit.hchaira, footetoole racke were uaed Lo dry tow-
wereproducedin qreat quanLitiea elsand to air ouf,beddinq I
for commercialaale
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I SHAKERDESIGN
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I Pegboard
(pase138)
I 4S "o. With their evenlyopaced
is.i,, 0

#s
\- pe4o,LheoerailelinedLhe
I wallaof moet thaker
roome, holdtn4everyfihtnq
I from hata and cloaketc
candleeconcea and clocke,
likeLheoneehown
I
I
t Wall clock
(paqe 118)
I Clockalike Lhe one
Likennny nntl Arnericans
Centrn'y,the Sltakers
livingin tlrc l9tlt
usedspirrrtingwheels,
ahown at left.
t helped t he thakera
orqanize Lheir buay
Iikeonefrortt HotrcockShakerVillagesltotvrt
above,to rnaketheir owrt textiles,As self-
t workdayo. The
thakere ueually
reliantpeople,the Shakersdepcntledort srrclt
deviccsand the skillto operntetlwrt to rrtaitt-
bought Lhe mecha'
I ntame and butlLLhe tttirttlreirirdepetdenceft'om tlteoutsitleworltl.
caeeetoftL:aa
I clock makero joined
Lhe movement, the

t thakere beqan Lo
aeeembleLheir own o
I
mechanigms

o
I o
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I Candlesconces
o
Deetqned eo I;he heighL a-\
of Lhe candlea and Lhe
I li7hLtn4 could be adjueted

I
ae Lhe candlee burned
and mell,ed down. The ver-
o
eion on the lefL fear,uree
I wooden Lhreada Lo ratae
and lower Lhe candle eup-
o
porL; Lhe one on l,he rt4hL
I hae a row of holea LhaL
Clothes hanger a||owedthe candleaconce
t A typical thaker innoval,ion,Lhe to be hunq from a peg-
board aL any hei7ht.
three-armed hanqer was a clever,
I apace-eavin4 way to Itore clalthinq

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I CHAIRS
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joints.The chair
I nticipatingmodern-dayadvertis- mortise-and-tenon
backconsists of slatsthatmustbesteam-
ersby more than 100years,the
I Shakers proudlypromotedtheirwares
who
bent.A traditionalmethodfor forming
the chairseat-woven rush-is shown
to a marketplace of non-believers
I werenevertheless poisedto purchase beginningon page34.The alternative
seatstyleillustratedin the photo at far
qualityfurniture.Asoneof theirearly
I catalogsproclaimed,Shakerchairs
"durabilirysimplicity,
left, usinga tapeupholsterymaterial
that the Shakerscalled listing, is
offered andlight-
I ness." Thelevelof craftsmanship that explained startingon page45.
With its turnedpartsand mortise-
theyattained enabled themto batkup
I theirclaims.Shaker-made chairssold and-tenonjoinery,the Mt. Lebanon-
well,provingthattheirbusiness acumen stylerockingchair (page38)sharesmany
I wasaswelldeveloped astheirpiety. featureswith the Enfield.However,the
rearlegsof the rocker,which arebent
TheShakers hadastutely reasoned
I thatchairsweretherightproductfor Withpreciselypositionedandsized for comfort, and the rockersthem-
selves-fixed to the legswith dowel-
themarket.First,chairsneeded relatively mortises,thecrestrail of theShaker-
I littlestockto build-comparedto case stylemeetinghouse benchshownabove reinforcedbridle joints-are elegant
furniture-sotheycouldbemadeeco- isfined ontothespindles.TheShakers refinements. The chairis namedafter
I nomically. Furthermore, mostmodels built longerversionsof thebenchto the community in upstateNew York
whereprototypeswerebuilt.
couldbebuilt quitequickly,andthey serveaspewsat religiousmeetings.
t werecompact
storage
andlightenough
andtransportation.
for easy
Finally,chairsareacommonhouse- forreligious
Despiteits traditionaluseasa pew
purposes, meetinghouse
thespindle-backed bench
I holditem;mostbuyersrequiredseveral. All of thesefactors hasmanycontemporary Theversionshownon
applications.
enabled theirchair-making enterprise to contribute signifi- page48features a solid-wood seatwith ampleroomfor
I cantlyto Shaker prosperity. two or threeusers.
Eachofthese examples
chairs-early ofwhicharestillintact
Thischapter presentsstep-by-step instructions forbuild-
I ingthreeclassic Shakerchairs.TheEnfieldsidechair(page today-embodies theShakerbeliefoncesetforthby Mother
"Build
26)featnresa simpledesign thatbeliesthefinecraftsmanship Ann,founderof thesect asthoughyouwereto livefor
I andprecise joineryneeded to buildit. Itslegs,rails,andstretch- a thousand years,andasyouwoulddo ifyou knewyouwere
ersareturnedonthelathe,andthepieces areconnected with to dietomorrow."
I
I
r Blueand whiteclothtape,or listing,is beingwoven
t betweentherearlegsof therockershownat left,providing
a strong,attractive,and lightweightseatback.Thisrocker
I wasfinishedwith tungoil, thenrubbedwith blue-tinted
beeswax to harmonizewith thecolorof thelisting.

I 25
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ENFIELDSIDECHAIR
I
t]- h. most striking featureof the a challenge in executing thejoinery.Few shape,the front legsarespacedfarther
I
I Enfieldsidechairis its backward
slantof 98o,asshownin the sideview
ofthe jointsin thischairarecut square;
most are assembledat comoound
apartthanthe rearones.Also,the rear
legsaresplayedouhvardfrom bottom to
t
on page27.Thedesignallowsthechair angles.lt is a goodideato referbackto
to conformto theanatomyof thetypi- the sideandtop viewsasyou build the
top by 2o. Consequently,
stretchers,
the back
seatrail, and slatsarepro-
I
caluserandprovidecomfortableseat- chair,usingthe anglesto help setup
ing without needingsteam-bentback your drill whenboringthe round mor-
gressivelylongertowardsthetop oithe
chair.Referto the cuttinglist on page
I
posts.Theslant,however,doespresent tises.As a resultof the seat'strapezoidal 27 for precisedimensions. I
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ANATOMY
OFANENFIETD
SIDECHAIR
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Kear leg
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)ide aeat rail
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Front aeat rail
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Front atretcher
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Front. leq I
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I Asshownin thetopviewof the
Kear sidechair1eft,top),thefront
I leo legsareparallel, buttherear
96'\ Rear 96' onesare angled apartby
slightly
T 2". The slatsare joinedto the
Side rearlegsat a slightangle. The
I aeat sideview(left,bottod illus-
rail tratesthechair'sbackward lean.
I aeat--\ Although thisdesign feature
84" rail \ 84"
Front eliminatestheneedto bendthe
I teq rearlegs,thejointsrequire care-
ful execution.
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I SIDEVIEW

T
\ \
I 1l ,,\ \

t \ t\ \
17" \ \ 18"
I \
113/u"
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ITEM OTY t W (lRDIAM.
I Legs Rear 2 4r% IY4
I Front z 19Y^ IY4

Seatrail* Front I r8% I

T Back 1 I4Y, 1
I Side 2 I4 1
Stretchers* Front z I8Y, %
T Back I r3% 3A

Side 4 T4 3A
I Slats Top 1 2% Y4

I Middle 1 I43/4 23/4 Y' ThecherryEnfieldsidechairshown


abovefeaturesafiber rushseatand a
Bottom I r4% 274 Y4
I *Note:Measurements
tungoilfinish,whichcombineto create
a warm and naturalappearanca
tenonlengths.
include
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PTANNING
THEJ()B
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FronL le1
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9tory pole
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E N F I E L . DC I A I R IEG S F ' F
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s a 5

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)lat mortiae mark Kear le4 I
Usinga storypole
I
To helpyousizeandprepare thechairlegs,markkeydimen- of eachelement. Themarks onthejig canthenbeusedto cut I
sionsandthe location of mortises
on a shop-madestorypole. thelegblanks to length andoutline
themortises ontheblanks.
Madefroma stripof plywood, thestorypoleshownabove Notethatthemortises forthefrontor backstretchers
or rails I
includesthe lengthof thefrontandrearlegs,andtheplace- areoffset1/zinchlowerthanthe mortises forthesideonesto
mentof thestretcher,rail,andslatmortises.
Referto theside avoidweakening the legs.Labelthestorypoleandkeepit for I
viewillustration
of theEnfieldchairon page27fortheheight futurechair-making.
I
PREPARING
THELEGS.
RAITS
ANDSTRETCHERS T
1 Routing theslatmortises
I intherearlegs I
0utlinetheslatmortises onyourrearleg
blanks usingthestorypoleshown above, I
centering theoutlines ontheinside face
of eachblank.Thensecure oneof the I
blanksbetween benchdogs.Installa %-
i n c hm o r t i s i nbgi t i n a r o u t eer q u i p p e d I
withan edgeguide.Center thebit over
the mortise outlineandadjusttheedge I
guideto buttagainst thestock;usethe
second legblankto support therouter. I
Makeseveral passes, increasing thecut-
tingdepthwitheachpassuntilthemor- I
tiseis completed to a depthof %inch.
Repeat to routtheremaining mortises in I
bothblanks(right),Ihen square thecor-
nersof thecavities witha chisel. I
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28 I
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T r) Turning therearlegs
L P l a c ea r e a rl e gb l a n kb e t w e e cne n -
I t e r so n y o u rl a t h e ,p o s i t i o nt h e t o o l r e s t
a s c l o s ea s p o s s i b l e to the workpiece
I w i t h o u t o u c h i n gi t , a n dt u r n o n t h e
m a c h i n eS. u p p o r t i nagr o u g h i nggo u g e
I o n t h e t o o l r e s t ,c a r e f u l l m
y o v et h e b e v e l
u n t i li t t o u c h etsh e b l a n ka n dt h e c u t t i n g
I e d g es t a r t sr e m o v i n w g asteC . ontinue
working a l l a l o n gt h e l e n g t ho f t h e b l a n k
I u n t i l y o uf o r ma c y l i n d e r( l e f t ) ,w i t h t h e
b e v e rl u b b i n ga n dt h e t o o l p o i n t i n gi n t h e
t directioo nf thecut.

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Turning
thefinialsontherearlegs
I Startbycuttingthecovethatseparates
thefinialfromthe (above, /eff).Switchto a skewchiselto shape thefinial.Set
c y l i n d r i c as le c t i o no f t h e l e g .U s ea r o u g h i nggo u g ea t f i r s t , theblade onthetoolrestandadvance it untilit cutsintothe
T t h e ns w i t c ht o a s p i n d l eg o u g eH . o l d i n gt h e t o o l i n a n u n d e r - stock. Shape thefinialasdesired, making surethebevelis rub-
h a n dg r i pa n d r u b b i n gt h e b e v e ol n t h e s t o c k s, l i c ei n t ot h e bingthroughout thecut (above, right).Usesandpaper to shape
t w o o da n d m a k ea s c o o p i ncgu t d o w nt h e m i d d l eo f t h e c o v e t h et i p .T u r nt h eo t h e r e a rl e ga n di t sf i n i atl h es a m ew a y .
I
I 29
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CHAIRS T
I
Turning therailsandstretchers I
T u r nt h er a i l sa n ds t r e t c h ear sy o u
did thc rpar lpos (naop 2Ql rrsino: n:ri- \ f e b e 1 J ' '
I
i n pt o o lt o r : r rtth e t e n o n sa t t h e e n d so f
oach niocp (riohf)t t t b t t ' / .
Fnc,tvp:
' ' ' J v '
c , n r r of i t h v I
m a k i n gt h e d i a m e t eor f t h e t e n o n se q u a l
t o t h a t o f t h e b i t y o uw i l l u s et o b o r et h e I
mnriispq (naop v? / ) Thp ipnnn lpnoih
I
r r qbv

s h o u l bd eo n e - h at lhf et h i c k n e o
s sf t h e
legs.Finally, turnthefrontlegs.
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MAKING
THESLATS
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1t Steamins
theslats
-
I S e t u p a s t e a m r njgi g . r e f e r r i ntgo t h e b a c ke n d p a p ef ro r u n t i li t i s s o f t .A s a r o u g hg u i d e s, t e a ma i r - d r i e ldu m b e fro r o n e I
c o n s t r u c t i odne t a i l sA. l s oh a v ea b e n d i n gj i g r e a d y( s t e p2 ) . h o u rp e ri n c ho f t h i c k n e s sh;a l ft h a tt i m ef o r g r e e nw o o d .A v o i d
T u r no n t h e s t e a ms o u r c ea n d m a r kt h e c e n t e ro f e a c hs l a t . s c a l d i n yg o u rh a n d sb y w e a r i n w g o r kg l o v e sa n d u s i n gt o n g s I
O n c es t e a mb e g i n st o e s c a p fer o mt h e 1 i g ' sd r a i nh o l e ,p l a c ea t o h a n d l et h e s t o c k( a b o v e )P. l a c et h e n e x ts l a t i n t h e j i g a n d
s l a t i n s i d eC
. l o s et h e e n d c a pt i g h t l ya n d l e t t h e w o o ds t e a m b e n dt h e s t e a m e sdl a tw i t h o u d t elay. I
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30 I
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T
2 "x 2 "
t oupportboard
Q
Preparing theslatsfortheirmortises
r-,f Lettheslatsdryin thebending formfor
I a c o u p l oe f d a y st,h e nt e s t - f ti th e mi n t h e
r) Bendingtheslats r e a r l e s s : n d c r r t t h c m t n l' "p" n
b .o
" .i h F
' nr 2
qnro
I L to makethebending formshown above,
center themortisesfortheoowers f i t , s a n dt h e e n d so f t h e s l a t so n a s p i n d l e
alongthelengthof thesupport boards.
Thedistance betweenthetwooutside s h a p e rC. a r e f u l lsya n dd o w nt h e p a r to f t h e
I dowelsshouldbeslightly lessthanthespanof a slatwhenit is curved.Assoon backfacethatwill fit intothe mortise(abovd;
asyouremove a slatfromthesteamer, quickly
fit it between
thedowels. Center c h e c kt h e f i t p e r i o d i c a lal ys y o ug o .A g o u g e
I theslatsagainst
themiddle dowelandpushtheendsbehrnd theoutside dowels. c a na l s ob e u s e dt o c u t a w a vw a s t eu n t i lv o u
Alternate
thedirection pressure
of theslatsto equalize onthejig. havea goodfit.
I
I PREPARING
THELEGS
FOR
THERAITS
ANDSTRETCHERS
'l
T Preparing thefrontlegsfor
I thefrontrailsandstretchers
I T h eo n l yr o u n dm o r t i s ei sn t h e E n ife l dc h a i r
t h a ta r ed r i l l e da t 9 0 ' a r et h o s ei n t h ef r o n t
I l e g sf o rt h ef r o n tr a i l sa n ds t r e t c h e rU s .s e
yourstorypole(page28) to outlinethe hole
I l o c a t i o nosn t h e f r o n tl e g sa n db o r et h e m
o n y o u rd r i l lp r e s sC. u ta V - s h a p ewde d g e
I o u to f a w o o db l o c kc, r e a t i nag l i g t h a tw i l l
c r a d l teh el e g sa sy o ud r i l lt h eh o l e sI.n s t a a ll
I b i tt h es a m ed i a m e t earst h er a i la n ds t r e t c h -
e rt e n o n sa,n dc l a m pt h ej i gt o t h em a c h i n e
I t a b l es o t h e b o t t o mo f t h e V i s c e n t e r e d
u n d etrh eb i t .T h e np l a c et h e l e gi n t h ej i g
I a n ds e tt h ed r i l l i n d g e p t ht o s l i g h t lm
y ore
t h a nt h et e n o nl e n g t h a b o ut w o - t h i r dt hs e
I s t o c kd i a m e t e H r . o l d i n tgh e l e gw i t ho n e
h a n d ,b o r et h e m o r t r s e(s/ e f t , )R. e p e afto r
I t h eo t h e rf r o n tl e g .

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CHAIRS I
t
r) Preparing the rearlegsfor I
L me backrailsandstretchers
T h em o r t i s eisn t h e r e a rl e g sf o r t h e b a c k I
r a i l sa n ds t r e t c h e rms u s tb e a n g l e dd o w n
b y 2 ' t o c o m p e n s aftoert h e s l i g h st p l a y i n g I
nrri nf tho h:r'k lpsq Spf nnp nf thp lpoc

u p r r g hitn a b e n c hv i s e ,m a k i n gs u r ei t i s I
v e r t i c a lU. s ea p r o t r a c t ot or a d j u s ta s l i d -
i n g b e v eIl o 9 2 " . W r a pa s t r i po f m a s k i n g I
t a p ea r o u n dt h e b i t t o m a r kt h e d r i l l i n g
d e p t h - a b o u t w o { h i r d st h e l e gd i a m e t e r . I
T o h e l py o u h o l dt h e d r i l l a t t h e c o r r e c t
a n g l ea s y o u b o r et h e h o l e ,t a p et h e h a n - I
d l eo f t h es l i d i n gb e v etlo t h e l e ga n d k e e p
t h e b i t p a r a l l et lo t h e b l a d eo f t h e t o o l . I
S t o pd r i l l i n go n c et h e d e p t hf l a gc o n t a c t s
t h e s t o c k .R e o e atth e o r o c e stso d r i l lt h e I
r e m a i n i nhgo l e si n b o t hl e g s( / e l t )r, e p o s i -
t i o n i n gt h e l e gi n t h ev i s ea n dt h es l i d i n g I
hcvpl nn thp lpo 2q np.p( ' '---ssary.
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C Gluing thefrontandbackrails,stretchers, andslatsto the legs
r - J B e f o r ed r i l l i n st h e h o l e si n t h e l e s sf o r t h e s i d er a i l sa n d t e n o n sa n d i n t h e l e g m o r t i s e a s n d f i t t h e p i e c e st o g e t h e r . I
s t r e t c h e r su,r r . r b l . t h e f r o n tt e g sa n Ot h e nt h e r e a rl e g s . T a pt h e j o i n t si n t of i n a l p o s i t i o n
w i t h a w o o d e nm a l l e t .R e p e a t
, l u i n gt h e s l a t si n p l a c ea s w e l l( a b o v e ) .
g i t ht h e f r o n tI e g ss, p r e a dg l u eo n t h e r a i la n ds t r e t c h e r f o r t h e r e a rl e g s g
S t a r t i nw I
I
JL I
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I
I CHAIRS
I
I Preparing
thelegsfor
thesiderailsandstretchers
I T h em o r t i s eisn t h e l e c sf o r t h e s i d er a i l s
a n d s t r e t c h e rm s u s tb e d r i l l e da t c o m -
I p o u n da n g l e s - t h e ya r ea n g l e di n b o t h
t h e h o r i z o n t aaln d v e r t i c apl l a n e sS. t a r t
I b y s e c u r i n go n e o f t h e r e a rl e g si n a
h a n d s c r eawn dc l a m p i n tgh e a s s e m b l y
I u p r i g h t o a w o r ks u r f a c eT. h e nu s et h e
c h a i rs e a ta n d s i d ev i e w so n p a g e2 7 , a
I protractor, anda slidingbevelto determine
t h e d r i l l i n ga n g l ea s y o ud i d i n s t e p2 .
I B u ti n s t e ao d f t a p i n gt w os l i d i n gb e v e l s
t o t h e s t o c k ,c u t t w o s q u a r ep i e c e so f p l y -
I w o o d ,c l a m p i n go n et o t h e l e gt o i n d i c a t e
t h e v e r t i c aal n g l ea n dt h e s e c o n dt o t h e
I r a i lo r s t r e t c h efro r t h e h o r i z o n t aaln g l e .
t F o re a c hh o l e ,a l i g nt h e b i t w i t ht h e t o p
e d g eo f t h e v e r t i c agl u i d e( l a b e l eS dI D E
i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i oann) dt h e s i d ee d g eo f t h e
I h o r i z o n t agl u i d e( l a b e l e dT 0 P ) ( r i g h t ) .
A g a i ns, t o pd r i l l i n gw h e nt h e d r i l l i n gd e p t h
I f l a gc o n t a c t tsh e s t o c k .U s i n gs i m i l a r
m e t h o d sd, r i l lt h e f r o n tl e ga s s e m b l y .
I
I
t ASSEMBTING
THECHAIR
Gluinu g pt h ec h a i r
T 0 n c ea l l t h e m o r t i s easr ed r i l l e ds, p r e a d
g l u eo n t h e t e n o n so f t h e s i d er a i l sa n d
I s t r e t c h e rasn d i n t h e m o r t i s e sa,n df i t t h e
n i e c e tso p e t h e Ir J s ea w o o d e n m a l l ea t nd
I a w o o db l o c kt o t a p a l l t h e j o i n t si n t of i n a l
p o s i t i o n( l e f t ) . I h e ns e tt h e c h a i ru p r i g h t .
I T h ef o u rl e g ss h o u l da l l b ef l a to n t h ef l o o r .
l f n o t ,y o u m a y h a v et o a p p l yf i r m b u t
I g e n t l et w i s t i n gt o o n eo r m o r eo f t h e c o n -
n e c t i o ntso c o a xt h e l e g si n t op o s i t i o n .
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RUSHSEAT
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f, arlyShakerchairs,likethe Enfield
I-.i chair featuredon the preceding
pages,werefinishedwith rush seats.
I
Traditionally,therushwasnatural,con-
sistingof marshgrasstwistedinto a cord
T
which waswovenin a centerdiamond
Datternoverthe frame.Rushseatsare
I
both comfortable anddurable,andcan
bedonein anhouranda halfor soonce
I
you getthe knack.
This sectionshowshow to rush a
I
chairseatwith a morecontemDorary
material-tough-grade, fiber
^paper T
twistedinto longstrands,knownasfiber
or manilarush.Craftsupplydealers are
I
usuallygoodsourcesofidvice for the
appropriatesizeand amountof rush
I
neededfor a particularproject.Before
starting,spraytheindividuallengths of
I
rushwith waterto keepthem pliable.
I
A fiber rushseatis wovenontoa Shaker-inspiredEnfieldchair.
Usingthk traditionalmaterialand thesimpletechnique
I
for install-
ing it canimpart a charmingappearanceto anystick-style
chair.
t
RUSHING
A CHAIR
SEAT I
1 Bridging thefrontrail I
I Sincetherailsthatformtheseatof
a n E n ife l dc h a i rd o n o tf o r ma s o u a r e . t
youmustuserushto createa square seat
frame.Measure thedifference rn length I
between thefrontandbackseatrailsand
divide yourmeasurement in half.Measure I
yourresultalongthefrontrailfromeach
of thefrontlegsandmakea markonthe I
rail.Tacka lengthof slightly dampened
rushing thatisabouttwicethelength ofthe I
frontrailto theinside of a siderailabout
2 inches fromthefrontleg.Looptherush I
around thefrontrailfromunderneath, then
around thesiderailfromunderneath. Bring I
therushacross thefrontrailandloooit
around theothersiderailandthefront I
railin thesamemanner (right).Holding
therushtaut,tackit to thesiderailoppo- I
sitethefirsttack.
I
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I
34 I
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I CHAIRS
I
t r) Squaring theseatframe
I L Fasten a lengthof rushalongside the
f i r s to n e ,u s i n g
t h et e c h n i q udee s c r i b e d
I i n s t e o1 . L o o oi t a r o u ntdh ef r o n ta n d
siderails,likethefirststrands, andfasten
I i t t o t h eo p p o s i tr ea i l .C o n t i n uaed d i n g
lengths of rush(left)untilyoureachthe
I offsetmarksyoumadeon thef rontrail.
R o c r r r p tLnw lr r\ upLpp n lLhr reL rI ru rJ cl l L d^ J^ +L l;B- lLl t+ d^ l -l rU

I s,tr:iohi :s nnscihlc

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t
I Weavinga completecircuit
I Onceyouhavesquared theseatframe,youcanbeginrushing usingthesamepattern(above, right).Whenyougetto theendof
theseatallaroundtheframe. Workingwithanapproximately20- a lenghof rush,clampit temporarilyto theseatframeto keepit
I footlenghof rush,tackit tothesiderailneartherearlegsandloop tautandattachit to a newpieceusinga figureeightknot.Locate
it around
alltherailsbbove,left).Keepworking around thechair theknotsontheunderside of theseatsotheywillnotbevisible.
I
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t
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CHAIRS I
t
Checking theweavefor square
T
-,{f
O n c ee v e r yt h i r do r f o u r t hc i r c u i t ,
c h e c kw h e t h etrh e s i d e so f t h e s e a ta r e
I
p e r p e n d i c u ltaore a c ho t h e r .H o l d i n g
t h e l e n g t ho f r u s hi n a c o i lw i t h o n e
t
h a n d ,b u t t a t r y s q u a r ei n o n ec o r n e r
o f t h e s e a t( l e f D . I h eh a n d l ea n d b l a d e
I
o f t h e s q u a r es h o u l dr e s tf l u s ha g a i n s t
t h e r u s h i n gl.f n o t ,u s ea f l a t - t i ps c r e w -
I
d r i v e rt o s t r a i g h t etnh e s i d et h a t i s o u t -
o f - s q u a r ep,u s h i n g t h e l a s tc i r c u i ty o u
t
installea d g a i n stth e a d j a c e not n e s .
R e p e aat t t h e r e m a i n i n cgo r n e r so f
I
the seat.
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I
Stuffingthe seat
f,
, . , 1 O n c et h e r u s h i n si s a b o u t w o l h i r d s
I
d o n e ,i t i s t i m et o p r o v r Oeex t r ap a d d i n g
by stuffingthe seat.To preventthe rush
I
f r o ms l a c k e n i n gu ,s ea s p r i n gc l a m pt o
s e c u r et h e l o o s el e n g t hy o ua r ei n s t a l l -
I
i n gt o a s e a tr a i l .U s ec a r d b o a rfdo r t h e
p a d d r n gc,u t t i n go n et r i a n g u l apri e c ef o r
I
e a c hs i d eo f t h e s e a ts o t h a tt h e t r i a n g l e ' s
l o n gs i d ei s s l i g h t l ys h o r t etrh a nt h e s e a t
I
r a i l .S l i pt h e p a d d i n ug n d e trh e r u s h i n g
(righ),Ihentrim the tips if theyoverlapin
I
t h e c e n t e rC . o n t i n uteh e n o r m acl i r c u i ta s
b e f o r eu n t i lt h e t w os i d er a i l sa r ec o v e r e d .
I
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t
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I CHAIRS
I
t Completing the bridge
4i
I \ , 1 S i n c et h e s e a to n a n E n fi e l dc h a i ri s
d e e p etrh a ni t i s w i d e t, h e r u s h i n b geing
I i n s t a l l eodn t h e s i d er a i l sw i l lm e e ti n t h e
m i d d l eo f t h e s e a tb e f o r et h e r u s ho n t h e
I f r o n ta n d b a c kr a i l s .O n c et h i s o c c u r s ,
u s ea t e c h n i q uken o w na s b r i d g i ntgo f i l l
I t h e g a p .L o o pt h e r u s h i n go n t h e f r o n t
a n d b a c kr a i l sw i t h a f i g u r e - e i g hpta t t e r n
I weavep , a s s i n gt h e r u s ho v e rt h e b a c k
r a i l ,d o w nt h r o u g ht h e c e n t e ru, n d e rt h e
I s e a ta n d u p a r o u n dt h e f r o n tr a i l .T h e n
b r i n gt h e r u s ho v e rt h e s e a tf r o mt h e f r o n t
I r a i la n d b a c kd o w nt h r o u g ht h e c e n t e r
( r i o h f ) P a c , ei ,h e r r r s h r r n d c r t h e c p : t
\ t t b t t e ' '

I t h e b a c kr a i la g a i na n d
c o m eu p a r o u n d
ronp:i thp nrnnodrrrp

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T
t
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T
I
7T Finishins
-
theiob
I / O n c ey o u h a v eb r i d g e dt h e g a p
b e t w e etnh e f r o n ta n d b a c kr a i l s ,s e tt h e
I c h a i ru p s i d ed o w no n a w o r kt a b l ea n d
t a c kt h e l a s ts t r a n do f r u s ht o t h e u n d e r -
I sideof the backseatrail (left).Cut off
the excess.
T
I
I
t
I
SHAKERROCKING
CHAIR
I
he Shakerrocker shown below then bored with an electricdrill (page mortisesfor thesiderailsandstretchers
I
sharesmanyfeaturesandbuilding 32);themortisesmustbe angled2" to
techniques with the Enfieldsidechair. compensate for theoutwardsplayof the
canbeboredwith a drill andshop-made
drillingguides(page33);adjust
the
"TOP" I
For example,the crestrail mortisesin legsfrom thebottomto the top. guideto the appropriate
therearlegsarerouted(page2|)before Drilling the mortisesin the legsfor up the
"SIDE"
angle,and set
guideat 90".
I
the legsareturnedand bent.(ln this the otherstretchers andrailsis simoler
chair,the rearlegsarebent from the because thereareno holesat comoound
The followingpagespresenttech-
niquesthat are uniqueto buildinga
I
armsto thetop,insteadof beingcanted angles.The mortisesfor the front rails Shakerrocker,includingbendingthe
back,ason the Enfield.)The mortises andstretchers are90oholesthat canbe rearlegs(page40),andmakingthearms
I
for thebackstretchers,
rail, andslatsare boredon the drill press(page31).The androckers(pagea1). I
I
ANATOMY
OFA SHAKER
ROGKING
CHAIR
I
Kearlea
Creat rail
I
I
I
I
Arm
I
Arm butLon
I
I
Rail and
I
stretcher
to leg I
joint
I
I
I
t
Leg to
roaker I
joint
I
\
I
)tetcher
tr I
Front le4 r
I
I CHAIRS
I
I
I Kearleq Asshownin theoverhead viewof the
'IDEVIEW rockingchak(|eft,top),thefrontof
I theseatiswiderthanthebackandthe
TOP topsof the rearlegsarefartherapart
t VIEW atthetopthanthebottom. Asa result,
therailsandslatsareprogressively
I longer fromthebottom to thetopof
thechair.Liketherearlegs,theslats
I aresteam-bent for comfort. Thefront
Front aeat rail legsareparallel soihefrontrailsand
I stretchersall sharethesamelengh.
Asshownin thesideuiew(|eft,
t bottom), thesiderailsandstretchers
areperpendicular to thelegsin the
t verticalaxis.A comfortable angleis
achieved bybending the rear legs,
t rather thaninclining them.Forbal-
ance,therockers contact theground
I \',1" 2 to 3 inches in frontof therearlegs.
Theillustrations andcuttinglistpro-
I '%'
videappropriate dimensions and
\ angles thaiyoucantransfer to your
t \ storypole(page2&.

