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# ASSIGNMENT 2b Random Variables and Probability Distribution Function

## 1. Determine the probability density function for

0
, x< 0
0.2
x
,
0
x4
F ( x )=
0.04 x+ 0.64 , 4 x 9
1
,9 x
2. The gap width is an important property of a magnetic recording head. In coded
units, if the width is a continuous random variable over the range from 0 < x
<2 with f(x)= 0.5x, determine the cumulative distribution function of the gap
width. [Ans: F(x) =0 for x<0, 0.25x2 for 0 x <2, 1 for x 2

3. The probability density function for the diameter of a drilled hole in mm is 10e 10(x-5)
for x > 5 mm. Although the target diameter is 5 mm, vibrations, tool
wear, and other nuisance produce diameters larger than 5 mm.
(a) Determine the mean and variance of the diameter of the holes. [Ans: 5.1mm,
0.01mm2]
(b) Determine the probability that a diameter exceeds 5.1 mm. [Ans: 0.3679]
4. Without an automated irrigation system, the height of plants two weeks after
germination is normally distributed with a mean of 2.5cm and a standard
deviation of 0.5 cm.
(a) What is the probability that a plants height is greater than 2.25cm?
[Ans: 0.6915]
(b) What is the probability that a plants height is between 2.0 and 3.0 cm?
[Ans: 0.683]
(c) What height is exceeded by 90% of the plants? [Ans: 1.86]
5. The diameter of the dot produced by a printer is normally distributed with a
mean diameter of 0.002 inch.
(a) Suppose that the specifications require the dot diameter to be between
0.0014 and 0.0026. If the probability that a dot meets specifications is to be
0.9973, what standard deviation is needed? [Ans:0.0002]
(b) Assume that the standard deviation is of the size of a dot is 0.0004 inch. If
the probability that a dot meets specification is to be 0.9973, what
specifications are needed? Assume that the specifications are to be chosen
symmetrically around the mean of 0.002. [Ans: 0.0008 to 0.0032]
6.

## The life of a semiconductor laser at a constant power is exponentially

distributed with a mean of 7000 hours and a standard deviation of of 600
hours.
(a) What is the probability that a laser fails before 5800 hours?
[Ans:0.5633]
(b) What is the life in hours that 90% of the laser exceed? [Ans:737.5]

7.

## An electronic office product contains 5000 electronic components. Assume

that the probability that each component operates without failure during the

useful life of the product is 0.999, and assume that the components fail
independently. Approximate the probability that 10 or more of the original
5000 components fail during the useful life of the product. [Ans: 0.022]
8. The time between arrivals of taxis at a busy intersection is exponentially
distributed with a mean of 10 minutes.
a What is the probability that you have ait longer than one hour for a taxi?
[Ans:0.002478]
b Suppose you have already been waiting for one hour for a taxi, what is the
probability that one arrives within the next 10 minutes? [Ans: 0.6321]
c Determine x such that the probability that you wait more than x minutes
is 0.10. [Ans: 23.03 min]
d Determine x such that the probability that you wait less than x minutes is
0.90. [Ans: 23.03 min]
9. According to results from the analysis of chocolate bars, the mean number of
insect fragments was 14.4 in 225 grams. Assume that the number of
a What is the mean number of grams of chocolate until a fragment is
detected? [Ans: 15.625]
b What is the probability that there are no fragments in 28.35 grams (one
ounce) chocolate bar? [Ans: 0.1629]
c Suppose you consume seven one-ounce (28.35 grams) bars this week.
What is the probability of no insect fragments? [Ans: 3.05 x 10-6]
10.The lifetime of a mechanical assembly in a vibration test is exponentially
distributed with a mean of 400 hours.
a What is the probability that an assembly on test fails in less than 100
hours? [Ans: 0.2212]
b What is the probability that an assembly operates for more than 500
hours before failure? [Ans: 0.2865]
c If an assembly has been on test for 400 hours without a failure, what is
the probability of a failure in the next 100 hours? [Ans: 0.2212]
d If 10 assemblies are tested, what is the probability that at least one fails
in less than 100 hours? Assume that the assemblies fail independently.
[Ans: 0.9179]
e If 10 assemblies are tested, what is the probability that all have failed by
800 hours? Assume the assemblies fail independently. [Ans: 0.2337]