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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Scholars' Mine
AISI-Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members

Wei-Wen Yu Center for Cold-Formed Steel


Structures

1-1-1983

Cold-formed steel design manual


American Iron and Steel Institute

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/ccfss-aisi-spec


Part of the Structural Engineering Commons
Recommended Citation
American Iron and Steel Institute, "Cold-formed steel design manual" (1983). AISI-Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members. Paper 21.
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EW .
BASED ON THE
SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

SPECIFICATION

~.

COLD-FORMED
STEEL DESIGN
~~7.
MANUAL
L 1 !B l{Jil1{!7

1983 EDITION

~M

$
'~EAICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE
1000 16th STREET NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20036

ii

The material presented in this pUblication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information
only. This information should not be used without first securing competent
advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute-or of any
other person named herein-that this information is suitable for any
general or partiCUlar use or of freedom from infringement of any patent
or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

1983 Edition
1st Printing-May 1983

Produced by W.P. Reyman AsSOCiates, Inc., New York


Copyright American Iron and Steel Institute 1983
Several parts of this Manual have been
separately copyrighted. These are as follows:
Part I
Copyright AISI1980
Part II Copyright AISI 1982

iii

......

.~

PREFACE

This Edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual is based on the September 3,
1980 Edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Mem-

bers.
It includes the following:
Part I-Specification
Part II-Commentary
Part III-Supplementary Information
Part IV -Illustrative Examples
Part V-Charts and Tables
The Specification and the Commentary are both also available in separately bound
versions.
The consulting services of Midgely, Clauer & Associates, R. W. Haussler, and
Edward R. Estes & Associates; the care and precision of typography and layout by W. P.
Reyman Associates Inc.; and the thorough review by many members of the Advisory
Group on the Specification are gratefully acknowledged.

American Iron and Steel Institute


May 1983

SPECIFICATION
FORTHE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual-Part I
Septem her 3, 1980
2nd Printing-May 19R1
3rd Printing-May 19H8

@M

AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE


1000 16th STREET NW

WASHINGTON, DC 20036

1-2

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3. 1980

The material presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information
only. This information should not be used without first securing competent
advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute - or of any
other person named herein - that this information is suitable for any
general or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent
or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

1st Printing-November 1980


2nd Printing-May 1981
3rd Printing-May 1983

Produced by W.P. Reyman Associates, Inc., New York.


Copyright American Iron and Steel Institute 1980

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

PREFACE
The newly published Edition of AISI's Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members represents a maj or revision, with many changs made to keep
the Specification responsive to the needs of users. It reflects the results of research projects and improvements in design techniques.
A number of editorial clarifications have been made throughout the Specification to
lessen ambiguity and to make provisions less subject to misinterpretation. Equations have
been numbered for the convenience of the user.
The more significant changes since the 1968 Edition of the Specification and Addenda
Numbers 1 and 2 (1970 and 1977 respectively) are on the following: materials, webs of flexural members, inelastic reserve capacity of flexural members, arc welds, bolted connections, wall studs, channel and Z-sections used as beams, and tests for special cases.
AISI acknowledges the devoted efforts of the members of the Advisory Group on the
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. This group,
comprised of consulting engineers, researchers, designers from companies manufacturing
cold-formed steel members, components, assemblies, and complete structures, and specialists from the steel producing industry, has met two to three times per year since its establishment in 1973. Its members, who have made extensive contributions of time and effort in developing and reaching consensus on the changes which have been described
above, are:
A. J. Oudheusden
S. H. Iyengar
R. E. Albrecht
A. L. Johnson, Secretary
T. B. Pekoz
R. V. Ault
F. J. Phillips
Reidar Bj orhovde*
D. L. Johnson
C. W. Pinkham
B. T. Jones
C. R. Clauer
N. W. Rimmer
C. G. Culver*
T. J. Jones*
T.G. Ryan
Herbert Klein
D. S. Ellifritt
R. M. Schuster
Paul Klim
E. R. Estes, Jr.
K. H. Klippstein, Chairman
P. A. Seaburg
H. R. Fink*
D. L. Tarlton
N. C. Lind
J. M. Fisher
Richard Tomasetti
John Macadam
T. V. Galambos
George Winter
Martin Malter
E. B. Gibson
D. S. Wolfordt
R. B. Matlock*t
J. D. Harmon
Wei-Wen Yu
T. J. McCabe
R. W. Haussler
A. S. Zakrzewski
W. A. Milek
R. B. Heagler
W. E. Mueller
L. W. Ife
The activities of the Advisory Group are sponsored by AISI's Committee of Sheet
Steel Producers. The Specification is issued under the auspices of AISI's Committee on
Construction Codes and Standards.
All users of the Specification are invited to continue to offer their valuable comments
and suggestions. The cooperation of all involved, the users as well as the writers, is needed to continue to keep the Specification up to date and a useful tool for the designer.
American Iron and Steel Institute
September 3, 1980

... Former member


Former member, deceased
Past Chairman

1-8

1-4

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE.... ...............................................................

NOTATION... ......................... ............. ...... ...................

SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF


COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
SECTION 1-GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11

1.1
1.2

1.3

Scope................................................................
Material..............................................................
1.2.1 General ........................................................
1.2.2 Other Steels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
1.2.3 Ductility.......................................................
Delivered Minimum Thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

SECTION 2-DESIGN PROCEDURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

2.1
2.2
2.3

Procedure............................................................
Definitions............................................................
Properties of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.1 Properties of Stiffened Compression Elements .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.2 Stiffeners for Compression Elements ...............................
2.3.3 Maximum Allowable Flat-Width Ratios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.4 Maximum Allowable Web Depth and Stiffener Requirements ...........
2.3.5 Unusually Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

SECTION 3-ALLOWABLE DESIGN STRESSES . .... " ............ , ...............

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

3.5
3.6
3.7

11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
17
17
18
19
19
20
21
21
21
21
23
23
24
25
25
27
27

Basic Design Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


3.1.1 Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming .......................
3.1.2 Wind, Earthquake, and Combined Forces ...........................
Compression on Unstiffened Elements ....................................
Laterally Unbraced Beams ..............................................
Allowable Stresses in Webs of Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.4.1 Shear Stresses in Webs ...........................................
3.4.2 Bending Stress in Webs ..........................................
3.4.3 Combined Bending and Shear Stresses in Webs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Crippling of Flexural Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads ........................
3.5.2 Combined Bending and Web Crippling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axially Loaded Compression Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.6.1 Stress..........................................................
3.6.2 Maximum Slenderness Ratio ......................................
Combined Axial and Bending Stresses ....................................
3.7.1 Doubly-Symmetric Shapes or Shapes Not Subject to
Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 27

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

3.7.2

Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened


Singly-Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes Having
Q = 1.0 Which May Be Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling .........
3.7.3 Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened
Singly-Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes Having
Q < 1.0 Which May Be Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling .........
3.7.4 Singly-Symmetric Shapes Which Are
Unsymmetrically Loaded .........................................
3.8 Cylindrical Tubular Members in Compression or Bending ....................
3.9 Inelastic Reserve Capacity of Flexural Members ...........................
SECTION 4-CONNECTIONS ..................................................

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

General ..............................................................
Welds ................................................................
4.2.1 Arc-Welds ......................................................
4.2.2 Resistance Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Two Channels To Form An I-Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements ...........................
Bolted Connections ....................................................
4.5.1 Scope ..........................................................
4.5.2 Materials .......................................................
4.5.3 Bolt Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4 Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance in Line of Stress ................
4.5.5 Tension Stress on Net Section .....................................
4.5.6 Bearing Stress in Bolted Connections ...............................
4.5.7 Shear Stress on Bolts ............................................ ,

SECTION 5-BRACING REQUIREMENTS ........................................

5.1

27
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
38
38
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
41
41
42
42
42
44
44
45

Wall Studs ............................................................


5.1.1 Studs in Compression ............................................
5.1.2 Studs with Combined Axial and Bending Stresses ....................
5.2 Channel and Z-Sections Used As Beams ...................................
5.2.1 Bracing When One Flange is Connected. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
5.2.2 Bracing When Neither Flange is Braced
By Deck or Sheathing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.2.3 Allowable Stresses ............................................... 46
5.3 Laterally Unbraced Box Beams .......................................... 46
SECTION 6-TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.1 General .............................................................. 46
6.2 Tests for Determining Structural Performance ............................ 46
6.3 Tests for Confirmatory Structural Performance ............................ 46
6.4 Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties
of Formed Sections or Flat Material ...................................... 47
6.4.1 Full Section Tests ................................................ 47
6.4.2 Tests of Flat Elements of Formed Sections .......................... 47
6.4.3 Acceptance and Control Tests for
Mechanical Properties of Virgin Steel .............................. 47

1-5

1-6

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

NOTATION
Symbol

Definition

Section
2

Full unreduced cross-sectional area of the member, in.

A
Ab

Cross-sectional area of the stud, in. 2


bI t + As, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and
under concentrated load, in. 2 and b2t + As, for transverse
stiffeners at end support, in. 2
18t2 + A R, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and
under concentrated load, in. 2 and 10t2 + As, for transverse
stiffeners at end support, in. 2
Effective area of the stiffener section, in. 2
Cross-sectional area of transverse stiffeners, in. 2
Full area of stiffener section, in. 2
Distance between transverse stiffeners, in.
Shear panel length of the unreinforced web element, in. For
a reinforced web element a is the distance between transverse stiffeners, in.
Length of bracing interval, in.
Stud spacing, in.
Term for determining the tensile yield point of corners
Effective design width of stiffened elements, in.
Effective design width of sub-element or element, in.
25t [0.0024 (Lstlt) + 0.72] ~ 25t, in.
12t [0.0044 (Lst/t) + 0.83] ~ 12t, in.
For compression members, ratio of the total corner cross-sectional area to the total cross-sectional area of the full
section; for flexural members, ratio of the total corner
cross-sectional area of the controlling flange to the full
cross-sectional area of the controlling flange
Bending coefficient dependent on moment gradient
V27T 2 E/Fy
End moment coefficient in interaction formula
End moment coefficient in interaction formula
End moment coefficient in interaction formula
End moment coefficient in interaction formula
h C I
th
ItO 8 d 190 {k;
F45,000kv
(hit) 2 W en v IS ess an or equa 0 an hit VF;

Cb
Cc

Cm
Cmlt
Cmy
G]'F

Cv
Cw
Cy

Co
C1

C1 to Cll
&C O
c
Cf

D
D
D

Do
d
d
d
d

d.

y
when Cv is more than 0.8
y
Warping constant of torsion of the cross-section, in. 6
A term used to compute Mu
Initial column imperfection
Term used to compute shear strain in wall board
Terms used to compute allowable reactions and concentrated
loads for web crippling
Distance from the centroidal axis to the fiber with maximum
compression stress, negative when the fiber is on the shear
center side of the centroid, in.
Amount of curling, in.
Mean diameter of cylindrical tube, in.
Dead load, includes weight of the test specimen
1.0 for stiffeners furnished in pairs; 1.8 for single angle
stiffeners; 2.4 for single plate stiffeners
Initial column imperfection
Depth of section, in.

Width of arc seam weld, in.


Visible diameter of outer surface of arc spot weld, in.
Diameter of bolt, in.
Average diameter of the arc spot weld at mid-thickness of
t, in.
Average width of seam weld, in.
Effective diameter of fused area, in.