I t
T
t
I ITEM OTY t W ORDIAM. TH
I Legs front* L zz'/? LY,
rear a 4rv, I%
I Seatrails* front 1 22 1
I back I 17Y, 1
side a t8Y, 1
t Stretchers* front z lz %
back 1 L7 %
I
side 4 t8v, %
I Arms a
L 19 3Y, % Built in HancockShakerVillage,
the rockershown abovefeatures
Rockers Z 31 6 %
I Slats* top 1 18 %
a woven-splintseat.The Shakers
made this seatingfrom wood,
I bottom 1 17/, % which they soakedin water for
Crestrail 1 t8% severalweeks,then split into
I * N o t e sD
: i m e n s i o ni ns c l u d et e n o nl e n e t h s .
long stripsand wovearound the
seatrails.
I
t 39
I
I
CHAIRS I
I
PREPARING
THEREARLEGS I
1t Bendins
-
theless I
I R o u t h e c r e s tr a i lm o r t i s eisn t h e r e a rl e g s( p a g e2 8 ) , t u r n
t h e mo n y o u rl a t h e( p a g e2 9 ) , t h e ns t e a mt h e l e g s( p a g e3 0 ) t
f o r b e n d i n gT. o b e n dt h e mt o t h e p r o p ear r c ,u s ea s h o p - m a d e
j i g , l i k et h e o n es h o w na t l e f t .F o rt h e j i g b a s e c, u t a p i e c eo f t
plywood l o n g etrh a nt h e l e g s t, h e nm a k et h e b e n d i n gf o r mf r o m
a p i e c eo f s o l i ds t o c ks l i g h t l yt h i c k e rt h a nt h e l e gd i a m e t e r0.n I
y o u rb a n ds a w ,c u t t h e d e s i r e dc u r v e - a b o u t1 0 " - o n b o t h
e d g e so f t h e f o r m ,s t a r t i n gt h e c u t a b o u th a l f w a yu p t h e b o a r d . I
T h e ns c r e wt h e f o r mt o t h e b a s ea n d f a s t e na s t o pb l o c ko n
e a c hs i d eo f t h e s t r a i g hpt o r t i o no f t h e f o r m ;t h e g a p b e t w e e n I
t h e b l o c k sa n dt h e f o r ms h o u l de q u a tl h e l e gd i a m e t e rA. s s o o n
a s y o ut a k et h e l e g sf r o mt h e s t e a m e rs,e t t h e mo n t h e j i g I
b e t w e etnh e f o r ma n dt h e b l o c k sa, l i g n i n g t h ep o i n to n t h e l e g s
t h a tw i l l b e j o i n e dt o t h e s e a tr a i l sw i t ht h e s t a r to f t h e c u r v e d I
c u t o n t h e f o r m .T h e n ,p r o t e c t i ntgh e s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s ,
i n s t a lal b a rc l a m pj u s t b e l o wt h e s l a tm o r t i s etso b e n dt h e l e g s t
s n u g l ya g a i n stth e f o r m .S e c u r e t h e t o p o f t h e l e g sa g a i n stth e
form usinga handscrew (/eff). t
I
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- - a, I
lFd
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r) Preparing the legsfor therockers
I
L O n c et h e l e g s a r ed r y , m a r kh o l e sf o r t h e s c r e w st h a t w i l l t h r o u g ht h e s t o c k( a b o v el,e f t ) . f h e no u t l i n ea n o t c ho n t h e
f a s t e nt h e l e g st o t h e r o c k e r sl ;o c a t ea h o l eo n e a c hl e ga b o u tI b o t t o me n do f e a c hl e gp e r p e n d i c u ltaort h e h o l e ,m a k i n gi t s
I
i n c hf r o mt h e b o t t o me n d .C u ta V - s h a p ewde d g eo u t o f a w o o d
b l o c k c, r e a t i n ga l i g t h a t w i l l h o l dt h e l e g sa s y o u b o r et h e
w i d t he q u a tl o t h e t h i c k n e sos f t h e r o c k e ras n d l t s h e i g h a
o n e - h a ltfh e r o c k e hr e i g h tC. u tt h e s i d e so f t h e n o t c h e o
t bout
snyour
I
h o l e sC . l a m pt h e j i g t o y o u rd r i l l p r e s st a b l es o t h e b o t t o mo f
t h eV i s c e n t e r eu d n d e rt h e b i t . T h e np l a c et h e l e gi n t h e j i g
b a n ds a w ,t h e nr e m o v e t h e w a s t eb e t w e e tnh e k e r f s s, h a v i n g
a w a yt h e w o o di n t h i n l a y e r w s i t h a c h i s e lC. l a m pa s t o pb l o c k
I
a n da l i g nt h e m a r k e dp o i n tw i t ht h e b i t . H o l d i n tgh e l e gw r t h i n p l a c ew i t h a n a r cc u t o u t o f o n ef a c et o s t e a d yt h e w o r k p i e c e
o n e h a n d ,b o r ea c o u n t e r s u nhko l et h r e e - q u a r t eor sf t h e w a y bbove, right).
I
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I
t CHAIRS
t
t THEARMSANDTHEROCKERS
PREPARING
I 1 Cutting thearmsandrockers
I R e f e r r i ntgo t h e a n a t o m iyl l u s t r a t i o n
I on page38, makea templatefor the arms.
0 u t l i n et h e s h a p eo n o n ea r mb l a n kt,h e n
I o v e ra n do u t l i n et h e s e c -
f l i p t h et e m p l a t e
o n d a r m ;t h i s w i l l e n s u r et h a tt h e t w o a r e
I m i r r o ri m a g e os f e a c ho t h e r O . n e a c ha r m ,
a l s om a r kt h e m o r t i s et h a tw i l l a c c e pt h e
I t e n o na t t h e t o p e n do f t h e f r o n tl e g .C u t
the armsto shapeon yourbandsaw(right).
I Reoeatthe orocess to sawthe rockers.

I
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t
I
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I
I
I
I
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I
I
r) Preparing
I thearmsfor assembly
Z A t t t r o u sthh e t e n o n sa t t h e e n d so f
r o u n dp a r t so f t h e c h a i r - l i k et h e l e g s ,
I r a i l s .s t r e t c h e r as .n ds l a t s - c a nb e d o n e
on the lathe(page30), the tenonsat the
I b a c ke n d o f t h e a r m sc a n n o b t et u r n e d .
l d o w e cl u t t e ro n y o u r
I I n s t e a di,n s t a l a
d r i l lp r e s st ,i l t t h e m a c h i ntea b l e9 0 " a n d
I c l a m ot h e a r m i n o l a c ew r t ht h e t e n o n -
e n dc e n t e r e u d n d e rt h e c u t t e r .S e tt h e
t d r i l l r n dg e p t ha t o n e - h atl hf e l e gd i a m e t e r
then cut the tenon(/eff).
I
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CHAIRS I
I
ASSEMBLING
THEROCKING
CHAIR t
t
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t
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\=
/t t
I
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'l Gluing
thefrontandrearlegassemblies
together
I
l -
I G l u i n gu p t h e r o c k i n g c h a i rf o l l o w sm u c ht h e s a m ep r o c e - legs. 0ncetheadhesive hascured, glueonthetenons
d u r eu s e df o r t h e E n f i e l dc h a i r .S t a r tb y a t t a c h i n tgh e c r e s t thesiderailsandstretchers
spread
andin theirmortises
of
in thelegsand
I
r a i l .s l a t s .r a i l s .a n d s t r e t c h e rtso t h e t w o r e a rl e p s( n a p c fit thetwoassemblies (abovd.
3 3 , ) .T h e ng l u et h e a r m s ,r a i l s ,a n d s t r e t c h e rtso t h e f r o n t
together
t o t a pt h e . l o i nitnst of i n a lp o s i t i o n .
Usea dead-blowhammer I
I
I
r) Makingthearmbuttons t
L P r e p a rtew o b l a n k sa n dd r i l la m o r t i s e
h a l f w a tyh r o u g he a c ho n es i z e dt o a c c e p t
r
t h e t e n o na t t h e t o p e n do f t h e f r o n tl e g s .
G l u ea l e n g t ho f d o w e il n e a c hh o l e t, h e n
I
u s et h e d o w e tl o m o u n to n eo f t h e b l a n k s
o n y o u rl a t h e .T u r nt h e b u t t o nt o s h a p e ,
I
t h e ns m o o t hi t w i t hs a n d o a o ewrh i l ei t i s
still spinningon the lathe(righil.Remoue
I
t h e b u t t o nf r o mt h e m a c h i n ea n dd r i l lo u t
t h ed o w e l .
t
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I CHAIRS
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I t) Installins
thearmbuttons
<
I r-,1Oncebotharmbuttonsareready,
spreadgluein theirmortises
andonthe
I tenonsat thetopendof thefrontlegs.
Thenposition onthearms(/eft).
thebuttons
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I Attaching
't,{ Settherockers
thelegsto therockers
on a flatsurface and
I positron thechaironthemsotherearlegs
sitabout2 inches behind thepointwhere
I therockers
chiselto shaoe
contact thesurface.
thebottomof thenotches
Usea

I in the legssotheylie perfectly


rockers, thenmarkthescrewholesonthe
flatonthe

I sidesof the rockers, usingthe holesin


thelegsasa gurde. Remove thechairand
I d r i l la h o l ea t e a c hm a r ks, e tt h ec h a i r
down,andreposition therockers
upside
I on thechair.Nowscrewthe lessand
rockerstogether(right).
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I +J

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TAPESEAT
I
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Q hakertape,calledlistingby the the siderailsand wrappedaroundthe
rJ Shakers, beganto supplantother
tlpes of wovenseatmaterialsafter1830.
front and backseatrailsin adjoining
rows.A secondlength,calledtheweft,is
I
Its rangeof colors,neatappearance,
durabilitv.andeaseof installationmade
wovenalternatelyunder and overthe
strandsthatform thewarp.Looseends
I
it idealfor furniturebuildersbent on
producingqualitygoodsasefficiently
arejoinedby weavingthem backon
themselves, ensuringthat the rows
t
aspossible. And unlikecaneor other alwavsremainoarallel. I
naturallyoccurringmaterials,tapedoes Shakertapeisavailable in %-and 1-
not dry out or split;nor doesit pinch
or snagclothing.
inchwidthsfrom folk-artsuppliers.
canweavethe basictabbystyleshown
You I
Shownbelowand on the following
pages,weavingis fairlysimple.Onelength
in this sectionor createa wide variety
of designsthat includebasicand com-
I
of tape,calledthewarp,is anchoredto plexgeometricshapes. I
I
TheShakerrockingchairshown
at leftfeaturescanvastapeseat-
I
ing aswellasa tapeback. I
WEAVING
A TAPESEAT
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1
Anchoring
thewarprows
I Tacka lengthof tapeto theinsideof a sideseatrailabout theedgeof thematerial
buttsagainst
therearlegbbove).
I
Wrap
fromtherearlegsothatthetapeis parallel
2 inches thefrontrailandpullit towards
to therail. thetapearound thebackrail I
Loopthetapearound thebackrailfromunderneath, ensuring fromunderneath.
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I CHAIRS
I
I r) Stuffing theseat
I Conlinue wrapping thewarparound
I thefrontandbackrailsfromunderneath,
t making
contact.
sureadjoining
Theweave
rowsof tapearein
shouldbetight,but
notsotautthatthereis noplayforthe
I weftrowsto bewovenbetween thewarp
t rows.Onceyouareabouthalfway
opposite siderail,it istimeto stuffthe
to the

t seat.To orevent
ing,tiethelooselength
thetaoefromslacken-
of tapeto oneof
t h es l a t sB. u ya p i e c eo f 1 - i n c h - t h i c k
I f o a mp a d d i nfgr o ma c r a f ts u p p l oy r
hardware storeandcut it witha craft
I knifeto fit withintheseatrails.Slipthe
paddingbetween thetapelayers(left),
I centerine it between therails.
I
I
Completingthewarp
I Continue weaving thewarprows
untilyoureachtheoppositesiderailand
I thebackseatrailisentirely
wrapped in
r tape.Thentemporarily tackthe loose
lengthof tapeto thesiderail(below)
andcutofftheloose end.
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CHAIRS I
I
Starting
theweft
I
S e tt h e c h a i ru p s i d ed o w no n a w o r k
surface thatwillenable youto workcom-
I
fortably. Starting along thebackseatrail
opposite theplacewhereyoubegan the
T
warp,sliptheendof thewefttapeunder
thefirststrandof thewarp,overthenext,
I
a n dc o n t i n uwei t ht h i su n d e r - a n d - o v e r
weave untilyoureach thelastwarpstrand.
I
P u l tl h ee x c e st sa p et h r o u g hl e, a v i n5g
inches orsoat thestarting point.Weave
I
this part backon itselfto anchor thetape
in place(left).Flipthe chairupright
I
andcontinue weaving onthetopsideof
theseat.
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I
Filling thegapsin thewarp
f,
r-,/ Weave aboutthreerowsof weft,then
I
begin f i l l i n gi n t h et r i a n g u lgaar p sl e f t
a l o n gt h es i d er a i l sw h e r e y o ui n s t a l l e d
I
thewarp.Cuta length of warptapelong
enough to weave tworowsof seating, plus
I
a b o u5t i n c h e sa,n ds l i pt h et a p eu n d e r
thelaststrand of weftbeneath theseat
t
andaround thefrontseatrail,buttingit
against the lastrowof warpyouwovein
I
step3. Thenreturn to thebackrail,pass-
ingthetapeunder thelastweftrowand
t
overthesecondone(right).Weave another
warprowadlacent to thelastonethesame
I
way.Leave theexcess hanging for now;
y o uw i l lb ea b l et o w e a v iet i n t ot h es u b -
I
sequent weftrows.Weave threemoreweft
rowsandrepeat thegap-filling process.
I
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46 I
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I CHAIRS
T
I theweftrows
trl Completing
\,f Continue weaving theweft,wrapping
I eachrowaround thesiderailsandweav-
ingoverandunderthewarprows(left).
I Avoid twisting thematerial. Asyoufinish
eachrow,pullit tightagainst theprevious
T onewithyourf ingers. Asyouworkyour
w a yt o w a r tdh es i d er a i l ,t h ew a r pw i l l
I become increasingly tight.Tomakespace
fortheweft,slidea bluntknifebetween
T thewarprowsas necessary. Whenyou
havelaiddownthef inalweftrow,weave
I it backon itselfto holdit in place. Also
weave in anyloose endsof tapeonthe
T underside of theseat.
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I Splicing tape
I lf yourunoutof tapebefore
finishingthewarportheweft, tapebbovd,overlapping thetapesandbinding themtogether
I youwill needto jointwoends.Youcanstitchthemtogether b yf r i c t i o nU. s et h i st e c h n i q uoent h eu n d e r s i d
oef t h es e a t
withthread,but a simplermethodis to startweaving
a new w i t ht h ec h a i ru p s i d d e o w ns ot h a tn os e a m os r b u l g ew s ill
I lengthat a pointabout6 inchesbefore theendof thefirst b ev i s i b l e .
I
I 47

I
I
N,{EETINGHOUSE
BENCH I
I
-[t h. meetinghouse benchservedasa from which they derivetheir name- I
I pewfor theShakers. Duringser- wouldbegin.
vices,thefaithfulwouldsit andlistento AlthoughmanyShaker communities I
a sermondeliveredby an elder.At the had benches of the styleshownin this
closeof themeeting,thebenches would section,the designis believedto have I
bemovedout of thewayandhungfrom originatedin Enfield,NewHampshire.
a pegboard(page138).Wth the floor Typically,the crestrail, legs,and spin- I
cleared,the Shakers'ritual dancing- dleswerebuilt from mapleor cherry
and the seatfrom pine. Many early t
examplesremainintact,asa resultof
Madeof cherrywith a pineseat, soundconstructionand carefulhan- I
themeetinghouse benchshownat dlingby their makers.
Ieft is modeledafter thoseusedby As shownbelow,the bench'slegs I
Shakerworshippers. Becausepeo- arerakedto the front andback,but are
ple arelargerthan theywerein the not splayed sideways. Thespindlesand t
Shakers'time.theseatis wider crestrail are taperedand the rail is
than that of an originalbench. angledat theends. I
I
ANATOMY
OFA MEETINGHOUSE
BENCH
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CreaD I
rail
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I CUTTING
LIST
I
ITEM OTY t W ORDIA. TH
T Seat I 44 I4 L%
Crestrail 1 44 4 %
I Qnind lpc* 11 I4 %
t I poq* 4 I7 LY,
Stretchers* 2 I4 %
I
* N o t e :D i m e n s i o ni ns c l u d et e n o nl e n e t h s
I
I PREPARING
THESEAT
T
T
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T
I
Drilling thelegholes
I 1
I Clampyourseatblankbottom-face up on a worksurface twoguidesfroma shortwoodscrap,mitering theguidefor
andmarka reference lineacross thesurface 5 inches from t h ef r o n tl e g sa t 5 " a n dt h eo n ef o r t h e b a c kl e g sa t 1 5 " .
I eachend,thenpinpoint the holesforthelegs;thebackholes Settheappropriate guideon edgeonthereference linea few
shouldbe 1%inchesfromthe backedgeof theseatandthe i n c h e fsr o mt h e h o l em a r ka n dh o l dt h e b i t p a r a l l et ol t h e
I frontholesshouldbe 1%inchesfromthefrontedge.Fit a miterededgeof the guide.Thenborethe hole(abovd,stop-
handbracewitha spoonbit thesamediameter asthe legs. pingwhenyouareabouttwo-thirds of thewaythrough the
I T o h e l py o ud r i l lt h eh o l e sa t t h ec o r r e c t ; s f2t p
s o l em : k c stock-about 1 inchdeep.
I
I 49
T
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CHAIRS I
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T
Trotractor
I
I
t
a'' / )
I
7i_ I
I
t
I
\ Keference line
I
r) Drilling thespindle holes T
f- Borethe holesfortheseatspindles usingyourdrillpress o nt o p ,a n ds l i pa 2 - b y - 2u n d etrh ep l y w o opda r a l l ewli t hi t s
a n da s h o p - m a d j ie
g . M a r ka r e f e r e n cl ien eo n i h et o pf a c e backedge.Holding the protractor baseontheseatandthe T
of theseatparallel to the backedgeand1 inchawayfromit. bladenextto the bit,reposition the2-by-2untilthe bladeis
T h e nm a r kt h es p i n d l h e o l e ss,t a r t i nagb o u2t % i n c h efsr o m parallel to thebit (above, lefil.fhenscrew theZ-by-2Io theply- T
t h ee n d sa n ds p a c i ntgh er e m a i n i nhgo l e e s q u a l l yT.oe n s u r e woodandclampthe to themachinejig table.Todrilltheholes,
thatthespindles aretiltedbackat thecorrect angle, adjusta s e tt h ed r i l l i n g
d e p t ha t t w o - t h i r dt hses e a t h i c k n e sasl,i g n I
protractor to 10"andusetheshop-made tiltedtablejig shown thefirstmarkunder thebit,andclampa board to thelig asa
a b o v teo t i l t t h es e a ti n r e l a t i otno t h eb i t .F o rt h ej i g ,s e ta fencealong theseatfront's edge. Then,holding theseatagainst I
p i e c eo f p l y w o oodnt h em a c h i ntea b l e p, l a c et h es e a tb l a n k thefence,boreeachholebbove,right).
I
I
I
Q Preparing to shape theseat's top
r.,l Cutthe recess on theseat'stopsur-
faceonyourtablesaw.Startbymarking I
the profileof theseatontheworkpiece.
Referring to theanatomy illustration on I
page48, outline theshape of theendson
thebottom faceandendgrainof theblank. I
Tooutline therecess, settheseattopface-
d o w no n y o u rt a b l es a wa n dc r a n kt h e I
blade to thedesired depthof cut.Position
theseatsothe recess will be centered I
b e t w e et nh em i d d l ea n dt h eb a c ke d g e ,
t h e no u t l i n teh eb l a d eo nt h ee n do f t h e I
s t o c ka n dm a r ka r e f e r e n cl ien eo nt h e
sawtablealongtheseat'sfrontedge(righil. I
Nowclampa board asa guidesothatits
edgeisaligned withthereference line. I
I
I
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I
t CHAIRS
T
I Cutting therecessin theseattop
,{
-T Adjustthe bladeto a cuttingheightof
I ' / , ui n c h .S l o w l yf e e dt h e s e a ta c r o s st h e
t a b l ew i t ho n eh a n d w , h i l ep r e s s i nigt
T a g a i n stth e g u i d eb o a r dw i t h t h e o t h e r .
M a k ea s m a n yp a s s e a s s n e c e s s a ruyn t i l
T t h e b l a d eo u t l i n eo n t h e e n do f t h e s t o c k
disappears (left),raisingthe blade%uinch
I a t a t i m e . F o ra s m o o t hf i n i s h ,r a i s et h e
b l a d ev e r ys l i g h t l ya n d m a k ea f i n a lp a s s .
I
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I
Shaping thetopof theseat
T f,
s , / C l a m pt h e s e a tf a c e - u po n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d m a r ka
guidelina e l o n gt h e l e n g t ho f t h e r e c e s sy o uc u t a s a r e m i n d e r
I o f w h e r et h e c u r v e dp o r t i o no f t h e s e a t o p w i l l e n d .R e f e r r i n g
t o t h e o u t l i n eo n t h e e n do f t h e s t o c k ,u s ea h a n dp l a n et o f i n - Cutting
theendsoftheseat
I ish shapingthe seatIop (above),removingwastefrom end to F o l l o w i ntgh e c u t t i n gl i n e so n t h e t o p f a c eo f t h e s e a t ,c u t
e n da n da l w a y cs u t t i n gw i t ht h e g r a i n C . o n t i n uuen t i l y o u t h eendson yourbandsaw(above). Keepthe workpiece
I r e a c hy o u ro u t l i n e .
flat on
t h e m a c h i ntea b l ea sy o uf e e di t , t h e ns a n dt h ec u t e n d ss m o o t h .
I
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CHAIRS I
I
I
I Shaping theunderside oftheseat
I Theendsandfrontedgeof theseat
arebeveled on its underside. Bevel the I
frontedgeof theseatonyourtablesaw,
tiltingtheblade to a 45' angle. Theends I
arebestshaped by handwitha carver's
drawknife. Clamo theseatface-down on I
a worksurface. Then,holding thetoolin
bothhands withthebladebevel-down at t
a 4 5 ' a n g l teo t h ee n do f t h es e a tp, u l li t
towardyouto shaveoff wastewood(left). I
Onceyouaresatisfied withthebevel, sand
theendssmooth. I
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t
I
THELEGS
JOINING TOTHESEAT
I
1 Preparing thelegsforthestretchers
I Turnthe legsonyourlalhe(page28), I
tapering themto a diameter of % inch
at thetopdtldr%o inchat thebottom. Also t
turnthestretchers intocylinders, forming
a tenon(page29) at eachend.Toensure t
t h a tt h es t r e t c h ehro l e si n t h el e g sw i l l
b ea t t h ec o r r e catn g l ed, r i l lt h e mw i t h I
theseatface-down on a worksurface and
t h e l e g sd r y -ift t e di n t h e i rh o l e si n t h e I
s e a t I. n s t a lal s p a d eb i t i n a n e l e c t r i c
d r i l la n dw r a pa s t r i po f m a s k i ntga p e I
around thebitto markthedrilling depth-
a b o u ot n e - h atlhf e d i a m e t eorf t h e l e g . I
A l s om a r ka p o i n th a l f w auyp e a c hl e g
(seetheanatomy on page48).Thenhold- I
ingthelegin itsholeandthebit parallel
to theseatsurface, drilltheholeat the I
m a r ks, t o p p i nwgh e nt h em a s k i ntga p e
contactsIhe stock(right). I
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52 I
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I CHAIRS
I
I Preparing thelegsand
stretchers forwedges
I Reinforce thejointsconnecting thelegsto
theseatandthestretchers to thelegswith
I wedges. Cutthe kerfsforthewedges on
yourbandsaw.Whenyouarekerfingthe
I l e g sh, o l dt h el e go nt h em a c h i nt ea b l e
withthestretcher holefacingstraight up.
I Thiswillensure thatthewedges in the
legsareperpendicular to thegrainof the
I seat,preventing theseatfromsplitting.
Feedtheworkpiece intotheblade, slicing
T a kerfto a depthof aboutlz inch (righil.
Cutthekerfsin thestretchers thesame
I way,making surethatthewedges willbe
perpendicular to thegrainof thelegs.
I
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t
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Q Gluing upthelegsandstretchers
I r.,l To makewedges for the kerfs,cut
somehardwood pieces on the bandsaw
I slightly lessthan%inchlongand% inch
t h i c ka t t h e b a s et,a p e r i ntgo a p o r n t .
I Startbygluingthestretchers to the legs.
Spread someadhesive onthewedges and
I in the kerfsaswellason thestretcher
tenons andthemortises in the legs,and
t insert thewedges intotheirkerfs.Fitthe
stretcher andlegstogether, usinga wood-
I en mallet to tapthepieces intofinalposi-
tion.Youcanleavethewedges protruding
I fromthe kerfs(insef); theywillsit f lush
withtheendsof the legsandstretchers
I whenyoutapthejointstogether. Next,
I r--)
V.,
gluethewedges
siveonthecontacting
intothelegs,spread
surfaces
adhe-
between
the legsandtheseat,andtapthelegs
T intoposition (/eff,).
I
I 53
I
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CHAIRS I
I
Sawing
thelegsto length
I
T h et e c h n i q useh o w na b o v e w i l le n s u r e
t h a t a l l f o u rl e g sa r ep r e c i s e tl yh e s a m e
I
l e n g t hC . u tf o u rw o o db l o c k sf r o ma s i n g l e
b o a r dt,h e n n o t c ho n eo f t h e b l o c k st o
I
f i t a r o u n da l e g ( i n s e i l .P l a c et h e b l o c k
a r o u n dt h e f i r s tl e gt o b e c u t . H o l d i n gt h e
I
l e gf i r m l yw i t h o n e h a n d ,c u t i t t o s i z e
w i t ha f l u s h - c u t t i nsga w .O n c et h e f i r s t
t
l e gi s t r i m m e dr, e m o v e t h e n o t c h e db l o c k
a n dr e p l a c iet w i t ho n eo f t h e r e m a i n i n g
T
b l o c k sP . o s i t i otnh e n o t c h e dp i e c ea r o u n d
t h e n e x tl e ga n dm a k et h e c u t .C o n t i n u ien
I
this way until all four legsarecut (right).
l f y o uw a n tt h e b e n c ht o h a v ea b a c k w a r d
I
s l a n t ,t a c ks h i m st o t h e b o t t o m so f t h e
f r o n tl e g sb e f o r et r i m m i n gt h e l e g s .
I
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GTUING
THECREST
RAILANDSPINDLES
T()THESEAT
'l
I
Preparing thecrestrailfor thespindles
I C u tt h e c r e s tr a i lt o s i z e t, h e nm a r k I
t h es p i n d l eh o l e so n i t s b o t t o me d g e u , sing
t h e h o l e sy o ud r i l l e dr nt h e s e a ta s a g u i d e . I
C l a m pa p i e c eo f p l y w o oads a n a u x i l i a r y
t a b l et o y o u rd r i l lp r e s si,n s t a lal b r a d - p o i n t I
b i t ,a n da d l u st h e d r i l l i n gd e p t ht o a b o u t
1 i n c h .A l i g nt h e f i r s th o l em a r ku n d e r I
t h e b i t a n dc l a m pa b o a r dt o t h e a u x i l -
i a r yt a b l ef l u s ha g a i n st th ef a c eo f t h e r a i l . I
T h i sw i l l s e r v ea s a f e n c et o o o s i t i o tnh e
r a i l .B u t t i n gt h e r a i la g a i n stth ef e n c ed, r i l l I
the holes (righil.
I
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J+ I
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I CHAIRS
I
I r) Gluing upthespindles andcrestrail
L s"tthe seatface-uo ona worksur-
I face,thenspread glueontheendsof the
spindles andin theholesin theseatand
T t h ec r e s rt a i l .F i tt h es n i n d l eisn t ot h e
seat,tapping eachoneintofinalposition
I witha dead-blow hammer (above). Once
allthespindles arein place, fit therailon
I topandtapit intoposition. Foradditional
r e i n f o r c e m eynotu, c a np e gt h ej o i n t s
I between thesoindle andtheseatandrail
a t e a c he n do f t h eb e n c hD. r i l tl h ep e g
T holesintothespindles through ihe back
edgeof theseatandtheoutside faceof
I therail,following theprocedure explained
on page110.
I
I
T
I
r
I illrilltljiltilJ lllllllllltIIJilllllilllil
iliIillJllltili l]l]ltilllrJ
I 1HO?TI?
I laperinglhe areEl rail on a planer
lf you wiehNola?er the crest,railof the bencheo Xhelop edqeio
I nirrowe,than tie bott om,usea Nhickneee elanerand a bhop-m
jig. ForNhejiq,tack two woodetriVeIo a boardNhat is longerand
aae

I widerthan the rail.Oneof lhe eLrioeehouldbelwiceas thick as lhe


oIher,and the 4ap beNween Nhemehouldbe about,1inchleesthan
Nhewidlhof the rail,ClampNheji4 Lo Nheplan'
I er table so Lheboardand NheeNrioeextend
lrom eachside of the machineby eeveral J;i,
I inches. Nowfurn on Ihe planerand make
a Dao6throuahthe machinewithIhe
I bottom edqebfthe rail fluehayainol the
Nhicker otripandlhetop edqeproVped uV
T onlhethinneretriV.lltake ae many?aeoeo
ao necelearyNoachieveLhedesired
I t a p e r . T h e n N u r n l hr ae i lo v e ra n d
repeat,lhe proceee,Nhietime
with Lhe rail'e boLIom
I edgebuLbed aqainot
Nhethinnerelrip,ae
I shownabove,

I
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I 55
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I

"'w*
{

'rri
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he earlyyearsof Shaker threesquares of 12people. The
I communitieswere far 6-footlong table illustrated on
from bountiful.As oneresi- page 58 seatseight comfortably.
I dentof the Hancockvillage DropJeaftables(page68),
"Our with their expandable tops,
saidin 1791, foodwas
I veryscanty.Butwhatwehad, were developed later than tres-
we atewith thankfulhearts. tle types, becoming common
I Forbreakfast andsupper,we by 1820. Theywere usedin the
livedmostlyuponbeanpor- dining hall as side tablesor
I ridgeandwaterporridgeJ' By occasionally, as dining tables.
thesecond decade ofthe 19th But the dropJeaf design is so
I Centuryhowever, theShakers' practical that the Shakers
capacityfor ceaseless hard founda multitudeof applica-
I workbegan to payoffinmate- tionsfor it everywhere from
rialprosperiry thedairyto theinfirmary.
I Shakerdining tablesare Thepedestal table(page78),
mutetestamentto the com- or candle stand,wasverypop-
I munities' successin fields, ularwith theShakers. Strong
bams,andgardens. Asincreas- andsturdy,itwaslightenough
I ingnumbers joined
of converts Wth helpfrom a shop-builtjig that restson thebedof to moveeasily. Its tripodlegs
the movement,mealtimes a lathe,a routerfitted with a dovetailbit plowssockets kept it from wobbling.The
t saw the Shakerscrowded in thecolumnof a candlestand.Thesockets will mate Shakers experimented end-
elbowto elbowaroundthe with slidingdovetailsat the top endsof the legs. lesslywith thisbasicform.The
I dinnertable,eatingin solemn For instructionson makingthisjtg, refertopage81. standwasbuilt with convex,
silenceand, as in most of concave, or turnedlegs.Tops
I their otheractivities, with themenandwomenseparated. weremaderound,square or rectangular. Sometimes, thetops
Trestletables(page58)were commonfixturesin mostShaker weresimplyroundedoveror lipped,andsomefeatured under-
I dininghalls.Wth theirnarrowlegsandunobstructed legroom slungdrawers to holdsewingsupplies. Sometopshadagroove
allowingpeopleto sitquiteclosetogether, thetableswerewell in thelip to helpin thepackaging of seeds. (Ovalor octagonal
I suitedto theShaker thepassing
ethic.Tofacilitate offoodacross shapes wereexcluded, however, asbeingfrivolousandtoo
"squares" fourdin- worldly.)Thecandlestandshownin thischapteris but one
thelargetops,settings weredividedinto of
I ers.Typically10feetlong,Shaker trestletableswerebuiltto seat versionof a popularandfunctionaldesign.
I
I
A woodensupportispivotedundertheleafof thedropJeaftable
I shownat left. Overtime, thesupportmay tendto sagslightly,but
the thin wedgeglued to the undersideof the leafwill compensate
I for the change,allowing theleaf to sitat thesamelevelasthe top.

t 57

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TRESTLE
TABLE I
t
f-\ espitetheirlargesize,trestletables cherryfor their tables;this remainsa Asshownonpage59,thefirststepin I
LJ areeasyto move.This is because goodchoicetoday. makingthistableis gluingup thetop.
the joints connectingthe feetto the Topreventthetop from warpingand Because of itswidth,thetopcannotbe I
legs,thelegsto therails,andtherailsto alsoto hideend grain,a tongueis cut passed throughmostthickness planers
the top are fixed not by glue,but by alongeachendto positionthe mating afterglueup.Instead, startby assem- I
screwsandbolts.Thetableshownbelow grooveofa breadboard end.The ends blingthetopin thelargest possiblesec-
reliesheavilyon knockdownhardware, arescrewedto the top,with only a little tionsthatyourmachine canhandleand t
a modernversionof the ShakerDrac- glueappliedat the middle.This allows planethemto a uniformthickness.
ticeof assemblingtableswith boltsthat the top to expandand contractacross Thengluethesections together,being I
drewagainsta trappednut, allowingeasy its width ashumidity changeswithout verycarefulto ensure thattheyareper-
disassembly. Shakersfrequentlyused beinghinderedby thebreadboard ends. fectlyflush. t
t
ANATOMY
OFA I
TRESTLE
TABTE
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ToP
1"x41'/a"x7O%" I
I
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18" I
Trestle
I
+ 1"x4%"x49"
I
7"
,.t...- I
I
Spareand sturdy,the trestletableshownbelow
is a perfectexpression
of theShakerphilosoplry. I
With the trestletuckedup underthe top,diners
could sitclosetogetherwithout havingto splay Rail I
1"x5"x36"
out theirkneesor legs.Thenarrowfeetat theends
madeit easyto sweepthefloor underthetable. I
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/----=-%
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Croaa I
dowel /
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Drawbolt
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Applying theglue
I O n c ea l l y o u rb o a r das r el o i n t e da n dr i p p e dt o a c o m -
I b i n e dw i d t ht h a ti s r o u g h l 1y i n c hw i d e tr h a nt h ef i n i s h e d
t o p ,a r r a n gteh e b o a r d sf o r t h e b e s tp o s s i b l m e a t c ho f c o l -
I o r ,f i g u r e a, n dg r a i n T . ominimize w a r p i n gl,a yo u t t h e
p l a n k ss o t h a tt h e e n dg r a i no f a d j a c e nbt o a r d sr u n si n
I o p p o s i tde i r e c t i o n st h, e nm a r ka r e f e r e n cter i a n g l eo n t o p
o f t h e b o a r d sT. h i sw i l l h e l py o uc o r r e c t lrye a l i g nt h e mf o r
I g l u eu p . T o h o l dy o u rb a rc l a m p su p r i g h tc, u t n o t c h e d
w o o db l o c k sa n ds e tt h e c l a m p si n t h e b l o c k sS. p a c et h e
I c l a m p se u e r y2 4 t o 3 6 i n c h e sT. o p r o t e ctth e s t o c k a , lso
c u t t w o w o o dp a d sa s l o n ga n d a s t h i c ka s t h e p l a n k s .
I A p p l ya n a r r o wb e a do f g l u et o o n ee d g eo f e a c hj o i n ta n d
u s ea s m a l l ,s t i f f - b r i s t l ebdr u s ht o s p r e a dt h e a d h e s i v e
t evenlyon the boardedges(above).

