Q&A session
Many of the questions were already orally answered. Check the recording.

Q: In Brazil, where the ''quality'' of the wind resource is good in some regions, some critics of wind power say that its intermittent feature does not allow it to be considered as a ''firm energy'' or reliable enough to meet electricity demand. What the European experience shows? A: answered during the webinar. Spain (which electricity grid is practically isolated from the rest of Europe) has reached 20% of energy generated by wind power and the plans are to grow up to more than 40% of energy generated by renewable sources in 2020. Denmark has as well reached a huge wind penetration thanks to efficient integration of interconnections with neighbouring countries and improved dispatchability schemes of distributed cogenerations (see www.leonardo-energy.org/20-50-percentwind-energy-danish-power-system)

Q: Do you know what was the problem that causes a tariff deficit in Spain because of solar integration some years ago? A: answered during the webinar. Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) are to be cost reflective and should evolve in parallel with the technology. In some cases it will be also required to control the total amount of subsidized installed power. The problem in Spain was a too high FIT in parallel with rapidly decreasing costs of PV equipment. Additionally, there was no limit to the installed power. As a consequence, more than 3000 MW were installed in a single year (2008). Current regulation caps the total amount of subsidized power (500 MW / year) and leaves room for tariff revision depending on the demand for permits (bigger demand, lower tariff).

http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-support-schemes-renewable-energydevelopment-and-grid-development 1 /4

Q: According to McKinsey report solar PV is one of the MOST expensive way of avoiding CO2 emissions (cca 350$/ton CO2). FeedIn-Tariff for Solar PV energy increases greatly increases debt of a given country. Is this desirable, or sustainable? A: answered during the webinar. Indeed, when checking the CO2 abatement cost curve we find PV only at the most expensive side of the curve. However, as the solution is always a combination of a number of measures, all the options are to be considered. Additionally, other reasons can influence the government decision, as the development of its own industry, generation of export capacity, job creation, development of know-how…


Q: How renewable energy support mechanisms are financed in these countries? In Italy, for example, the promotion of RES is sustained by all electricity consumers through a specific component of the electricity bill (the so called A3 component) A: Answered during the webinar. Indeed, the mechanism is often the addition of a term in the grid access tariffs for consumers or an extra-cost of energy supply.

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Q: Have you done any studies over the economics of the different tariff systems? Are the FIT systems more economically efficient for the electrical systems than the green certificates ones? A: Check the green-x website and download their final report with, among other things, information on the evaluation of different policy schemes. Website: www.green-x.at

Q: How do you see the renewable energy regulations progressing in Eastern Europe? Are they stable enough to push the market? A: Answered during the webinar

Q: Is there any chart comparing the FIT of the different countries? A: Check the full report http://www.leonardo-energy.org/report-renewablessupport-schemes-and-grid-integration-policies and page 28 of this presentation. As well, check http://www.reshaping-res-policy.eu/

Q: In the case developing countries where we don’t have a feed in tariffs, like in Honduras. If we install a solar grid tie systems, how we could sale the green certificates to the European market? And what mechanisms could be use to finance these systems in developing countries? A: answered during the webinar. EU directive on renewables only allow physical green electricity imports from 3rd countries, check http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-eu-renewables-directive-briefingpresentation-and-open-questions . In the case of American continent it is not possible yet. However, the Clean Development Mechanism provides for economic support of green projects in most of countries, check http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-carbon-market-and-cdm-projects

Q: The reference data is quite old: 2004, 2006; are there current figures of installed REW capacities? A: Check www.energy.eu#renewables

Q: Are Smart Grids been considered to take advantage of this renewable development in some of these countries? A: smart grids are getting much attention lately. Please check the Kema website for some interesting publications:
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http://www.kema.com/services/consulting/utility-future/utility-futureguide.aspx and http://www.kema.com/smartrenewables.

Q: wind offshore in Slovakia?! In the middle of Europe continent?! I would really doubt the data you received from Slovakia... A: Slovakia can of course also build wind farms abroad. this might be a good solution as it might be cheaper than developing re at a national level. Check http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-eu-renewables-directive-briefingpresentation-and-open-questions.

http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-support-schemes-renewable-energydevelopment-and-grid-development 4 /4

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