3.6.1.1, 3.6.1.2
3.7.2,3.8
5.1.1
2.3.4
2.3.4
2.3.1.2
2.3.4.2.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.4.2.2
3.4.1
5.2.2.2
5.1.1
3.1.1.1
2.2,2.3.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.4
2.3.4
3.1.1.1

3.3
3.6.1.1
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.1
3.7.2
2.3.4.2.2
3.6.1.2, 5.1.1
3.9
5.1.1
5.1.1
3.5.1.1
3.7.2
2.3.3
3.8
6.2
2.3.4.2.2
5.1.1
2.3.3, 3.3, 3.6.2,
3.7.2, 5.1.1,4.3
4.2.1.2.3

4.2.1.2.2
4.5

4.2.1.2.2
4.2.1.2.3
4.2.1.2.2

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

NOTATION
Symbol

de

dh
d mtn

d1
E

ey

F
Fa
Fae

FaE
Fao
Fill
Fa2
Faa
Fb
Fb
Fbw
Fbx
FbI
Fe
FD
FL
Fp
Fr
Ft
Fu

FT
Fu:
F7

Definition

Effective width of arc seam weld at fused surfaces


Diameter of standard hole
Overall minimum depth required of simple lip, in.
Overall depth of lip, in.
Modulus of elasticity of steel = 29,500 ksi
Initial column imperfection; a measure of the initial twist of
the stud from the initial, ideal, unbuckled location
Term used to compute shear strain in wallboard
4E ( QF y - 0") I ( QFy ) 2, ksi
Eccentricity of the axial load with respect to the centroidal
axis, negative when on the shear center side of the centroid,
in.
Minimum allowable distance measured in the line of force
from the centerline of a weld to the nearest edge of an adj acent weld or to the end of the connected part toward
which the force is directed
The distance e measured in the line of force from the center of a standard hole to the nearest edge of an adj acent
hole or to the end of the connected part toward which the
force is directed
Yield strain = F y/E
Basic design stress on the net section of tension members and
compression on the extreme fibers of flexural members, ksi
Maximum average compression stress, ksi
Average allowable compression stress determined by both
requirements (i) and (iv b) of Section 3.7.2 if the point of
application of the eccentric load is at the shear center, ksi
Average allowable compression stress determined by requirement (i) of Section 3.7.2 if the point of application of the
eccentric load is at the shear center, ksi
Allowable compression stress under concentric loading determined by Section 3.6.1.1 for L = 0, ksi
Allowable compression stress under concentric loading, ksi
Allowable average compression stress under concentric loading, ksi
Allowable compression stress under concentric loading, ksi
Maximum compression stress on extreme fibers of laterally
unbraced beams, ksi
Maximum bending stress in compression that is permitted
where bending stress only exists, ksi
Maximum allowable compression stress in the flat web of a
beam due to bending, ksi
Maximum bending stress in compression that is permitted
where bending stress only exists, ksi
Maximum bending stress in compression permitted by this
Specification where bending stress only exists and the possibility of lateral buckling is excluded, ksi
Maximum allowable compression stress on unstiffened elements, ksi
Dead load factor
Live load factor
Allowable bearing stress, ksi
Allowable compression stress in cylindrical tubular member, ksi
Allowable tension stress on net section, ksi
Ultimate tensile strength of virgin steel specified by Section
1.2 or established in accordance with Section 6.4.3, ksi
Maximum allowable average shear stress on the gross area
of a flat web, ksi
Strength level designation in AWS electrode classification, ksi
Yield point, ksi

Section

4.2.1.2.3
4.5.4
2.3.2.1
4.3
3.3, 3.6.1.2,
3.7.2, 3.9, 5.1.1
5.1.1
5.1.1
5.1.1
3.7.2
4.2.1.2.2

4.5.4

3.9
3.1, 3.6.1.1,
3.8,3.9
3.7.2
3.7.2
3.7.2
3.7.2
2.3.4.2.1, 3.6.1.1,
3.6.1.2, 3.7.2, 3.8
3.6.1.2,3.7.2
5.1.1
3.3
3.7.2
3.4.2, 3.4.3
5.1.2
3.7.2
3.2, 3.4.2.2,
3.6.1.1, 3.9
6.2
6.2
4.5.6
3.8
4.5.5
3.1.1.1, 4.2.1.2,
4.5.4
3.4.1, 3.4.3
4.2.1.2
2.2,2.3, 3, 4.2.1.2,
4.5.4, 5.1.1

1-7

1-8

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

NOTATION
Symbol

Fya
Fyc
Fyf

Fys
F'e

F'ex
f

G'
g

J
j
K
K'
k
kv
L

L
L
L
L
L
Lt,

Lst
11
M

Definition

Section

Average yield point of section, ksi


Tensile yield point of corners, ksi
Weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions, ksi
Yield point of stiffener steel, ksi
127l"2 E
.
23 (KLt,/rb) 2 ' kSl
127l"2E
.
23 (L/rx) 2 ' kSl
Actual stress in the compression element computed on the
basis of the effective design width, ksi
Axial stress = axial load divided by full cross-sectional area
of member, P / A, ksi
Average stress in the full, unreduced flange width, ksi
Allowable average compression stress under concentric loading, ksi
Maximum bending stress = bending moment divided by
appropriate section modulus of member, ksi
Actual compression stress at junction of flange and web, ksi
Computed maximum average shear stress on the gross area
of a flat web, ksi
Shear modulus = 11,300 ksi
G (E'/E), ksi
Vertical distance between two rows of connections near or at
top and bottom flanges, in.
Clear distance between flanges measured along the plane of
the web, in.
Minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiffener about its
centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element, in.4
Moment of inertia of a multiple-stiffened element, in.4
Minimum moment of inertia of a pair of attached intermediate stiffeners, or a single intermediate stiffener, with reference to an axis in the plane of the web
Moment of inertia of full section about centroidal axis perpendicular to web, in.4
Moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section
about its axis of symmetry, in.4
Product of inertia of full section about centroidal axes parallel and perpendicular to web, in.4
Moment of inertia of the section about y-axis, in.4
Moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about
the gravity axis of the entire section parallel to the web, in.4
St. Venant torsion constant of the cross-sect"ion, in.4
Section property, torsional-flexural buckling, in.
Effective length factor
A constant; for channels

m/ d, for Z sections

Ixy/lx

F~.j33

Shear buckling coefficient


Full span for simple beams, distance between inflection
points for continuous beams, twice the length of cantilever
beams, in.
Length of seam weld not including the circular ends, in.
Length of fillet weld, in.
Unbraced length of member, in.
Length of stud, in.
Live load
Actual unbraced length in the plane of bending, in.
Total length of transverse stiffener, in.
Length of middle line of segment i, in.
Applied bending moment, at or immediately adjacent to the point
of application of the concentrated load or reaction P, kip-in.

3.1
3.1.1.1
3.1.1.1, 6.4.2
2.3.4.2.1
3.7.1,3.7.2

5.1.2
2.3.1.1, 4.4
3.7.1,3.7.2, 5.1.2
2.3.3
3.6.1.1,3.7.2
3.7.1, 3.7.2, 5.1.2
3.4.3
3.4.1, 3.4.3
3.6.1.2, 5.1.1
5.1.1
4.3
2.3.4, 3.4, 3.5.1
2.3.2.1
2.3.2.2
2.3.4.2.2
4.3, 5.2.2.2
3.7.2
5.1.1
5.2.2.2
3.7.2
3.3
3.6.1.2, 5.1.1
3.7.2
3.6.1.1, 3.6.1.2,
3.6.2, 3.7.2
5.2.2.2
3.5.1
3.4.1
2.3.5
4.2.1.2.3
4.2.1.2.4,4.2.1.2.5
3.3, 3.6.1, 3.6.2,
3.7.2,4.3
5.1.1
6.2
3.7.2
2.3.4.2.1
3.6.1.2, 5.1.1
3.5.2

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION 1-9

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

NOTATION
Symbol

Mallow

P
P
P
P
Pallow
Pallow

qo
R
R
r
r

smax

Definition

Section

Allowable bending moment permitted if bending stress only


3.5.2
exists, kip-in .
Elastic critical moment causing compression on the shear
3.7.2
side of the centroid, kip-in.
Elastic critical moment causing tension on the shear side of
3.7.2
the centroid, kip-in.
Ultimate moment causing a maximum compression strain
3.9
of cyeY, kip-in.
Moment causing a maximum strain of en kip-in.
3.9
Smaller end moment
3.3,3.7.2
Larger end moment
3.3,3.7.2
Term for determining the tensile yield point of corners
3.1.1.1
3.5.1
t/O.075
Distance of shear center of channel to mid-plane of the web, in. 4.3, 5.2.2.2
Actual length of bearing, in.
3.5.1
Concentrated load or reaction in the presence of bending
3.5.2
moment, kips
Total load on compression member, kips
3.6.1
Concentrated load or reaction, kips
4.3, 5.2.2.2
Force transmitted by bolt, kips
4.5.4
Force transmitted by weld, kips
4.2.1.2
Allowable concentrated load or reaction for one transverse
2.3.4.2.1
stiffener, kips
Allowable concentrated load or reaction, for one solid web
3.5.1, 3.5.2
sheet connecting top and bottom flanges
Force to be resisted by intermediate beam brace, kips
5.2.2.2
Stress and/ or area factor to modify allowable axial stress
2.3.1, 3.1.1.1,
3.6.1, 3.7.3, 3.8
Area factor to modify members composed entirely of stif3.6.1.1
fened elements
Stress factor to modify members composed entirely of un3.6.1.1
stiffened elements
Design shear rigidity for two wallboards, kips
5.1.1
Q/ A, ksi
5.1.1
Qd 2/ 4Aro2, ksi
5.1.1
Intensity of load on beam, kips per lin. in.
4.3
Design shear rigidity for two wallboards per inch of stud
5.1.1
spacing, kips per in.
Factor used to determine design shear rigidity
5.1.1
Inside bend radius, in.
3.1.1.1, 3.5
Minimum load carrying capacity
6.2
Radius of gyration of full unreduced cross-section, in.
3.6.1.1, 3.6.2
Force transmitted by the bolt or bolts at the section consid4.5.5
ered, divided by the tension force in member at that section
Radius of gyration about axis of bending, in.
3.7.2
Radius of gyration of one channel about its centroidal axis
4.3
parallel to web, in.
Polar radius of gyration of cross-section about the shear
3.6.1.2, 3.7.2,
center, in.
5.1.1
Radius of gyration of cross-section about centroidal princi3.6.2.1, 5.1.1
pal axis, in.
Radius of gyration about the centroidal axis parallel to the
3.7.2, 5.1.1
web of that portion of the I-section which is in compression when there is no axial load, in.
Radius of gyration of cross-section about centroidal principal
3.6.1.2, 3.7.2,
axis, in.
5.1.1
Radius of gyration of I-section about the axis perpendicular
4.3
to the direction in which buckling would occur for the given
conditions of end support and intermediate bracing, if any, in.
Maximum permissible longitUdinal spacing of welds or other
4.3
connectors joining two channels to form an I-section, in.