I
r ) T i g h t e n i ncgl a m p s
I L t u y t h e b o a r d fsa c eu p o n t h e b a rc l a m p sa n da l r g n
t h e i re n d s ,m a k i n gs u r et h e s i d e so f t h e r e f e r e n ct er i a n g l e
I a r el i n e du p . T i g h t e n t h e c l a m p su n d e rt h e b o a r d jsu s t
e n o u g ht o b u t t t h e mt o g e t h e rT. o b a l a n c et h e c l a m p i n g
I p r e s s u raen d k e e pt h e p a n e fl l a t ,p l a c eb a rc l a m p sa c r o s s
t h et o po f t h e p a n eb l e t w e etnh e o n e su n d e r n e a t A h .s y o u
I t i g h t e nt h e c l a m p sm , a k es u r et h a tt h e b o a r d sa r ep e r f e c t l y
f l u s h .P l a c ea s c r a po f w o o do n a n y h i g hs p o t sw h e r et w o
I b o a r dm s e e ta n dh i t i t w i t ha h a m m eur n t i l t h et w o l i ef l a t .
F i n r s ht i g h t e n i nagl l t h e c l a m p st n t u r n ( l e f Du n t i lt h e r ea r e
I n o g a p sb e t w e etnh e b o a r d a s n da t h i n ,e v e nb e a do f g l u e
s o r e e z eos r t o f t h e i o i n t s O . n c ea l l t h e t o n s e c t i o nas r e
I g l u e du p ,p l a n et h e ma n dg l u et h e mt o g e t h e r .

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I
Preparing thetopfor
I
Q
!,, thebreadboard ends
Thebreadboard endsareattached to the
I
topwitha tongue-and-groove joint.Start
byrouting a tongue at eachendof thetop.
T
Install a piloted three-wing slotting cutter
in a routerandsetthecuttingdepthto
I
% - i n c thh; i sw i l le n a b lyeo ut o c l e atrh e
wastefromeachsideof thetonguein two
I
passes. Secure thetooto a worksurface
andturntherouter onwiththebitclear
I
of thestock.Makethefirstpasson both
s i d e so f e a c he n dm a k i nsgu r et h eb i t ' s
I
p i l o tb e a r i nigs b u t t e d
a g a i n st ht ee n d
of thetop.Thenresetthedepthof cut
I
slightlydeeper to routthe restof the
w a s t ef r o mh a l fo f t h et o n g u et;h e
I
t o n g u se h o u l db eo n e - t h i rt dh et h i c k -
n e s so f t h et o p .F i n i s h t h et o n g u east
I
bothends//eft).
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Making andinstalling thebreadboard ends
I
Plane thebreadboard endsto thesamethickness as
thetop,thensawthemaslongasthetop'swidth.Cutthe
I
grooves alongtheinside edges of thebreadboard endson
yourtablesaw(page62).fhegrooves shouldbeaswideas
I
thetongues yourouted in step3 andslightly deeper than
theirlength. Fittheendsin position andcounterbore three
I
holes through eachoneandintothetop,locating onehole
at themiddleandanother a fewinches fromeachend.Use
I
a fileto elongate theholesin thebreadboard endsslightly;
t h i sw i l lf a c i l i t a twe o o dm o v e m e nSt p. r e agdl u eo nt h e
I
about1 inchto eachsideofthecenter,
tongues
sitionthe breadboard ends(right), usinga malletanda
thenrepo-
t
w o o db l o c ki,f n e c e s s a tr oy t, a pt h e mi n t of i n a lp o s i t i o n .
Drivethescrews to secure theends,gluewoodplugsover
t
theheads, andtrimthemflushwitha chisel. Sandthesur-
facesmooth.
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I MAKING
THEFEET
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'l Preparing thefeetforthelegs
I I O u t l i nteh ef e e to n b l a n k as n dc u tt h em o r t i s ei ns t h e mw i t ha r o u t ear n dt h e
c o m m e r c im
aol r t i s i nj igg s h o w n
a b o v eT.h ej i g f e a t u r et w
s og u i d ep i n st h a tb u t t
I against opposite faces of a workpiece, ensuring that the mortise is centered onthe r) Sawingthefeetto shape
edge.lnstalla'/t-inch mortising bit in a router and set the cutting depth to cut the L cutthelegonyourbanosaw,saw-
I 1%-inch-deep mortise in three or four passes. Secure one foot edge up on your bench ingthetopedgef irst,followed
bythe
andmarkthebeginning andendof themortise. Plunge thebit intothestockat one bottomedge(above). Sandihe cut
I endof themortise, thenfeedthecutterto the other end, making suretheguidepins edgessmooth.
bothridealongtheworkpiece throughout the cut. Repeat for the otherfoot,then
t square thecorners of themortises witha chisel.
I Q Chamfering thetopedges ofthefeet
r-,1Install a piloted 45-degree bit in a
T router, mountthetoolin a tableandset
thecutting depthfora %-inch-wide cham-
I fer.Toprevent kickback, clamp a notched
guideboard to thetablesoitsedgeis in
I linewiththebit'sprlotbearing. Reinforce
the guide witha support board. indi-
To
I catewhere thechamfer ends,marka line
across thetopedgeof thefoot% inchfrom
T eachendof the mortise. Feedthe foot
intothecutter,ridingthestockalongthe
I guideboard to startthepass, thenpivot
theworkpiece awayfromthe guide, mak-
I ingsurethestockbuttsagainst the bear-
i n p S t o nt h ec l t a t t h ec h a m f el irn e .
I Repeat on theothersideof the mortise,
thenturnthefootoverandchamfer the
I opposite face(left).
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TABLES I
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MAKING
THELEGS
ANDRAITS I
'l Sawing thetenons atthe I
I bottom ofthelegs
C u tt h e l e g st o s i z et,h e no u t l i n ethe t
t e n o nos n t h e i rb o t t o me n d su, s i n gt h e
mortises in thefeetasa guide.Cutthe I
t e n o n os n y o u rt a b l es a wf i t t e dw i t ha
d a d oh e a da; d j u stth ew i d t ho f t h eh e a d I
t o s l i g h t lm
y o r et h a no n e - h atlhf et e n o n
l e n g t h - a b o u1 ti n c h Y. o uw i l ls a wt h e I
tenonsidesandedgesin twopasses each,
eliminating theneedto attach anauxiliary I
fence. Toposition theripfence, alignthe
s h o u l d el irn eo nt h e l e gw i t ht h ed a d o I
headandbuttthefenceagainst theend
oftheboard; thefence should bewellclear I
of theblades. Startbycuttingthesidesof
thetenon(page71).Fortheedges, align I
theendof theboardwiththedadohead
andmakea pass, thenturnthelegover I
andrepeat. Tocomplete thetenon, align
theshoulder linewiththeheadandfeed T
theboard withthemitergauge, ridingthe
endof theworkpiece against thefence. I
Turnthe boardoverandrepeal(lefil.
I
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r) Preparing thelegsforthetrestle
L me trestlefits intoa stopped groove I
a t t h et o po f t h e l e g .A dj u s tt h ew i d t h
of thedadoheadandthecuttingheight to
I
% inch.Center thefaceof thelegoverthe
d a d oh e a da n db u t tt h ef e n c ea g a i n s t I
theedge.Marktheendof thegroove on
thelegsandthepoints onthetableinsert I
where t h eb l a d esst o pc u t t i n gt h
; i sw i l l
h e l py o ud e t e r m i nt heep o s i t i oonf t h e
I
dadoheadwhenit is hidden bythework-
pieceduringthecut.Tosawthegroove, I
feedthelegfacedown,holding theedge
against thefence(right). Oncethecutting
I
l i n eo nt h el e ga l i g n w
s i t ht h em a r ko n
thetableinsert, lifttheworkpiece offthe
I
dadohead.Square thestopped endof
thedadowitha chisel. Youcannowcuta
I
two-shouldered tenonat eachendof the
stretcher (page71)to fit intothegroove. I
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62 I
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I
t Preparing
therailsforthelegs
T h er a i l sa r ea t t a c h etdo t h e t o p e n d so f t h e l e g sw i t h b r i d l e
I j o i n t sS
. t a r tb y c u t t i n gt h e r e c e s s ei sn t h e r a i l st h a te n a b l et h e m
t o m e s hw i t ht h e m o r t i s eyso uw i l l s a wi n t h e l e g s O . u t l i n et h e
I r a i lp r o f i l eo n y o u rb l a n k sa n d m a r kt h e s h o u l d e rosf t h e r e c e s s e s
2 i n c h e st o e a c hs i d eo f t h e m i d d l eo f t h e b o a r d sA. d j u s t h e
I d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l es a wa s w r d ea s i t w i l lg o a n ds e tt h e c u t -
t i n g h e i g h ta t % i n c h ,S c r e wa n e x t e n s i otno t h e m i t e rg a u g e ,
I a l i g no n eo f t h e s h o u l d emr a r k so n t h e r a i lw i t ht h e d a d oh e a d ,
a n d b u t t t h e f e n c ea g a i n stth e e n d o f t h e s t o c k .F e e dt h e r a i l
I w i t ht h e m i t e rg a u g ep, r e s s i ntgh e s t o c ka g a i n stth e f e n c e .F l i p
t h e r a i lt o c u t a s h o u l d eorn t h e o t h e rf a c e ,t h e nr o t a t et h e p i e c e
I a n d c u t t h e s h o u l d e ras t t h e o t h e re n d o f t h e r e c e s s e/s/ e f f ) .
M o v et h e f e n c eo u t o f t h e w a ya n dr e m o v teh e r e m a i n i nw gaste.
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I Sawing
themortises
in thelegs f, Cutting therailsto shape
R e p l a cteh e d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l es a ww i t ha c o m b i n a - r . f T o b r i n gt h e t o p e d g eo f t h e r a i l sf l u s hw i t h t h e t o p e n d
I t i o nb l a d e c, r a n ki t a s h i g ha s i t w i l l g o ,a n dc u t t h e m o r t i s east o f t h e l e g s y, o uw i l l h a v et o n o t c ht h e b o t t o me d g eo f t h e
t h et o p e n d so f t h e l e g sw i t ht h e h e l po f a c o m m e r c i tael n o n i n g r e c e s s esde c t i o no f t h e r a i l s( s e et h e a n a t o m yo n p a g e5 8 ) .
t j i g ; t h em o d e sl h o w na b o v es l i d e si n t h e m i t e rs l o t .C l a m pt h e F i t t h e r a i lu p s i d ed o w ni n t h e l e gm o r t i s ea n dd r a wa p e n c i l
l e gu p r i g hitn t h e j i g , p o s i t i o tnh e j i g t o c e n t e trh e b l a d eo n t h e a l o n gt h e t o p o f t h e l e gt o m a r ka c u t t i n gl i n ea c r o s tsh e r a i l .
I e d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c ea,n d f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t ot h e c u t . T h e n C u t t h e n o t c ho n y o u rb a n ds a w ,s t a r t i n gw i t h s t r a i g h ct u t s
m o v et h e j i g v e r ys l i g h t l ya w a yf r o mt h e b l a d et o e n l a r g teh e
t m o r t i s eM . a k ea n o t h epr a s st,u r nt h e l e ga r o u n di n t h e j r g ,a n d
a l o n gt h e s h o u l d e rosf t h e r e c e s tso t h e m a r k e dl i n e .R e m o v e
t h e r e m a i n i nw g a s t eb y m a k i n ga c u r v e dc u t f r o mt h e e d g et o
feed it rntothe bladeagain(above).Next,test-fitone of the o n e s h o u l d e r( a b o v e )t ,h e n r o t a t et h e b o a r d1 8 0 " a n d s a w
I r a i l si n t h e n r o r t i s el f. t h e f i t i s t o o t i g h t ,a d j u s t h e j i g t o a l o n gt h e c u t t i n gl i n e .O n c et h e n o t c h e isn b o t hr a i l sa r er e a d y ,
s h a v ea l i t t l em o r ew o o df r o mt h e m o r t i s ea n d m a k et w o m o r e s a wt h e r a i l st o s h a p ea s y o ud i d t h e f e e t ( p a g e6 1 ) a n d s a n d
I p a s s e sc,o n t i n u i nugn t i lt h e r a i l f i t ss n u g l yi n t h e m o r t i s e . t h e s u r f a c essm o o t h .

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TABLES I
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ASSEMBLING
THETABLE I
'l
I
Preparing
therailsforthetop t
I T o a l l o wt h et a b l e t o p t o m o v et,h e
r a i l sa r ef a s t e n etdo i t w i t hs c r e w sr a t h e r I
t h a ng l u e .M a r ks i xs c r e wh o l e sa l o n gt h e
t o n e d s e so f t h e r a i l s - t h r e eo n e a c hs i d e I
o f t h e r e c e s s e sa n d b o r et h e mo n y o u r
d r i l lp r e s sH. o l d r ntgh e r a i lu p r i g hot n t h e I
m a c h i ntea b l e d, r r l al c o u n t e r b o rheodl e
t h r o u g ht h e w o r k p i e caet e a c hm a r k ;u s e I
c u r v e db a c k u pb o a r d tso h e l py o us t e a d y
t h e r a i l .T h e nt u r nt h e r a i lo v e ra n d t
e n l a r g et h e b o t t o mo f e a c hh o l e( l e f t ) ,
r r s i n ap , / - i n c h
d i a m e t ebri t .T h r sw r l l I
f a c i l i t a tw
e o o dm o v e m e nD t .o n o t d r i l l
t o od e e p ,h o w e v efro; r p r o p ear n c h o r i n g , t
a s c r e wr e q u i r e as t l e a s t1 i n c ho f w o o d
w i t ha h o l en o l a r g etrh a ni t s s h a n k . t
I
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r) Preparing thefeetfor the legs
L U s t r g t w od i f f e r e nbt i t so n y o u rd r i l l I
n r e s sh o r ea h o l el h r o r r s e h a c hf o o tf o r
t h e b o l tt h a tw i l la t t a c hi t t o t h e l e g .T h e I
b o l tw i l l b e t h r e a d e di n t oa c r o s sd o w e l
to providelong-grain support(step4).
t
S t a r tb y d r r l l r nag h o l et o c o n c e aal b o l t
h e a dw i t ha 1 l - i n c hs p a d eb i t .M a r ka
I
l i n eo n t h e f a c eo f t h e f o o t 1 l i n c h e s
f r o mt h e b o l l o me d s el o i n d i c a tteh e I
d r i l l i ndge p t hH . o l d i n tgh e f o o tu p s i d e
d o w no n t h e m a c h i ntea b l e u, s et h e l i n e
I
a c . : o r r i d pf n r c . p t i i n ot h p d r i l l i n o d p n t h
t h e n b o r et h e b o l t - r e c e s s r h
no g l e( r r g h f ) .
I
T h e ns w i t c hb i t sa n d b o r ea % - i n c h - d i a m -
e t e rc l e a r a n cheo l ef o r t h e b o l tt h r o u g h
I
the foot.
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64 I
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I Q Drillingclearance holesinthelegs
r-,1Useanelectric drillto prepare
thelegsfortheboltsfrom of thelegbbove,lefil.fhenremovethefootandusethedrill
thefeet.Startbyfittinga footandlegtogetherandsecure the fittedwitha%-inch spadebitto boreintothetenonandlegto
I assemblyupside downin yourbench a pencilinto
vrse.Insert a depthof about3 inches.Keepthetoolperpendicularto the
theholein thefootandmarkitscenter onthetenonat theend endof thetenonthroughout theoperation(above,
righil.
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t
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t Boring clearance
thelegsforcrossdowels
holesin

lnstall a 'lu-inch brad-point bit in yourdrill


I press andsettheleginside{ace uponthe
m a c h i nt e a b l eA. d j u st th ed r i l l i ndge p t h
I t o s l i g h t llye s st h a nt h es t o c kt h i c k n e s s .
T ol o c a t e t h eh o l ef o rt h ec r o s sd o w e l ,
I marka vertical linealongthe legaligned
I w i t ht h ep i l o th o l ea n da h o r i z o n tl ai nl e
Clearance across theleg%inchfromtheshoulder
hole
I of thetenon.Holding thelegsteady, drill
the hole(/efil.
I
I 65
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TABLES I
I
legs
I
F Boltingthefeetto the
. . , 1 N o wv o u a r e r e a d vt o a s s e m b l teh e
t a b l e ,s t a r t i n gw i t h t h e f e e ta n d l e g s .F i t
I
t h e p i e c e st o g e t h ear n ds e tt h e a s s e m b l y
o n a w o r ks u r f a c eS . l i p t h e c r o s sd o w e l
I
i n t o i t s h o l ei n t h e l e ga n d i n s e r t h e b o l t
u p t h e f o o t .T o a l i g nt h e f a s t e n e rsso t h e
I
b o l t e n g a g ew s i t h t h e d o w e l ,h o l dt h e
d o w e li n p o s i t i o nw i t h a s c r e w d r i v ea rs
I
y o u d r i v et h e b o l t w i t h a h e xd r i v e ro r
wrench(right).Oncethe bolt catchesin
I
t h e d o w e lt,i g h t e ni t f r r m l y .
I
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4i
Assembling the legs,railsandtrestle
\ , f N o t c ht h e t r e s t l ef o r t h e c l e a t ,t h e ns c r e wt h e c l e a ti n eachlegandrailintotheendof the treslle(above).
Locate the
I
p l a c eC. l a m pt h e c l e a tt o a w o r ks u r f a c ef ,i t t h e l e g sa n d r a i l s holessotheypassthrough therail,rather
thanbelowit, in the I
t o g e t h e ra, n d p o s i t i o nt h e l e g sa g a i n stth e t r e s t l eT. h e l e g s notched portionof thestock.Next,boretwoholesneareach
a n d r a r l sa r ej o i n e dt o t h e t r e s t l ew i t h b o l t sa n dc r o s sd o w e l s . asyoudidin theleg@age
forcrossdowels
endof thetrestle 65), I
T o m a k et h e c o n n e c t i o n d s ,r i l lt w o p i l o th o l e sf o r b o l t st h r o u g h thenboltthelessandrailsto thetrestle(inset).
I
66 I
I
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t TABLES
I
I Preparing thetop
I
t / B e f o r ef a s t e n i ntgh e t o p t o t h e r a i l s ,
r o u n do v e ri t s t o p a n d b o t t o me d g e sa n d
I e n d s .L a yt h e t o p f a c eu p o n a w o r ks u r -
f a c ea n d s t a r tb y r o u n d i n tgh e c o r n e r s
I s l i g h t l yw i t ha s a n d i n gb l o c k T
a p i l o t e d% - i n c h round-ove
. h e ni n s t a l l
b ri t i n a r o u t e r
I a n d s e t t h e d e p t ho f c u t t o s h a p et h e
top'sedgesin two passes. Pressthe bit's
p i l o tb e a r i n g a g a i n stth e s t o c ka s y o u
I f e e dt h e r o u t e rc o u n t e r c l o c k w ai sl o en g
t h e e d g e sa n d e n d so f t h e t o p ( r i g h t ) .
I Turnthe top overand repeatthe process
I w i t h a % - i n c hr o u n d - o v ebri t t o s h a p et h e
b o t t o me d g e sa n d e n d s .
I
t
t
t
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
t
I
t Attaching
thetoptotherails
Leavethe too facedownon the work
I s u r f a c ea n d p o s i t i o nt h e r a i l - a n d - l e g
a s s e m b loyn i t . U s ea n a w lt o m a r kt h e
t s c r e wh o l e st h r o u g h
t h e r a i l so n t h e u n d e r -
s i d eo f t h e t o p ,t h e nd r i l la p i l o th o l ef o r
t a s c r e wa t e a c hp o i n t .M a k es u r et h e b i t
d o e sn o t p e n e t r a t teh e t o p ' su p p e rs u r -
I f a c e .R e p o s i t i ot h
screwthem in place(left).
n e r a i l so n t h e t o p a n d

I
I 67
t
I
DROP-LEAFTABLE t
I
-l- h. Shakers theversa-
appreciated referredto as
"harvest
tables,"to small thetableis lessthan20 incheswide.As
I
work tablesjust 2 feetlong.At 41 inch-
I tilityof drop-leaf
tables.
Theleaves
couldberaisedwhena widertoDwas eslong,thetableshownin theillustration
with mostdrop-leaftables,the version
shownhereusesrulejointsto attachthe
t
needed. andfoldeddownafterwirdso belowis a comfortablecompromise. top to the leaves.To ensureadequate
the tablewould occupylessspace. Thetop canexpandto a width of more supportfor the leaves,usethe largest
I
Shaker dropJeaftables
ranged
from10- than 3 feet,seatingfour peoplecom- drop-leafhingesavailable,which are
foot-longdiningtables,sometimes fortably.With the leavesfolded down, typicallyll by 2'/,inches.
I
I
(lFA DROP.LEAF
ANATOMY TABLE I
Drop4eaf hinge

ToP
I
t/o"x19'A"x41"
I
I
Leaf
I
t/0"x10"x41"
I
Groove for
Wood button
3l" x 3l" x'/r"
Drop4eaf auppott
I
wood button
End rail
'l"x5t/o"x15"
I
Dowel
7/u"
x 2" t
Drawer alide
ShakerdropJeaftables,like
theoneshownbelow,typi-
'/ztt
xt/o" x'lB" I
callyfeatureda drawerat
oneendand slender,turned
Drawer kicker
1 "x ' 1 "x ' 1 5 "
t
legswith a gradualtaper. I
This tablewasinspiredby
onemadearound1820at
theHancockShakervillage
in Pittsfield,Massachusetts.
t'
6"
I
I

13/tl
l+ I
I
2Q r7.tt

413/ tt
I
| /16
1"x53/s"x36'/o"
I
Drawer rail
'1"
x ' 1 "x ' 1 5 " I
Note: Dimenarona
includetenon and
t
l t/u"
dovetaillen7tho
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I TABLES
t
I
()FDRAWER
DETAIT tEG.AND-RAIt
ASSEMBLY
I Drawer aide
n/a"x3l"x15%"
Drawer back Leg
'/o"x2"1"x13'1"
I Drawer front
2"x2"x29%"
"'/t"x3%"x13%"
I
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I
Drawer alide groove False front
t l" widex'ls" deep '/r"x3%"x13%"

I
I MAKING
THELEGS
t

m
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t
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I Gutting themortises andturning thelegs
Referring to theanatomy illustration, cutthefourlegsto size, l i n et,h e nr o u n d t h ec o r n e rosf t h eb l a n kb e l o w t h ep o m m e l .
t thenchopmortises by hand,asshownon page91, or usea W i t ht h et i p o f t h eg o u g e
t i l t e du p ,g r a d u a l
r lay iset h eh a n d l e
d r i l lp r e ses q u i p p ewdi t ha m o r t i s i nbgi t .T h em o r t i s es sh o u l d u n t i lt h eb e v eils r u b b i nagg a i n st ht es t o c ka n dt h ec u t t i n g
I b e% i n c hw r d ea n d% i n c hd e e pl,e a v i nsgp a c feo ra V i n c h edgeis slicingintothe wood(above, left),Workfrombelow
shoulder onthetenonat eachend.Next,turnthe legsto the t h e p o m m et o l w a r tdh e b o t t o m o f t h e l e g ,c o n t i n u i nugn t i l
t required shape. To helpyouproduce fouridentical legs,make t h eb l a n ki s c y l i n d r i caanl ds m o o t hF. o r mt h et a p e w r i t ha
a hardboard template of thetaper.Thetemplate shouldindi- spindle gouge, adjusting a separate setof calipers foreachof
I catethefinished diameter of thelegsat several different points t h ed i m e n s i oanssm a r k eodny o u tr e m p l a t T eh . e nc h e c tkh e
alongtheirlengths. Startbyseparating the pommel, orsquare diameter of theblankat theappropriate pointshbove,right).
I section, fromthecylindrical section. Markthepommel lineon Deepen thecutsif necessary untilthemeasurements onthe
thelegblanks, thenmountoneof themonyourlathe.Define t e m p l a taen dt h ed i a m e t eorf t h ec u t sa r ee q u a lR . e p e af o
tr
I thepommel witha roughing gouge. Cuta notchat themarked t h er e m a i n i bn lga n k s .
I
I
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TABLES I
I
PREPARING
THERAILS I
1 M a k i n gt h ed r o p - l e asfu p p o r t s I
I T h e d r o p l e a v e sa r es u p p o r t e b dy
p i v o t i n sg u p p o r t sH. o u s e d a l o n gt h e t o p I
e d g eo f t h e s i d er a i l s ,t h e s u p p o r t p
sivot
o n d o w e l st o h o l dt h e d r o pl e a v e w s hen I
t h e ya r ee x t e n d e dt h , e n a l i g nw i t h t h e
r a i l sw h e nt h e l e a v e a s r en o t n e e d e dR. i p I
a Z - i n c h - w i dset r i pf r o mt h e e d g eo f e a c h
s i d er a i l ,t h e na d j u syt o u rt a b l es a w ' sm i t e r I
g a u g et o a 7 0 " a n g l eC . u ta 1 0 % - i n c h - l o n g
p i e c ef r o m e a c he n d o f t h e s t r i p ( r 6 l h t ) . I
T h e p i e c eb e t w e etnh e c u t sw i l l b e t h e
d r o p - l e asfu p p o r tt;h e t w o e n d p i e c e sw i l l I
b e g l u e db a c ko n t ot h e s i d er a t l( s t e p2 ) .
M a k et h e o t h e rs u p p o rtth e s a m ew a y . I
I
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t
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r) Reassembling thesiderails I
L tav fourbarclampson a worksurface andsetoneof the s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s t, i g h t e nt h e c l a m p su n t i la t h i n g l u e
s i d er a i l so nt o p .S p r e agdl u eo nt h ec o n t a c t i ne gd g eos f t h e b e a ds q u e e z eosu t o f t h e j o i n t s( a b o v e )l .m m e d i a t e lpyo s i -
I
o u t s i dset r i p sy o uc u t i n s t e p1 a n dt h er a i l sa, n dp r e stsh e t i o n t h e d r o p - l e asfu p p o r bt e t w e e n t h e s t r i p st o e n s u r et h a t
s t r i p si n p l a c eT. h er a i ls h o u l ed x t e n bd e y o ntdh ee n do f i t b u t t sa g a i n st th e s t r i p ss; l i d et h e s t r i p sa l o n g t h er a i l ,i f
I
t h es t r i p sb ya b o u % t i n c h - t h ew i d t ho f t h es a wc u t sm a d e n e c e s s a rRy e . p e awt i t ht h e o t h e rs i d er a i l ,t h e nt r i m t h e e n d s
i n s t e p1 . ( T h er a i l sw i l lb et r i m m e lda t e r .P) r o t e c t i tnhge o f b o t hr a i l sf l u s h .
I
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70 I

t
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I TABLES

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T
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t
thesiderailsforthedrop-leaf
Preparing supports
I Markthe dowelholeson the top edgesof the drop-leaf sup-
p o r t s l,o c a t i n tgh e ma b o u t4 i n c h e st o o n es i d eo f t h e m i d d l e .
I O f f s e t t i ntgh e d o w e l si n t h i s w a yw i l l a l l o wt h e l o n g eer n do f
t h e s u p p o r ttso r o t a t eu n d e rt h e l e a v e sI.n s t a lal % - i n c hb i t i n
I y o u rd r i l l p r e s sa n d a d j u s t h e d r i l l i n gd e p t ht o t h e d o w e l Installing ontherails
thesupports
l e n g t h - a b o u2 t i n c h e sT. h e np o s i t i o tnh e s u p p o rot n i t s s i d e D a bs o m eg l u ei n t ot h e h o l e si n t h e r a i l sa n dt a p a d o w e l
I r a i l ,c l a m pt h e a s s e m b ltyo t h e m a c h i n tea b l ew i t ht h e m a r k e d i n t oe a c hh o l e .O n c et h e a d h e s i vhea sc u r e d s, l i pt h e d r o p - l e a f
p o i n tu n d e rt h e b i t a n d ,s t e a d y i ntgh e r a i lo n e d g ew i t h o n e supports ontothe dowels(above). Usea chiselto trim the dow-
t h a n dd , r i l lt h e h o l e( a b o v dR
. e p e afto rt h e o t h e rs i d er a i l . e l sf l u s hw i t ht h e t o p so f t h e s u p p o r t si f, n e c e s s a r r .

I
T Sawingthetenonson therails
f,
r.,/ Installa dadoheadslightlywiderthanthe lengh of the tenons
t - % i n c h - o n y o u rt a b l es a w .( T h et e n o ns h o u l db e % i n c hs h o r t -
e r t h a nt h e d e p t ho f t h e m o r t i s e y o uc h o p p e di n t h e l e go n p a g e
I 6 9 . ) S c r e wa b o a r da s a n e x t e n s i otno y o u rm i t e rg a u g et,h e n
a t t a c ha n a u x i l i a r y f e n c eand r a i s et h e d a d oh e a dt o n o t c hi t . T o
I c u t t h e t e n o nc h e e k sb, u t to n eo f t h e r a i l sa g a i n stth e f e n c ea n d
t h e m i t e rg a u g ea n d f e e di t f a c ed o w n .T u r nt h e r a i l o v e ra n d
I r e p e atth e c u t o n t h e o t h e rs i d e ,t e s t - f i t t i ntgh e t e n o ni n t h e I e g
m o r t i sa e n dr a i s i n tgh e b l a d e su n t i lt h e f i t i s s n u g (. A l o o s et e n o n
t i s d i f f i c u l t o c o r r e c ts, o e r r o r t h e s i d eo f t i g h t n e s w s h e nf i r s t
a d j u s t i ntgh e h e i g h ot f t h e b l a d e s .N) e x t c, u t t e n o nc h e e k sa t
t t h e o t h e re n d ( l e f t )a n d r e p e a ft o r e a c hr a i l .T h e nl i n e u p t h e
l e gw i t ht h e r a i la n d m a r kt h e f i n a lw i d t ho f t h e t e n o n ,u s i n g
t t h e m o r t i s ea s a g u i d e .F l i pt h e r a i lo n e d g ea n da d j u s t h e s a w
b l a d et o t h e p r o p ehr e i g htto t r i mt h ew i d t ho f t h et e n o nA . gain,
I t e s t - f i tu n t i l t h et e n o nf i t s s n u g l yi n t h e m o r t i s ea n dt h e t o p so f
t h e r a i la n d l e ga r ef l u s h .N o wp r e p a r teh e d r a w erra i la n dt h e
I k i c k e tr h e s a m ew a y .B e f o r ea s s e m b l r nt hg e l e g sa n d r a i l s ,
remember to preparethe railsfor the woodbuttons(page93)
I t h a tw i l lh o l dt h et o o i n o l a c e .