1-10

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

NOTATION
Symbol

Sxc
SyC
s
s
s
s
Ts
t
t

ti
ts

tw
W
W
Wf
Wf
Ws
WI

W2
x
xo
Y
a

f3
y

y
8
U

Ube
UbT
Ubl
U

b2

UOR
Ue

Uex
Uex
U e1

UeX1
U TF
UTFO

O't

O'tQ

Definition

Compression section modulus of entire section about major


axis, Ix divided by distance to extreme compression fiber,
in. 3
Compression section modulus of entire section about axis
normal to axis of symmetry, I~. divided by distance to extreme compression fiber, in. 3
Fastener spacing, in.
Spacing in line of stress, of welds, rivets, or bolts connecting
a compression coverplate or sheet to a non-integral stiffener
or other element
Weld spacing
Spacing of bolts perpendicular to line of stress, in.
Strength of connection in tension, kips
Base steel thickness of any element or section, in.
Total combined base steel thickness (exclusive of coatings)
of sheets involved in shear transfer, in.
Steel thickness of the member for segment, i, in.
Equivalent thickness of a multiple-stiffened element, in.
Effective throat of weld
Flat width of element exclusive of fillets, in.
Flat width of beam flange which contacts the bearing plate,
in.
Width of flange proj ection beyond the web or half the distance between webs for box- or V-type sections, in.
Proj ection of flanges from inside face of web, in.
Whole width between webs or web to edge stiffener, in.
Leg on weld
Leg on weld
Distance from concentrated load to brace, in.
Distance from shear center to centroid along the principal
x-axis, in.
Yield point of web steel divided by yield point of stiffener
steel
Reduction factor for computing effective area of stiffener
section
1-(xo/ro)2
Shear strain in the wallboard corresponding to
Permissible shear strain of the wallboard
Angle between web and bearing surface > 45 but no more
than 90
Stress related to shear strain in wallboard, ksi
Maximum compression bending stress caused by Me, ksi
Maximum compression bending stress caused by MT , ksi
UTF ec/ry2 = maximum compression bending stress in the
section caused by UTF, ksi
UTF xoc/r/, ksi
Theoretical elastic buckling stress under concentric loading,
ksi
7T2E/ (K4/rb) 2, ksi
7T2E/ (KL/rx ) 2, ksi
7T2E/ (L/rx ) 2, ksi
7T2E/(L/ry)2, ksi
7T 2EIxy/ AL2, ksi
Average elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress, ksi
Elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress under concentric
loading, ksi
Torsional buckling stress, ksi
U t + Qb ksi

Section

3.3
3.7.2
5.1.1
4.4

4.3
4.5.5
4.3
1.3, 2.2, 2.3,
3.1.1.1, 3.2, 3.4,
3.5, 3.8, 3.9
4.2.1.2.2
3.6.1.2, 5.1.1
2.3.2.2
4.2.1.2.4, 4.2.1.2.5
2.2, 2.3, 3.2, 3.9
3.5.2
2.3.3, 2.3.5
4.3
2.3.2.2
4.2.1.2.4
4.2.1.2.4
5.2.2.2
3.6.1.2, 3.7.2,
5.1.1
2.3.4.2.2
2.3.1.2
3.6.1.2.1, 5.1.1
5.1.1
5.1.1
3.5.1
5.1.1
3.7.2
3.7.2
3.7.2
3.7.2
5.1.1
3.7.2
3.6.1.2, 3.7.2
5.1.1
5.1.1
5.1.1
3.7.2
3.6.1.2
3.6.1.2,3.7.2
5.1.1

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF


COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
SEPTEMBER 3, 1980
SECTION 1-GENERAL
1.1

Scope

This Specification shall apply to the design of structural members cold formed to
shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not more than one inch in
thickness and used for load-carrying purposes in buildings. It may also be used for structures other than buildings provided appropriate allowances are made for dynamic effects.
1.2

Material

1.2.1

General

This Specification contemplates the use of steel of structural quality as defined


in general by the provisions of the following specifications * of the American Society for
Testing and Materials:
Steel Sheet, Zinc-coated (Galvanized) by the Hot-Dip Process, Structural
(Physical) Quality, ASTM A446-76 (Grades A, B, C, D, & F).
Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Sheet and Strip, Structural Quality, ASTM A570-79.
Steel Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, High Strength, Low Alloy,
with Improved Corrosion Resistance, ASTM A606-75e
Steel Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, High Strength, Low Alloy
Columbium and/or Vanadium, ASTM A607-75e
Steel, Cold-Rolled Sheet, Carbon, Structural, ASTM A611-72 (1979) (Grades A,
B, C, & D).
Sheet Steel and Strip, Hot-Rolled, High-Strength, Low-Alloy, With Improved
Formability, ASTM A715-75 (Grades 50 and 60).
Structural Steel, ASTM A36-77a e
High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel, ASTM A242-79.
High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Manganese Vanadium Steel, ASTM A441-79.
High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steels of Structural Quality,
ASTM A572-79.
High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50,000 psi Minimum Yield Point
to 4 in. Thick, ASTM A588-80.
Structural Steel with 42,000 psi Minimum Yield Point (1/2 in. Maximum Thickness), ASTM A529-75.
1.2.2

Other Steels

The listing in Section 1.2.1 does not exclude the use of steel up to and including
one inch in thickness ordered or produced to other than the listed specifications provided such steel conforms to the chemical and mechanical requirements of one of the
listed specifications or other published specifications which establishes its properties
and suitability, and provided it is subjected by either the producer or the purchaser to
analyses, tests and other controls to the extent and in the manner prescribed by one
of the listed specifications and Section 1.2.3.
1.2.3

Ductility

Steels not listed in Section 1.2.1 'and used for structural members and connections
shall comply with one of the following ductility requirements:
1.2.3.1 The ratio of tensile strength to yield point shall not be less than 1.08, and
the total elongation shall not be less than 10 percent for a two-inch gage length or
Available from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103.

1-11

1-12

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

7 percent for an 8 inch gage length standard specimen tested in accordance with
ASTM Specification A370-77 Sections 2 through 5 of this Specification shall be
limited to steels conforming to these requirements.
f

Steels conforming to ASTM A446-76 (Grade E) and A611-72 (1979) (Grade


E) and other steels which do not meet provisions of Section 1.2.3.1 may be used for
particular configurations provided the allowable basic design stress does not exceed
45 percent of the specified minimum yield point nor 36 ksi. Alternatively, the suitability of such steels for the configuration shall be demonstrated by load tests in accordance with Section 6 of this Specification. Loads so determined shall not exceed
those determined by using Sections 2 through 5. Existing applications of steels
not meeting the provisions of Section 1.2.3.1 may be accepted without load testing
subject to approval by the Engineer representing the owner.
1.2.3.2

1.3

Delivered Minimum Thickness

The uncoated minimum steel thickness of the cold-formed product as delivered to


the job site shall not at any location be less than 95 percent of the thickness, t, used in its
design; however, thicknesses may be less at bends, such as corners, due to cold-forming
effects.

SECTION 2-DESIGN PROCEDURE


2.1

Procedure

All computations for safe load, stress, deflection and the like shall be in accordance
with conventional methods of structural design except as otherwise specified herein.
2.2

Definitions

Where the following terms appear in this Specification they shall have the meaning herein indicated:
(a) Stiffened Compression Elements. A stiffened compression element is a flat compression element (i.e., a plane compression flange of a flexural member or a plane web or
flange of a compression member) of which both edges parallel to the direction of stress
are stiffened by a web, flange, stiffening lip, intermediate stiffener, or the like conforming to the requirements of Section 2.3.2.
(b) Unstiffened Compression Elements. An unstiffened compression element is a flat
element which is stiffened at only one edge parallel to the direction of stress.
(c) Multiple-Stiffened Elements. A multiple-stiffened element is an element that is
stiffened between webs, or between a web and a stiffened edge, by means of intermediate stiffeners which are parallel to the direction of stress and which conform to the
requirements of Section 2.3.2.2. A sub-element is the portion between adjacent stiffeners or
between web and intermediate stiffeners or between edge and intermediate stiffeners.
(d) Flat-Width Ratio. The flat-width ratio, wit, of a single flat element is the ratio
of the flat width, w, exclusive of edge fillets, to the thickness, t. In the case of sections such
as 1-, T -, channel-, and Z-shaped sections, the width, w, is the width of the flat projection
of flange from web, exclusive of fillets and of any stiffening lip that may be at the outer
edge of the flange. In the case of multiple-web sections such as hat-, V-, or box-shaped sections, the width, w, is the flat width of flange between adjacent webs, exclusive of fillets.
(e) Effective Design Width. Where the flat width, w, of an element is reduced for
design purposes, the reduced design width, b, is termed the effective width or the effective design width, and is determined in accordance with Szctions 2.3.1 and 2.3.5.
(f) Thickness. The thickness, t, of any element or section shall be the base steel
thickness, exclusive of coatings.
(g) Torsional-Flexural BUckling. Torsional-flexural buckling is a mode of buckling
in which compression members can bend and twist simultaneously.
(h) Point-Symmetric Section. A point-symmetric section is a section symmetrical
about a point (centroid) such as a Z-section having equal flanges.
(i ) Yield Point. Yield point, F y, as used in this Specification shall mean yield point,
or yield strength.
(j) Stress. Stress as used in this Specification means force per unit area and is expressed in kips per square inch, abbreviated throughout as ksi.
(k) Confirmatory Test. A confirmatory test is a test made, when desired, on members, connections, and assemblies designed according to the provisions of Sections 1

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

1-13

through 5 of this Specification or its specific references, in order to compare actual versus
calculated performance.
(1) Performance Test. A performance test is a test made on structural members,
connections, and assemblies whose performance cannot be determined by the provisions of
Sections 1 through 5 of this Specification or its specific references.
(m) Virgin Steel. Virgin steel refers to steel as received from the steel producer, or
warehouse, before being cold-worked as a result of fabricating operations.
(n) Virgin Steel Properties. Virgin steel properties refer to mechanical properties
of virgin steel such as yield point, tensile strength, and elongation.
2.3

Properties of Sections

Properties of sections (cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus,


radius of gyration, etc.) shall be determined in accordance with conventional methods of
structural design. Properties shall be based on the full cross-section of the members
(or net sections where the use of net section is applicable) except where the use of a reduced cross section, or effective design width, is required by the provisions of Sections
2.3.1 and 2.3.5 of this Specification.
2.3.1

Properties of Stiffened Compression Elements

In computing properties of sections of flexural members and in computing values


of Q (Section 3.6.1) for compression members, the flat width, w, of any stiffened compression element having a flat-width ratio larger than (wit) lim as hereinafter defined
shall be considered as being reduced for design purposes to an effective design width, b
or be, determined in accordance with the provisions of Sections 2.3.1.1 or 2.3.1.2,
whichever is applicable, and subject to the limitations of Section 2.3.5 where applicable.
That portion of the total width which is considered removed to arrive at the effective
design width shall be located symmetrically about the center line of the element.
2.3.1.1

Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners

The effective design widths of compressions elements which are not subject
to the provisions of Section 2.3.1.2 shall be determined from the following formulas:*
For load determination:
Flanges are fully effective (b=w) up to (wit) lim = 171/V
For flanges with wit larger than (wit) lim

l
(w/t)VJ

b _ 253 [1

55.3

'Vi

(Eq.2.3.1-1)

Exception: Flanges of closed square and rectangular tubes are fully effective
(b=w) up to (w/t)lIm = 184/Vf. For flanges with wit larger than (w/t)lim

b _ 253 [1

t - VI

50.3.1
(w/t)'ViJ

When members or assemblies are subject to stresses produced by wind or


earthquake forces, the effective design width, b, shall be determined for 0.75 times the
stress caused by wind or earthquake loads plus gravity loads, if any, when use is
made of the increased allowable stress permitted in Sections 3.1.2.1 or 3.1.2.2, respecti vely.
For deflection determination:
Flanges are fully effective up to (wit) lim = 221/ Vi
For flanges with wit larger than (w/t)lim
b _ 326 [1
71.3
t - 'Vi - (w/t)VfJ
Exception: Flanges of closed square and rectangular tubes are fully effective up to (wit) lim = 237IV. For flanges with wit larger than (wit) lim
b _ 326 [1
64.9
In the above,
t
'Vi
(w/t)'ViJ
wit = flat-width ratio
b
= effective design, width, in.
f
= actual stress in the compression element computed on the basis of the effective design width, ksi.

(Eq.2.3.1-2)

(Eq.2.3.1-3)

(Eq.2.3.1-4)

*It is to be noted that where the flat-width ratio exceeds (w/t)l1m the properties of the section must frequently be determined by successive approximations or other appropriate methods, since the stress and the effective design width are interdependent.

1-14

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

2.3.1.2

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

Multiple-Stiffened Elements and Wide Stiffened Elements With Edge Stiffeners

Where the flat-width ratio of a sub-element of a multiple-stiffened compression element or of a stiffened compression element which does not have intermediate stiffeners and which has only one longitudinal edge connected to a web does
not exceed 60, the effective design width, b, of such sub-element shall be determined
in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.3.1.1. Where such flat-width ratio
exceeds 60, the effective design width, be, of the sub-element or element shall be determined from the following formula: *

~. = ~

(Eq. 2.3.1-5)

- 0.10

[~

- 60 ]

where:
wit = flat-width ratio of sub-element or element

(Eq.2.3.1-6)

effective design width determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.3.1.1, in.
be = effective design width of sub-element or element to be used in design computations, in.
For computing the effective structural properties of a member having compression sub-elements or element subject to the above reduction in effective width, the
area of stiffeners (edge stiffener or intermediate stiffeners) ** shall be considered
reduced to an effective area as follows:
For 60 < wit < 90 :
Aef = a Ast
where

(Eq. 2.3.1-7)
(Eq.2.3.1-8)

For wit
Aef

(3 - 2b./w) -

90:

(be/w)Ast

io [

1-

[J

~J ~

In the above expressions, Aef and ARt refer only to the area of the stiffener
section, exclusive of any portion of adjacent elements.
The centroid of the stiffener is to be considered located at the centroid of the
full area of the stiffener, and the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its own
centroidal axis shall be that of the full section of the stiffener.
2.3.2

Stiffeners for Compression Elements

2.3.2.1

(Eq.2.3.2-1)

(Eq. 2.3.2-2)

Edge Stiffeners

A flat compression element may be considered a stiffened compression element if it is stiffened along each longitudinal edge parallel to the direction of stress
by a web, lip, or other stiffening means, having not less than the following minimum
moment of inertia:
I m1n = 1.83t4 (wit) 2 - 4,000/F y but not less than 9.2t4
where wit = flat-width ratio of stiffened element
I m1n = minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiffener (of any shape)
about its own centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element, in.4
Where the stiffener consists of a simple lip bent at right angles to the stiffened element, the required overall depth, d milu of such lip may be determined as
follows:
dm1n = 2.8t
(wit) 2 - 4,OOO/F r but not less than 4.8t
A simple lip shall not be used as an edge stiffener for any element having a
flat-width ratio larger than 60.

2.3.2.2

Intermediate Stiffeners

In order that a flat compression element may be considered a multiple stiffened element, it shall be stiffened between webs, or between a web and a stiffened
edge, by means of intermediate stiffeners parallel to the direction of stress, and the
moment of inertia of each such intermediate stiffener shall be not less than twice the
See Section 2.3.3 (a) for limitations on the allowable flat-width ratio of a compression element stiffened
at one edge by other than a simple lip.
"See Section 2.3.2.2 for limitations on number of intermediate stiffeners which may be considered effective
and their minimum moment of inertia.

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

1-15

minimum allowable moment of inertia specified for edge stiffeners in Section 2.3.2.1,
where w is the width of the sub-element. The following limitations also shall apply:
(a) If the spacing of intermediate stiffeners between two webs is such that the flatwidth ratio of the sub-element between stiffeners is larger than (wIt) 11m in
Section 2.3.1, only two intermediate stiffeners (those nearest each web)
shall be considered effective.
(b) If the spacing of intermediate stiffeners between a web and an edge stiffener
is such that the flat-width ratio of the sub-element between stiffeners is larger than (wit) lim in Section 2.3.1 only one intermediate stiffener shall be considered effective.
(c) If intermediate stiffeners are spaced so closely that the flat-width ratio between
stiffeners does not exceed (wit) lim in Section 2.3.1 all the stiffeners may be
considered effective. Only for the purposes of computing the flat-width ratio of
the entire multiple-stiffened element, such element shall be considered as replaced by an element without intermediate stiffeners whose width Ws is the
whole width between webs or from web to edge stiffener, and whose equivalent
thickness ts is determined as follows:

11!~'

t, =

(Eq.2.3.2-3)

where Is = moment of inertia of the full area of the multiple-stiffened element,


including the intermediate stiffeners, about its own centroidal axis.
2.3.3

Maximum Allowable Flat-Width Ratios

Maximum allowable overall flat-width ratios, wit, disregarding intermediate


stiffeners and taking as t the actual thickness of the element, shall be as follows:
(a) Stiffened compression element having one longitudinal edge connected to a web or
flange element, the other stiffened by:
Simple lip
60
Any other kind of stiffener
satisfying Section 2.3.2.1
90
(b) Stiffened compression element with both longitudinal edges connected to other
stiffened elements
500
60
(c) Unstiffened compression element
Note: Unstiffened compression elements that have flat-width ratios exceeding
approximately 30 and stiffened compression elements that have flat-width ratios exceeding approximately 250 are likely to develop noticeable deformation at the full
allowable working stresses, without affecting the ability of the member to carry design
loads.
Stiffened elements having flat-width ratios larger than 500 may be used with
safety to support loads, but substantial deformation of such elements under load may
occur and may render inapplicable the design formulas of this Specification.
(d) Unusually Wide Flanges: Where a flange of a flexural member is unusually wide
and it is desired to limit the maximum amount of curling or movement of the
flange toward the neutral axis, the following formula applies to compression and
tension flanges, either stiffened or unstiffened:
wr =

1,800 td x
fay

100<:,
d

where
Wf =

t
d

=
=

Cr =

fay

width of flange projecting beyond the web; or half of. the distance between
webs for box- or U-type beams, in.
flange thickness, in.
depth of beam, in.
amount of curling, in.
average stress in the full, unreduced flange width, ksi. (where members are
designed by the effective design width procedure, the average stress
equals the maximum stress multiplied by the ratio of the effective design
width to the actual width.)

"'The amount of curling that can be tolerated will vary with diWerent kinds of sections and must be established by the designer. Amount of curling in the order of 5 percent of the depth of the section is usually
not considered excessive.

(Eq.2.3.3-1)

1-16

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

2.3.4

Maximum Allowable Web Depth and Web Stiffener Requirements

2.3.4.1

Maximum hIt Ratio

The ratio, hit, of the webs of flexural members shall not exceed the following limitations:
(a) For unreinforced webs: (h/t)max = 200
(b) For webs which are provided with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of Section 2.3.4.2 :
(1) When using bearing stiffeners only, (h/t)max = 260
(2) When using bearing stiffeners and intermediate stiffeners, (h/t) lllax = 300
In the above,
h = clear distance between flanges measured along the plane of web, in.
t = web thickness, in.
Where a web consists of two or more sheets, the hit ratio shall be computed
for the individual sheets.
2.3.4.2

Transverse Stiffeners for Beam Webs

2.3.4.2.1

(Eq.2.3.4-1)
(Eq. 2.3.4-2)
(Eq.2.3.4-3)
(Eq. 2.3.4-4)
(Eq.2.3.4-5)
(Eq. 2.3.4-6)
(Eq.2.3.4-7)
(Eq.2.3.4-8)

Transverse stiffeners attached to beam webs at points of concentrated


loads or reactions, shall be designed as compression members. Concentrated loads
or reactions shall be applied directly into the stiffeners, or each stiffener shall be
fitted accurately to the flat portion of the flange to provide direct load bearing into the end of the stiffener. Means for shear transfer between the stiffener and the
web shall be provided according to Section 4. The concentrated loads or reactions shall not exceed the smaller of the allowable loads, P allow, given below.
(a) P allow = 0.50 FyAe, or
(b) P allow = F alAb
in which
Ab = blt + As, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under concentrated load, in. 2
Ab = b2 t + As, for transverse stiffeners at end support, in. 2
Ac = 18t2 + As, for transverse stiffeners at interior support and under concentrated load, in. 2
Ac = 10t2 + As, for transverse stiffeners at end support, in. 2
As = cross-sectional area of transverse stiffeners, in. 2
b l = 25t [0.0024 (Lstlt) + 0.72] ~ 25t, in.
b 2 = 12t [0.0044 (Lstlt) + 0.83] ~ 12t, in.
Fal = allowable compression stress determined in accordance with Section 3.6.1.1
when the web-stiffener section having a cross-sectional area Ab is designed
as an axially loaded compression member with K = 1, ksi
F y = lower value of the yield points of beam web or stiffener section, ksi
L st = total length of transverse stiffener, in.
t
= thickness of beam web, in.
The w Its ratio for the stiffened and unstiffened elements of cold-formed steel
transverse stiffeners shall not exceed 221/V Fys and 63.3/V F ys, respectively, where
F ys is the yield point and ts the thickness of the stiffener steel, ksi.
2.3.4.2.2

(Eq.2.3.4-9)

(Eq. 2.3.4-10)

Bearing Stiffeners

Intermediate Stiffeners

Where intermediate stiffeners are required, the spacing shall be such


that the web shear stress, fv, shall not exceed the value of F v permitted by Section
3.4.1, and the ratio a/h shall not exceed [260/ (h/t)] 2 nor 3.0.
The moment of inertia of a pair of attached intermediate stiffeners, or of
a single intermediate stiffener, with reference to an axis in the plane of the web,
shall be not less than
Is =5ht3 (h/a-0.7a/h) ~ (h/50)4
The gross area, in square inches, of intermediate stiffeners shall be not less than
Ast

1 - Cv r~_
(a/h):!
YDht
2
h
(a/h) + V1 + (a/h)2J

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

in which
45,000k v h C < 0 8
Cv -- Fy
(hit) 2 W en v -

Cv

190
hit

400
kv =.

(Eq.2.3.4-11)

If

(Eq. 2.3.4-12)

Fy when C v > 0.8

5.34
(a/h)2 when alh

1-17

(Eq.2.3.4-13)

1.0

kv = 5.34 + (!i~)2 when alh > 1.0


a = distance between transverse stiffeners, in.
yield PO'int O'f web steel
y
yield PQint O'f stiffener steel
D = 1.0 fO'r stiffeners furnished in pairs
D = 1.8 fO'r single angle stiffeners
D = 2.4 fO'r single plate stiffeners
t and h are as defined in SectiO'n 2.3.4.1

(Eq.2.3.4-14)

2.3.4.2.3 The allO'wable IO'ad carrying capacity Qf members with transverse stiffeners that dO' nO't meet the requirements Qf SectiO'ns 2.3.4.2.1 O'r 2.3.4.2.2, such as
stamped Qr rQlled-in transverse stiffeners shall be determined by tests in accQrdance
with SectiO'n 6 O'f this SpecificatiO'n.
Unusually Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads
Where the span O'f the beam is less than 30Wf (Wf as defined belO'w) and it carries
O'ne cO'ncentrated load, O'r several IO'ads spaced farther apart than 2Wf, the effective design width O'f any flange, whether in tensiO'n O'r cQmpressiO'n, shall be limited to' the
fO'llQwing:

2.3.5

TABLE 2.3.5

Short, Wide Flanges


Maximum Allowable Ratio of Effective DeSign Width to Actual Width

L/wf

RatiO'

L/wf

RatiO'

30
25
20
18
16

1.00
0.96
0.91
0.89
0.86

14
12
10
8
6

0.82
0.78
0.73
0.67
0.55

In Table 2.3.5 abQve ;


L = full span fO'r simple beams; O'r the distance between inflectiO'n PO'ints fO'r cO'ntinuQUS beams; Qr twice the length Qf cantilever beams, in.
Wf = width O'f flange prO'jectiQn beyO'nd the web fO'r I-beam and similar sectiQns O'r
half the distance between webs Qf bO'x- Qr V-type sectiQns, in.
FO'r flanges O'f I-beams and similar sectiQns stiffened by lips at the O'uter edges, Wf shall
be taken as the sum O'f the flange prO'jectiQn beyO'nd the web plus the depth O'f the lip.