I
I
I
I
TABLES I
I
Preparing thesiderailsfor thecrossrail I
4i
\ , f J o i n e dt o t h e s i d er a i l sw i t hs l i d i n gd o v e -
t a i l s ,t h e c r o s sr a i la d d ss t r e n g t tho t h e t a b l e t
s t r u c t u raen da l s oa n c h o rtsh e c o r n e sr t r i p s
t h a t h o l dt h e d r a w esr u o o o r t sW. i t ht h e e n d s
I
o f t h e s i d er a i l sa l i g n e dm , a r ka c u t t i n gl i n e
a c r o s tsh e m i d d l eo f t h e i n s i d ef a c e so f b o t h I
r a i l sC . u tt h e d o v e t a si lo c k e tw s i t ha r o u t e irn
twosteps.Startby installing a %-inchstraight
I
b i t i n t h e t o o la n ds e t t i n gt h e c u t t i n gd e p t h
t o r e a c hy o u rf i n a ld e p t h - % i n c h - i n t w oo r I
m o r ep a s s e sS. e to n eo f t h e s i d er a i l si n s i d e -
f a c eu p o n a w o r ks u r f a c ea, l i g nt h e b i t w i t h
t
y o u rc u t t i n gl i n e a, n dc l a m pa T s q u a r jei g -
a n e d g eg u i d ew i t ha f e n c ef i x e dt o i t a t 9 0 '
I
a g a i n stth e r o u t e r ' bs a s ep l a t es o t h e j i g
f e n c eb u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e r a i l .R o u t
I
t h e s l o t ,t h e ni n c r e a steh e c u t t i n gd e p t ha n d
m a k ea n o t h epr a s s S . w i t c ht o a % - i n c hd o v e - I
t a i l b i t ,s e tt h e d e p t ha I t / , i n c h ,a n d m a k ea
l a s tc u t ( / e f f )R. e p e aot n t h e o t h e rs i d er a i l , I
m a k i n gs u r et o p r e s st h e r o u t e rb a s ep l a t e
a g a i n stth e e d g eg u l d ef o r e a c hp a s s .
I
I
ASSEMBLING
THELEGS
ANDRAITS I
1
G l u i n tgh el e g st o t h ed r a w erra i l , t
I k i c k e ra. n de n dr a i l
S a n dt h e i n s i d ef a c e so f t h e l e g sa n dr a i l s , I
t h e ns p r e a dg l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r -
f a c e sb e t w e etnh e k i c k e rd, r a w erra i la n d I
o n ep a i ro f l e g s F . i tt h el o i n t st o g e t h earn d
secure t h e mw i t ht w o b a rc l a m p sa, l i g n i n g I
t h e b a r sw i t ht h e r a i la n d k i c k e rU . sing
w o o dp a d st o p r o t e c t h e s t o c ka n d d i s - I
t r i b u t et h e c l a m p i n gp r e s s u r et i,g h t e nt h e
c l a m p sg r a d u a l luyn t i la l i t t l ea d h e s i v e I
squeezesout of the lotnIs(right).Repeat
t h e p r o c e d u rteo a s s e m b lteh e r e m a i n i n g I
t w o l e s sa n dt h e e n d r a i l
I
I
t
I
I
I
72 I
I
I
I TABLES

I
I r) Gluingthesiderailsto the legs
L O n c et h e g l u eh a sc u r e d r, e m o v teh e
I c l a m p sa n da p p l ya d h e s i vteo t h e l e gm o r -
t i s e sa n d s i d er a i lt e n o n s F . i tt h e j o i n t s
t t o g e t h ear n d i n s t a l tl w o b a rc l a m p st o
s e c u r teh e a s s e m b lay l,i g n i ntgh e b a r sw i t h
I the siderails.Usewoodpadsas longasthe
t e n o nw i d t ht o d i s t r i b u tcel a m p i n pgr e s -
I s u r e .A s s o o na s y o u h a v et i g h t e n e db o t h

r c l a m p su, s ea t a p em e a s u rteo c h e c kt h e
assemblyfor square(left),measuring the
distancebetween opposite comers;the two
I m e a s u r e m e nst hs o u l db e e q u a l .l f n o t ,
i n s t a lal n o t h ebr a rc l a m pa c r o s tsh e l o n g e r
I o f t h e t w o d i a g o n a l s ,e t t i n gt h e c l a m p
j a w so n t h o s ea l r e a d yi n p l a c e .T i g h t e n
t t h e c l a m pa l i t t l ea t a t i m e ,m e a s u r i nags
y o ug o u n t i lt h e t w o d i a g o n a lasr ee q u a l .
I
I
t
I
t
I
) ,---1' r
I
t
r
I
Making thecrossrail
andinstalling
I bit in yourrouter
Withthesamedovetail usedto cutthesock-
ets in the siderails(page72), mountthe tool in a table.Setthe
I c u t t i n gd e p t ht o m a k et h e d o v e t a i lssl i g h t l sy h o r t etrh a nt h e
d e n t ho f t h e s o c k e t sP o s i t i otnh e f e n c es o t h a t o n e - h a lof f t h e
I cutterprojectsbeyondits face.Feedthe crossrailon end across
t h e t a b l e ,p r e s s i n igt a g a i n stth e f e n c e T. u r nt h e r a i la r o u n dt o
I completethe dovetail (abovd and repeatthe cutsat the other
e n do f t h e r a i l .T e s t J i t h e j o i n t sa n da d j u stth ef e n c ea n dm a k e
I a d d i t i o n aclu t s ,i f n e c e s s a r0y n . c et h e f i t i s s n u g ,s p r e a dg l u e
o n t h e d o v e t a i lasn d i n t h e s o c k e t a s n ds l i d et h e r a i li n t op l a c e ,
I ; s ea w o o db l o c kt o p r o t e ctth e s t o c k
t a p p i n gi t w i t h a m a l l e t u
( r i s h f )f h e e d s e so f i h e c r o s sr a i ls h o u l dl i e f l u s hw i t ht h o s eo f
I t h e s i d er a i l s .

I
r 73

I
t
TABLES I
I
MAKING
ANDINSTALLING
THEDRAWER I
1 Preparing thedrawer forthebottom I
I Cutthefront.back.andsides of the
drawer to fit intotheopening in thetable. I
Thebackis narrower thantheotheroieces
to allowthebottom to slideintoplaceafter I
thedrawer is gluedup.Cutthethrough
dovetails joining thepieces (page130, I
thencutthegrooves forthebottompanel
in thefrontandsidepieces onyourtable I
saw.Position thefencesothegroove will
passthrough themiddle
mosttailsonthedrawer
ofthebottom-
sides andsetthe
a)4'' ,Vt:' t
bladeheight to one-half thestockthick- I
ness.Usea pushstickto feedthepieces
facedownacross thesawtable,while I
pressing thestockagainst thefence.
R e p e aotnt h er e m a i n i npgi e c e st h, e n I
movethefenceawayf romthebladeby
thethickness of thekerfandrepeat onall I
threeboards(right).fesl-fit yourbottom
panel-typically %-inch plywood-in the I
grooves andwidenthem,if necessary.
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
J Assembling thedrawer I
Z- Spread glueonthecontacting
surfacesof thepinsand Preparing
thedrawer
fortheslides
tails,thentapthefourboards together
usinga wooden mallet I n s t a lal d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l es a wa n da d j u s ti t s w i d t h I
(above). Clampthedrawer, posrtioning
theclamps to push to accommodate thedrawer slidesyouwilluse-typically Tu
thetailsintothepins.Check thedrawerforsquare (page73). inchthick.Setthecutting height at % inchandposition therip
I
Oncetheadhesive hascured,removetheclamps andslide f e n c et o c u t t h eg r o o vien t h e m i d d l eo f t h ed r a w esri d e s .
thebottom panelintoplace.
Thendrivea fewfinishingnails F e e dt h ed r a w esri d e - d o whno, l d i ntgh ee d g e fsl u s ha g a i n s t I
through thepanelandintothebottomedgeof thedrawer back thefence. Turnthedrawer overto cutthegroove in theother
to f ix it in oosition. sidehbovd. I
I
74 I
I
I
I TABLES
I
I . ' 1 i r : l i l l i l g i l * c o i n e sr t r i p s
t-', :i::i
d:'i,;lnl:iifles
I i t , . t f i i l s f r i : , . r ; rqp; l : o s i t i oinn t h e t a b l e
1.1''r,r ':r2:iiilr, p,t:;tionof the grooves in its
I s ' i - . . : , i il r e i e g sa n dr a i l s C . u ta c o r n e r
st,'t';ir,i .;r;h ccrrterof Ihe drawer(page
I 10,i),-",4x:ng 'rh,.: dadoesas wide as the
g r r . r . : . . " . . w oc o r n e sr t r i p sf l u s h
t o g a i , 4 ': i r es i c er a i la n d l e ga t t h e d r a w e r
f r o r ,- ; r r i l r : i i c l a m p st o h o l d t h e t w o
I r e m ;i , ; , r . ' i o sf l r r s ha p a i n st h t es i d er a i l
and.' . . . ; r i la t t h e d r a w e b
r a c k t; h e
I dadoe-. i n r l l f o u r strips s h o u l dl i n e u p
withti::: j i r c o v em a r k s .
C u t t w o drawer
I s l i d e si , : ' a nt h e s a n h e t w e etnh e d a d o e s
a l o n gt l ' . i d er a i l s .l e s sZ " i n c hf o r c l e a r -
I a n c e .N i . c h t h e f r o n te n d t o f i t a r o u n d
'hen
theles. s l i nt h e s l i d e si n t ot h e
I dadoesi-,ght).
r
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
T
I ti Installing thedrawer
,.,f Slidethedrawer intoposition (/eff).
It should movesmoothly andsitcentered
I a n dl e v eiln i t so p e n i n g
i f .n o t ,l o o s e n
t h ec l a m phs o l d i ntgh eb a c k - e ncdo r n e r
I stripsandadjust theheight of thestrips,
asnecessary. Whenthef it is f ine,screw
I thebackendstrips to thecrossrail.
I
I 75
T
t
TABLES t
t
Attaching thefalselront
I
fi
\ , , S e tt h e d r a w efra c e - u po n a w o r ks u r -
f a c ea n d d r i v et w o b r a d si n t ot h e f r o n t ,
I
leaving t h e h e a d sp r o t r u d i n gT.h e ns n i p
o f f t h e h e a d sw i t hp l i e r sI.n s t a ltlh e d r a w e r
t
i n t h e t a b l e ,c u t t h e f a l s ef r o n tt o s i z ea n d
p l a c ei t b e t w e etnh e d r a w er a i la n d k i c k -
I
e r , u s i n gs l i p so f p a p e ar s s h i m st o h o l d
i t p r e c i s e lcye n t e r e adn dl e v e lS . teadying
I
t h e f a l s ef r o n tw i t ho n eh a n d ,s l i d et h e
drawertowardthe board(left)and firmly
I
p r e s st h e b r a d sa g a i n sitt ; t h e p o i n t e d
e n d so f t h e n a i l sw i l l p u n c hi m p r e s s i o n s
I
y o ut o r e p o s r t i o n
i n t h e w o o d ,a l l o w i n g
t h e f a l s ef r o n ta t g l u e u p . S p r e a da d h e -
t
s i v eo n t h e b a c ko f t h e f a l s ef r o n ta n d
c l a m pi t t o t h e d r a w ew r i t ht h e t w o b r a d s
I
r e s t i n gi n t h e i ri m p r e s s i o n s .
T
T
I
ATTACHING
THET()P I
1
Shaping thetopandleaves I
I T h e l e a v e sa r ef a s t e n e d t o t h et a b l e -
t o p w i t h r u l ej o i n t s ,i n w h i c ht h e t o p ' s I
rounded-over edgemateswith a covecut
alongthe edgeof the leaf (lnsef).Startby I
rounding o v e rt h e e d g e so f t h e t o p , u s i n g
a p i l o t e dr o u n d - o v ebri t i n a r o u t e r T .o I
s h a p et h e I e a v e si,n s t a l la p i l o t e dc o v e
b i t w h o s ed i a m e t ear n d p r o ifl e m a t c ht h e I
r o u n d - o v ebrl t , t h e n m o u n t h e r o u t e ri n
a t a b l e .( T h et w o b i t sa r eo f t e ns o l da s a I
s e t . )T o s u p p o rtth e l e a v e d s u r i n gt h e c u t ,
c l a m pa f e a t h e r b o a trod t h e f e n c ea b o v e I
thecutterA . l i g nt h e f e n c ew i t ht h e b i t ' s
p i l o t b e a r i n gs o t h e c u t t i n gw i d t hw i l l I
e q u a ol n e - h a tl fh e c u t t e rd i a m e t e rS. e tt h e
d e p t ho f c u t t o r e a c ht h e f i n a l d e p t hi n t
severalpasses.Feedone leaf intothe bit,
bracingits edgeagainstIhe fencetight). I
A f t e re a c hp a s s t, e s t - f i t h e p i e c e sc; o n -
t i n u ec u t t i n gu n t i lt h e t o p a n d l e a fm e s h I
w r t ha s l i g h tg a p b e t w e e tnh e t w o .R e p e a t
the processon the otherleaf. I
I
T
76 I
I
I
I TABLES
I
t r) Attaching theleaves to thetop
I I lointhe leaves
rule-joint hinges
to thetopbyinstalling
ontheunderside of the
I oieces. Setthetooandleaves facedown
ona worksurface, thenmarklinesalong
T theedges of thetopin linewiththestart
of eachround-over cut,known asthefil-
I let.Install threehinges foreachleaf:one
in themiddle of thejointandone5 inches
I fromeachend.Witha paper shiminsert-
ed between theleafandtop,position a
I hingeleafagainst thetopandtheother
against theleafat eachhingelocation so
I t h ep i ni sa l i g n ewdi t ht h ef i l l e tl i n et,h e n
o u t l i n teh eh i n g eC. h i s eol u tt h em o r t i s -
I e s ,u s i n ga w i d e r - b l atdoeo lt o c u tt h e
mortises forthe hingeleaues @age113)
t anda narrower
thepins(right).
chisel
Screw
to cuttheslotsfor
thehinges in place.
I
T
I
I
I
t
I
t
t Q Attaching thetoptothetablerails
r-,1Thetop is fastened to therailswith
I woodbuttons;
buttons feature
screwed to thetop,the
lipsthatfit intogrooves
I cut intotherails,providing a secure con-
nection whileallowing forwoodmovement.
t Makesurethedrop-leaf supports
placeonthesiderails,thenplacethetop
arein

I facedownon a worksurface andclamp


t h el e g - a n d - raasi ls e m bilny p o s i t i oonn
I top.Makea buttonfor every6 inchesof
rail length(page101).Spacing them
I about6 inches apartandleaving a l|-inch
gapbetween the bottomof the grooves
I andthelipped endsof thebuttons, screw
the buttonsin place(lefil.
I
I 77
T
I
I
CANDLESTAND
I
I
f n anerabeforeelectriciry theShakers whichpullsthemaway
of rackingstress legsaddedstrength,a metal plate,
"spider,"
I depended on candles to seethem from thecolumn.TheShakers com- known asa is naiiedtc ti:r: I
thoughthehoursof darkness. These dili- pensated for thisweakness in several baseof thecolumnandlegs.Thedesign
gentworkerscouldnot allowlatesun- ways. Themostimportantwasattach- of thelegsalsofortifiesthestand.They I
risesor earlyduslato interfere withtheir ingthelegsto thecolumnwithsliding are3/ainch thickerat the top, which
labor.Candlestandswerelight,stable, dovetails-verystrongand durable makesthe dovetailsthat muchstronger. I
andeasyto transport. Althoughcandle joints.SomeShaker candlestands have Also,the Shakerscut the legsso the
stands werenota Shaker invention. the survivedI 50yearsandareassturdyas grain runs alongtheir length,helping I
furnituremakersin theircommunities the daytheyweremade.To givethe them resiststress.
elevated thiscommonplace itemto its I
mostrefinedexpression.
Theelegancebf thecandle standttri- I
pod designsacrifices somestrength. ANATOMY
OFA CANDTE
STAND
Because of theangleatwhichtheysplay I
out,thelegsaresubjected to a greatdeal
Top -
7/u" x 19" I
diameter
T
Wed6e
I
I
I
I
DETAIT
OF
D()VETAITS t
I
Column
19 incheelong I
I
I
I
I
4" x 15";5/a"
thick
at bottom and I
1"thick at top

Despitethesimpleappearance
I
of the
candlestandshownabove,thetable
joinery.Positioned
I
reliesonprecise
exactly120"apart,thethreelegsare I
anachedto thecolumnwith sliding
dovetaik,cut with angledshoulders I
to sit snuglyagainstthecolumn.
T
I
I
I
I TABLES
I
t
I EUILDITYOUREELF

I
CIRCLE-CUTTING JIG
I T o c u t t h e c i r c u l atro p o f a c a n d l e Notah
standon yourbandsaw,usethe shop- Jig baoe /'"x7"
I '/,"x20"x24"
b u i l tc i r c l e - c u t t i nj igg s h o w na t r i g h t .
R e f e tro t h e i l l u s t r a t i ofno r s u s s e s t -
I eddimensions.
R o u ta % - i n c h - d e edpo v e t a ci lh a n -
I n e l i n t h e m i d d l eo f t h e 1 i gb a s et,h e n
usea iablesawto rip a thin boardwith 9crew
I a bevelalongbothedgesto produce holes ?upport arm
a b a rt h a ts l i d e s m o o t h liyn t h ec h a n - 1"x3"xB"
I n e l .( S e t h e s a wb l a d ea n g l eb y m e a -
suringthe angleof the channeledges.) 9liding
I C u t o u t t h e n o t c ho n t h e b a n ds a w , pivot bar
'/,"
x 24"
t h e n s c r e wt h e s u p p o rat r m st o t h e
I u n d e r s i doef t h e 1 i gb a s e s, p a c i n g
t h e mt o h u gt h e s i d e so f t h e b a n d theclamps thatsecure thejig.Next, t h e b a n ds a wt a b l e ,m a k i n gs u r et h e
I s a wt a b l ew h e nt h e j i g i s i n p o s i t i o n . makea release cut f romtheedge s u p p o rat r m sa r eb u t t e da g a i n stth e
D r i l lt w o h o l e st h r o u g ht h e b o t t o m o ft h ep a n etlo t h em a r k ecdi r c u m - t a b l e ' se d g e sS. l i d et h e p i v o tb a ri n t o
I o f t h e d o v e t a ci l h a n n eiln t h e j i g fprcncp ihpn vcer nff in iho odop t h e c h a n n eiln t h e b a s ea n dp i v o t h e
base1 , i n c ha n d3 i n c h e sf r o mt h e Screw thepivotbarto thecenterof p a n eu l n t i lt h e m a r k e dc o n t a c tp o i n t
I u n n o t c h eedn d ;a l s ob o r et w o h o l e s theworkpiece through oneofthebar's t o u c h e st h e b l a d e .S c r e wt h r o u g h
t h r o u g ht h e b a ra s s h o w n . holes, leaving thescrewloose enough o n eo f t h e h o l e si n t h e j i g b a s et o
I To prepare the workpiece, markthe to pivot thepanel. l o c kt h e p i v o tb a r i n p l a c e( b e l o w .
c i r c u m f e r e n caen dc e n t e ro f t h e c r r - Turntheworkpiece overandmark bfil. f urnon the sawand pivotthe
I c l e o n i t s u n d e r s i d eT.h e nu s et h e the pointwherethe bladecontact- w o r k p i e ci en t ot h e b l a d ei n a c l o c k -
b a n ds a wt o c u t o f f t h e f o u rc o r n e r s e d t h ec i r c u m f e r e ndcuer i n gt h e wisedirection(below,righil, feeding
T o f t h e p a n e lt o k e e pi t f r o m h i t t i n g r e l e a sceu t .C l a m pt h ej i g b a s et o i h p n i p ep r r n i i l t h p n r r t i c n n m n l o t c d

I
t
I
I
I
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I
I
I
T
I 79
I
t
TABLES
I
t
I
THET()PANDRAIL
PREPARING
'l
Preparing thetop I
I 0 n c et h et o po f t h ec a n d l es t a n dh a s
beencut (page79),shapeitscircumference I
ona router tablein twosteps. Startby install-
i n ga p i l o t e 1
d / z
i n c hr a d i u sb i t i n a r o u t e r I
a n dm o u n t i ntgh et o o li n a t a b l eA . l i g nt h e
f e n c ew i t ht h eb i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i nagn dc l a m p I
a featherboard to thefenceto support the
t o pd u r i n gt h ec u t .H o l d i ntgh et o pf a c e - u p I
andflaton thetable,pressthe edgeagainst
t h ef e n c ea n dr o t a t e t h es t o c ki n t ot h eb i t I
( / e l f )C
. o n t i n upei v o t i ntgh et o p u n t i lt h e
e n t i r ec i r c u m f e r e ni cs se h a p e dt h, e ns w i t c h I
to a piloted1/a-inch radiusbit,turnthework-
pieceover,andrepeatto shapeitstopside. I
I
I
I
I
I
r) Makingtherail
I
L Referringtothe anatomyillustration
o n p a g e7 8 , c u t t h e r a i lt h a tw i l l c o n n e c t I
t h e c o l u m nt o t h e t a b l e t o pt,h e nb o r ea
m o r t i s ei n t h e c e n t e ro f t h e r a i lt o a c c e p t I
t h e t e n o ny o uw i l l t u r n a t t h e t o p o f t h e
c o l u m na; 1 - i n c h - d i a m eht eo rl ei s t y p i c a l . I
B e v etlh e e n d sa n de d g e so f t h e r a i lo n
y o u rt a b l es a w .A t t a c ha n a u x i l i a rfye n c e I
a n d p o s i t i o nt h e f e n c et o t h e l e f t o f t h e
b l a d ef o r a ' / u i n c hc u t t i n gw i d t h .R a i s e I
t h e b l a d et o i t s m a x i m u ms e t t i n ga, d j u s t
t h e a n g l et o a b o u t7 5 " , a n dc l a m pa g u i d e I
b l o c kt o t h e r a i lt o r i d ea l o n gt h e t o p o f
t h e f e n c e .M a r ka l i n ea c r o s tsh e f a c eo f I
t h e r a i ls l i g h t l ya b o v et h e h e i g h o t f the
b l a d ea s a r e m i n d etro k e e py o u rh a n d s I
w e l la b o v et h e b l a d e .F e e dt h e r a i li n t o
t h e b l a d eo n e n d ,k e e p i n g i t f l u s ha g a i n s t I
t h e f e n c ea n d p u s h i n gi t f o r w a r dw i t ht h e
g u i d eb l o c k R . e p e at th ec u t a t t h eo t h e r I
e n d o f t h e r a i l ( r i g h t )T . h e nb e v e tl h e
l o n ge d g e sb y a d l u s t i n gt h e b l a d ea n g l e I
t o 4 5 " . S a n dt h e r a i ls m o o t h .
I
80
I
I
I
I TABLES
I
I M A K I NTGH EC O L U MN
'l Turning
t thecolumn
I Mount a 3r/z-inch-square blankonyour
I latheandturnit witha roughing gouge fol-
lowed bya spindle gouge, leaving a lipand
I enough stocknearthebottom fortheleg
sockets.Tohelpyouproduce theproper
I shape,referto theanatomy (page
illustration
78)andfashion yourselfa template, asyou
I wouldto turna drop-leaftableleg(page 69).
Usea parting tooltoturntherailtenonat
I thetopof thecolumn, periodically check-
ingitsdiameter withoutside caliperstight).
I Smooth thecolumn withprogressively finer
o r i' t! vc n f cJ ua' n'dv Pnuav un, o r

r bi v' ,

I
I
I
I
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I r) Routing thedovetail sockets
I Unplugthe latheandcutthesockets, usinga router anda s h a f tw i t h a h a n d s c r e w ( a b o v el,e f t ) .C u t e a c hs o c k e ti n t w o
T shop-made lig consisting of a'/uinchplywood boxclamped to s t e p s ,s t a r t i n gw i t h a ' / u i n c hs t r a i g h b
t i t . A d j u s tt h e c u t t i n g
t h el a t h eb e d .M a k et h ei n s i d w
e i d t ho f t h eb o xa sw i d ea st h e
I routerbaseplate,attaching therunners sotherouter bitwill
d e p t ht o a b o u t t / izn c ha n d ,a l i g n i n g t h e b i t w i t ht h e s o c k e t
e n d m a r k ,b u t t a s t o pb l o c ka g a i n stth e r o u t e rb a s ep l a t e .
cutthesockets withits baseplatesittingonthem.Next,mark S c r e wt h e b l o c kt o t h e j i g . H o l d i n gt h e r o u t e ri n b o t hh a n d s ,
I t h et h r e es o c k el o
t cation o snt h ec o l u m ns,p a c i nt g
h e m1 2 0 " f e e dt h e b i t i n t ot h e c o l u m na t t h e b o t t o ma n dg u i d et h e t o o l
apart.Alsomarkthetopendsof thesockets, 370inches from
I thebottom of thecolumn. Transfer thesocket marks to the
a l o n gt h e r u n n e r su n t i lt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n t a c t tsh e s t o pb l o c k .
R e p e aw t r t ha % - i n c hd o v e t a ibl i t ( a b o v er,i g h t ) . T oc u t t h e
lathefaceplate, thenrotate thecolumnbyhanduntiloneof
I themarks onthefaceplate is vertical andimmobilize thedrive
t w o r e m a i n i nsgo c k e t sr,o t a t et h e c o l u m nu n t i lt h e s o c k e t
m a r kf o r e a c hc u t i s v e r t i c a l .
T
I
I
I
TABLES I
I
THELEGS
MAKING
I
thedovetail
1l Cuttins
"
cheeks I
I R e f e r r i ntgo t h e i l l u s t r a t i obne l o wf,a s h i o na t e m p l a t e for
t h e l e g sT . h eg r a i ns h o u l df o l l o wt h e s l o p eo f t h e l e g .t h e t o p I
a n d b o t t o me n d sm u s tb e p e r p e n d i c u l aarn, dt h e s p r e a do f t h e
l e s sm r s t b e l e s st h a nt h e d i a m e t enr f t h p t n n O n c et h e t e m -
v I L | | v L v Y . \ I
p l a t ei s c o m p l e t es,a wa l o n gt h e t o p e n do f t h e l e go n t h e b a n d
s a w .N e x t c, u t t h e d o v e t a i lisn t h e l e g si n t w o s t e p sc, u t t i n gt h e I
c h e e k so n y o u rt a b l es a wa n dt h e s h o u l d e rbsy h a n d .A d j u s t h e
t a b l es a w ' sb l a d ea n g l et o m a t c ht h a to f t h e s o c k e t ys o uc u t i n I
t h e c o l u m na n ds e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g htto s l i g h t l lye s st h a nt h e
d e p t ho f t h e s o c k e t sO. u t l i n et h e d o v e t a i losn t h e e d g eo f o n e I
l e gb l a n ka n d ,h o l d i n tgh e b l a n ko n e n do n t h e s a wt a b l e a , lign
a c u t t i n gm a r kw i t ht h e b l a d e B . u t tt h e r i p f e n c ea g a i n stth e I
s t o c ka n d l o c ki t i n p l a c e C . l a m pa s h i m m e df e a t h e r b o atrod
t h e t a b l ea n da g u i d eb l o c kt o t h e b l a n k .M a k ea p a s st o c u t I
o n ec h e e k( l e f i l ,I h e n r o t a t et h e b l a n ka n d f e e dt h e o p p o s i t e
f a c ea l o n gt h e f e n c et o s a wt h e o t h e r C . h e c kt h e r e s u l t i n d
go v e - I
t a i l a g a i n sat s o c k e it n t h e c o l u m n .l f n e c e s s a ray d , justhe
c u t t i n gw i d t ho r b l a d ea n g l eo r h e i g h at n d m a k ea n o t h esr e to f I
p a s s e sR. e p e afto r t h e r e m a i n i ndgo v e t a i l s .
I
'".}.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
r) Cutting theangledshoulders
I
L m e s h o u l d e rosf t h e l e gd o v e t a i l s
m u s tb e c u t a t a n a n g l es o t h e yl i e s n u g l y
I
a g a i n stth e c o l u m n( s e et h e i l l u s t r a t i oonn
p a g e7 8 ) . 0 n c et h e d o v e t a ci lh e e k a s r ea l l
T
c u t .c l a m oa b l a n kt o a w o r ks u r f a c w e ith
t h e c h e e k se x t e n d i nogf f t h e t a b l e .T h e n
I
u s ea b a c k s a w t o c u t t h e s h o u l d e rast a
s li g h t l ys h a r p ear n g l et h a nt h e c u r v a t u r e
I
of the column(ilghD.f esllit the dovetail
i n i t s s o c k eat n dt r i m t h e s o c k e ti,f n e c e s -
I
s a r y ,u n t i ly o ug e ta s u i t a b l e
fit. Repeat
f o r t h e r e m a i n i ndso v e t a i l s .
I
I
I
I
I
I TABLES
t
t Shapingthelegs
Cutoutthe legsof thecandlestand
I on yourbandsaw,thensmooth theirsur-
facesusinga sandingblockor a spindle
I sander(right).
I
I
I
I
T
t
I
I
I
t
I
I
t
I
I
I / Trinmingthedoveta
-TTrim
ils
off thetop% inchof eachdove-
I t a i lo nt h el e g sT. h i sw i l lh i d et h et o p s
of thedovetails fromviewwhentheyare
p u s h e ad l l t h ew a yi n t ot h e i rs o c k e t s .
I Clamp thelegupright in yourbenchvise
I andmarka lineonthedovetail
fromthetopend.Thenholda'/o-inch
% inch

I chiselvertically
yourmarked
to score
line,cutting
thedovetail
to theshoulder.
on

I Next,holding thechrsel bevel upandpar-


allelto thedovetail shoulders, pushthe
I bladealongthesurface
woodin thin shavings
to pareawaythe
(left).Periodically
I test-fitthe legagainst
theshoulders
thecolumnuntil
restflushagainst thesurface.
I
I 83
I
t
TABLES I
I
Tapering the legs
I
f,
r - , f T o g i v et h e l e g sa n e l e g a n a t ppear-
a n c ew i t h o u st a c r i f i c i nsgt r e n g t ht ,a p e r
I
t h e mw i t ha b e n c hp l a n ef r o ma t h i c k n e s s
o f 1 i n c ha t t h e t o o t o % i n c ha t t h e b o t -
I
t o m .M a r kt a p e rl i n e sa l o n gt h e i n s i d e
edgesof eachlegas a planingguide.Then
I
securethe legfaceup on yourbench,using
a notchedwoodblockto fix the bottomend
I
i n p l a c eT. o a v o i dd a m a g i nygo u rp l a n e
b l a d em , a k es u r et h e b e n c hd o g sa n dt h e
I
woodblockarebelowthe levelof the top
t a p e rl i n e .S t a r t i n g
n e a rt h e t o p o f t h e l e g ,
I
f e e dt h e p l a n ea l o n gt h e s u r f a c ei ,n c r e a s -
ingthe downward pressure as youapproach
I
t h e b o t t o m( / e f f ) C . o n t i n u eu n t i l y o u c u t
t o t h e t a p e rl i n e ,t h e nt u r n t h e l e go v e r
I
o n t h e b e n c ha n dr e p e atth e p r o c e s s .
I
THETABLE
ASSEMBLING I
I
I
I
I
K a i l6 Q e
I
I
I
I
I
'l Attaching therailto thecolumn
I
I Startbydrilling sixcountersunk screwholes through the t h r e e - q u a r t et rhse l e n g t ho f t h e t e n o n .C u tt h e k e r fa t a r i g h t
rail;it willbe lesscumbersome to prepare therailforthetop a n g l et o o n eo f t h e d o v e t a isl o c k e t s o t h e r a i lw i l l b e p a r a l l e l
T
before joining therailandcolumn. Locate oneholein eachcor- t o o n eo f t h e l e g s C . u tt h e w e d g ef r o mh a r d w o oadb o u t1 i n c h
nerof theflatfaceof therail'sunderside andoneoneachside l o n ga n d % i n c ht h i c ka t t h e b a s et,a p e r i n gi t t o a p o i n t .T o f a s -
I
of themortise. Thensetthetopfacedownona worksurface t e n t h e r a i lt o t h e c o l u m n s, p r e a dg l u eo n t h e i rc o n t a c t i nsgu r -
a n dc e n t etrh er a i lo nt o p ,m a k i nsgu r et h eg r a i no f t h et w o f a c e sa n df i t t h e p i e c e st o g e t h ew r i t h t h e k e r fi n t h e c o l u m n
I
pieces is perpendicular. Markthecorners of therailonthetop t e n o np e r p e n d i c u lt ao rt h e g r a i no f t h e r a i l .T h e n ,h o l d i n g the
witha pencilandthe screwholeswithan awl(above, left). c o l u m nu p r i g hot n a w o r ks u r f a c ea, p p l yg l u ei n t h e k e r fa n d
I
T o p r e p a rteh ec o l u m nf o rt h er a i l ,u s ea b a c k s atw oslice o n t h e w e d g ea n d h a m m e irt i n p l a c ew i t ha w o o d e nm a l l e t
a kerffora wedgein thecenterof thetenonto a depthof about h b o v e ,r i g h i l . f r i mt h e w e d g ef l u s hw i t ht h e e n do f t h e t e n o n .
I
I
I
I
t
r TABLES
I
r r) Fastening the legsto the column
t L S p r e a dg l u ee v e n l yo n t h e d o v e t a i l s
a n d i n t h e s o c k e t sT. h e n ,s e t t i n gt h e r a i l
r f l a t o n a w o r ks u r f a c es, l i d et h e l e g si n t o
p l a c ea n dt a pt h e mi n t of i n a lp o s i t i ow n ith
a woodenmallet (rrght). To strengthen
I t h e a s s e m b l ya,d d a t h r e e - a r m esdp i d e r
r cut from sheetmetal @age78).