SECTION 3-ALLOWABLE DESIGN STRESSES


The maximum allQwable stresses to' be used in design shall be as fO'llO'ws:
3.1

Basic DeSign Stress


Stress O'n the net sectiQn Qf tensiO'n members, and tensiO'n and cO'mpressiO'n O'n the extreme O'f flexural members, shall nO't exceed the value F specified belO'w, except as Qtherwise specifically prO'vided herein.
F = 0.60 Fy
where F y is the specified minimum yield PQint.
When the increase in steel strength resulting frQm CQld wQrk Qf fQrming is utilized in

(Eq.3.1-1)

1-18

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

(Eq.3.1-2)

accordance with Section 3.1.1, the basic design stress shall be determined as follows:
F = 0.60 Fya
where F ya is the average yield point of the full section.
The ASTM specifications listed in Section 1.2, Material, provide for a number of
different grades of steel. Values of the basic allowable design stress, F, as defined above,
may be rounded off as shown in Table 3.1 for some of these grades in terms of their yield
points.
TABLE 3.1
Basic Allowable Design Stress

Min. Yield Point


(ksi)

F
(ksi)

Min. Yield Point


(ksi)

F
(ksi)

65
60
55
50
45
42

39
36
33
30
27
25

40
37
36
33
30
25

24
22
22
20
18
15

3.1.1

Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming

Except as permitted by this Section 3.1.1, allowable stresses shall be based upon
the specified minimum properties of the unformed steel. Utilization, for design purposes, of any increase in steel strength that results from a cold forming operation
is permissible provided that the methods and limitations prescribed in Section 3.1.1.1
are observed and satisfied.
3.1.1.1

(Eq.3.1.1-1)

(Eq. 3.1.1-2)

Methods and limitations

Utilization of the strength increase of steel from the cold work of forming
shall be on the following basis:
(a) The yield point of the steel in axially loaded compression members when Q
equals unity, and the flanges of flexural members whose proportions are such
that when treated as compression members the quantity Q (Section 3.6.1.1) is
unity, shall be determined on the basis of either (i) full section tensile tests
(See paragraph (a) of Section 6.4.1) ; (ii) stub column tests (See paragraph
(h) of Section 6.4.1) ; or (iii) computed as follows:
Fya = CFyc + (1 - C) Fyi
where
F ya = average tensile yield point of the steel in the full section of compression
members, or full flange sections of flexural members, ksi
C = for compression members, ratio of the total corner cross-sectional area
to the total cross-sectional area of the full section; for flexural members,
ratio of the total corner cross-sectional area of the controlling flange to
the full cross-sectional area of the controlling flange
Fyc = BeFy/ (R/t) m, tensile yield point of corners, ksi. The formula does not
apply where Fu/Fy is less than 1.2, R/t exceeds 7, and/or maximum included angle exceeds 120
F yf = weighted average tensile yield point of the flat portions established in
accordance with Section 6.4.2 or virgin yield point if tests are not made
Be = 3.69 (Fu/Fy) - 0.819 (Fu/Fy) 2 - 1.79
m = 0.192 (Fu/Fy) - 0.068
R = inside bend radius, in.
Fy = tensile yield point of virgin steel specified by Section 1.2 or established
in accordance with Section 6.4.3., ksi
F u = ultimate tensile strength of virgin steel specified by Section 1.2 or established in accordance with Section 6.4.3, ksi
0

(Eq. 3.1.1-3)
(Eq. 3.1.1-4)

*Virgin steel refers to the condition (i.e. coiled or straight) of the steel prior to the cold-forming operation.

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

1-19

(b) The yield point of the steel in axially loaded compression members with Q less
than unity, and the flanges of flexural members whose proportions are such
that when treated as compression members the quantity Q (Section 3.6.1.1) is
less than unity, may be taken as (i) the tensile yield point of the virgin steel
specified by applicable ASTM specification, (ii) the tensile yield point of the virgin steel established in accordance with Section 6.4.3 or (iii) the weighted average tensile yield point of flats established in accordance with Section 6.4.2.
(c) The yield point of the steel in axially loaded tension members shall be determined by either method (i) or method (iii) prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Section.
(d) Application of the provisions of Section 3.1.1.1 (a) shall be confined to the following Sections of the Specification.
3.1 Basic Design Stress
3.2 Compression on Unstiffened Elements
3.3 Laterally Unbraced Beams
3.6 Axially Loaded Compression Members
3.7 Combined Axial and Bending Stresses
3.8 Cylindrical Tubular Members in Compression or Binding
5.1 Wall Studs
Application of all provisions of the Specification may be based upon the properties of the flat steel before forming or on Section 3.1.1.1 (b) or (c) as applicable.
(e) The effect on mechanical properties of any welding that is to be applied to the
member shall be determined on the basis of tests of full section specimens containing within the gage length, such welding as the manufacturer intends
to use. Any necessary allowance for such effect shall be made in the structural
use of the member.

3.1.2

Wind, Earthquake, and Combined Forces

3.1.2.1

Wind or Earthquake Only

Members and assemblies subject only to stresses produced by wind or earthquake forces may be proportioned for stresses 33-1/3 percent greater than those
specified for dead and live load stresses. A corresponding increase may be applied
to the allowable stresses in connections and details.

3.1.2.2

Combined Forces

Members and assemblies subject to stress produced by a combination of wind


or earthquake and other loads may be proportioned for unit stresses 33-1/3 percent
greater than those specified for dead and live load stresses, provided the section thus
required is not less than that required for the combination of dead load and live load.
For primary and secondary members of roof assemblies and roof deck, the
allowable stresses may be increased 33-1/3 percent for combined stresses due to dead
load, gravity live load (if any) and ponding, provided the section thus required is not
less than that required for the combination of dead load and live load.
Corresponding increases may be applied to the allowable unit stresses in connections and details.
3.2

Compression on Unstiffened Elements

Compression, F c , in kips per square inch, on flat unstiffened elements:


(a) For w/t::; 63.3/iF;:
Fe = 0.60 Fy

(Eq.3.2-1)

(b) For 63.3/iF; < w/t::; 144/iF;:*


Fe = Fy [0.767 - (2.64/10 3 ) (w/t)iF;]

(Eq.3.2-2)

(c) For 144/iF;::; wit < 25:


Fe = 8,000/ (w It) 2

(Eq.8.2-3)

*Virgin steel refers to the condition (i.e. coiled or straight) of the steel prior to the cold-forming operation.
When the yield point of steel is less than 33 ksi, then for wit ratios between 63.3/~ and 25:

Fe

=0.60 F, -

[wit - 63.3/V"F;] (0.60 F, - 12.8)

25 (1-2.53/Vll';>

(Eq.3.2-4)

1-20

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

(Eq.3.2-5)
(Eq.3.2-6)

(d) For 25 < wit ~ 60:*


For angle struts:
Fe = 8,0001 (wit) 3
For all other sections:
Fe = 19.8 - 0.28 (wit)
In the above formulas, wit = flat-width ratio as defined in Section 2.2.
3.3

(Eq.3.3-1)

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

Laterally Unbraced Beams

To prevent lateral buckling, the maximum compression stress, F b, in kips per square
inch, on extreme fibers of laterally unsupported straight flexural members lie lie shall not exceed the allowable stress as specified in Sections 3.1 or 3.2 nor the following maximum
stresses:
(a) When bending is about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web for either 1shaped sections symmetrical about an axis in the plane of the web or symmetrical channel-shaped sections:
.
t th
0.3671"2 ECb btl
th
1.8;;-2 EC b
Wh en L2S"(C
d lye IS grea er an
Fy
u ess an
Fy
2
F - 2 F
Fv
(L2 Sxc)
b -"3 y - 5.411"2 EC b ~
L2 S
1.871"2 EC b
When d Iy:c is equal to or greater than
Fy

(Eq.3.3-2)

(b)

d lyc
F b -- 0.671" 2 EC b L2
Sxc
For point-symmetrical Z-shaped sections bent about the centroidal axis perpendicular to the web:
L2 S"(' .
0.1871"2 EC b
0.911"2 EC b
When ~ IS greater than
F
but less than
F
yc

(Eq.3.3-3)

(Eq.3.3-4)

2 F
F/
(L2 Sxc)
b=3 y- 2.771"2EC b ~
L2 S
When d Iy:e is equal to or greater than
Fb = 0.311"2 EC b

~
L- .;:)xc

In the above,
L = the unbraced length of the member, in.
lye = the moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about the gravity
axis of the entire section parallel to the web, in.4
Sxe = compression section modulus of entire section about major axis, i.e., Ix divided by
distance to extreme compression fiber, in. 3
Cb = bending coefficient which can conservatively be taken as unity, or calculated from
(Eq.3.3-5)

Cb = 1.75

Ml) + 0.3
+ 1.05 ( M2

(Ml)2
M2 '

but not more than 2.3


where Ml is the smaller and M2 the larger bending moment at the ends of the unbraced length, taken about the strong axis of the member, and where MdM2, the
ratio of end moments, is positive when Ml and M2 have the same sign (reverse
curvature bending) and negative when they are of opposite sign (single curvature
bending). When the bending moment at any point within an un braced length is
larger than that at both ends of this length the ratio Cb shall be taken as unity.
Unstitfened compression elements having ratios of wit exceeding approximately 30 may show noticeable
distortion of the free edges under allowable compressive stress without detriment to the ability of the
member to support load.
For ratios of wit exceeding approximately 60 distortion of the flanges is likely to be so pronounced as to
render the section structurally undesirable unless load and stress are limited to such a degree as to render such use uneconomical.
The provisions of this section apply to 1-, Z-, or channel-shaped flexural members (not including mUltipleweb deck, U- and closed box-type members and curved or arch members). The provisions of this Section
do not apply to laterally unbraced compression flanges of otherwise laterally stable sections.

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

1-21

For members subject to combined axial and bending stress (Section 3.7), Cb
shall be 1.
E = modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
d = depth of section, in.
3.4

Allowable Stresses in Webs of Beams

3.4.1

Shear Stresses in Webs

The maximum average shear stress, fv, in kips per square inch, on the gross area
of a flat web shall not exceed:
(a) For hit :s; 237 V kv/Fy:
F

=
v

65.7~<040F
(hit)
-.
y

(Eq. 3.4.1-1)

(b) For hit> 237-Y kv/Fy :


F = 15,600kv

(Eq. 3.4.1-2)

(hit) 2

where

F v= allowable shear stress, ksi


F y = yield point of the beam web, ksi
fv = computed maximum average shear stress on the gross area of a flat web,
ksi
t = base steel thickness of the web element, in.
h = clear distance between flanges measured along the plane of web, in.
kv = shear buckling coefficient determined as follows:
1. For unrein forced webs, kv = 5.34
2. For beam webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements
of Section 2.3.4.2,

kv

4.00 +

(:i~~2' when a/h::::; 1.0

(Eq.3.4.1-3)

kv

5.34 +

(!i~O)

(Eq.3.4.1-4)

2'

when alh > 1.0

In the above expressions, a = shear panel length of the unreinforced web element, in. For a reinforced web element, a is the distance between transverse
stiffeners, in.
Where the web consists of two or more sheets, each sheet shall be considered
as a separate member carrying its share of the shear.
3.4.2

Bending Stress in Webs

3.4.2.1

Beams Having Stiffened Compression Flanges

The compressive stress in a flat web that results from bending in its plane,
computed on the basis of the effective compression flange area and the full web area,
shall not exceed the following allowable stress:
F bw = [1.21 - 0.00034(h/t)ffrJ (0.60Fy)::::; 0.60Fy
where Fy = yield point of the beam web, ksi.
3.4.2.2

Beams Having Unstiffened Compression Flanges

The compressive stress in a flat web that results from bending in its plane,
computed on the basis of the reduced compression flange area which is equal to the
gross flange area times the stress ratio Fc/0.6F~., and of the full web area, shall not
exceed the following allowable stress:
F bw = [1.26 - 0.00051 (hit) ~] (0.60Fy) ::::; 0.60F y
3.4.3

(Eq.3.4.2-1)

(Eq.3.4.2-2)

Combined Bending and Shear Stresses in Webs

For unreinforced beam webs subjected to both bending and shear stresses, the
member shall be so proportioned that such stresses do not exceed the allowable values
specified in Sections 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 and that:
fbw )
( F bw

(.&)
Fv

~ 1.0

For beam webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of Section
2.3.4.2, the member may be proportioned so that the shear and bending stresses do not

(Eq. 3.4.3-1)

1-22

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

exceed the allowable values specified in Sections 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 and that
(Eq. 3.4.3-2)

G::) G:) ~

0.6
+
1.3
when fbw/F bw > 0.5 and fv/Fv > 0.7.
In the above expressions,
F bw = allowable compression stress as specified in Section 3.4.2, except that for substitution in Equations 3.4.3-1 and 3.4.3-2 the limit of 0.60 F y shall not apply,
ksi
Fv = allowable shear stress as specified in Section 3.4.1 except that for substitution
in Equations 3.4.3-1 and 3.4.3-2 the limit of OAFy shall not apply, ksi
f bw = actual compression stress at junction of flange and web, ksi
fv = actual average shear stress, i.e., shear force per web divided by web area,
ksi.