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
t
I therailto thetop
J<' Screwing
I r . , l T o c o m p l e t et h e t a b l e ,s e t t h e t o p
u p s i d ed o w no n y o u rw o r ks u r f a c ea n d
I d r i l l p i l o th o l e si n t o i t a t t h e p o i n t sy o u
m a r k e di n s t e o1 . P o s i t i otnh e r a i la s s e m -
r b l yo n t h e t o p ,a l i g n i n gi t s c o r n e r w s ith
t h e m a r k so n t h e s u r f a c ea n d i t s s c r e w
I h o l e sw i t ht h o s ei n t h e t o p .S c r e wt h e r a i l
in place(left).
I
I
I
I
T
I
T
I
I PIE,SAFE,
I
t
I
tesares wereoncecommonm sidethat discouraged the intrusion
I Americankitchens.The one of vermin. For maximum ventila-
shown at left reflectsthe Shaker pie
tion, Shaker safestraditionally
t devotion to utility. The cabinets featuredtin oanelson the sidesas
wereessentially largebreadboxes, wellasin thedoors.
I designed to storebakedgoodsmade One of the charmingelements
and consumedby Shakerfamilies. of thesepiecesis the holepattern.
I That the cabinetsareelegantand The designs were sometimes
attractiveis,in a sense,coincidental, abstractandsometimes pineapple-
I for it is a reflectionofthe Shakers' shapedor floral,asin the example
soareand utilitarianethicrather shownon page86.But again,these
I thanan exoression ofesthetics. detailswerenot primarilyintend-
All propirty andgoodsin Shaker edto beornamentalor flamboyant.
I communitieswereownedcollec- Thepanelshadto beperforated,so
tively,to be usedasneeded.Since the Shakerschoseto ounch the
I belongings werenot considered pri- A nail setandhammerpuncha holethrough holessymmetrically to avoidan
vate,latchesandlockson the doors a tin panelfor a pie safe.Toensurethat all the unnecessarily ornateor otherwise
I of a piesafewouldhavebeensuper- panelswill beidentical,eachblankisplacedon distractingappearance.
fluous.Doorssportedsimplewood- a backuppaneland a papertemplatewith the Piesafesweretraditionallymade
I en knobsand matingrabbetscut desiredpanernis tapedin placeon top. from cherry,althoughcommuni-
alongthe insidefacesof theirstiles tieswherehardwoodswerescarce
I sotheywould closeflushandtightlytogether.Themostclever frequentlyresortedto pine.This chapterprovidesdetailed
featureof the safeliesin thedesignof thetin door panels.The step-by-step instructionsfor buildinga Shaker-inspired safe,
T cabinetshad to keeprodentsand insectsfrom gettinginside beginningwith cuttingtherails,stilesandpanelsfor thecab-
whileallowingenoughair to circulateto preventthefoodfrom inet (page90)andcontinuingthroughgluingup the case(page
I becomingstale.Wth the useof tin door panels,Shakerfur- 97),makingandinstallingtheshelves (page104),andassem-
niture makerssolvedboth problemsat once.The smallholes blingthe doors (page 106).Althoughrootedin the Shakertra-
I in thepanelspermittedthepassage of air.And,by punchingthe dition,a piesafelikethisonewouldbea perfectadditionto any
t holesfrom theinsideout, theycreatedsharpedgeson theout- modern,country-stylekitchen.

I
I
I
With itssturdyframe-and-panel construction,
adjustable shelving,and
I perforatedtin doorpanels,thepie safeshownat left is idealfor storing
t bakedgoods.In a modernincarnation,thesafecouldbeusedasan
entertainment center,with plentyof space
for audioor videoequipment.

I 87
I
I
I
ANATOMYOFAPIESAFE
I

CONSTRUCTION
DETAIT
OFCASEWORK I
ToP Oroove for
wood buttons I
I
Crown
molding
I
Gluedto
caaework I
frame
I
Wood button
c)erttrea f nn
Eack panel
I
Lo caae; aits A veneered-
in groovenear
pWood panel I
the top edqeof LhaLsits flueh
caaeworkraila with the outeide I
face of the frame
t
Support board I
lnaerted into
dadoeain cor- I
ner eLripoto
hold up ehelf
Coakbeading
Glued tn rab-
I
beta routed
aroundinside I
of frame front Corner atrip
Dadoedat evenly I
apaced intervals
Lo hold ehelvrn4
1upport boardeat I
variableheiqhta;
4luedto inoide I
cornergof case-
workstiles I
Ledger atrip
9ecuree bot'
I
thelf
tom Lo caae:
fasLenedLo
Cornere
notched ta
I
botLom case-
fit around
work raile
corner oLripa T
I
?t'ile
I
Rail
I
I
I
T
I
t
I PIE SAFE
I
tl- h. pie safefeaturedin this chapter to its stiles.To assemble thesafe,theside
I comprises fourframesjoinedat the framesare built first and then glued
I SIDEFRAME corners.Eachframeis madewith rails togetherwith thefront andbackrails.
andstilesconnected with mortise-and- Thetop andbottomaresolidpanels
I tenons.Thesideframesaregroovedto ofedge-glued boards. Thetop is heldin
Median
housefloatingwood panels.The back olacebv woodbuttonsandthebottom
t rail
frameis dividedin halfby a mullionand is fastenedto ledgerstrips.The solid-
is rabbetedaroundthe insideedgesto woodshelves sit on supportboardsthat
t accommodate fixed backpanels.The areheld by cornerstrips.The inside
front frameis madethesamewayasthe edgesof the front framearerabbetedto
I sides,with two hingesholdingeachdoor accommodate cockbeadine.
r
I CUTTING
LIST

I PIECE OTY t w TH
Frame
stiles (sides) 4 60' 2% '/ou
T (frontandback) 4 60' ?il 3/^'

rails*
Frame (frontandback) 4 3ry,' 3/4u
I (side,top,andbottom) 4 1A%',
2%'
2%' 3/ou
(side,median) 6 I4Y,' I3/4' 3/4u
I Mullion* 1 6nu 2%u
t/ou

I Woodpanels 8 r3'/,' I2Vo Y,'


Top 1 40' 20' %u
I Bottom 1 34', l6r/q' 3/ou

I Doorstiles 4 48Y," ^il


z /
i/
a
n

Doorrails* (topandbottom) 4 16u Z


7/au

I (median) 6 I2' IY"' 7/a'

Crown
molding I 7s%', I/"' 7/au

I Gorner
strips 2 54Yo' rr/o' 1"
Shelves 33%', I6Ye' ,/",
T Z

Backpanels Z 49Ya' I4%e" You

I Shelfsupport
boards 4 r6/,' yi'
r/ou
Gockbeading I 161' V;'
I
*Note:
Measurements
include lengths.
tenon
lFIoatinO
wood oanel

rr:::i";'::,'f
draw attention
Ito ornamentation

I
9ide
t frame
atile
I
I
I 89
T
I
MAKING THE CASEWORKFRAMES I
I
tI- h. firststepin buildinga piesafeis I
J. to cut andpreparethe framestiles,
asshownbelow,andjoin them in pairs
I
to form the cornersof the cabinet.All
of themortisesarecut in thestiles.then
I
thetenonsarecut at theendsofthe rails.
As shownon page92,thebestmethod
I
for cuttingtheblind tenonsisby hand-
with a backsawand a miter box. Next,
I
the frames are dry-assembledand
groovesarerouted alongtheir inside
t
edgesfor thefloatingwood panels(page
93).Finally,thetop railsaregroovedon
t
thetablesawto accommodate thewood
buttonsthatwill securethetop.
I
I
A hollowchiselmortiserdrillsa mor-
tisein a pie safeframestile.Themor-
I
tisewill accommodate a rail tenon.
AlthoughtheShakerswouldhave
T
painstakingly chiseled
out their mor-
tisesby hand,asshownon page91,
I
usinga powertoolisquickandaccurate.
I
PREPARING
THESTILES I
1 Tapering thestiles I
I Referring to thecuttingliston page
89,cuttheframestiles to size,thentaper t
t h e i rb o t t o m s i l lg i v e
e n d sT. h et a p e r w
the bottomof the stilesanelegant, leg- I
likeappearance. Clamponeof thestiles
faceup on a worksurface andmakeone I
cutting markon its bottomend1%inch-
esfromtheinsideedgeandanother mark I
ontheedge5 inchesup fromthebottom.
Jointhetwomarks witha line,thenusea I
ripsawto cutthetaperalongIheline(right).
Usethetapered stileasa template to mark I
cuttinglinesontheremaining stiles, then
taperthemthesameway.Sandallthecut T
edgessmooth.
I
I
I
I
I
90 I
t
t
I PIE SAFE
I
t r) Gluinu g pt h es t i l e s
L C l u et h e s t i l e st o g e t h eirn p a i r st o
I formthe cornerof the piesafe.Remember
t h a tt h e f o u rw i d e rs t i l e sw i l l b e u s e do n
I t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ko f t h e s a f e ,w h i l et h e
n a r r o w esrt i l e sw i l l f i t o n t h e s i d e st;h i s
I w a y ,t h e c o r n e jro i n tw i l l o n l yb e v i s i b l e
f r o mt h e s i d e s S . p r e a ds o m eg l u eo n t h e
I c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c eosf e a c hp a i ro f s t i l e s :
t h e o u t s i d e d g e so f t h es i d es t i l e sa n dt h e
I i n s i d ef a c e so f t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ks t i l e s .
Withthe sidestilefacedownon a worksur-
I f a c e ,s e c u r et h e j o i n t ,s p a c i n g t h ec l a m p s
a b o u t1 2 i n c h e sa p a r t ;p r o t e ctth e s t o c k
T a n dd i s t r i b u t eh e c l a m p i n pg r e s s u rwei t h
w o o dp a d s .T o s e c u r et h e j o i n t w h e r e
I t h e s t i l eh a sb e e nt a p e r e du, s ea c u t - o f f
t f r o mt h e t a p e rc u t sy o um a d ei n s t e p1 t o
squarethe clampon the stock(/eft).
I
T
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I n Cuttinsthe mortises in thestiles
r-,1 Eachstile needsa mortiseat the top and bottomto accom- o u t l i n eh, o l da m o r t j s ce h i s e sl q u a r et o t h e e d g eo f t h e s t i l e
I m o d a t ea r a i l t e n o n y; o ua l s oh a v et o c u t t h r e em o r em o r t i s e s a n ds t r i k er t w i t ha w o o d e nm a l l e t U . s ea c h i s e tl h e s a m ew r d t h
i n e a c ho f t h e s i d es t i l e sf o r t h e m e d i a nr a i lt e n o n sY. o uc a n a s t h e m o r t i s ea n d b e s u r et h e b e v e l e sdi d eo f t h e b l a d ei s f a c -
I u s ea p o w e tr o o l s u c ha s a h o l l o wc h i s e lm o r t i s e(rp a g e9 0 ) t o i n gt h e w a s t e M . a k ea n o t h ecr u t % i n c hf r o mt h e f u s t h b o v e ,
m a k et h e c u t , o r c h i s e tl h e mo u t b y h a n d ,a s s h o w na b o v e . / e f i l .C o n t i n uuen t i ly o ur e a c ht h e o t h e re n do f t h e o u t l i n et,h e n
I g t h e a n a t o m yi l l u s t r a t i oonn p a g e8 8 , o u t l i n et h e
R e f e r r r nt o leverout the wasteto a depthof about'/^inch (above,right).
m o r t i s eosn t h e e d s e so f t h e s t r l e st.h e nc l a m no n eo f t h e R e p e atto c u t t h e r e m a i n i n m g o r t i s e st h, e ns m o o t ht h e b o t t o m
I g l u e d - u sp t i l e st o a w o r ks u r f a c eS. t a r t i n g
a t o n ee n d o f t h e o f t h e m o r t i s ew s i t h a l o c k - m o r t i sceh i s e l .
I
I 9l
T
I
PIE SAFE I
t
PREPARING
THERAILS
I
1l Cuttins
-
thetenoncheeks I
I O u t l i n et h e t e n o n sa t b o t he n d so f t h e
r a i l sm, a r k i n ag s h o u l d el irn ea l l a r o u n d T
t h e e n d ss o t h e l e n g t ho f t h e t e n o n sw i l l
b e s l i g h t l yl e s st h a nt h e d e p t ho f t h e I
m o r t i s eyso uc u t i n t h e s t i l e s S
. e c u r eo n e
o f t h e r a i l su p r i g h itn a v i s ea n dc u t a l o n g t
t h e l i n e so n t h e e n d o f t h e b o a r dw i t ha
backsaw u n t i ly o ur e a c ht h e s h o u l d elri n e I
(right).Repeatfor the tenonat the other
e n do f t h e r a i la n da t b o t he n d so f t h e I
r e m a i n i nrga i l s .
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Sawing
thetenonshouldels
I
Toremovethewastefromthetenoncheeks. a miter (above,Ieft);Iurn overthe stockand repeatthe operationon
secure I
b o xi n t h e v i s e ,t h e ns e t t h e r a i lo n t h e b a s eo f t h e b o x ,a l i g n - t h e o t h e rs i d e .T o c u t a w a yt h e w a s t eo n t h e e d g e so f t h e
i n gt h e s h o u l d el ri n ew i t ht h e 9 0 " s l o t .T i g h t e tnh e c l a m p si n
t h e b o xt o h o l dt h e r a i l i n p o s i t i o nS. l i pt h e b a c k s a w
b l a d ei n t o
t e n o n ,s e c u r et h e t h e r a i l u p r i g h ti n t h e v i s ea n d s a wt o t h e
s h o u l d el ri n eo n b o t he d g e so f t h e r a i l .F i n a l l yc,l a m pt h e r a i l
I
t h e s l o ta n d c u t a l o n gt h e s h o u l d elri n eo n t h e f a c eo f t h e e d g eu p a n d c u t t h r o u g ht h e s h o u l d elri n eo n [ p i h o d o a cn f I
b o a r d s, t o p p i n gw h e ny o u r e a c ht h e k e r fy o u c u t i n s t e p i thp r:il /ahnvp rioht)

I
I
t
I
I PIE SAFE
I
I Preparing thetop railsfor woodbuttons
Q
r . , l O n c ea l l t h e t e n o n sa r ef i n i s h e dy, o u
I will needto cut a groove alongthetopframe
railsof the safeto accommodate the wood
I b u t t o n tsh a tw i l l s e c u r et h e c a b i n etto p
i n p l a c e I. n s t a lal d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l e
I saw,adlustrtswidthto % inch,andsetthe
c u t t i n gh e i g h ta t a b o u l ' / oi n c h .P o s i t i o n
T t h e r i o f e n c ea b o u t% i n c hf r o mt h e b l a d e s
a n d i n s t a l tl w o f e a t h e r b o a r tdoss u p p o r t
I t h e r a i l s c, l a m p i n g
o n et o t h e f e n c ea b o v e
t h e d a d oh e a da n da n o t h etro t h e t a b l e .
I B r a c et h e s e c o n df e a t h e r b o a w r di t h a
suooortboard.Feedthe railsintothe dado
I h e a di n s i d e - f a cdeo w na n d w i t h t h e t o p
e d g e p r e s s e da g a i n s tt h e f e n c e ( r i g h t ) .
I F i n i s he a c hp a s sw i t h a p u s hs t i c k .

I
I
I
t
I
I PREPARING
THEFRAMES
F()RFLOATING
PANELS
I Routing thepanelgrooves
C u tt h e p a n e g l r o o v easl o n gt h e i n s i d e
I e d g e so f t h e s i d ef r a m e sw i t h a r o u t e r
a n da p i l o t e dt h r e e - w i nsgl o t t i n g cutter.
t D r y - a s s e m belaec hs i d ef r a m ea n dc l a m p
oneof them facedownon a worksurface.
I A d j u s t h e r o u t e r ' cs u t t i n gd e p t ht o c e n -
t e r t h e g r o o v eo n t h e e d g e so f t h e s t o c k .
I W i t ha f i r m g r i po n t h e r o u t e rt,u r n o n
t h e t o o l a n d l o w e rt h e b a s eo l a t eo n t o
I t h e s u r f a c eG. u i d et h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c k
n e a ro n ec o r n e ro f t h e f r a m e .0 n c et h e
I p i l o tb e a r i n gb u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f
t h e s t o c k c, o n t i n u e
t h ec u t i n a c l o c k w i s e
I d i r e c t i o nR . e p e a t h e o r o c e s fso r t h e
o t h e rp a n e o l p e n i n g sr ,e p o s r t i o n itnhge
I c l a m 0 sa s n e c e s s a r v .

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I 93
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RAISINGTHE PANELS
t
wasused,sothe
I
T) aisedpanels,with their distinctive panelsinto framesmadeof thinner stock theframes.No adhesive
evolvedasa practical andhow to compensate for wood move- panelscould swell and shrink with
l\ bevelededges,
solutionto two commonproblemsfaced ment.Bevelingthepanelsallowedthem lhangesin humidity.
I
to fit in the groovesin the insideedgesof Cut the panels'A inch longer and
by Shakercabinetmakers:how to fit thick
wider than the openingsin the frames.
I
Thereareseveralwaysofraisingpanels.
Shakerbuilderslikely did the job by
I
hand,usingpanel-raising planes,as
shown in the photo at left. A more
I
commonapproach,shownbelowand
on the followingpages,involvesbevel-
I
ing the edgesofpanelson a routertable
or tablesaw.
I
Most furniture makersotherthan the
Shakers haveinstalledthepanelswith the
I
raised,centralportion facingoutward,
addingvisualinterestto their pieces.
I
Although Shakersin the Western
communities,whereGermaninfluence
I
admittedsomedecoration,might have
donethe same,theShakercreedfrowned
I
on extraneousornamentation.As a
result,Shakerpie safeswereoftenbuilt
I
planebevelsoneendof a woodpanel.Thesehandtools with the flat sideof the panelsfacingout,
A panel-raising
mustbeusedin pairs to raisea panel Usingleft-and right-handmodels whiletheattractive,raisedfacesarehid-
I
denfrom view on the inside.
allowsthepanelto bebeveledin thedirectionof thegrain at all times. I
RAISING TABLE
ONA ROUTER
PANETS
I
Making a raisedpanelwitha router I
bit in yourrouter
Installa panel-raising
andmountthetoolin a table.Position I
thefencein linewiththebit'spilotbear-
ingandsetthecuttingdepthat % inchso I
thatyoucanreachyourfinaldepthin two
or morepasses. Lowerthe guardoverthe I
bit andturnonthe router. To minimize
tearout,cut theendgrainof thepanel I
thetopandbottombefore
firsi,beveling
thesides.Keepthepanelflatonthetable t
insidefacedownandflushagainst the
fenceasyoufeedit acrossLhebiI (righl. I
Repeat thecut at theotherendandalong
bothsides.Turnoff therouterandtest-fit I
oneendin a framegroove. lf the panel
lieslessIhan% inchdeepin thegroove, I
increase the cuttingdepthslightlyand
makeanother oassallaround. Continuein I
thisfashion untilthepanelfitsproperly.
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94 T
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I PIE,SAFE
t
I MAKING
RAISED
PANELS
ONA TABLE
SAW
I 'l
Beveling the ends
I T o d e t e r m i nteh e b l a d ea n g l ef o r r a i s -
I i n g t h e p a n e l sd, r a wa % - i n c hs q u a r ea t
t h e b o t t o mc o r n e or f o n ep i e c et,h e nm a r k
I a l i n ef r o mt h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e p a n e l
t h r o u g ht h e i n s i d ec o r n e ro f t h e s q u a r et o
I a p o i n to n t h e b o t t o me d g e ' / "i n c hf r o m
t h e o u t s i d eI a c e ( i n s e i l .I n s t a lal 6 - i n c h -
t w i d ea u x i l i a rw y o o df e n c e ,h o l dt h e p a n e l
a g a i n stth e f e n c ea n d a d j u s t h e b l a d e
I a n g l eu n t i li t a l i g n sw l t ht h e m a r k e dl i n e .
N e x t ,a d j u s t h e b l a d eh e i g h u t n t i lt h e
I o u t s i d et i p o f o n et o o t he x t e n d sb e y o n d
t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e p a n e l t, h e nc l a m p
I a g u i d eb l o c kt o t h e p a n e tl o r i d ea l o n g
t h e t o p o f t h e f e n c e .F e e dt h e p a n e li n t o
I t h e b l a d e ,k e e p i n gi t f l u s ha g a i n stth e
f e n c ew h i l ep u s h i n gi t f o r w a r dw i t h t h e
I g u i d eb l o c k( r i g h t )T e s t -ift t h e c u t e n d
i n a f r a m eg r o o v el.f l e s st h a n % i n c h
I of the panee l n t e r st h e g r o o v em , o v et h e
f e n c ea l i t t l ec l o s etro t h e b l a d ea n d m a k e
I a n o t h epr a s s R . e p e atth e c u t a t t h e o t h e r
e n do f t h e p a n e l .
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t
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I Beveling
thesides
t h e s i d e sa f t e ry o u h a v e
I Beveling
h ee n dg r a i nh e l p sm i n i m i z e
b e v e l et d
I tearout. Setthe panelonedgeandfeed
it intotheblade, keeping thebackflush
I against thefence. Turnthepaneloverto
cuttheremaining edge(lefil.
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PIE SAFE I
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I
A PANEL.RAISING JIG
F()R THETABTE SAW t
Toraisea panelonthetablesawwith-
outadjusting theangleof theblade, I
usetheshopbuiltjig shown
Referto the illustration
at right.
forsuccest-
[f,t I
eddimensions. ,il l
Screwthe lip alongthe bottom I
edgeof theangled fence;makesure i
youposition thescrews wherethey l \
I
will notinterfere withtheblade.Prop
theangled fenceagainst theauxil- \\ I
iaryfenceat thesameangleasthe
cuttinglinemarkedon a panel(page I
95),usinga slidingbevelto transfer
theangle.Cuttriangular supports to I
f it precisely between thetwofences, Auxiliaryfence
thenfix themin olacewithscrews. 9" x 30" I
C o u n t e r s i tnhkef a s t e n e rssot h e
panelwillslidesmoothly along the I
angled fence.
To usethejig, position it onthe I
sawtablewiththe jointbetween
the lip andtheangled fenceabout I
% inchfromtheblade.Buttthetable
saw's ripfenceagainst thejig'sauxil- I
iaryfenceandscrewthetwotogether.
Turnonthesawandcrankuothe I
bladeslowly to cuta kerfthrough the
lip.Next,seatthepanelin thejig and I
adjusttheheight of thebladeuntil
a singletoothprotrudes beyond the I
frontof thepanel.Makea testcut in
a scrapboardthesamethickness as I
thepanelandthencheckitsf it in
thegroove; adjusttheposition of the t
fenceor blade,if necessary. Thencut
the panel,beveling theends(rghf, I
bottom)before sawing ihe sides.
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96 I
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I
ASSEMBLING
THE SAFE
I nceallthefloatingpanelsareready,
f\
V it is timeto gluetheframestogeth-
I er. Startby fitting the panelsinto their
t frames,asshownbelow,then glueup
the railsand stiles,formingthe sides
of the cabinet(page98).Thenextstep
I involvesinstallingthebackpanelon the
frame(page99).
I Thepie safefeaturedin this chapter
includesnvoof thefewdecorative touch-
I es found in Shakerfurniture:crown
moldingand cockbeading aroundthe
I insideedges of thedooropenings in the
front frame.The moldingprovidesa
I smoothvisualtransitionfrom thefront
andsidesto thetop ofthe safe.Although
I moldingmight appearto be an extra-
neousembellishment,
I the restrained,
unadorneddesignshownis entirelyin A ledgerstrip isfastenedto thebackbottomrail of a pie safe.
keepingwith the Shakeridealsof sim-
I plicity and harmony.
Oncestripshavebeenattached
bottompanelwill bescrewed
to allfour bottom'rails,thi
to thetopedgeof thestrips.
I
I ASSEMBLING
THESIDEPANETS

1 Fitting thepanels intotheirframes


I I Test-assemble thesideframes. lf a
jointistootight,disassemble thepieces
I andusea chiselto pareawaysomewood.
0nceyouaresatisf iedwiththef it, sand
t anysurfaces thatwillbedifficult to reach
whentheframehasbeengluedup,and
I spread adhesive onallthecontacting sur-
facesof therailsandstiles. Donotapply
I anygluein thepanel frooves; thepanels
mustbefreeto movewithintheframe.Set
I oneof thestilepairson a worksurface,
f it therailtenons intotheirmortises, then
I sliptheframesintotheirgrooves (left),
tapping themintoposition witha mallet,
I if necessary. Fittheopposite stilepairon
therailsandclamptheframeGtep2).
T
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I 97
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I
PIESAFE
t
r
thesideframes
Clamping
t
S e tt h e f r a m ei n s i d e - f a cdeo w no n a
w o r ks u r f a c ea n ds e c u r et h e m o r t i s e - a n d -
I
t e n o nj o i n t sw i t hb a rc l a m p sA. l t g n t ntgh e
b a r sw i t ht h e r a i l st,i g h t e nt h ec l a m p su n t i l
I
a g l u eb e a ds q u e e z eosu t o f t h e j o i n t s
(rrght).Protectthe stileswith woodpads.
I
U s ea t r y s q u a r et o e n s u r et h a tt h e f r a m e
r e m a i n s q u a r ea s y o ut i g h t e nt h e c l a m p s .
I
Oncethe adhesive hascured,removethe
c l a m p sa n dt h e ns a n da l l t h ew o o ds m o o t h ,
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UPTHESAFI
GLUING I
thefrontandbacktothesides
1t Gluine
-
I P r e p a rteh e r a i l so f t h e f r o n ta n d b a c k I
o f t h e p r es a f ea s y o uw o u l df o r t h e s i d e s
( n a p eQ 2 la n da l s oc r r ta m u l l i o nf o rt h e
tFsbv J4'
I
b a c kf r a m e C. u tt e n o n sa t t h e e n d so f t h e
m u l l i o na n dr o u to r c h i s eol u t m a t c h i n g t
m n r t i s ens n t h e e d p e so f t h e b a c kf r a m e
railc Thpn olrrp thp nipepc inopfhor rrc,ino' I
a l o n gb a rc l a m pt o s e c u r e t h ej o i n t sS
. et
t h e s i d ef r a m e si n s i d e - f a cuep o n y o u r I
s h o pf l o o ra n ds p r e a ds o m eg l u eo n a l l t h e
c o n t a c t i n gs u r f a c e sb e t w e e nt h e s i d e I
f r a m e sa n d t h e f r o n ta n d b a c k .F i t t h e
b a c kf r a m et e n o n si n t ot h e i rm o r t i s eisn I
o n eo f t h e s i d e s( / e f f )t,h e n i n s t a ltl h e
f r o n tf r a m et h e s a m ew a y .F i n a l l ys,e tt h e I
r e m a i n i nsgi d ef r a m eo n t o p .
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98
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r) Clamping
I I Carefully
thesafe
setthecabinet upright, working witha helper, if thesafeforsquare measuring
hbove), thedistance between
n e c e s s a rUys. ef o u rm o r eb a rc l a m p tso s e c u rteh es i d e st o
I t h ef r o n ta n db a c ka, l i g n i ntgw oc l a m p w s i t ht h et o pr a i l so f
opposite corners;
not,installanother
thetwomeasurements
barclampacross
shouldbeequal.lf
the longer of thetwo
t thefrontandbackandtheremaining
Besureto protect
twowiththebottom
thestockwithwoodpads.Assoonasyou
rarls. d i a g o n a sl se,t t i ntgh ec l a m pj a w so nt h o s ea l r e a di yn p l a c e .
Tighten theclampa littleat a time,measuring asyougountil
I h a v et i g h t e n eadl l t h ec l a m p su, s ea t a p em e a s u rt oecheck thetwodiagonals areequal.

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I Installing thebackpanels
I S e tt h es a f ed o w nw i t hi t sb a c kf a c i n g
prloted
%-inch rabbeting bit in a router
u p ,t h e ni n s t a a
ll thecorners witha chisel.Cuttwopieces of plywood to fit
andadjust thecutting s n u g l iyn t ot h eo p e n i n gasn da p p l ya t h i nb e a do f a d h e s r v e
I depthto %einchmorethanthethickness
youareusing.Routtherabbets around
of thebackpanels alongthe rabbets (above, right)andonthecontacting surfaces
theinside edges of the of theplywood. Spread theglueevenly, setthepanels in posi-
I backpanelopenings,
againstthestockthroughout
keeping thebit'spilotbearing
thecut (above,
pressed
/eff),thensquare
t i o n t, h e nu s es m a lfli n i s h i nnga i l st o s e c u rteh e ma t 6 - t o B -
inchintervals.
I
I 99
I
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PiE SAFE I
I
NG
C()CKBEADI
INSTALLING
I
1 Preparing thesafeforcockbeading I
I Cuta rabbet around theinside edgeof
thefrontframeof thesafe,usingthesame I
procedure youfollowed forthebackpan-
els (page 99).Thistime,installa'l-rnch I
p i l o t e rda b b e t i nbgi t i n y o u r o u t ear n d
adjustthecuttingdepthto about%inch. I
Keepthebit'spilotbearing butted against
thestockasyoumakethecut (right),Ihen I
square thecorners witha chisel.
T
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I
I
I
r) Milling thecockbeading
I
L tuaxeenough cockbeading from/"-
thick-stock to fit therabbets cutin step1,
I
shaping it withmolding cutters ona table
saw.(Donotusenarrow stock;instead,
I
cutpieces thatareat least4 inches
andthenripthecockbeading fromthem.)
wide
t
Auxiliaryfence l l na u x i l i a frey n c ea n dr a i s et h e
Featherboard I n s t aa
molding headintothewoodfenceto notch
I
it. Usea featherboard to secure thework-
piece;screwit to a shimsothe pressure
I
w i l lb ea p p l i eadg a i n tsht em i d d l oe f t h e
stock.Toadlustthecut,centeranedgeof
I
theboard overa cutter, thenbuttthefence I
against thefaceof thestock.Holdthe
workpiece flushagainst thefenceandthe
tableasyoufeedit intothecutters(/eff).
t
Shape theopposite
sameway.0nceallyourstockhasbeen
edgeof theboard the
t
m i l l e di .n s t aal l r i ob l a d e
cutthecockbeading
o nt h es a wa n d
fromtheboards, mak-
I
ingit wideenough
fromtherabbets
to protrude
in thesafe.
by%inch t
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100 I
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I J<' Gluing
down
thecockbeading
r - , 1C u t t h e c o c k b e a d i nt g
o f i t i n s i d et h e f r o n tf r a m e ,m i t e r - s e c u r et h e c o c k b e a d i nagl o n gt h e t o p a n d b o t t o mo f t h e
I i n gt h e e n d s .C u t a n df i t o n e p i e c ea t a t i m e ,a l i g n i n tgh e o p e n i n gp, r o t e c t i ntgh e s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s ;f o r t h e s i d e s ,
m i t e r e de n d sw i t h t h e c o r n e r so f t h e r a b b e t sS. p r e a da l i t t l e w e d g et h i n w o o ds t r i p ss l i g h t l yl o n g e trh a nt h e g a p b e t w e e n
I g l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c e sU. s ea n ys u i t a b l ec l a m pt o the cockbeading(above).

I
FASTENING
THET()PPANEL
T Makingthewoodbuttons
1
I l f y o ua r eu s i n gw o o db u t t o n tso i n s t a l l
I t h e t o p o n t h e p i es a f e ,y o uw i l l n e e dt o
makeenoughbuttonsto spacethemevery
I 6 i n c h e sa l o n gt h e e n d sa n de d g e so f t h e
p a n e lY . o uc a n m a s s - p r o d utchee b u t t o n s
I f r o ma s i n g l eb o a r do f a t h i c k n e sesq u a l
to the gapbetween the top edgeof the top
I f r a m er a i l sa n dt h e g r o o v eyso uc u t i n t h e
rails(page93), lessZoinch.Cut a %-inch
t r a b b eat t e a c he n do f t h e b o a r dt,h e nr i p
i t i n t o i - i n c h - w i d se t r i p sa n d c u t o f f t h e
I b u t t o n sa b o u t1 %i n c h e sf r o mt h e e n d s
(inset).fomakescrewholesin the buttons,
I i n s t a lal l o - i n c hb i t i n y o u rd r i l lp r e s sa n d
f a s h i o na c o r n e jri g f r o m% - i n c hp l y w o o d
I and L-shaped supportbrackets. Clampthe
j i gt o t h e m a c h i n e t a b l ea n ds t e a d tyh e
I b u t t o n sw i t h a p u s hs t i c k .D r i l lt h r o u g h
t h e c e n t e ro f t h e u n r a b b e t epdo r t i o no f
t eachbutton(/efu.

I
I 101
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PIE SAFE
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O Installing thetop
L Setthetoppanelfacedownonthe I
r n dp o s i t i ot n
s h o pf l o o a h es a f eu p s i d e
downontopof it. Alignthebackof the
cabinet withthebackedgeof thetopand
t
centerthesafebetween thepaneledges. I
Starting nearthecorners, fit therabbeted
endsof thewoodbuttons intothegrooves I
in thetoprails;space thebuttons about
6 i n c h eas p a rat n dl e a v a e % - i n cgha p I
between the bottomof thegrooves and
t h el i p p e de n d so f t h eb u t t o ntso a l l o w I
forwoodmovement. Drivescrews to fas-
tenthe buttonsin place(right). I
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I
INSTALLING
CROWN
MOLDING
1 Cutting themolding I
I Fita moldins headwithbevelcutters
andmounttheheadonyourtablesaw. I
Install andnotchanauxiliary woodfence
(page100),andpositron thefencefor I
thedesired profile. Secure thestockyou
willuseto makethemolding withtwo I
featherboards, clamping oneto thefence
above theblade, anda second to thesaw T
t a b l eC. lamp a s u p p o rbto a r d ata 90'
angle to thesecond featherboard. Raise I
thecutters% inchabove thetable;do
n o tm a k ea f u l l - d e p ct hu t i n o n ep a s s . I
Press thestockagainst thefenceasyou
slowly feedit intothecutters; f inishthe I
cutwitha pushstick.Reverse theboard
andrepeat thecutontheotheredge(left). I
Makeasmanypasses asnecessary, rais-
ingthecutters % inchat a time,untilyou I
havereached thedesired deothof cut.
Install a ripblade onthesawandcutthe I
molding frombothsidesof theworkpiece,
asrepresented bythedottedlinesin the I
illustration.
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r02 I
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I PIE SAFE
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I r) Installingthesidemolding
I FasIen onesidemolding f irst,then
I thefrontpiece, andf inallytheremain-
ingsidepiece. Cutthemolding pieces
t to length, mitering
theirends.Spread
someglueonthecontacting surfaces
I between thefirstsidepieceandthetop
railof thesideandsettheoiecein
t position.Toallowforwoodmovement,
do notapplyanygluebetween the
I molding andthetopof thesafe.Clamp
thefrontpieceto thefrontrail-without
T glue-tohelpyoualignthesidepiece
properly. Install
twobarclamps along
I thetopto secure thesidepiecein
place, tighteningtheclamps gradually
I untila thinbeadof gluesqueezes out
fromthejoint;usewoodpadsto protect
t boththemolding andthetop(above).

I
Q Installing thefrontmolding
T r.J 0ncethesrdemolding hasbeen
secured, remove theclamps holding
the
I frontpiecein placeandapplyglueto it
andto thefrontrailof thepiesafe.Also
I spread someadhesive onthe mitered
endsof themolding. Usehandscrewsto
t clampthefrontmolding to thecabinet,
spacing theclamps about6 inches apart
I (left).Finally,
installtheremainingside
pieceasyoudidthef irstone.
T
I 103
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I
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SHELVING
I
I
A diustable shelvins wouldnodoubt
A ttuu.appealed tishakerfurniture I
makers. Thefeature givesa cabinet flex-
ibiliry adaptingto changing needsand I
enabling theuserto organize space most
Theshelves
efficiently. canbeheldin I
placewithshelfsupports thatfit in holes
drilledin thestiles,asshownat right. I
Anotheroptionis shop-made wooden
cornerstrips(below), whicharedadoed I
andattached to theinteriorcornersof
thepiesafeto holdup theshelving. I
I
A metqlshelfsupportpin is beingscrewedinto a threadedsleevein I
a pie safestile.Insertedinto drilledholesat evenf spacedintervals
from thebottomto thetopof thecabinet,thesleeves allowthepins- I
and shelves-tobeinstalledat virtuallyany heightinsidethesafe.
I
USING STRIPS
CORNER I
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1 Making thecornerstrips
I Youcanmakefourstrips, oneforeachcorner of ihe pie gaugewiththeotherdadooffsetto the right.Cuta 2-inch
pieceof shelfsupport
I
safe,froma single4-inch-wide boardthatis longenough to stockandf it it intothatdado,whereit
(inseil.Cutyourf irstdadoabout
extend fromtopto bottomof thecabinet.Installa dadohead willserveasan indexingkey I
onyourtablesawandsetthewidthequalto thethickness of 8 inchesfromoneend-or at whatever heightyouwantyour
theshelfsupportsyouwilluse.Determine thedesired spacing lowestshelf.Cutthesecondandsubsequent dadoes by mov- I
of the notches-typicallyabout2 inches-andcuttwodadoes ingthepieceto therightandfittingtheprevious dadoover
thatdistance apartin a mitergaugeextensionboard. Alignthe the key(above).Whenthedadoes areall cut,rip the board I
left-handdadowiththe bladesandscrewtheextension to the intofour1-inch-wide
cornerstrios.
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r) Installing thecorner strips
I L andshelfsupports
S p r e asdo m eg l u eo n t h ec o n t a c t i n g
I surfaces between thecorner stripsand
s f t h ep i es a f ea, n dp o s i t i o n
t h es t i l e o
I eachstrip,making surethatthedadoes
facetheinterior ofthecabinet. Toclamp
I thestripsin place. usethinwoodscraps
slightly longer thanthegapbetween the
I strips(above). Fortheshelfsupports
(represented bydottedlinesin theillus-
I tration), measure thedistance between
the front and back stiles of the safe and
I c r r t h en i e c etso f i t E n s u rteh a tt h e
suppora t sr ew i d ee n o u gtho h o l dt h e
I shelves securely.

I
I Q Preparing theshelves
\, Allfourcorners of eachshelfmustbe
t n o t c h etdo f i t a r o u ntdh ec o r n esrt r i p s .
Measua r en dm a r ke a c hs h e l, fc l a m pi t
I facedownto a worksurface, andcutout
thecorners witha backsaw (lefD.
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TIN-PANELDOORS
T
-f h. doorsof the pie safearejoined MAKING
THED(IORS I
I with the openversionof the mor-
tise-and-tenon loint usedto assemble
I
the cabinet.The reinforcingpegswill
preventthe joints from racking,even
I
undertheheaviest use.As shownbelow,
you canmakethejoint on yourtablesaw
I
with a shop-made jig. Oncethedoorsare
assembled, theyarerabbetedto accept
I
the tin panels(pagel0B). As shownon
pageI I 1, a varietyof specialpunches
I
are availablefor piercingthe panels
themselves. Oncethepanelsareinstalled,
I
the doorscanbe mountedto the safe
with simplebutt hinges(page114).
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Thedoorsof thepie safeareassembled
with mortise-and-tenons,reinforced
by
I
woodpegs.Thetin panelssitin rabbets
alongtheinsideedgesof thedoorsand
I
1 Cutting thetenoncheeks in therails
areheldin placebystripsof molding. I Cutopenmortise-and-tenons onyourtablesawusing jigshown
theinset.Refer to thedimensions suggested, making
theshop-made
surethethickness
in
of thespacer
I
andwidthof thebraceenable thejig to slidealongtheripfencewithout wobbling. I
I
Cutthe bodyandbracefrom3/uinch plywood andtheguideandspacer fromsolid
wood.Sawanovalholefora handle in thejig bodyandattachtheguideto thebodyin -
I
frontof thehandle. Screwa woodblockto thebodybelow thehandleandattacha
toggleclampto theblock.Finally,fasten thespacer andbracein place.Tocutthetenon
cheeks in thedoorrails,butttheworkpiece againsttheguideandclamprt in place.
I
Setthecuttingheightto thetenonlength, positionthefenceto alignoneof thecut-
tingmarks ontherailwiththeblade andslidethejig along thefenceto makethecut
I
bbove). Turntherailaround to cuttheothercheek, thenrepeat thecutsat theother
endof therailandat bothendsof theremaining rails,
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I r) Cutting thetenonshoulders
I Z- Screwa boardto the mitergaugeas
a n e x t e n s i oT nh . e n ,h o l d i n o
g n eo f t h ed o o r
T r a i l sa g a i n st th ee x t e n s i oand, l u stth e b l a d e
h e i g h t o t h e d e p t ho f t h e t e n o ns h o u l d e r .
I A l i g nt h e s h o u l d ewr i t ht h e b l a d eb, u t ta
n o t c h e ds t o pb l o c ka g a i n stth e s t o c k a , nd
I c l a m pt h e b l o c kt o t h ee x t e n s i otnh;e n o t c h
in the stopblockwill preventsawdustfrom
I accumulating between it andthe workpiece.
H o l d i n tgh e r a i lf l u s ha g a i n st th e e x t e n s i o n
I andthe stooblock.feedthe stockwith the
m i t e rp a r r p ien c r r it h e f i r s ts h o u l d e T r .o
I s a wt h e o p p o s i tseh o u l d etru, r nt h e r a i l
over(right).Repeatto cut the tenonshoul-
I d e r sa t t h e o t h e re n do f t h e r a i la n d i n t h e
remaining r a i l s .( C a u t i o nB: l a d eg u a r d
I removedfor clarity.)

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-) Cuttins themortises inthestiles
I <'
r.,l Usethetenoning ligto sawthemor-
tisesin thedoorstiles. 0utlinethemor-
I t i s e so nt h ee n d so f t h es t i l e su, s i n ga
completed tenonasa guide. Thenclamp
I nnp nf the stiles tn thp iio resetthe hladp
h e i g h t o t h e t e n o nl e n g t ha, n d p o s i t i o n
I the fenceto alignoneof the cuttingmarks
w i t ht h e b l a d eS. l i d et h e j i g a l o n gt h e
I f e n c et o c u t o n es r d eo f t h e m o r t i s et ,h e n
t u r nt h e s t i l ea r o u n dt o c u t t h e o t h e rs i d e
I ( / e f f )R
. e p o s i t i ot n
h e f e n c ea n d m a k ea s
manypassesas necessary to clearout the
I wastebetweenthe kerfs.Repeatthe cuts
a t t h e o t h e re n d o f t h e s t i l ea n d a t b o t h
I e n d so f t h e r e m a i n i nsst i l e s .

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upthedoorframes
Gluing I
D r y -rft t h e r a i l sa n d s t i l e so f t h e d o o r sa n d
u s ea c h i s e l i.f n e c e s s a rt yo,f i n e - t u naen yi l l - I
f i t t i n gj o i n t s S
. pread g l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i n g
s u r f a c eos f t h e m o r t i s e as n d t e n o n st,h e n u s e I
b a rc l a m p st o s e c u r e t h e j o i n t s a, l i g n i n tgh e
b a r sw i t ht h e r a i l s .U s ew o o dp a d st o p r o t e ctth e I
s t o c ka n dt i g h t e nt h e c l a m p su n t i la l i t t l eg l u e
squeezesout of the lotnIsbbove). I
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f,
P r e p a r i nt gh ed o o rf r a m e fso r p a n e l s I
r - , 10 n c et h ea d h e s i vhea sc u r e dr.e m o vteh ec l a m p s
a n ds e c u r e t h ef r a m e si n s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r ks u r - I
f a c e .T o c u t t h e r a b b e t isn t h ef r a m e sf o rt h et i n
p a n e l si n, s t a a l l p i l o t e d ' / a - i nrcahb b e t i nbgi t i n a I
r o u t e rA. l t h o u gyho u rf i n a ld e p t hw i l l e q u at h l ec o m -
b i n e dt h i c k n e sosf t h ep a n e las n dt h em o l d i nygo u I
w r l lb e r n s t a l l i n g t y p i c a l lry/ ei n c h a d j u stth eb i t
t o c u t t h e r a b b e tisn t w oo r m o r ep a s s e sR. o u t h e t
r a b b e tm s o v i n cgl o c n w i saer o u n tdh e i n s i d e d g e s
o f t h ep a n eol p e n i n gkse, e p i ntgh eb i t ' sp i l o tb e a r - T
i n gp r e s s eadg a i n stth e s t o c kt h r o u g h o u e ta c hc u t
( r i g h t )O. n c ey o ur e a c hy o u rf i n a ld e p t h s, q u a r teh e I
c o r n e rosf t h e r a b b e tw s i t ha c h i s e l .
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Preparing the doorframesfor thefalsemullion
\,1 To enablethe pie safedoorsto closeproperly, cut a rabbet bets,installa dadoheadonyourtablesawandadjustitswidth
I a l o n gt h e i n s i d ef a c eo f b o t hd o o r sa t t h e i rc o n t a c t i negd g e sa; to 1/zinchanditsheightto 5/ro
inch.Attach anauxiliaryfenceto
w o o ds t r i p ,k n o w na s a f a l s em u l l i o nw, i l lb eg l u e di n t o t h er a b b e t yourtablesawripfence,position thefenceforthecutting
width,
I o f t h e l e f t - h a n dd o o rs o t h e d o o r sw i l l r e s tf l u s hw h e nc l o s e d
(pagel10.fhe t/e-inch gap between the right-hand doorandthe
andnotchthewooden
frames.
fencewiththeblades.
clamoa featherboard
Tosupport
to thefenceabove
thedoor
thedadohead.
I edgeof the mullionwill prevent the doorsfrombindingwhenthey Feedeachframeinside-face downwith bothhands(above),
areclosed,as shownin the end-onviewin the inset.Forthe rab- keeping it flatonthetableandpressed flushagainst
thefence.
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J Peggingthe mortise-and-tenons
I
/ Markpegholesat all fourcorners of eachdoorframe,cen- clampit in place asanedgeguide. Then,holding theframeagainst
teringthemonthefrontfaceof therailslr/z inches fromtheside theguide,drillthehole(above, left).Boretheremaining holes I
edgeof thedoor.lnstalla 5/ro-inch
brad-point bit in yourdrill thesameway.Cuta pegforeachholefroma piece
in bothframes
press, placea backup panelonthemachine
tearout,andsetoneofthedoorframes
tableto minimize of solidstock,making
ontop,centering a drilling holes,
it slightly
shorter
Thepegsshouldbecutsquare,
thanthedepthof the
taperedat thebottomend
I
markunder thebit.Adjust at thetop.Tapeachpegintoits hole
thethickness
thedrilling
depthto about
of theframe.Butta boardagainst
two-thirds andwitha slightchamfer
theframeand witha hammer (above,
right),lelling about1/roinch.
it protrude
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MAKING
THETINPANETS I
1 Securing thepattern to thepanel
I Tinpanels andthetoolsusedto punch I
holesin themareavailable fromfolk-art
supply houses. Thebestwayto punchthe I
holesin thepanels sotheyareallthesame
is to usea pattern asa template. Several t
common patterns areillustrated on page
111;usea photocopier withanenlarge- I
mentfeature to oroduce a version of the
desired pattern thatis thesamesizeas T
yourpanels. Thensetoneof thepanels I
inside-face upona backup board, center I
thepattern onthepanel, andfixthepaper
to thetin withmasking tape.Tosecure the I
panel to thebackup board, usepushpins,
tapping themintothe boardevery few I
inches around theperimeter ofthepanel.
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TINPANELPATTERNS COMMONTINPUNCHTOOLS
ANDTHECUTSTHEYMAKE
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Basbpunch
I ldealfor makin4qeomet-
ric patterna becauaetL
T produceaholeaof uniform
erze;thts punchleavee
a amooth edqeon both
I eideeof the panel

T
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Lamp maker'achisel
I Froduceaa emooth,elon-
4aLedhole;traditionally
I uaedin lanLernmaktnq

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Curvedchiael
I Makea creacent moon-eha ped
cute; tradittonally ueed when
ti4htinqwaopootttonedbehtnd
I the panele

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I Star punch
Traditionallyone of the moat
T commonlyuoedohapeo

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Diamond punch
T ldeal for Lhe edqee of patterne;
a traditional choice when Iiqh'L-
tn4 wao uaed behind Lhe panele
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I Pineapplepunch
Froduceethe burra on
I pineapplepaLterno

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Courteeyof CountryAccents.MonLoureville.
7A
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r') Punching the holes
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L t J s ea h a m m e a r n dt h e a p p r o p r i a t e
p u n c ho r c h i s e fl o r t h e t y p eo f h o l ey o u
I
w i s ht o p r o d u c eH. o l d i n g t h e p u n c hv e r t i -
c a l l yo n o n eo f t h e p a t t e r nh o l e s s, t r i k e
I
the tool with the hammer(righil.A mini-
m u m a m o u n to f f o r c ei s n e e d e dt o p u n c -
I
t u r et h e p a n e l t; h e h a r d e yr o us t r i k et h e
p u n c ht,h e l a r g etrh e h o l ew i l l b e .P u n c h
T
a l l t h e h o l e st h e s a m ew a y ,c h a n g i ntgo a
d i f f e r e npt u n c ho r c h i s e al s n e c e s s a rlyf .
I
y o ua r e u s i n ga m e t a lo t h e rt h a nt i n f o r
t h e p a n e l ss, u c ha s m i l ds t e e ly, o uw i l l
I
n e e dt o f i l e t h e s h a r pe d g e so f t h e h o l e s
on theoutside f a c eo f t h e p a n e l sW. ith
T
t i n , f i l i n gi s n o t n e c e s s a r y . I
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?'-r..
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Installing thetinpanels andmolding I
M a k ef o u rs t r i p so f m o l d i nfgo re a c hp a n eal sy o uw o u l d n a i l st h r o u gthh em o l d i nagn di n t ot h ef r a m ee v e r2y i n c h e s ,
for the glassdoorsof a wall clock (page125). fhen set the t h e nd r i v et h e n a i l su s i n ga b r a dd r i v e rT. o u s et h ed r i v e r , T
d o o rf r a m e so u t s i d e - f a cdeo w no n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d p l a c ea i n s e rat n a i li n t oa p i l o th o l et,h e np o s i t i otnh ej a w sa n d
panea l n d m o l d i n gi n p o s i t i o nT. h es h a r pe d g e so f t h e p u n c h e d t i g h t e n
t h el o c k i n ng u t .H o l d i ntgh ef r a m es t e a d ys,q u e e z e
h o l e ss h o u l db e f a c i n gd o w n .B o r ep i l o th o l e sf o r f i n i s h i n g thelawsto setthe nail(above).
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THEDO()RS
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I 1 Installing the hingeson thedoors
I S e c u r eo n eo f t h e d o o r sh i n g e - e d g e
I ili,llljlltliiliillllllillllllilljltllj ljJllitlll rillltlliiliijjjilll u p i n a b e n c hv i s e . O u t l i noen eh i n g e
l e a fa b o u t6 i n c h e sf r o mt h e t o p o f t h e
T 1HO?Tt? d o o ra n da n o t h e6r i n c h e sf r o mt h e b o t -
t o m .T h e n .h o l d r nag c h r s evl e r t i c a l l y .
I M aking butterfly hingee
WiLhLheirwing-shaped
6 s c o r et h e o u t l i n ea n dc u t i t s l i g h t l d
yeep-
e r t h a nt h e t h i c k n e sos f t h e h i n g el e a f .
leaves,butLerflyhinqee
I werecommonlyueedon
H o l dt h e c h i s e lb e v e u l p t o p a r et h e
wastefrom the mortise(above).Once
3hakerfurniture.Today,
I they are exVeneive anA
y o u h a v ec l e a r e do u t t h e r e m a i n i n g
ditricult Lo find. l, owever, m o r t i s eos n b o t hd o o r ss, e tt h e h i n g e s
I t ranoforminga eNandard i n t h e i rm o r t i s e sd,r i l lp i l o th o l e sa, n d
butlhinqe inhoa buLterfly s c r e wi h e m i n p l a c e .
I hinqeio a oimplemalter,
Grindthe lopo and bollomsof butt hinqeleaveo
I onyourbench qrinderunLilyou cuI awayenough
melallo Vroduce the characterieNic
ehape.
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Z- Position o n e o f t h e d o o r si n t h e
c a b i n e ts, l i p p i n gt w o o r t h r e es h e e t so f
p a p e ru n d e rt h e d o o ra s s p a c e r sU, s ea
I
b a rc l a m pt o h o l dt h e d o o ri n p l a c et,h e n T
m a r kt h e t o p sa n d b o t t o m o s f thehinge
l e a v e os n t h e i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e f r o n t I
f r a m es t i l e s( a b o v e )R. e m o v e the door,
s l i pt h e p i n so u t o f t h e h i n g e sa, n do u t -
linc thp frpp hinsp lp:vpc nn thp s:fp
I
u s i n gt h e m a r k sy o um a d et o d e t e r m i n e I
t h e h e i g h ot f t h e o u t l i n e sM
. a k es u r et h e
h i n g ep i n sw i l l p r o t r u dfea r e n o u g hf r o m I
t h e s a f es o a s n o t t o b i n d a g a i n stth e
c o c k b e a d i nwgh e nt h e d o o ri s o p e n e d I
a n dc l o s e dC. h i s eol u tt h e h i n g em o r t i s e s
o n t h e c a b i n est t i l e sa s y o ud i d o n t h e T
doors(pageI 13) and screwthe hinge
l e a v e isn p l a c e R. e p e atth e p r o c e sws i t h Hanging thedool I
t h e o t h e rd o o r . O n c ea l l t h e h i n g el e a v easr ei n s t a l l e di t, i s t i m et o h a n gt h e d o o r .L i f to n eo f t h e
doorsintopositionsothe hingeleaves on the doorandthe safeengage(above). Slip I
e a c hh i n g ep i n i n p l a c et o j o i nt h e l e a v e sH. a n gt h e o t h e rd o o rt h es a m ew a y .
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I n s t a l l i nt S
h ef a l s em u l l i o n
,{
I T C u tt h e m u l l i o nf r o ml - i n c h - t h i c k
s t o c k ,m a k i n gi t a s l o n ga s t h e d o o r s .
t S i z et h ew i d t ho f t h e m u l l i o ne q u atl o t h e
gap between the shoulders of the rabbets
t you cut in the doors(page109), less'/"
i n c h .T h eg a pb e t w e etnh e r i g h t - h a n d
I d o o ra n dt h ee d g eo f t h e m u l l i o nw i l l p r e -
v e n tt h e d o o r sf r o mb i n d i n gw h e nt h e y
I a r ec l o s e dS. p r e a ds o m ea d h e s i vien t h e
r a b b e ti n t h e l e f t - h a n d o o ra n do n t h e
I c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c eosf t h e m u l l i o na, n d
s e tt h e s t r i po f w o o di n p l a c e C . l a m pt h e
I m u l l i o na g a i n sbt o t hc h e e ka n ds h o u l d e r
o f t h e r a b b ew t h i l et h e g l u ec u r e s( / e f t ) .
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h ed o o rp u l l s
I n s t a l l i nt g
r . / M a k ea p u l l f o r e a c hd o o ro n y o u r
I l a t h et,u r n i n ga r o u n dt e n o na t o n ee n d ,
o r b u yt h e p u l l sr e a d y - m a dM e .a r ka p o i n t
I i n t h e m i d d l eo f t h e c o n t a c t i ndgo o rs t i l e s
a b o u t w o - t h r r dosf t h e w a yu p t h e d o o r s
I a n dd r i l la h o l et h es a m ed i a m e t earst h e
t e n o n sa t e a c hm a r k .S p r e a ds o m eg l u e
I o n t h e t e n o n sa n d i n s e r et a c hn r r l li n t o
tls hole (right).
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SreRCLASSICS
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ffi he sameprinciples that featurewas an 80-pound


$ guidedthe Shakers in brassenginebellthatsound-
I their daily lives-purity, edloudlyon thehour.
wholesomeness, and useful- Oval boxes,like those
r ness-arereflectedin every-
thingtheybuilt.Eachof the
shownat left,wereusedto
storea varietyofdry goods.
I srnallShakerprojectsfea- With theirdistinctive swal-
turedin thischapter-a wall lowtailfingers,straightsides,
r clock,a stepstool,an oval
box, and a pegboard-is a
andsmoothfinish,thebox-
eswereelevated by Shaker
I classicexample of thissingle- craftsmanshipfrom mere
mindedphilosophy. vessels into thingsof beau-
I TotheShakers, no house- ty. That the Shakers made
hold item, no matter how theseboxesby thethousands
t small,couldbe considered
frivolousor simpleadorn-
whileholdingto a highstan-
dardof excellence is remark-
"knickknack"
I menl Theterm able-and typicalof their
creedandcraftsrnanship.
hadno placein theirlexicon.
I Whatevertheymadehad to Thetall cabinets built by
bestrong,durable,andwith- Madefi"ontquartersawncherryverteer,the bandfor the theShakers created theneed
I ou[ [ault.It alsohadto beper- box shownaboveis bett oroLffida dryingfonrr after first to access high shelves. The
fectlysuitedto the purpose ltehrysonkedin hot water nnd softerrcd.The band is stepstoolshownon page
t for which it wasdesigned. seuu'edin its bentshnpeby coppertacks. I 2 9 r n s w e r etdh i sr e q u i l e -
Wall clocks,like the one nent, becominga mobile
I shownon pageI I B,andtall,freestanding grandfather clocks but sturdystaircase. Althoughits treadswereoftendovetailed
justifiedthe
wereessential to theShakers'disciplined lives,but theShakers into thesides, strength, ratherthanappearance,
"wag-on-
I designed othertypesfor specialneeds. Thehomely attractiveioinerv.
the-wall"clockhad no case,but onlya smallframeto pro- Thepegboard(page135)isan exampleofhow theShakers
I tectthemechanism, andsimplyhungfrom a peg.Theyalso stretched theusefulness of a hurnbleitemuntilit became an
madebasicclocksfor theirbarnsthathadonlyan hourhand. indispensable part of theirlives.Pegslinedthe wallsof most
"tower
T Evenlessornatewasthe clock"at Sabbathday Lake, Shakerhomes,hangingeverythingfrom bookshelves and
Maine.Thistimeuiece had no faceor handsat all.Its main kitchenimolements to clocksandchairs.
t
I
I The rttils,stiles,and divider of thef'urrc for a Shnkerwnll
clocknre beingglued ttp,seared by bnr chmtps The rails
I and stilesshowttat left orc joitretl with rabbets,while
the divider sirrrylylrtsitto dndoesaff acrosstlrc stiles.
I
T
I
I
I
WALL CLOCK
I
I
T h. Shakers led verydisciplined, themselves fortunate
to ownonework- IsaacNewtonYoungswasone
I structured lives.Theyroseat 4:00 ing "alarum"clock.Asthesectpros- of thefew Shakerclockmakers I
a.m.in thesummer, allowingthemselves pered,andasclockmakers joinedthe to designand constructcasesto
to sleepin anhourlaterin winter.They movement, theavailability
of thetime-
stopped workingat7:30p.m.on sum- piecesspread. TheShakersnevercarried
househis timepieces.Theclock
shownbelowwasinspiredby
I
merevenings andat 8:00p.m.in the pocketwatches, however. Thesewere
winter,one-halfhourbeforeevening considered unnecessaryindulgences.
onethat hebuib in thespring
of 1840at theNewLebanon
I
worship.Theyalsoatetheirmealsatpre- Themechanisms of originalShaker
cisetimes.A Shaker elderfrom Ohio cloclsweremadefrombrassor wood.A
communityin New YorkState. I
"The
oncesaid, clockis an emblemof les mstlyandmore reliable
modemalter- I
theShaker communitybecause every- nativeistobuyaquartzclockmovement.
thinggoesontime.Promptness, absolute These canbeorderedcomplete withmet- I
punctuality, is a sinequanonof a suc- aldialandwithorwithoutapendulum
cessful community." frommanyhobbysupplystores. Thefol- I
In theearly,lean yearsof theirmove- lowingpagesshowhowto assemble a
ment,Shaker communities considered casefor a Shaker-style
wallclock. I
I
ANATOMY
OFA WALL
CTOCK Toptrim
4" x 1O3A"
t
Caee top
panel
5" x 9%"
r
Top-door
t
etile
'lt/o"
x 10" I
Top-door
rail (2) - I
1%" x 10"
Baakboard
9%"x 32t"la" I
Divider I
1'/o"x 10"
Eottom- Caae aide
I
door panel
rail (2) 3" x 3O" I
2" x 10"
Thewallclockis assembled withthesamepreci- I
sionthatShakers brought to theirdailyroutines.
Thefourpanelsof thecasearegluedtogether I
withrabbets,
andtherailsandstilesof thedoors
arejoinedwithopenmortise-and-tenon joints. I
Thebackboard fits intoa rabbetcut alongthe
backof thecasepanels, andis nailedin place. I
Thetrim piecesaresimplygluedto thetopand
bottompanelsof thecase.Thedivideris glued I
Eottom- intostopped
dadoes in thesidepanels of thecase.
door atile
Bottom
,iTtr;?;f Use%e-inch-thickstockforall butthedoorsand I
2" x'19%" divider,
whicharemadefrom%-inch-thick wood.
I
I
I
I
I
T SHAKERCLASSICS
I
I BUI L D I N
THGEC A S E
I 1
Rabbeting thesidepanels
I P r e p a rteh e c a s ep i e c e sf o r a s s e m b l y
I b y r a b b e t i ntgh e e n d so f t h e s i d ep a n e l s
o n y o u rt a b l es a w .I n s t a lal d a d oh e a do n
I t h e s a wa n d a d j u s ti t s w i d t ht o % ui n c h .
S e tt h e c r r t t i n ph e i p h at t I i n c h .S c r e w
I a w o o d e na u x i l i a rfye n c et o t h e r i p f e n c e
a n d n o t c hi t w i t h t h e d a d oh e a d .T o h e l p
I y o u f e e dt h e l o n gs t o c ka c r o s st h e s a w
t a b l ea n dt o m i n i m i z e t e a r o u ts, c r e wa
T b o a r da s a n e x t e n s i otno t h e m i t e rg a u g e .
T h e n ,b u t t i n go n es i d ep a n e a l g a i n stth e
I f e n c ea n dt h e e x t e n s i o n , di t a l o n g
f e e
w i t h t h e m i t e rg a u g et o c u t t h e f i r s t r a b -
I beI (right).Repeatat the otherend of the
b o a r da n d a t b o t he n d so f t h e s e c o n d
I s i d ep a n e l T. o p r e p a r teh e s i d ep a n e l sf o r
t h e b a c k b o a r dc,u t a r a b b e ta l o n gt h e
I b a c ke d s eo f e a c hb o a r d