TABLE 3.5.1-1
PallOW

Shapes Having Single Webs

(Eq.3.5.1-1)

(Eq. 3.5.1-2)

At locations of one
concentrated load or
reaction acting
either on the top or
bottom flange, when
the clear distance
between the bearing
edges of this and
adjacent opposite
concentrated loads
or reactions is
greater than 1.5h

(Eq.3.5.1-3)

(Eq.3.5.1-4)

(Eq.3.5.1-5)

At locations of two
opposite concentrated
loads or of a
concentrated load and
an opposite reaction
acting simultaneously
on the top and bottom
flanges, when the clear
distance between their
adj acent bearing
edges is equal to or
less than 1.5h

For end reactions


of beams or
concentrated loads on
the end of cantilevers
when the distance
from the edge of
bearing to the
end of the beam
is less than 1.5h
For reactions and
concentrated loads
when the distance
from the edge of
bearing to the end of
the beam is equal to
or larger than 1.5h
For end reactions
of beams or
concentrated
loads on the end
of cantilevers
when the distance
from the edge of
bearing to the
end of the beam
is less than 1.5h
For reactions and
concentrated
loads when the
distance from the
edge of bearing
to the end of the
beam is equal to
or larger than 1.Sh

Stiffened flanges
t 2 kC aC4 Co [179 - 0.33 (hit)]
[1 + 0.01 (Nit)]
Unstiffened flanges
t 2 kC aC4 Co [117 - 0.15 (hit) ]
[1 + 0.01 (Nit)] *

Stiffened and unstiffened flanges


t 2 kC 1 C2 CO [291 - 0040 (hit)]
[1 + 0.007 (Nit)] **

Stiffened and un stiffened flanges


t 2 kC aC4 Co [132 - 0.31 (hit) ]
[1 + 0.01 (Nit)]

Stiffened and unstiffened flanges


t 2 kC 1 C2 CO [417 -1.22(h/t)]
[1 + 0.0013 (N It)]

When Nit> 60, the factor [1 + 0.01 (Nit)] may be increased to [0.71 + 0.015 (Nit)] .
.... When Nit> 60, the factor [1 + 0.007 (Nit) J may be increased to [0.75 + 0.011 (Nit) J.

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

3.5

1-23

Web Crippling of Flexural Members

These provisions are applicable to webs of flexural members subject to concentrated


loads or reactions, or the components thereof, acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis
of the member, acting in the plane of the investigated web, and causing compressive
stresses in the web.
3.5.1

Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads

To avoid crippling of unreinforced flat webs of flexural members having a flat


width ratio, hit, equal to or less than 200, neither concentrated loads nor reactions shall
exceed the values of Pallow given in tables 3.5.1-1 and 3.5.1-2. Webs of flexural members
for which the ratio, hit, is greater than 200 shall be provided with adequate means of
transmitting concentrated loads andlor reactions directly into the webs.
The following formulas apply to beams when R/t ~ 6 and to deck when R/t
~ 7, Nit ~ 210 and Nih ~ 3.5.

TABLE 3.5.1-2

p. IIOW
I-Beams Made of Two Channels Connected Back to Back or For Similar
Sections Which Provide a High Degree of Restraint Against Rotation of
the Web, Such as I-Sections Made by Welding Two Angles to a Channel.

At locations of one
concentrated load or
reaction acting
either on the top or
bottom flange, when
the clear distance
between the bearing
edges of this and
adj acent opposite
concentrated loads
or reactions is
greater than 1.5h

At locations of two
opposite concentrated
loads or of a
concentrated load and
an opposite reaction
acting simultaneously
on the top and bottom
flanges, when the clear
distance between their
adj acent bearing
edges is equal to or
less than 1.5h

For end reactions


of beams or
concentrated loads
on the end of
cantilevers when the
distance from the edge
of bearing to the
end of the beam
is less than 1.5h

Stiffened and un stiffened flanges


t 2 F yCd5.0 + 0.63'V Nit)

(Eq.3.5.1-6)

For reactions and


concentrated loads
when the distance
from the edge of
bearing to the end of
the beam is equal to
or larger than 1.5h

Stiffened and un stiffened flanges


t 2 F yC5C6 (7.50 + 1.63"1 Nit)

(Eq.3.5.1-7)

For end reactions


of beams or
concentrated loads
on the end of
cantilevers when the
distance from the edge
of bearing to the
end of the beam
is less than 1.5h

Stiffened and un stiffened flanges


t 2 F yClO Cl1 (5.0 + 0.63V Nit)

(Eq.3.5.1-8)

For reactions and


concentrated
loads when the
distance from the edge
of bearing to the end
of the beam is equal to
or larger than 1.5b

Stiffened and un stiffened flanges


t2FyC SC9 (7.50 + 1.63" Nit)

(Eq. 3.5.1-9)

1-24

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

(Eq.3.5.1-10)
(Eq.3.5.1-11)
(Eq.3.5.1-12)
(Eq.3.5.1-13)
(Eq. 3.5.1-14)
(Eq.3.5.1-15)
(Eq. 3.5.1-16)

In all of the above, P allow represents the load or reaction for one solid web connecting top and bottom flanges. For sheets consisting of two or more such adjacent webs
P allow shall be computed for each individual web and the results added to obtain the allowable load or reaction for the multiple web.
For built-up I-beams, or similar sections, the distance between the connector and
beam flange shall be kept as small as practical.
In the above formulas,
Pallow = allowable concentrated load or reaction kips per web
= (1.22 - 0.22k)
C1
C2
= (1.06 - 0.06R/t) ::; 1.0
Cs
= (1.33 - 0.33k)
C4
= (1.15 - 0.15R/t) ::; 1.0 but not less than 0.50
C5
= (1.49 - 0.53k) ~ 0.6
C6
= (0.88 + 0.12m)
hit
C7
= 1 + 750 when hit::; 150; C7 = 1.20 when hit> 150

~~i) Ik when hit> 66.5

(Eq.3.5.1-17)

C.

= 11k, when hit,,;; 66.5; C. =

(Eq. 3.5.1-18)

Co

(0.82 + 0.15m)

(Eq.3.5.1-19)

Ct.

(0.98 - ~~:) Ik

(Eq.3.5.1-20)
(Eq.3.5.1-21)

Cl l
C6
F.,
h
k

= (0.64 + 0.31m)
= 0.7 + 0.3 (0190) 2
= yield point of the web, ksi
= clear distance between flanges measured along the plane of web, in.
= F.,/33
=t/0.075
= web thickness, in.
= actual length of bearing, in. For the case of two equal and opposite concentrated loads distributed over unequal bearing lengths, the smaller value of
N shall be taken.
= inside bend radius, in.
= angle between plane of web and plane of bearing surface;::;: 45 but no more
than 90

(Eq. 3.5.1-22)
(Eq.3.5.1-23)

m
t
N

R
()
3.5.2

(1.10 -

Combined Bending and Web Crippling

Unreinforced flat webs of shapes subjected to a combina.tion of bending and


reaction or concentrated load shall be designed to meet the following requirements:
3.5.2.1

(Eq.3.5.2-1)

Shapes having single webs

1.2

(.-L)
+ (~) < 1 5
P
allow

Mallow

Exception: At the interior supports in continuous spans the above formula is not
applicable to deck or beams with two or more single webs provided the compression
edges of adj acent webs are laterally supported in the negati ve moment region by
continuous or intermittently connected flange elements, rigid cladding, or lateral
bracing, and the spacing between adjacent webs does not exeeed 10 inches.
I-beams made of two channels connected back to back or similar sections
which provide a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web, such as I-beams
made by welding two angles to a channel having unreinforced webs:

3.5.2.2

(Eq. 3.5.2-2)

11(~)+(~)<
15
. P allow
Mallow

Exception: When hit ::; 400Iff. and wit :s; (wit) Um, the allowable reaction or
concentrated load may be determined by Section 3.5.1.
In the above formulas,
= concentrated load or reaction in the presence of bending moment, kips
P
P allow
= allowable concentrated load or reaction in the absence of bending
moment determined in accordance with Section 3.5.1, kips

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

1-25

= applied bending moment, at or immediately adjacent to the point of


application of the concentrated load or reaction P, kip-in.
Mallow
= allowable bending moment permitted if bending stress only exists,
kip-in.
w
= flat width of the beam flange which contacts the bearing plate, in.
t
= thickness of web or flange, in.
(W/t)lim = limiting wit ratio for the beam flange. Use Sections 2.3.1.1 and 3.2(a)
for stiffened flanges and unstiffened flanges, respectively.

3.6

Axially Loaded Compression Members

3.6.1

Stress

3.6.1.1

(a)

Shapes Not Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling

For doubly-symmetric shapes, closed cross section shapes or cylindrical sections,


and any other shapes which can be shown not to be subject to torsional or torsional-flexural buckling, and for members braced against twisting, the average axial stress, PIA, in compression members shall not exceed the following
values of Fat, except as otherwise permitted by paragraph (b) of this Section
3.6.1.1 :

Ce

KL/r <VQ:
F =~QF _ 3 (QFy)2(KL)2
at 23
y
237T 2 E
r

(Eq.3.6.1-1)

= 0 522 QF _(QFyKL/r)2

y
1494

(Eq. 3.6.1-2)

KL/r

Ce

~'VQ:

1277"2 E
Fat = 23 (KL/r) 2
_ 151,900
- (KL/r)2
In the above,
Ce = -V 277"2 ElFy
P = total load, kips
A = full, unreduced cross-sectional area of the member, in 2
Fat = allowable average compression stress under concentric loading, ksi
E = modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
K = effective length factor*
L = unbraced length of member, in.
r = radius of gyration of full, unreduced cross section, in.
F y = yield point of steel, ksi
Q = a factor determined as follows:
(1) For members composed entirely of stiffened elements, Q is the ratio between the
effective design area, as determined from the effective design widths of such
elements, and the full or gross area of the cross section. The effective design
area used in determining Q is to be based upon the basic design stress F as
defined in Section 3.1.
(2) For members composed entirely of unstiffened elements, Q is the ratio between
the allowable compression stress Fe for the element of the cross section having
the largest flat-width ratio and the basic design stress, F, where Fe is as defined in Section 3.2 and F is as defined in Section 3.1.
*In frames where lateral stability is provided by diagonal bracing, shear walls, attachment to an adjacent
structure having adequate lateral stability, or by floor slabs or roof decks secured horizontally by walls
or bracing systems parallel to the plane of the frame, and in trusses the effective length factor, K, for the
compression members shall be taken as unity, unless analysis shows that a smaller value may be used. In a
frame which depends upon its own bending stiffness for lateral stability, the effective length KL of the
compression members shall be determined by a rational method and shall not be less than the actual unbraced length.