t
I
I
I
t
I
r) Preparing
I L torthedivider
thesidepanels

t 0 u t l i n et h e d a d oo n t h e f r o n te d g eo f e a c h
s i d ep a n etl h a tw i l l a c c e pt th e d i v i d e r .
I T h e l e n g t ho f t h e d a d os h o u l db e a b o u t
o n e - h a tl fh e w i d t ho f t h e d i v i d e rl.n s t a lal
I s t r a i g hbt i t t h e s a m ed i a m e t ear s t h e d a d o
w r d t hi n a r o u t e rb, u t to n es i d ep a n e ol n a
I worksurfaceagainsta backupboard,and
a l i g nt h e b i t o v e rt h e o u t l i n eB
. u t ta b o a r d
I a s a n e d g eg u i d ea g a i n stth e r o u t e b
p l a t ea n dc l a m pt h e s e t u pi n p l a c eW
r ase
. ith
I the baseplateflushagainst the edgeguide,
p l u n g et h e b r t r n t ot h e b a c k u pb o a r da n d
I g u i d ei t i n t ot h es i d ep a n e ls, t o p p i ntgh e
c u t a t y o u re n d l i n e ( / e f t ) R. out hedado
I i n t h e s e c o n ds i d ep a n e lt,h e ns q u a r e
b o t hd a d o e sw i t ha c h i s e l .
t
I n9
I
I
SHAKERCLASSICS
I
I
Preparing thedividerfor installation
I
Q
r - , 1L e a v i n g t h e a u x i l i a r fye n c ea n d
m i t e rg a u g ee x t e n s i oonn y o u rt a b l es a w ,
I
n o t c ht h e e n d so f t h e d i v i d etro f i t i n t o
t h e d a d o e ys o uc u t i n t h e s i d ep a n e l s .
I
P o s i t i otnh e f e n c et o c u t a % u - i n c h - w i d e
n o t c ha n d s e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h ot f t h e
I
d a d oh e a dt o % i n c h .H o l d i n g thedivider
o n e d g ea n df l u s ha g a i n stth e f e n c ea n d
I
e x t e n s i o nf e, e dt h e m i t e rg a u g ei n t ot h e
b l a d e sT. u r nt h e b o a r da r o u n da n d n o t c h
I
the other end (right).
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Rounding
Round
overthedivider I
o v e rt h ef r o n te d e eo f t h e
d i v i d eor n a r o u t e tra b l e .I n s t a lal p i l o t e d
% - i n c hr o u n d - o v ebri t i n a r o u t e rm
I
, ount
t h e t o o l i n a t a b l e ,a n d a l i g nt h e f e n c e
w i t ht h e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n gT. o s u p p o rtth e
I
d i v i d e ru, s et h r e ef e a t h e r b o a r dcsl a, m p - I
i n gt w ot o t h e f e n c e o , n eo n e a c hs i d eo f
t h e b i t , a n d o n et o t h e t a b l e .B r a c et h i s
secondfeatherboard with a supportboard
t
s e c u r e tdo t h e t a b l e .( N o t e T : h ef e a t h e r -
b o a r do n t h e o u t f e e ds i d e o f t h e f e n c e
I
h a sb e e nr e m o v e fdo r c l a r i t y . N
p u s hs t i c kt o f e e dt h e d i v i d e a
) o wu s ea I
r c r o s st h e
table (left). Maketwo passesto round I
o v e re a c hf a c eo f t h e s t o c k ,s t a r t i n gw i t h
a shallow
fnr ihp cpennd
c u t a n dr a i s i n tgh e b i t s l i g h t l y
n:cc
I
I
r20 I
I
I
I
I S H A K E RC L A S S I C S
T
I Cutting thebackboard
f,
r - , / U s ea p i e c eo f s o l r dw o o df o r t h e
I b a c k b o a r d - aS h a k ebr u i l d ew r o u l dt y p i -
t c a l l vh a v er r s e dn i n e T o m a r ko u t t h e
a r c ha t t h e t o p o f t h e b a c k b o a r fdi ,r s t
I m a r ka c e n t e r l i nnee a rt h et o pe n do f t h e
s t o c ka n d u s ea c o m p a stso o u t l i n ea c i r -
I c l ew i t ha r a d i u o s f 2 l i n c h e si n t h e m i d -
d l e o f t h e s t o c k c, e n t e r e2d1 , i n c h e sf r o m
t t h e t o p e n d .N e x t ,m a r ka s t r a i g hlti n e
a c r o s tsh e s t o c k3 ' i n c h e sf r o mt h e t o p
I e n d .D r a wt w o p e r p e n d i c u llai nr e sa s
s h o w nt o a c c o m m o d atthee n o t c h e si n
t h p t n n n a n p l I l q pv n r r b a n ds a wt o c u t
I o u t t h e a r c h .S e tt h e s t o c ko n t h e s a w
I t a b l ea n df e e dt h e p i e c ew i t hb o t hh a n d s ,
m a k i n gt h e s t r a i g hct u t sf i r s ta n dt h e n
I s a w i n gt h e s e m i c i r c l (e/ e f t ) .

I
t
I
T
I
t
I
I
I
I
t f,
D r i l l i n tgh ep e g h o lien t h eb a c k b o a r d
L , l T o e n s u r et h e c l o c kw i l l h a n gl e v e l ,
- h e n e sh o l em r r s th e c e n t e r e b
I de t w e e n
t h e e d p e so f t h e b a c k b o a r d M. a r ka
I drillinp g o i no t n y o u rc e n t e r l i n1eZ i n c h e s
f r o mt h e t o p o f t h e a r c h ,t h e nb o r et h e
I h o l eo n y o u rd r i l lp r e s sI.n s t a lai / - i n c h
b r a d - p o i bn rt tr nt h e m a c h i n a e n dc l a m p
T a b a c ' < uppa n etlo t l ' e t a b l et o h e l pn i n i -
m i z et e a r o u tP. o s i t i oyno u rm a r kd i r e c t l y
I u n d e tr h e b i t ,c l a m pt h e b a c k b o a ri n d
place,and drrllthe hole(rrght).
I
I
I
I
SHAKERCLASSICS
I
I
Preparingthe top panelandtop
I
J
I ttimpiecefor thebackboard
Y o uw i l l n e e dt o c u t a n o t c hi n t h e b a c k
I
e d g eo f t h e t o p p a n e la n d t o p t r i m p i e c e
o f t h e c l o c kc a s et o a c c o m m o d a t e he
I
b a c k b o a r0du. t l i n et h e n o t c hi n t h e m i d d l e
of the edgeof eachpiece.Leavethe dado
I
h e a da n d m i t e rg a u g ee x t e n s i oonn y o u r
t a b l es a w ,b u t m o v et h e f e n c eo u t o f t h e
I
w a y .T o c u t t h e n o t c h e sa, l i g nt h e d a d o
h e a dw i t ho n ee n do f t h e o u t l i n er,a i s e
I
t h e b l a d e st o t h e t h i c k n e s os f t h e b a c k -
b o a r d a, n d u s et h e m i t e rg a u g et o f e e d
I
the panelintothe cut.Then,slidethe work-
p i e c ea l o n gt h e e x t e n s i obny t h e w i d t ho f
t
the kerfand makeanotherpass(/effl,con-
t i n u i n gu n t i ly o ur e a c ht h eo t h e re n do f t h e
I
o u t l i n eU. s et h e s a m es e t u pt o p r e p a rteh e
t o p t r i m p i e c ef o r t h e b a c k b o a r d .
I
I
I
I
Assembling
thecase
I
S m n n t h t h c c a s p n i e r ^ e 53 p l l l g
b a c k b o a r du ,s i n gp r o g r e s s i v e f ilnye rs a n d -
I
p a p e rf,i n i s h i n gw i t h2 2 0 - g r i tA . ssemble
t h e c a s ei n t w o s t e p s s, t a r t i n gw i t ht h e
I
f o u rp a n e l a s n dt h ed i v i d e rS. p r e a g d l u eo n
a l l t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c eosf t h e p i e c e s
I
a n d c l a m pt h e j o i n t ss e c u r e l ya,s s h o w n
i n t h e c o l o rp h o t oo n p a g e1 1 6 . C h e c k
I
t h e c o r n e r fso r s q u a r eb y m e a s u r i ntgh e
d i s t a n c eb e t w e e d ni a g o n a lo l yp p o s i t ceo r -
I
n e r so f t h e c a s e T . h et w o m e a s u r e m e n t s
s h o u l db e t h e s a m e ;i f n o t ,a d j u s t h e
I
c l a m p i n gp r e s s u ruen t i lt h e ya r e .0 n c et h e
g l u eh a sc u r e d ,r e m o v e t h e c l a m p ss, e t
T
the assembly facedownon a worksurface,
a n d f i t t h e b a c k b o a ridn p o s i t i o nl.t i s
I
s e c u r e dw i t h n a i l s ;d o n o t u s ea n yg l u e ,
s i n c et h e b o a r dm u s tb e f r e et o m o v ea s
T
t h e w o o ds w e l l sa n dc o n t r a c tws i t hh u m i d -
i t y c h a n g e sB. o r ep i l o th o l e sf o r f i n i s h i n g
I
n a i l st h r o u g h
t h e b a c k b o a radn d i n t ot h e
r a b b e t sa l o n gt h e b a c ke d g e so f t h e c a s e
I
n a n e l sS n a c et h e h n l e sa b o u t4 i n c h e s
a p a r t t, h e nd r i v et h e n a i l si n p l a c e( r i g h t ) .
I
I
t22 I
t
I
t S H A K E RC L A S S I C S
I
I MAKING
THEDOORS
t 1 C u t t i ntgh et e n o n si n t h er a i l s
I U s ey o u rt a b l es a wt o c u t t h e o p e n
t mortise-and-teno t hnast j o i n t h e r a i l s
a n ds t i l e so f t h e d o o r sS . a wt h e p i e c e st o
I s i z e t, h e ni n s t a lal c o m m e r c i tael n o n i n g
l r g o n t h e s a wt a b l e ;t h e m o d e ls h o w n
I s l i d e si n t h e m i t e rs l o t .C l a m oo n eo f t h e
r a i l se n d - u pt o t h e j i g , u s i n ga w o o dp a d
I in nrntpnt tho ctnrk l\/l:kp thc rrrttino

h e i g h te q u a lt o t h e s t o c kw i d t ha n d p o s i -
t t i o nt h e i i p s o t h e o u t s i d ef a c e so f t h e
b l a d ea n dt h e w o r k p i e caer ea l i g n e d .
I P u s ht h e j i g f o r w a r dt o f e e dt h e r a i l i n t o
t h e h l a d e( r i p h t )t h e n t u r n t h e s t o c k
I \ r r b , r ! / t ! ' i v i i

a r o u n da n d r e o e a t h e c u t o n t h e o t h e r
edge.Movethe jig towardthe bladeslightly
t s ot h et h i c k n e sosf t h et e n o nw i l l b e e o u a l
t o a b o u to n e - t h i r tdh e s t o c kt h i c k n e s s
I a n d m a k et w o m o r ep a s s e sR. e p e atth e
p r o c e s tso c u t t e n o nc h e e k so n t h e o t h e r
t e n d o f t h e r a i la n d a t b o t he n d so f t h e
r e m a i n i nrga i l s .
I
I
I
I
I
I r) Sawingthe mortises
I Clamponeof the doorstilesend-upto
t t h e j i g ,p o s i t r otnh ej r gt o c e n t etrh e e d g e
of the workpiece withthe blade,andfeed
I the stockinto the cut (left).Thenmovethe
1 i gv e r ys l i g h t l ya w a yf r o m t h e b l a d et o
I e n l a r g teh e m o r t i s eM . a k ea n o t h epr a s s ,
t u r nt h e s t i l ea r o u n di n t h e j i g ,a n df e e di t
I i n t ot h e b l a d ea g a i nN . e x t t, e s t - f iot n eo f
t h e r a i lt e n o n si n t h e m o r t i s el .f t h e f i t i s
t tootight,movethe jig awayfromthe blade
slightlyand maketwo morepasses, contin-
I u i n gu n t i l t h et e n o nf i t ss n u g l iyn t h em o r -
t i s e .U s et h e s a m ep r o c e d u rteo c u t t h e
I m o r t i s east t h e o t h e re n do f t h e s t i l ea n d
a t b o t he n d so f t h e r e m a i n i nsgt i l e sY . ou
I ^^- ^r^^ ,,^^ ^ ^L^^ *^rp
L d I d t 5 u u 5 t r d 5 i l u p - i l t d u - ri ,i oo f. n
j o i n t ,a ss h o w no n p a g e1 0 6 .
- nrrithic

I
I
I
I
SHAKERCLASSICS
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Q
Gluinu g pt h er a i l sa n ds t i l e s
r - , 1 D r v - a s s e m btlhee t w o d o o rf r a m e st o c h e c kt h e f i t o f t h e f r a m e sU . s et h r e ec l a m p st o s e c u r e a c ha s s e m b l ya ,l i g n i n g
I
one
joints.lf theyaretoo tight, usea chiselto pareawayexcess
wood;if anyof the tenonsextendsbeyondthe outsideedgesof
w i t he a c hr a i la n dc e n t e r i nag t h i r db e t w e etnh e s t i l e s p; r o t e c t
t h e s t o c kw i t hw o o dp a d s T . ighten
I
t h e c l a m p sa l i t t l ea t a t i m e
t h e s t i l e ss, a n di t f l u s h .T h e ns p r e a dg l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r -
f a c e so f t h e r a i l t e n o n sa n d s t i l em o r t i s e sa,n d a s s e m b lteh e
until a thin gluebeadsqueezes out of the loinIs(above),
i n gt h e f r a m ef o r s q u a r ea s y o ug o .
check- I
I
Preparingthe doorframesfor glasspanels
I
-/ t
E a c hd o o rw i l l h a v ea g l a s sp a n e tl h a t
s i t s i n r a b b e t sc u t a l o n gt h e i n s i d ee d g e so f
I
t h e f r a m e t; h e g l a s si s h e l di n p l a c eb y s t r i p s
o f m o l d i n gO . n c et h e g l u eh a sc u r e d r, e m o v e
I
t h e c l a m p sa n d c u t t h e r a b b e t so n a r o u t e r
t a b l e .l n s t a lal ' / . i n c h t o p - p i l o t esdt r a i g hbt i t
I
r na r o u t ea r n d m o u n tt h e t o o l i n a t a b l e .
A d j u s tt h e b i t h e i g htto t h e c o m b i n etdh i c k -
I
n e s so f t h e g l a s sa n d m o l d i n gy o uw i l l b e
using.Remove the fenceandset a doorframe
I
o n t h et a b l e T . u r no n t h et o o la n dp r e s st h e
i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e f r a m ea g a i n st th e b i t n e a r
I
onecorner,thenrotatethe stockclockwise
c u t t h e r a b b e t sa l o n gt h e r a i l sa n d s t t l e s
to I
( r i s h f l 'K e e nt h e f r a m pf l a t o n t h e t a b l ea s
\"b"'/'

youfeedit intothe bit. Squarethe corners of


I
t h e r a b b e tw s i t ha m a l l e ta n da w o o dc h i s e l .
R e p e atth e p r o c e d u rf eo r t h e o t h e rd o o r .
I
I
124
I
-
I
t
I S H A K E RC L A S S I C S
I
t
f, Mounting hingeson thedoors
r - , 1T h ed o o r sa r eh u n go n t h e c l o c kc a s ew i t h b u t t h i n g e st:h e
I h i n g el e a v e as r ec o n c e a l eidn r e c e s s ecsu t i n t ot h e i n s i d ef a c e s
I o f t h e d o o r sa n dt h e f r o n te d g e so f t h e c a s e .P o s i t i o en a c hd o o r
i n t u r no n t h e c a s ea n do u t l i n et h e h i n g el e a v eos n t h e d o o r sa n d
I t h ec a s eT . o c u t t h e r e c e s s ei sn t h e d o o r sc, l a m pt h e f r a m et o a
w o r ks u r f a c e i n s i d e - f a cuep .C u te a c hr e c e sw s i t ha c h i s e il n t w o
I s t e p sS . t a r tb y h o l d i n gt h e c h i s evl e r t i c a l loyn y o u ro u t l i n ew i t h
t h e b e v efl a c i n gt h e w a s t ea n dt a p t h e h a n d l ew i t h a m a l l e t ,
I m o v i n gt h e c h i s e al l o n gt o s c o r et h e e n t i r eo u t l i n eT. h e np a r e
a w a yt h e w a s t ei n t h i n l a y e r sh, o l d i n g t h ec h i s eh l orizontally,
up (left).TestJita hingeleafin the recessperiodically,
I bevel-side
s t o p p i nw g h e nt h e r e c e s iss a b o u t% oi n c hd e e p etrh a nt h e t h i c k -
I n e s so f t h e l e a f .W i t ht h e h i n g el e a fi n p o s i t i o nm, a r kt h e s c r e w
h o l e si n t h e r e c e s sb, o r ea p i l o th o l ea t e a c hm a r k ,a n ds c r e wt h e
I h i n g el e a ft o t h e d o o r .U s et h e s a m ep r o c e d u rt e
es in the frontedgesof the case.
o c u tt h e r e c e s s -

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r Tuahetick

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Securing theglass
I Haveglasspanelsprepared for the door,cuttingthem %
I theglass-stop
i n c hs h o r t ear n d n a r r o w et hr a nt h e i ro p e n i n g sT.h i sw i l l l e a v e
tri Making molding a % o - i n cgha pa r o u n dt h e g l a s st o a l l o wf o r w o o dm o v e m e n t .
t a s i n g l e% - i n c h - t h i cbko a r dS
t h e g l a s si n t h e d o o r sf r o m
\ , f C u tt h e m o l d i n gt h a tw i l l s e c u r e
. t a r tb y r o u n d i nogv e rb o t he d g e s
A p p l yy o u rf i n i s ht o t h e d o o rf r a m e s l,e t i t d r y ,t h e ns e tt h e
d o o rf r a m e sa n dg l a s so n a w o r ks u r f a c e a n d p l a c et h e m o l d -
T o f t h e p i e c ea s y o ud i d f o r t h e d r v i d e(rp a g eJ 2 0 ) ,t h e nr r pt h e
m o l d i n gf r o mt h e b o a r do n y o u rt a b l es a w ,f e e d i n gt h e s t o c k
i n g i n p o s i t i o nB. o r ep i l o th o l e sf o r f i n i s h i n gn a i l st h r o u g ht h e
m o l d i n ga n d i n t ot h e f r a m ee v e r y2 i n c h e st,h e nd r i v et h e n a i l s
I w i t h a p u s hs t i c k( a b o v e )S. a wt h e m o l d i n gt o f i t i n t ot h e r a b -
b e t si n t h e d o o r sm , a k i n g4 5 ' m i t e r c u t sa t t h e e n d so f e a c h
u s i n ga b r a dd r i v e rT. o u s et h e d r i v e ri,n s e r at n a i li n t oa p i l o t
h o l e ,t h e np o s i t i o tnh e j a w sa n dt i g h t e nt h e l o c k i n gn u t .
t p i e c eC. u ta n df i t o n ep i e c ea t a t i m e ,m a k i n g
m i t e rc u t sw r t ht h e c o r n e ros f t h e r a b b e t s .
s u r et o a l i g nt h e H o l d i n gt h e f r a m es t e a d ys, q u e e zteh e j a w st o s e tt h e n a i l
(above). Usea pieceof cardboard to protectthe glass.
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SHAKERCLASSICS
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FINAT
ASSEMBLY
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'l Gluingonthetrimpieces I
I Cutthetopandbottom trimpiecesto
size,thenroundoveronefaceof theirside I
andfrontedges ona router tableusinga
9%-inchround-over bit @age120. To in- I
stallthepieces,settheclockcaseon its
backona worksurface andspread glueon I
thecontacting surfaces of thetrimpieces
andthetopandbottompanels. Position I
thetrimpieces sotheirbackedges are
flushwiththebackof thecaseandsecure I
themwithbarclamps spaced every
4 to 6
inches. Tightentheclamps(right)unlila I
littlegluesqueezes outof thejoints.
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r) Preparing thecaseforthedialandclockmechanism
L me dialandclockmechanism areattached to a thinply- between thesidepanels. Tohelpyoumarkthepositions of the
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woodbacking board, whichin turnis screwed
theinsideof thecase.Cuttwocleatsto f it alongtheinsideface
to cleatsgluedto cleats,
test-fittheclockin thecase,remembering
thedoors.Oncethecleatposition is certain,
to allowfor
spreadglueonthe
t
of thecasesidepanels between thetoppanelandthedivider. contactingsurfaces between thecleatsandthecase,andclamp I
C u ta t h i r do n et o r u na l o n e t hien s i d fea c eo f t h et o oo a n e l thecleatsin place(above).
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t Assembling
Assemble
theclockmechanism
theclockmechanism following the manufactur- the board's edges.
Toattachtheclockmovement(lnsef),insert
er'sdirections. Forthe modelshown,position
I the backing boardprovided
the dialon theshaftthrough
theshaftholeandthedial,thentighten
andoutlinetheshaftholeon the nut on the shaftby handhbovd. lf the shaftprotrudes
the
toofar
board.Remove thedialandboretheshaftholethrough
I the fromthedial,loosen
g o a r do n y o u rd r i l lp r e s sF. i xt h ed i a lt o t h e b a c k - oneor morewashers
b a c k i nb
thenut,remove
between
themovement
the movement
andslip
andthe backing
t ingboardwithepoxy, making surethedialis centered between board. A numberof washersaresupplied
withmostmodels.

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t Securing
theclock
I assembly
Position
to thecase
thebacking boardin theclock
I caseanddrilloilotholes
6 woodscrews through
for%-inchNo.
the boardand
I intothecleats.Borea holeat eachcor-
ner,thendrivein thescrews(/eff).
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S H A K E RC L A S S I C S I
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fl Hansins
r\
thedoors
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r - , / S e tt h e c l o c ko n r t sb a c ka n d p o s i -
t i o nt h et o n d o o ro n t h ec a s eW . r t ht h e
h,noo nin noniorpd hcirnrepn ihp pdooc
I
o f t h e d o o ra n d c a s e ,m a r kt h e h i n g e
l e a fs c r e wh o l e si n t h e c a s e .B o r et h e
I
h o l e sa n dd r i v et h e s c r e w st ,h e nr e p e a t
the nrncess for ihe hottnmaoor(above).
I
l r e i t h e dr o o rb i n d sa g a r n st ht e d i v i d e r ,
t r y s a n d i ntgh e b i n d i n gr a i l N o wa p p l y
I
a f i n i s ht o t h ec l o c kc a s e .
T
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T
thependulum
Installing
I
M o s tp e n d u l u mw e i g h t sh a v ea b r a s s
fini.h rh^r ;^ ^^",1,, ^^,^+^hod.
lllll)ll LlldL l) Ud)lly )LldtLilLu, iLhrpr L uv ryoui robhri r
T
ic rrc'r:llv

ino Dn nni
nrntontod

rpmnrip ihp
hv 2 nl:ctra

envprins
an\/Ar-

rrnlil lhp
I
pendulum
pendulum
h a sb e e nm o u n t e dS. l i d et h e
r o du n d e tr h e c l o c kf a c es o i t s
I
t o n e n d r - a t c h ensn t h e h o o ku n d e rt h e
m o v e m e nTt .h ec l o c kc a n n o wb e h u n g
t
o n a w a l lf r o ma h o o ko r a S h a k e pr e g -
b o a r dl i k et h eo n es h o w no n p a g e1 3 8 .
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STEPSTOOL
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I f n theirquestfor orderandefficienry, featuredsteadyingrods screwedto the man might havedone, are provided
I theShakers built chests
of drawers and sideto providea handhold. startingon page130.
I cabinetsthat madegooduseof available Althbughthesestoolsappealto the Thestoolsweretraditionallycut from
space,oftenstretchingfrom floor to ceil- moderneye,usefulness wasthe Shaker %-inch-thickcherryexceptfor theX-inch-
I ing.Stepstoolsliketheoneshownbelow builder'ssoleconcern.Throughdove- thickcrosspieces.Onceyouhavecutyour
evolvedto enablehouseholdmembers tailswerechosento attachthe treadsto stockfor thesidesofthe stool,usea pen-
I to gainaccessto the uppermostshelves. thesidesbecause the interlockingjoints cil to mark the top,bottom,and front
Dependingon individualneeds,the gavethe stoolsstrengthand stability. andbackedgesof eachpiece.Thiswill
I stoolsweremadein two-, three-,and Step-by-step instructionsfor cuttingthe helpyou avoidanyconfusionwhenyou
four-stepversions.Thetallerstoolsoften joints by hand,muchasa Shakercrafts- cometo cutthepinsatthesides'topends.
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I ANATOMY
OFA STEP
STO(IT
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S H A K E RC L A S S I C S I
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THEDOVETAILS
CUTTING
I
thesidesforthecrosspieces
1I Notching
"
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I T h es i d e sa r em a d ef r o mt w o b o a r d s
p l r r e dt n p e t h ear f t e rt h e n o t c h e a snd I
t h e p i n so f t h e d o v e t a ij lo i n t a r ec u t i n
t h e m .O u t l r n et h e n o t c h e so n t h e e d g e s I
o f e a c hs r d eo i e c e t. h e nc u t t h e mo n
y o u rt a b l es a w .I n s t a l al d a d oh e a do n T
t h e s a wa n ds e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g htto t h e
n o t c hw i d t h .S c r e wa b o a r dt o t h e m i t e r I
gaugeas an extension. Makeseveral passes
t o c u t e a c h n o t c h( r i g h t ) ,f e e d i n gt h e T
c t n n k r r n n n o d o p r n r i t ht h p m i t p r s : t t o e
l l c p t h o r i n f p n c p , r c :, q r r r d pf o r c r r t t i n o
i v i v v ! ! i I b
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u p t o t h e n o t c he n d l i n e .
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r) Layingoutthe pins
L S " t a c u t t i n gg a u g et o t h e s t o c kt h i c k n e sasn ds c r i b ea l i n e
I
a r o u n dt h e t o p e n do f e a c hs r d ep i e c et o m a r kt h e s h o u l d el ri n e pins
Q Cutting T
, s ea d o v e t asi lq u a r teo o u t l i n e
o f t h et a i l s .N e x t u t h e p i n so n r . J L e a v et h e p i e c ei n t h e v i s ea n d u s ea d o v e t a isl a wt o c u t
t h es a m ee n d ;t h ew i d ep a r to f t h e p i n ss h o u l db e o n t h e i n s i d e a l o n gt h e e d g e so f t h e p i n s ,w o r k i n gf r o mo n es i d eo f t h e
f a c eo f t h e s t o c k .S t a r tw i t h a h a l f - p i na t e a c he d g ea n d a d d b o a r dt o t h e o t h e r .F o re a c hc u t , a l i g nt h e s a wb l a d el u s tt o
I
orronlv cnaned ninc in hoturppn Tn cnmnlptp thc m:rkino spattrp

t h e p i e c ei n a v i s ea n du s ea t r y s q u a r ea n dp e n c itl o e x t e n dt h e
t h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e c u t t i n gl i n e .U s es m o o t he, v e ns t r o k e s ,
allowing t h e s a wt o c u t o n t h e p u s hs l r o k e( a b o v e )C. o n t i n u e
t
l i n e so n t h e b o a r de n dt o t h e s h o u l d elri n e sh b o v e ) M
w a s t es e c t r o nw s i t h X s a s v o uq o .
. a r kt h e sawing r r g h t o t h es h o u l d el irn e ,m a k i n gs u r et h a tt h e b l a d ei s
o e r o e n d i c utl oa trh e l i n e
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I Chiseling
outthewaste
S e tt h e s i d ep i e c ei n s i d ef a c eu p o n a
I w o r ks u r f a c e a n dc l a m po n a g u i d eb l o c k ,
a l i g n i n gi t s e d g ew i t ht h e s h o u l d elri n e .
I U s i n ga c h i s e ln o w i d e rt h a nt h e n a r r o w
s i d eo f t h e w a s t es e c t i o n b
I , uttthe flat
s i d eo f t h e b l a d ea g a i n stth e g u i d eb l o c k .
H o l dt h e e n do f t h e c h i s esl q u a r e
I to the
f a c eo f t h e p i e c ea n d s t r i k ei t w i t h a
t w o o d e nm a l l e t s, c o r i n ga l i n ea b o u t%
i n c hd e e p T . h e nt u r nt h e c h i s etlo w a r dt h e
e n do f t h e p a n e al b o u t% i n c hb e l o wt h e
I surfaceof the woodand shaveoff a thin
layerof wasle(abovd.Continueshaving
I a w a yt h e w a s t ei n t h i s f a s h i o n u n t i ly o u
I areabouthalfway throughthe thicknessof
the piece,then moveon to the nextsec-
tion.Whenyouhaveremoved
I all the waste
f r o mt h i ss i d e .t u r nt h e p i e c eo v e r a, nd
workfromthe otherside(left)until the
I p i n sa r ec o m p l e t e e l yx p o s e d .
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S H A K E RC L A S S I C S I
I
Abhough the Shakersdid not have
I
routersand conmtercinljigsat their
disposal,the tools'efficacyfor cutting
I
dovetailjoittts quickly nnd precisely
would certainlyhavenppealedto thent.
I
The jig shown at right consistsof two
tenrplatesfastenedto backupboards.
I
The workpieceis seun'edto the jig and
a stop block helpswith positioningfor
I
repe(ltcLtts.Here, a routerfitted with
n dovetailbit nrovesin and out of the
I
slotsof the tail board template.
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thetailsandremoving waste
I
f, Laying outthetails f, Cutting
r,l Seta treadbottom-face upona worksurface. Holdoneof V Usea dovetail saw to cut the tailsthesamewayyoucut
thesidepieces pinsdownwithitsinside facealigned withthe the pins Gtep2). Angling the board (above), ratherthan
I
. s ea p e n c ti lo o u t l i nteh et a i l sa t
s h o u l d el i rn eo f t h et r e a dU t h es a w m S
, a k efso re a s i ecru t t i n g . a ws m o o t h al yn de v e n l y ,
l i n e Y
. o uc a na l s oc u t
I
eachendof thetreadhbove), thenextend thelinesonthe u s ts h o rot f t h es h o u l d e r
s t o p p i nl g
boardusinga try square. MarkthewastewithXsandrepeat t h et a i l so n y o u r
b a n ds a w . R e m o v t eh ew a s t w
e i t ha c h i s e l
t h ep r o c e swsi t ht h er e m a i n i nt rge a d . as in steo4.
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IJ/.
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I SHAKERCLASSICS
I
t thefit ofthejoints
7 Testing
t / Before gluingupthestool,
it to checkthefit of allthejoints.
assemble
Stand
I oneof thesidepieces onend,thenalign
a treadwithit. Press thejointtogether by
I handasfar as it willgo (right),thenusea
malletto tapthetreadtherestof theway
I intoplace. Theboards should f it snugly,
requiring onlya lighttapping; avoidusing
I excessive force.lf anyjointisclearly too
tight,markthespotwhereit binds, then
I disassemble theboards andusea chisel
to pareawaya littlemorewood,Test-
I f i t t h ej o i n ta g a i n
a n da d j u sitt f u r t h e r ,
asnecessary.
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I UPTHESTEPSTOOT
GLUING
'l Gluing upthesides
t I Seta pairof barclamps ona work
r surfaceandlaytwoboards
a complete
thatmakeup
sidepieceonthem.Spread
glueonthecontacting edgesof theboards,
I aligntheirbottomends, andtighten the
clamps untiltherearenogapsbetween
I theboards anda thinbeadof adhesive
squeezesoutof the joint(left).Glueup
I theothersidepiece thesameway.
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SHAKERCLASSICS
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r) Relieving thesidepieces
I
L g Vc u t t i n ga s e m i c i r c ol eu to f t h e I
s i d ep i e c e sl e
, a v i ntgw ol e g so n e a c h
side,thestoolwill be morestableon
surfaces. Adjusta compass to a
I
uneven
r a d i uosf 3 %i n c h easn dm a r ka s e m i c i r - I
cleononeof thesidepieces, placing the
porntat thebottomendof the
compass
sidesmidway between theedges. Cutthe
I
semicircle onyourbandsaw(right), feed- I
ingthestockacross thetablewithboth
h a n d sT. h e nm a k et h es a m ec u to nt h e I
othersidepiece.Youcanthensmooth
awaythe marksleftbythesawbladeon
e qnindlo candpr
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Croeapiece
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Attaching
thecrosspieces
Setthestepstoolon its backedgeandapplyglueto the I
contactingsurfaces between thecrosspiecesandthesides
andtreads. Place thecrosspiecesin theirnotches
andclamp I
themsecurely in place. Neareachendof thecrosspieces,drill
a counterbored holefora woodscrew throughthecrosspiece I
? Installing
thetreads andintothefrontedgeof thesidepiece.Drivea screwinto
r-,1Spreadan evenlayerof glueonthecontacting
surfaces eachholebbovd.Fora perfect match,usea plugcutteron I
betweenthepinsandtails,thenassemblethestool,
setting yourdrillpressto cut plugsfromthewastewoodleftbyreliev-
thetreadsonthesidepieces(abovd.Secure thejointswith ingthesidepieces Gtep2).Spread glueontheplugsandtap I
barclamps, thebarswiththesidepieces
aligning andusing themintotheirholes, ensuringthatthegraindirection
of each
woodpadsaslongasthetreadwidthto distributetheclamp- runsin thesamedirection asthecrosspiece. Usea chiselto I
ingpressure. trimtheplugs flushwiththesurface, thensandthemsmooth.
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r34 I
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SHAKE,RBOXES
I
I BUILDING
A B()X
KIT
I Firstproducedin tlrc 1790s,Slnker ltoxes
werertnde irr grnduntedsizesto hold
I houseltoldgoor/s;wherrurrpty, they
cotildbe rtested irrsideorrenrrotlrcr.The
I ovsl boxesrentoirtpoptrlar todcry,atul
cortbe nnde easily.frottrcorrtttterciol
I kits. The box showtrut right wosrrrttde
by craftsnratrJohrt\\lilsortoJ'Chnrlotte,
I Michigarr.He trddeda.fewhmrn'iotrs
refulenrctttsto tlrc utilitsrintt yet elegnttt
I Slnker desigtt,srtchns usingltird's-eye
trrapleJbr thebox ltorrds qrul n wsltuft
I burl verrcer.fbrtlrc top.

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1t Cuttins
-
thefinsers
I I T o m a k ea S h a k ebr o xf r o ma c o m m e r c i ak lr t ,f r r s tp r e p a r e s t o c ka i r - d r i etdo a m o i s t u rceo n t e not f 1 5 t o 2 0 o e r c e n tO. n c e
the stockfor the two bands-onefor the boxandonefor the top. the bandshavebeencut to size,usethe proper-sized fingertem-
I T h eb a n d sa r et y p i c a l l yr e s a w n
f r o mh a r d w o osdt o c kt o a t h i c k - plateto outlinethe fingerson the boxband(above), then mark
n e S SO f / , 0 i n C h . F O f [ 9 5 { l o c r r l t c r r c o c t r a i o h t - o r r i n o r l , q g 3 ; [ g ; 5 2 y y 1 1 t h e t a c kh o l e sw i t ha n a w la n dd r i l lt h e mw i t ha X , , - i n cbhi t .
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SHAKERCLASSICS
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r) Beveling thefingers I
L Cla p the bandsto a backupboard
a n db e v etlh ef i n g e r w s i t ha u t i l i t yk n i f e . I
H o l d i n tgh e k n i f ef i r m l yw i t hb o t hh a n d s ,
c u t a t a n a n g l eo f 1 0 " a r o u n dt h e f i n g e r s I
hbovd. Thentaperthe outsidefaceof
t h e o p p o s i teen do f e a c hb a n du s i n ga I
beltsander,startingthe taperaboutIY,
i n c h e si n f r o mt h ee n d .T h i sw i l le n s u r e
a s m o o t ho v e r l aaon du n i f o r mt h i c k n e s s
t
oncethe bandsarebent. T
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M a r k i n tgh ej o i n t
Q
r - , f S o a kt h e b o xa n d l i d b a n d si n b o i l i n g I
w a t e ru n t i lt h e ya r es o f t - t y p i c a l l ya b o u t
2 0 m i n u t e sR . emove t h e b o xb a n df r o m I
t h e w a t e ra n d w r a pi t a r o u n dt h e p r o p e r -
s i z e db o xc o r es o t h e b e v e l e d f i n g e r sl a p
o v e rt h e t a p e r e de n d . M a k ea r e f e r e n c e
t
m a r ka c r o s tsh e e d g e so f t h e b a n dw h e r e I
the endsoverlap(right).Keepthe beveled
f i n g e r sp r e s s etdr g h t l ya g a i n stth e c o r et o
p r e v e nt th e mf r o ms p l i t t r n g .
I
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r36 I
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I S H A K E RC L A S S I C S
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I Tack-nailing
thebox
Working q u i c k l ys, l r pt h e b a n do f f
I t h e c o r e ,r e b e n di t s o t h a t t h e p e n c i l
m a r k sl i n eu p , a n dt a c k - n a i lt t h r o u g h
I t h e h o l e sy o ud r i l l e di n s t e pI u s i n gt h e
a p p r o p r i a ct eo p p etra c k s T . o c l i n c ht h e
t t a c k si n s i d et h e b a n d ,u s ea l e n g t ho f
i r o np i p ec l a m p e dt o y o u rb e n c ha s a n
I anvil (above).0nce the box bandsare
t a c k - n a i l e dp ,l a c et w o s h a p e - h o l d e r s
I i n s i d et h e b a n d - o n ea t e a c he n d - t o
maintain t h e o v a lf o r ma s i t d r i e s .
I
I f , S h a p i ntgh el i d b a n d
r - , 1S h a p ea n dt a c k - n a ti lh e t o p b a n df o r
I the boxlid as described above,but usethe
d r y i n gb o xb a n da s a b e n d i n gf o r ma n d
I shape-holder as it dries(lef). fhe f ingers
f o r t h e t o p a n dt h e b o xs h o u l dl i n eu p
I evenly. Allowtwodaysfor the bandsto dry.
T o c o m p l e tteh e b o x ,c u t a l i d a n db o t t o m
t f r o mo u a r t e r s a wsnt o c kt o f i t i n s i d et h e
b a n d sb, e v e l i ntgh e e d g e sa t 5 " t o p r o v i d e
I a t i g h tf i t l i k ea c o r ki n a b o t t l eT. h e nd r i l l
\ r t n c h p i l o th o l e sa n d u s et o o t h p i c kass
I oessto secrrre
finished
the nieces. Theboxescan be
w i t h m i l k p a i n to r a c l e a rl a c q u e r .
I
I r37
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PEGBOARD
I
'A place
for everythingand every-
t
thing in itsplace"werewordsthe I
I
Shakers livedby,and manyhouse-
holditemsin Shakerhomeshung
pegs.
I
from assigned
I
-|a h. pegboard is a fittingsymbolof
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I theShaker's approach to bothdai- I
ly lifeandcraftsmanship. Aswith other
Shaker-made items,the clean,un- I
adorned linesofthepegboard reflected For the modern woodworker,the ed 6 feetabovethe floor. The spacing
itshumblefunctionratherthananycon-
cernwith appearance. Butthesimple
pegboards alsorevealthe Shakerdevo-
tion to craft.The simplemushroom-
of the pegsvaried accordingto the
board'suse. In New Lebanonand
t
design beliedthepegboard's versatility. shapedpegswereaccordedthe same Hancock,the pegswere sometimes I
Theboardsdid notjustholdhatsand attentionto detail asthe finest cabi- threadedand then screwedinto the
coats. Liningthewallsof Shaker
theywereanintegralpartof household
homes, net. For this reasonperhaps,Shaker
pegboardswereremarkablyconsistent
backboard.Normally,however,they
wereattachedwith a friction fit, as
t
life-convenient,organized, andtidy, in designandconstruction no matter describedin this section. I
hangersfor everythingfrom book- when or wherethey weremade.The You can buy pegsready-madeor
shelves, pipeholders, andtowelracksto pegsweretypicallyfashionedfrom turn them on your lathe.In eithercase, I
candlesconces, chairs,clotheshangers mapleor cherryandaveraged 3 inches the baseof the pegswill needto be
(a Shaker invention),andwallclocks
(page118).
in length.Theyweresecuredto 3-inch-
wide back boards usually mount-
kerfedto accommodate
that securethem in place.
the wedges I
I
MAKING
A PEGBOARD t
1 Shaping thebackboard
I Cutthe backboardto sizefrom%- I
inchthickstock;makeitswidth3%inch-
esanditslength dependentonthenumber I
of pegsyouwill mount.Shape the board
on a routertableusingtwodifferent bits. t
Startby rounding overthefrontfaceof
the boardat the edgesandends(page I
120,Ihen switchto a pilotedbeadbit.
Alignthefencewiththebit'spilotbearing I
andadjustthecuttingheightsothebeads
willbeabout% inchfromtheedges of the I
board. To helpyoufeedtheworkpiece,
clampa featherboard to thetable,braced I
witha support board.Feedthebackboard
intothe bit on edge,keeping thefront I
facepressed against
thefence.Thenturn
the boardoverandrepeattheprocedure to I
routthebeadontheopposite edge(righil.
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138 I
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I
t SHAKERCLASSICS
I
r r) Preparing forthepegs
thebackboard
.a ^,
I Z- Starting n e a ro n ee d g eo f t h e b a c k
, a r kt h e p e gh o l e sa l o n gt h e m i d -
b o a r dm
I dlp nf f hp qtnnlr (Thc nooa nn tho hnarrJ

s h o w na t l e f tw i l l b e s p a c e d5 i n c h e s
I a p a r t . l)n s t a lal Y - i n c hb r a d - p o i nbti t i n
y o u rd r i l lp r e s sa n da t t a c ha b a c k u pp a n e l
I to themachine t a b l et o m i n i m i z tee a r o u t .
S e tt h e b a c kb o a r do n t h e p a n e sl o t h e
I f i r s tm a r ki s d i r e c t l yu n d e rt h e b i t a n d
c l a m pa b o a r da s a g u i d ef e n c et o t h e
I t a b l ef l u s ha g a i n stth ew o r k p i e c e T.h e n ,
b u t t i n gt h e b a c kb o a r da g a i n stth e f e n c e ,
I d r i l lt h e h o l e s/ / e f f ) .

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Driving
in thewedges
r Tapping in the pegs
F o re a c hp e g ,c u t a Z , - i n c h - l o nw g e d g ef r o ms c r a pw o o d
S p r e a dg l u ei n t h e k e r f sa n d o n t h e w e d g e ss,e tt h e p e g b o a r d
Q
I r - . f T o m a k et h e p e g se a s i e tro i n s t a l l u
, s ea s a n d i n gb l o c kt o f a c ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c et,h e nt a p t h e w e d g e si n w i t h a
s h a p ea s m a l lb e v e a l r o u n dt h e b a s eo f e a c ho n e .T h e ns a wa h a m m e (r a b o v eA ) .v o i du s i n gt o o m u c hf o r c e t; h i s m a yc a u s e
I k e r ff o r a w e d g ea c r o s st h e b a s eo f t h e p e g ;t o a v o i ds p l i t t i n g a p e gt o s p l i t .T r i mt h e w e d g e fsl u s hw i t ht h e b a c kf a c eo f t h e
t h e w o o dw i t ht h e w e d g em , a k et h e c u t a t a r i g h ta n g l et o t h e b o a r dF. asten t h e p e g b o a rtdo t h e w a l lb y c o u n t e r b o r i ns cg r e w
I grainO . n c et h e p e g sa r er e a d ys, p r e a dg l u eo n t h e i rb a s e sa n d
tap the pegsintothe holes(above).
h o l e sa n dd r i v i n gt h e s c r e w si n t ow a l ls t u d s C
. o n c e at hl ef a s -
tenerswith woodplugs(page134).
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I r39
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GLOSSARY
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A-B-C Counterbore:Drilling a hole that per- Half-blind dovetail A dovetailjoint
AuxiliaryfenceA woodenattachment mits the headof a screwor bolt to sit
to a tool's rip fencethat servesasan belowa wood surfaceso that it canbe
in which the structureof the ioint is
concealed by oneside;commonly
I
anchor for accessories and prevents by a wood plug.
concealed usedto join drawerfrontsto the sides.
accidentaldamageto the metalfence.
I
Countersinlc Drilling a hole that K-r-M-N-O-P-Q
Blank A pieceof solid or glued-up permitsthe headof a screwor bolt Kerf:A cut madein wood by thewidth I
wood usedto createa furniture part, to lie flush with or slightlybelow a of a sawblade.
suchasa turned leg. wood surface. t
Kickback The tendencyof a work-
Bridle joint A type of openmortise- Cross-doweftAwooddowelor metal oieceto be thrown backin the I
and-tenonjoint in which the tenon is cylinderthreadedacrossits axisto directionof the operatorof a wood-
aslong asthe width of the mortise accommodatea screwor knockdown working machine. I
pieceand the mortiseextendsacross fastener;usuallyusedto providelong-
the entirewidth of the board. grain strengthwhen screwinginto
end grain.
Kicker:A board fastenedacrossa
draweropeningand positionedabove
I
Candlesconce:A candlestickholder. the drawerto keepit from tilting
Crown molding: Decorativetrim down when opened.
I
Chamfer:A bevelcut alongthe edge installedaroundthe perimeterof a
of a workpiece. pieceof furniturejust belowthe top; Knockdown hardware:A fastener I
alsoknown ascornicemolding. that allowsthe quick assemblyand
Cheek The faceof the projecting disassembly of a pieceof furniture. I
tenon in a mortise-and-tenonjoint. D-E-F-G-H-r-l
Dado:A rectangularchannelcut into LeafiA panelthat is extendedto I
Clearancehole:A hole drilled in a a workpiece. increasethe sizeof a tableand
workpieceto accommodate
of a screw.
the shank
Edgegluing: Bondingboardstogether
retractedwhen not in use:it can
be hingedor sliding.
I
edge-to-edgeto form a panel.
Cleat:A strip of wood fastenedto one kdger strip: A short, narrow piece
I
furniture part to supportanother,such End grain:The arrangementand of wood usedto supportthe top or
asa shelfor a tabletop. directionof the wood fibersrunning bottomofa cabinet. I
acrossthethe endsofa board.
Cockbeading:Narrow proj ecting Listing: Canvasor wovenwool cloth I
molding surroundingthe insideedge Fiber rush: A naturalfiber madefrom tapeusedfor weavingchair seats;also
of the door openingof a cabinet. the twistedleavesof cattailsusedto known asShakertape. t
for seatingmaterialin chairs;a more
Compound-anglehole: A hole drilled commonlyusedalternativeis made Miter gaugeA devicethat slidesin a I
into a workpiecewith the bit present- from twisted kraft paper. slot on a sawor router table,provid-
ed at anglesother than 90orelativeto
the faceand edgeofthe stock. Finiah An ornament-usually turned
ing supportfor the stockasit moves
pastthe bladeor bi! canbe adjusted
I
and carved-projecting from the to differentanglesfor miter cuts.
Corner strip: A notchedwood block upper cornersof a furniture piece
I
fastenedto the stileof a cabinetor the suchasa chair. Molding: Decorativestripsof wood
rail of a tableto hold up a shelfsup- usedto embellisha pieceof furniture. I
port or drawerslide. Glass-stopmolding: Decorativestrips
of wood usedto hold a paneof glass I
in a door frame.
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140
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I Mortise A hole cut into a pieceof Rail In a table,the railsjoin the legs Stile:The verticalmemberof a frame-
wood to receivea tenon. and supportthe top; in a chair,one of and-panelassembly. Seerail.
I four boardsthat framethe seat.Also
Mortise-and-tenonjoint: A joinery the horizontal memberof a frame- Stoppeddado:A dadothat stops
I techniquein which a projectingtenon and-panelassembly. Seestile. beforecrossingthe full width or
cut in oneboard fits into a matching thicknessof a workpiece.
T hole,or mortise,in another. Raisedpanel In frame-and-panel
construction,a cabinetor door panel Storypole:A shop-mademeasuring
I Mullion: A slim verticalmember with a bevelcut aroundits edges,a gaugeusedto determinethe dimen-
dividing sectionsof a frame;also decorativeeffectthat "raises"the cen- sionsandthelocationof thejointsin
I known asa muntin. ter and allowsthe panelto fit into the
groovecut in the frame.
a project,suchasa chair.

Panel-raisingplaneA hand plane T-U.V-W-X-Y-Z


I with an angledsoleusedto bevel Rakeangle The angle at which a Tearout The tendencyof a bladeor
the sidesof a panelin frame-and- chair leg deviatesfrom the vertical cutterto tearwood fibers.
I panelconstruction. when viewedfrom the sideof the
chair;seesplayangle. Template A pattern usedto guidea
I Pilot hols A hole drilled into a work- tool in reproducingidenticalcopies
pieceto preventsplittingwhen a screw Rocker:The curvedrunnersof a of a piece.
t is driven;usuallymadeslightlysmaller rockingchairjoined to the chairlegs.
than the threadedsectionof the screw. Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of
t Pilot bearing:A free-spinningmetal
RoughinggougeA turning tool usu-
ally usedto shapea squareblank into
a workpiecethat fits into a mortise.

r collar on a piloted routerbit that fol-


lowsthe edgeof a workpieceor a tem-
a rylinder. Through dovetail joint A method of
joining woodby meansof interlocking
plateto guidethe bit during a cut. Rulejoint A pivotingjoint commonly pins and tails,which passentirely
t usedin drop-leaftables;featuresmat- through the matingpiece.
Pommel The squaresectionleft on a ing convexand concaveprofilescut
T turned furniture leg;allowsroom for into the edgesof the tableleafand top. Tongue-and-groove joint A joinery
mortisesneededto receiverails.
r Pushblock or stick A deviceusedto
Shoulder:In a mortise-and-tenon
joint, thepart ofthe tenonthat is per-
methodfeaturinga protrusionfrom
the edgeor end of oneboardthat fits
into the grooveofanother.
I feeda workpieceinto a bladeor cutter pendicularto the cheek.
to protectthe operator'sfingers. Tiestle:In a trestletable,a board run-
I Quartersawnlumber: Wood sawnso
Sliding dovetailjoint Similar to a
tongue-and-groove joint, exceptthe
ning alongthe undersideof the top to
which the legsareattached.
the wide surfacesintersectthe growth slide,shapedlike the pin of a dovetail
I rings at anglesbetween45oand 90o; joint, is held by a mating groove. Wood button: A small,square-shaped
alsoknown asvertical-grainedlumber blockwith a rabbetat oneendthat fits
I when referringto softwood. Splayangle:The angleat which a into a groove;usedto securethe top
chair leg deviatesfrom the vertical of a pieceof furniture.
I R-S when viewed from the front of the
Rabbetjoint:A method of joining chair;seerakeangle. WoodmovementThe shrinkingor
I wood in which the end or edgeof swellingof wood in reactionto changes
one workpiecefits into a channel,or in relativehumidity.
t rabbet,cut alongthe edgeor end of
anotherworkpiece.
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INDEX
I
Pagereferences in italicsindicatean Enfieldsidechairs,12, 19,25, Drawers
I
illustrationof subjectmatter.Page 26-27 Drop-leaf tables,69, 74-76
references in bold indicatea Build It backslats,i0-i1, 32,33 Drop-leaftables,l& 56,57,68 I
Yourselfproject. cutting list,27 Drawers,69,74-76
joinery,26,28,31-i2, 33 Legs,69,72-73 I
A-B legs,27,28-29,31-33 Ptails,69,70-73
Architecture, 10, 15,17 railsand stretchers, 30,32-33 Tops,76-77 I
Band saws rushseats,34-37 Drying racks,22
IigS Listing,24,44-47 I
circle-cutting jigs,79 Revolvingchairs,19 E-F.G
Baskets,22 Rockingchairs,19,24,25, 38-39
arms,41,42-43
Enfieldsidechairs,12, 19,25,26-27
Backslats,30-31,32,33
I
Benches
Cutting list,27
Dining room benches,l8
Meetinghouse benches,19,25,48
assembly,42
backs,24 foinery,26,28,31-32,33
I
crestrails,54-55 cutting list, 39 Legs,27,28-29,31-33
cutting list,49 legs,40,43 Railsand stretchers,30,32-33 I
legs,52-54 rockers,4l,43 Rushseats,34-37
seats,4&50-52,54-55 tape seats,44-47 Finishes,/ront endpaper I
spindles,50,54-55 Rushseats,34-32 Footstools,22
Blanketchests,2l Splint-seatdining chairs,19 Greaves,Charles,l6 I
Blind mortise-and-tenon joints,90, SeealsoBenches
91-92 Circular cuts H-r-l-K I
Boxes,8-9,17,117, 135-137 Circle-cutting jigs,79 Hinges
Build It Yourself
Band saws
Clocks,17,23, 116,117,118
Assembly,126-128
Making butterfly hinges
(ShopTip), 113
I
circle-cutting jigs,79 Cases,119-122 IigS
Piesafes Dial and clock mechanisms, Bandsaws I
panel-raisingjigs for the 126-127 circle-cuttingjigs,79
tablesaw,96 Doors,123-125 Pipe steamers,backendpaper,30 I
Butterfly hinges Pendulums,I28 Rocking chairlegs,40
Making butterfly hinges Clotheshangerc,23 Routers I
(ShopTip), 1lj Cockbeading, 100-101 dovetailjigs,1j2
Crownmolding,102-103 sliding dovetails,5Z 8l I
C-D Cupboards Thblesaws
Cabinets,20 Cabinets,20
Sill cupboards,2l
panel-raising
saw,96
jigs for the table I
Candlesconces,23
Candlestands,l& 78
Columns, 78,81,84-85
SeealsoPie safes
Cutting lists
foinery
Blind mortise-and-tenon joints, t
Legs,78,82-84,85 Enfieldsidechairs,27 90,91-92
Rails,Z& 80,84,85 Meetinghouse 49
benches, Enfieldsidechairs,26,28,31- I
Sliding dovetailjoints, 57, 78, Piesafes,89 32,33
81-83 Rockingchairs,39 Mortise-and-tenon joints, 106- t
Tops,79,80 Dining room benches,18 107,110
Canterburycommunity, 10 Dovetailjoints Slidingdovetailjoints, 57, 78, I
Chairs.25 Slidingdovetails, 57,78, 81-83 81-83
Dining room benches,l8 Throughdovetails,129,130-133 Through dovetailjoints, 129, I
130-133
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t42 I
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I L-M-N-O-P-Q Rails,92-93 T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Lamb,David,6-7 Shelving,104-105
I Lee,Ann,10,14 Pipesteamers, 30,backendpaper
Thbles.57
DropJeaf tables,I & 56,57, 68
Listing,24 Planers drawers,69,74-76
I Rocking chair seats,44-47 Thperingcrestrails on a planer legs,69,72-73
Meetinghouse benches,19,25,48 (ShopTip), ss rails,69,70-73
I Crestrails,54-55 Pulls,front endpaper tops,76-77
taperingcrestrails on a planer Trestletables,18,57,58
I (ShopTip),55 R.S feet,61,64,66
Cutting lists,49 Raisedpanels,94-95,96 legs,62-63,65,66
t Legs,52-54
Seats,4&50-52,54-55
Revolvingchairs,19
Rockingchairs,19,24, 25, 38-39
rails,63,66, 67
tops,58,59-60,64,67
I Spindles,50,54-55
Milk paint,/ro nt endpaper
Arms,41,42-43
Assembly,42
SeealsoCandlestands
Tablesaws,16
Mortise-and-tenon joints, 106-107,
t 110
Backs
listing,24
Raisingpanels,95
panel-raising jigs for the table
Ovalbaskets,22 Cutting list, 39 saw 96
I Ovalboxes,8-9, 17,117,135-137 Legs,40,4j Tapeseats,44-47
Paints,front endpaper Rockers,4I, 43 Through dovetailjoints, I 29, 1i0- 133
t Panels Tapeseats,44-47 Tin panels,87, 110-112
Glass,124-125 Routers,94 Tin punches, lll
I Raised,94-95 IigS Tools,16
panel-raisingjigs for the table dovetailjigs,I32 Band saws
I saw 96 sliding dovetails,57, 8I circle-cuttingjigs,79
Tin,87, 110-112 Raisingpanels,94 Pipe steamers,backendpaper,j0
Pantries.SeePiesafes Rushseats,34-37
I Pegboards, 23, ll7, 138-139 Sewingdesks,20
Planers,55
Routers
Pegs,front endpaper Shakerboxes.SeeBoxes dovetailjigs, 132
I Piesafes,20, 86-87,88-89 Shakerculture,I0, 13-17 sliding dovetailsjigs,57,81
Assembly, 97-103 Shakerstyle,6,16-17 Storypoles,28
I Blind mortise-and-tenon joints, SeealsoArchitecture Tablesaws,16,95,96
90,91-92 ShopTips,55,113 Tin punches,111
I Cockbeading,100-101 Sill cupboards,2l Trestletables,18,57, 58
Crown molding,102-103 Slidingdovetailjoints, 57 Feet,61,64,66
I Cutting lists,89 Candlestands,57,78, 81-83 Legs,62-63,65, 66
Doors, 89,106 Spinningwheels,23 Rar7s,63, 66,67
I frames,106-110
installation,113-114
Splint-seatdining chairs,l9
Sprigg,fune,10-ll
Tops,58,59-60,64,67
Yarnish,front endpaper
making butterfly hinges(Shop Stepstools,22, lI7, 129 Washstands,2l
I Tip),113 Gluingup,133-134 Wells,Freegift,16
mortise-and-tenon ioints,106- Through dovetailjoints, 129, Wilson,John,8-9, 135
I 107,110 130-133 Workbenches,2l
pulls,l15 Stools Work stands,20
I tin panels,87, 110-112 Footstools,22 Yarn reels,22
Floatingpanels,93,97 Stepstools,22 Youngs,IsaacNewton,16,118
r panel-raisingjigs for the table
saw 96
gluing :up,133-134
through dovetailjoints, 729,
I raisingpanels,94-95
Framestiles.90-91
130-133
Storypoles,28
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I 143
:
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing
I
SHAKERDESIGN t
famesArchambeault,Lexington,KY; ElizabethFitzsimmons,HancockShakerVillage,Pittsfield,MA;
Richmond,MA; JuneSprigg,Pittsfield,MA
PaulRocheleau,
I
CHAIRS
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools, I
Towson,MD; ConnecticutCane& ReedCo., Manchester,CT; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-
Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Mike Dunbar,Portsmouth,NH; GeneralToolsManufacturingCo.,Inc.,
New York, NY; HancockShakerVillage,Pittsfield,MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA;
I
Ian Ingersoll,West Cornwall,CT; Jean-PierreMasse,Montreal, Que.;RyobiAmericaCorp.,Anderson,SC;
SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT I
TABLES
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; t
Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc.
(Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; LesRealisationsLoeven-Morcel,Montreal, Que.; I
Ryobi
' AmericaCorp., Anderson,SC;SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; StanleyTools,
Division of fhe StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.
I
PIE SAFE
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; RobertBourdeau,Laval,Que.;
Country Accents,Montouriville, PA; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,-Ont.;
I
GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; Jean-Pierre Masse,Montreal,Que.;
StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; I
WainbeeLtd.,PointeClaire,Que./DE-STA-CO, Troy, MI

SHAKERCLASSICS
I
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Atelier d'EbdnisterieR6jeanGuerin Enr., St-Rdmi,Que.;
Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable,Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros. I
Division), Millbury, MA; The Home Shop,Charlotte,MI; David Keller,Petaluma,CA; Murray Clock
Craft, Willowdale,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. I
in thepreparationofthis book:
Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted
Lorraine Dor6, SolangeLaberge,GenevidveMonette,Tim Reiman, t
David Simon.DianaVon Kolken
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PICTURECREDITS
t
Cover RobertChartier
6' 7 SteveLewis
8,9 Ed Homonylo
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10,ll SteveLewis
12 JamesArchambeault I
13 CourtesyHancockShakerVillage
14,15 JamesArchambeault(both)
16 CourtesyHancockShakerVillage
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17 CourtesyHancockShakerVillage (rop)
17 JamesArchambeault(boxom) I
19 PaulRocheleauPhotography
20,23,39,4 CourtesyHancockShakerVillage I
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r44 I
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t
WORKSHO
GPU I D E
A SHOP-MADE
PIPE
STEAMER
I
Usethejig shownbelow to steamchair
I parts,suchasslatsor rearlegs.Theeco- 1TEAM ?OURCEF|TT\NG(DETA|L)
nomical anddurable woodsteamer illus- Machine nul,
I tratedcanbefashioned fron 2-by-4s
(inai,.le

water can)
afeam

a n d4 - i n c h - d i a m eAtBeSr o i o ea n df i t -
I tings.Thedevice features support racks
inside thepipeanda removable capat Tlasttc hose
I eachendfor easyaccess. Thesteam to gteamer
source is a watercanconnected to the
I steamer bya lengthof plastic hose; the
waterin thecanis heated bya propane- Kubber4aeket.
I firedcooker. (Thissetupshould onlybe
usedoutdoors,) Thesteamsource should
I havea removable, screw-type cap. a n d r u b b e rw a s h e r so n b o t hs i d e st o cap.)Makesurethef ittings areairtight.
To buildthesteamer, startwitha m a k ea n a i r t i g hst e a l .N o wg l u eb o t h Lastly, builda 2-by-4 f rameto support
t length of Schedule 80 ABSpipelonger halvesof the pipeto an ABST-connector. thesteamer. Naila smallsupport block
thanthepieceof woodyouwishto bend. D r i l la % - i n c hd r a i nh o l ea t o n ee n dt o at oneendsothesteamer willrestona
I Cutit in halfandborea series of holes release moisture a n d p r e v e net x c e s s s l i g hitn c l i naen dw a t ewr i l lr u no u to f
through bothpieces to accommodate %- pressure. Thengluea connector pipecut thedrainhole.
I inchzinc-coated machine boltsandnuts f r o m 1 % - i n c hA B S p i p et o t h e s p o u to f Tousethesteamer, carefully connect
asshown. These boltswillsuooort wood t h e T c o n n e c t o rN. e x t ,c u t a l e n g t ho f thegascooker to a propane tank.Fillthe
I inside thesteamer andorevent it from plastichosethatwrllconnectthe steamer w a t ecr a n ,s e a il t t i g h t l ya, n ds e ti t o n
lyingin condensed water. (Thezinccoat- to the watercan;the fittingsrequiredfor thecooker. Secure the removable end
I ingwillprevent theboltsfromstaining the watercan end areshownabove. capson thesteamer, lightthecooker,
thewood.) Drilltheholes below thecen- ( T h ef i t t i n g sf o r t h e s t e a m eer n do f t h e a n dl e tt h es t e a m ebru i l du o s t e a m .
I terlineof thepipeto provide roomforthe h o s ea r ei d e n t i c a e l ,x c e ptth a ta n A B S (Caution: Donotletthesteamer or steam
wood.Install thebolts, usingbothsteel end cap is usedinsteadof the watercan source become pressurized.)
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9chedule T connector
I 8C AES.ptpe Kemovable
end cap

I F.anctabie
and ca,t:)

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I ConnecLor
PiPE
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I 2 x 4 frame

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Fropane-fired
I 4ae cooker

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