(Eq.3.6.1-3)
(Eq.3.6.1-4)
(Eq.3.6.1-5)

1-26

SEPTEMBER 3. 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

(3)

(b)

For members composed of both stiffened and unstiffened elements the factor Q
is the product of a stress factor, Qs, computed as outlined in paragraph (2)
above and an area factor, Qat computed as outlined in paragraph (1) above, except that the stress upon which Q. is to be based shall be that stress Fe which is
used in computing Qs; and the effective area to be used in computing QIl shall include the full area of all unstiffened elements.
When the factor Q is equal to unity, the steel is 0.09 inch or more in thickness
and KL/r is less than Cc :

r-

=l1

(Eq. 3.6.1-6)

(KL/r)~J F
2(Cc)~

~ + !iKL/r) _ (KL/r)3

a1

8(C e )

8(C c )3

3.6.1.2 Singly Symmetric and Nonsymmetrlc Shapes of Open Cross-Section or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes Which May
be Subect to Torsional-Flexural Buckling.
3.6.1.2.1

Shapes Having Q = 1.0

For singly-symmetric or nonsymmetric shapes of open cross-section or


intermittently fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes having
Q = 1.0 which may be subject to torsional-flexural buckling and which are not
braced against twisting, the average axial stress, P / A, shall not exceed F al specified in Section 3.6.1.1 or F.2 given below:

> 0.5 Fy: Fa2 = 0.522 Fy

(Eq.3.6.1-7)

For

(Eq.3.6.1-8)

For UTFO ~ 0.5 F y: F.2 = 0.522 UTFO


where
F a2 = allowable average compression stress under concentric loading, ksi
aT~O = elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress under concentric loading which
shall be determined as follows:
(a) Singly-Symmetric Shapes. For members whose cross-sections have one axis of
symmetry (x-:axis), UTFO is less than both U ex and Ut and is equal to:

UTFO

7.67

UTFO

(Eq. 3.6.1-9)

where:
(Eq.3.6.1-10)

7l'2E
k .
(KL/rx) 2' SI

ex

- Ar02
1 [GJ + (KL)2
ECw] , k'
2

(Eq.3.6.1-11)
(Eq. 3.6.1-12)
(Eq. 3.6.1-13)

(Eq. 3.6.1-14)

Ut

f3
A
ro

7T

SI

1 - (xo/ro) 2

cross-sectional area
2
2
= Vrx + r/ + X0 = polar radius of gyration of cross-section about the
shear center, in.
rx, ry = radii of gyration of cross-section about centroidal principal axes, in.
= modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
E
= shear modulus = 11,300 ksi
G
K
= effective length factor
L
= unbraced length of compression member, in.
Xo
= distance from shear center to centroid along the principal x-axis, in.
J
= St. Venant torsion constant of the cross section, in.4. For thin-walled
sections composed of n segments of uniform thickness,
J = (1/3) (ht l 3 + 12t23 + ... + Iltl 3 + Intn3)
tt
= steel thickness of the member for segment i, in.
II
= length of middle line of segment i, in.
6
C".
= torsional warping constant of the cross-section, in.
(b) Nonsymmetric Shapes. For shapes whose cross-sections do not have any symmetry, either about an axis or about a point, UTFO shall be determined by
=

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

1-27

rational analysis. Alternatively, compression members composed of such


shapes may be tested in accordance with Section 6.

3.6.1.2.2

Shapes Having Q

< 1.0

Compression members composed of singly-symmetric, or non symmetric


shapes of intermittently fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes
have Q < 1.0 which are subject to torsional-flexural buckling and which are not
braced against twisting can be conservatively proportioned by replacing Fy by QFy
in Section 3.6.1.2, or their strength may be determined by tests in accordance
with Section 6. Q is defined in Section 3.6.1.1.
3.6.1.3

Point-Symmetric Sections Which May Be Subject to Torsional Buckling

For point-symmetric open shapes such as cruciform sections or such builtup shapes which may be subject to torsional buckling and which are not braced
against twisting, the average axial stress, P j A shall not exceed Fat specified in Section 3.6.1.1 or F a2 given below:
For

Ut

> 0.5QFy: Fa2 = 0.522QF y -

i~~:v~~

(Eq. 3.6.1-15)

For u t ::; 0.5QFy: F a2 = 0.522 U t


(Eq. 3.6.1-16)
Ut is defined in Section 3.6.1.2.1.
If the Section consists entirely of unstiffened elements Q shall be taken as 1.0; otherwise Q shall be determined in accordance with Section 3.6.1.1.
3.6.2

Maximum Slenderness Ratio

The slenderness ratio, KLjr, of compression members shall not exceed 200, except that during construction only, KLjr shall not exceed 300.
3.7

Combined Axial and Bending Stresses

3.7.1

Doubly-Symmetric Shapes or Shapes Not Subject to


Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling

When subject to both axial compression and bending doubly-symmetric shapes


or shapes which are not subject to torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be proportioned to meet the following requirements:

:. + ( Cm;
a1

bx

1 - F':x)Fbx

+ (Ct,fb'
1 - F:y)

Fb~'

:s: 1.0

fa + Ffbx + FfbY ::; 1.0


F ao
blx
bly
fa
when::; 0.15, the following formula may be used in lieu of the above two formulas:
F a1
~ + f bx + l!!L::; 1.0
Fa1
F bx F by

(Eq.3.7.1-1)

(Eq.3.7.1-2)

(Eq.3.7.1-3)

The subscripts x and y in the above formulas indicate the axis of bending about
which a particular stress or design property applies.
3.7.2

Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric


Components of Built-Up Shapes Having Q = 1.0 Which May Be Subject to
Torsional-Flexural Buckling

Singly-symmetric shapes subject to both axial compression and bending applied


in the plane of symmetry shall be proportioned to meet the following four requirements
as applicable:
f
(i)
f
+
a1 Fb1 1 - F~e

(Cm

):s: 1

~ + lL ::; 1
Fao

Fb1

(Eq.3.7.2-1)
(Eq.3.7.2-2)

When :a ::; 0.15, the following formula may be used in lieu of the above two
a1
formulas:

~ + 1L ::; 1.0
Fat

Fbt

(Eq.3.7.2-8)

1-28

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

(ii)

For O'TF > 0.5 Fy: Fa

(Eq. 3.7.2-4)

(Eq.3.7.2-6)

(Eq.3.7.2-7)

(Eq.3.7.2-11)

(Eq.3.7.2-12)

Except for T- or unsymmetric I-sections, if the point of application of the eccentric load is between the shear center and the centroid, i.e., if e is negative, and if
Fat is larger than F a2 , then the average compression stress, fa, also shall not
exceed:
e

Fa2 + - (F aE - F a2 )
xo
For T- and unsymmetric I-sections with negative eccentricities
(a) If the point of application of the eccentric load is between the shear center
and the centroid, and if Fal is larger than F a2 , then the average compression
e
stress, fat also shall not exceed: Fa = F a2 + - (F ac - F a2)
xo
(b) If the point of application of the eccentric load is located on the side of the
shear center opposite from that of the centroid, then the average compression stress, fa, also shall not exceed:
Fa

(iv)

(Eq.3.7.2-10)

(1 -

(iii)

(Eq.3.7.2-9)

F2

0.522 Fy - 767 y
.
O'TF
For O'~rF ~ 0.5 F y: Fa = 0.522 O'TF
where UTF shall be determined according to the formula:
O'TF +
CTF O'bl
= 1.0
O'TFO
O'bT
U;eF)

(Eq.3.7.2-5)

(Eq.3.7.2-8)

If the point of application of the eccentric load is located on the side of the centroid opposite from that of the shear center, i.e., if e is positive, then the average compression stress (fa) also shall not exceed Fa given below:

For O'TF > 0.5 Fy: Fa

F2

0.522Fy - 767Y
. UTF
For O'TF ~ 0.5 F y: Fa = 0.522 O'TF
where O'TF shall be determined according to the formula:
O'TF + CTF [UbI
- Ub2J = 1.0
O'ex
O'bC 1 _ O'TF
O'e
In Section 3.7.2, x and yare centroidal axes and the x-axis is the axis of symmetry whose positive direction is pointed away from the shear center.
In Section 3.7,
Cm = a coefficient whose value shall be taken as follows:
1. For compression members in frames subject to joint translation
(sidesway)
Cm = 0.85
2. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint
translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending,

(Eq.3.7.2-13)

Cm

0.6 - 0.4 ::' but not less than 0.4

where MdM2 is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the
ends of that portion of the member, unbraced in the plane of bending
under consideration. MdM2 is positive when the member is bent in
reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature.

(Eq.3.7.2-14)
(Eq.3.7.2-15)
CTF

(Eq.3.7.2-16)

3. For compression members in frames braced against j oint translation


in the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between their
supports, the value of em may be determined by rational analysis.
However, in lieu of such analysis, the following values may be used:
(a) for members whose ends are restrained, em = 0.85,
(b) for members whose ends are unrestrained, em = 1.0.
a coefficient whose value shall be taken as follows:
1. For compression members in frames subject to joint translation
(sidesway)
CTF = 0.85
2. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint

SEPTEMBER

a, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION 1-29

translation and not subj ect to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending
CTF

c
d

Fa
Fae
F.E
Fao
Fat
Fa2

Fb
Fbt

where Mt/M2 is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the
ends of that portion of the member, un braced in the plane of bending
under consideration. Mt/M2 is positive when the member is bent in
reverse curvature and negative when it is bent in single curvature.
= distance from the centroidal axis to the fiber with maximum compression stress, negative when the fiber is on the shear center side of the
centroid, in.
= depth of section, in.
= eccentricity of the axial load with respect to the centroidal axis, negative
when on the shear center side of the centroid, in.
= maximum average allowable compression stress, ksi
= average allowable compression stress determined by both requirements
(i) and (iv b) if the point of application of the eccentric load is at the
shear center, Le., the calculated values of fa and Fa, for e = X o , ksL
= average allowable compression stress determined by requirement (i) if
the point of application of the eccentric load is at the shear center, Le.,
the calculated value of fa for e = x o , ksi
= allowable compression stress under concentric loading determined by
Section 3.6.1.1 for L = 0, ksi
= allowable compression stress under concentric loading according to Section 3.6.1.1 for buckling in the plane of symmetry, ksi
= allowable compression stress under concentric loading from Section
3.6.1.2, ksi
= maximum bending stress in compression that is permitted by this Specification where bending stress only exists (Sections 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3), ksi
= maximum bending stress is compression permitted by this Specification
where bending stress only exists and the possibility of lateral buckling
is excluded (Sections 3.1 and 3.2), ksi

F'e

23

~i~~rb)

(may be increased one-third in accordance with Section

I,

3.1.2), ksi
axial stress = axial load divided by full cross-sectional area of member,
PIA, ksi
= maximum bending stress = bending moment divided by appropriate
section modulus of member, MIS, noting that for members having stiffened compression elements the section modulus shall be based upon the
effective design widths of such elements, ksi
= moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about its axis
of symmetry, in.4
= moment of inertia of the section about the y-axis, in.4

fa
fb

Ixe

(Eq.3.7.2-18)

21Iy [JA x 3 dA

+ fAxy

dA] - x o, in.,

where x is the axis of symmetry and y is orthogonal to x


effective length factor in the plane of bending
=
actual
unbraced length in the plane of bending, in.
L"
=
A
U
j2 + ro2 ( uti uex )]
Me
ex [j +
= elastic critical moment causing compression on the shear center side
of the centroid, kip-in.
=
- A U ex [j - V"-j--2""";+"'---ro--2 -(-u-t-I-u-e-x-)--]-MT
= elastic critical moment causing tension on the shear center side of the
centroid, kip-in .
rb = radius of gyration about axis of bending, in.
rxe = radius of gyration about the centroidal axis parallel to the web of that
portion of the I-section which is in compression when there is no axial
load, in.

(Eq.3.7.2-19)

(Eq.3.7.2-17)

0.6 - 0.4 : :

\ ,

(Eq.3.7.2-20)
(Eq.3.7.2-21)

1-30

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

Sye = compression section modulus of entire section about axis normal to axis
of symmetry, Iy/distance to extreme compression fiber, in. 3
Xo
= x coordinate of the shear center, negative, in.
<TbC'

(Eq.3.7.2-22)

~eC

maximum compression bending stress caused by Me, ksi. For I-

sections with unequal flanges <TbC may be approximated by


<TbT =

(Eq.3.7.2-23)

7T~~~:exe

~TC = maximum compression bending stress caused by MT, ksi. For Iy

sections with unequal flanges O'bT may be approximated by


(Eq.3.7.2-24)

O'bl

7T~~~:exe

O'TF e ~ = maximum compression bending stress in the section caused


ry
by <TTF, ksi

(Eq.3.7.2-25)

Xoc k'
O'TF -2'
SI
ry

(Eq.3.7.2-26)

7T E
k .
(K4/rb):I' SI

<TTF

3.7.3

average elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress, i.e., axial load at which


torsional-flexural buckling occurs divided by the full cross-sectional
area of member, ksi
A, E, r o, rY, O'ex, O't, O'TFO are as defined in Section 3.6.1.2.

Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric


Components of Built-Up Shapes Having Q < 1.0 Which May Be Subject to
Torsional-Flexural Buckling

If Q < 1.0, singly-symmetrical shapes or intermittently fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes subject to both axial compression and bending
applied in the plane of symmetry can be conservatively proportioned by replacing Fy
by QFy in Section 3.7.2, or their strength may be determined by tests in accordance
with Section 6. Q is defined in Section 3.6.1.1.
3.7.4

Singly-Symmetric Shapes Which are Unsymmetrically Loaded

Singly-symmetric shapes subject to both axial compression and bending applied


out of the plane of symmetry must be designed according to Section 6.2, Tests for Determining Structural Performance.
3.8

Cylindrical Tubular Members in Compression or Bending

For cylindrical tubular members with a ratio, D It, of mean diameter to wall thickness not greater than 3,300/Fy the compression stress shall not exceed the basic design
stress F.
For cylindrical tubular members with a ratio, d/t, of mean diameter to wall thickness larger than 3,300/Fy but not greater than 13,000/Fy the compression stress shall
(Eq.3.8-1)

not exceed F r

662
D/t + 0.399 F y

For compression members the allowable stress, P / A, under axial load also shall not
exceed F al as prescribed by Section 3.6.1.1 for Q = 1.
3.9

Inelastic Reserve Capacity of Flexural Members

The inelastic flexural reserve capacity may be used when the following conditions
are met:
(a) The member is not subject to twisting, lateral, torsional, or torsional-flexural buck-

ling
(b) The effect of cold-forming is not included in determining the yield point F y

(c) The ratio of the depth of the compressed portion of the web to its thickness does not

exceed 1901VF;
(d) The depth to thickness ratio of the entire web does not exceed 640/ff.
(e) The shear force does not exceed O.35F'1 times the web area

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION 1-31

(f) The angle between any web and the vertical does not exceed 20 degrees.
The design moment shall not exceed 0.75My or 0.60M where
My = moment causing a maximum strain of ey , kip-in .
ey = yield strain = Fy/E
E = modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
Mu = ultimate moment causing a maximum compression strain of Cyey (no limit is
placed on the maximum tensile strain), kip-in.
ey = a factor determined as follows:
Il ;

(1) Stiffened compression elements without intermediate stiffeners


Cy = 3 for wit less than or equal to 190/-yF;
Cy = 3 - [(w/t)V"F; - 190]/15.5 for wit greater than 190/V"F; but
not greater than 221/VF';
Cy = 1 for w /t greater than 221/V"F;
(2) Unstiffened compression elements
Cy = Fc/F
F c is defined in Section 3.2 and
F is defined in Section 3.1
(3) Multiple-stiffened compression elements and compression elements with
edge stiffeners Cy = 1

When applicable effective design widths shall be used in calculating section properties, Mil shall be calculated considering equilibrium of stresses, assuming an ideally elasticplastic stress-strain curve which is the same in tension as in compression, assuming small
deformations and assuming that plane sections before bending remain plane during
flexure.
Combined bending and web crippling shall be checked by the provisions of Section
3.5.2 .

SECTION 4-CONNECTIONS
4.1

General

Connections shall be designed to transmit the maximum stress in the connected member. Proper regard shall be given to eccentricity.
4.2

Welds

4.2.1

Arc-Welds

4.2.1.1

Thickness over 0.18 in.

Arc-welds on steel where each connected part is over 0.18 in. in thickness
shall be made in accordance with AISC's "Specification for the Design, Fabrication
and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings", November 1978.
4.2.1.2

Thickness 0.18 In. and Les.

Except as modified herein, arc.welds on steel where at least one of the connected parts is 0.18 in. or less in thickness shall be made in accordance with the AWS
"Structural Welding Code-Sheet Steel, AWS D1.3-81" and its Commentary.* Welders and welding procedures shall be qualified as specified in AWS D1.3-81. These
provisions are intended to cover the welding positions as shown in Table 4.2.1.
4.2.1.2.1

Groove Welds in Butt Joints

The allowable unit stress for a groove weld in a butt j oint, welded from
one or both sides, shall be that of the lower strength . base steel in the connection,
provided that an effective throat equal to or greater than the thickness of the material is consistently obtained .
... Available from American Institute of Steel Construction, 400 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Dlinois
60611 .
...... Available from American Welding Society, Inc., 550 N.W. Le Jeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126.

(Eq.3.9.1)
(Eq.3.9-2)
(Eq.3.9-3)
(Eq.3.9-4)

(Eq.3.9-5)

1-82

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 8, 1980

TABLE 4.2.1

Welding Position
Square
Groove
Connection Butt Weld
Sheet to
Sheet

Sheet to
Supporting
Member

Arc Spot
Weld

Arc Seam
Weld

Fillet
Weld,
Lap or T

FlareBevel
Groove
Weld

Flare-V
Groove
Weld

H
-

OR

OR

OH

OH

OR

OR

(F = flat, H = horizontal, V = vertical, OH = overhead)

4.2.1.2.2

Arc Spot Welds

Arc spot welds permitted by this Specification are for welding sheet steel
to thicker supporting members in the flat position. Arc spot welds (puddle welds)
shall not be made on steel where the thinnest connected part is over 0.15 in. thick,
nor through a combination of steel sheets having a total thickness over 0.15 in.
thick.
Weld washers, Figure 4.1, shall be used when the thickness of the sheet
is less than 0.028 in. Weld washers shall have a thickness between 0.05 and 0.08
in. with a minimum prepunched hole of 3/8 in. diameter.
Arc spot welds shall be specified by minimum effective diameter of fused
area, de. Minimum allowable effective diameter is 3/8 inch.
Allowable shear loads, P, on each arc spot weld between sheet or sheets
and supporting member shall not exceed the smaller of either

(Eq.4.2.1-1)

da < 140
F orTVF:
(Eq. 4.2.1-2)

0.88 t da Fu;

140
do
240
For -yF: < -t- < FII :

(Eq.4.2.1-3)

P = 0.112 [ 1

+ da960t
ffu t da F u;

da> 240 .
F orT- ffu .
(Eq. 4.2.1-4)

P = 0.56 t da F u

where
d = visible diameter of outer surface of arc spot weld, in.
da = average diameter of the arc spot weld at mid-thickness of t, in. (where da
= (d - t) for a single sheet, and (d - 2t) for multiple sheets (not more
than four lapped sheets over a supporting member) ), in.
de = effective diameter of fused area, in.

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION 1-33

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980
Arc Spot Weld
Sheet

Figure 4.1 (A)

Figure 4.1 (B)

de
t

Typical Weld Washer

Arc Spot Weld Using Washer

O.7d - 1.5t but:::; O.55d


total combined base steel thickness (exclusive of coatings) of sheets involved in shear transfer, in .
F xx = strength level designation in AWS electrode classification, ksi
F y = specified minimum yield point of steel, ksi
F u = specified minimum tensile strength of steel, ksi
Note: See Figure 4.2 for diameter definitions.
==

d a = d-t

de = O.7d - 1.St ~ O.SSd


Arc Spot Weld-Single Thickness of Sheet

d a = d-2t
de =

O.7d - 1.St ~ O.SSd


Arc Spot Weld-Double Thickness of Sheet

Figure 4.2 Arc Spot Welds

(Eq.4.2.1-5)

1-34

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

The distance measured in the line of force from the centerline of a weld
to the nearest edge of an adj acent weld or to the end of the connected part towara
which the force is directed shall not be less than the value of emin, in inches, as
gi ven below:
(a) When Fu/Fy ;::: 1.15;
(Eq.4.2.1-6)

(Eq.4.2.1-7)

emin = 0.5 Fut


(b) When Fu/Fy < 1.15;

enlin

= 0.45 Fut

, where P = force transmitted by weld, kips


t = thickness of thinnest connected sheet, in.
and F y and F u are as defined above.
Note: See Figure 4.3 for edge distance of arc welds.

(A) Sing Ie Sheet

(B) Double Sheet

Figure 4.3 Edge Distances for Arc Spot Welds

In addition, the distance from the centerline of any weld to the end or
boundary of the connected member shall not be less than 1.5d. In no case shall the
clear distance between welds and end of member be less than 1.0d.
If it can be shown by measurement that a given weld procedure will consistently give a larger effective diameter, de, or average diameter, da, as applicable,
this larger diameter may be used providing the particular welding procedure used
for making those welds is followed.

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION 1-35

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

d LW'dth

Figure 4.4 Arc Seam Welds-Sheet to Supporting Member In Flat Position

4.2.1.2.3

Arc Seam Welds

Arc seam welds (Figure 4.4) covered by this Specification apply only
to the following joints:
(a) Sheet to thicker supporting member in the flat position
(b) Sheet to sheet in the horizontal or flat position.
Allowable loads on each arc seam shall not exceed either

p -

t~'

~.] F xx; or

P = tFu (0.25L + 0.96 da)


where d = width of arc seam weld, in.
L = length of seam weld not including the circular ends, in. (For computation purposes, L shall not exceed 3d.)
da = average width of seam weld, in. (where d a = (d - t) for a single
sheet, and (d - 2t) for a double sheet)
de = effective width of arc seam weld at fused surfaces.
de = 0.7d - 1.5t, in.
and P, Fu and Fxx are defined in Section 4.2.1.2.1. The minimum edge distance
shall be as determined for the arc spot weld, Section 4.2.1.2.2 (See Figure 4.5) .
If it can be shown by measurement that a given weld procedure will consistently give a larger effective width, de or da as applicable, this value may be used
providing the particular welding procedure used for making the welds that are
measured is followed.

Figure 4.5 Edge DI.wnce. for Arc Seam Weld.

(Eq.4.2.1-8)
(Eq.4.2.1-9)

(Eq. 4.2.1-10)
(Eq.4.2.1-11)
(Eq. 4.2.1-12)

1-36

SEPTEMBER 8, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

4.2.1.2.4

Fillet Welds

Fillet welds covered by this Specification apply to the welding of joints


in any position, either
(a) Sheet to sheet, or
(b) Sheet to thicker steel member.
The allowable load for a fillet weld in lap and T-joints shall not exceed
the following:
For longitudinal loading :
For Lit < 25:
(Eq.4.2.1-13)
(Eq. 4.2.1-14)
(Eq.4.2.1-15)

(Eq. 4.2.1-16)

0.4 (1 - 0.01

~ ) tLFu

For Lit ~ 25:


p = 0.3 tLFu
For transverse loading:
P = 0.4tLFu
In addition, for t > 0.150 in., the allowable load for a fillet weld in lap and T-joints
shall not exceed:
P = 0.3 twLFxx
where
L = length of fillet weld, in.
tw = effective throat = 0.707 Wl or 0.707 W2, whichever is smaller. A larger effective throat may be taken if it can be shown by measurement that a
given welding procedure will consistently give a larger value providing
the particular welding procedure used for making the welds that are
measured is followed.
Wl and W2 = leg on weld (See Figure 4.6)
P, F u and F xx are defined in Section 4.2.1.2.2.

(B)T-Joint

(A) Lap Joint

Figure 4.6 Fillet Welds

4.2.1.2.5

(Eq.4.2.1-17)

Flare Groove Welds

Flare groove welds covered by this Specification apply to welding of


joints in any position, either:
(a) Sheet to sheet for flare-V groove welds, or
(b) Sheet to sheet for flare-bevel groove welds, or
(c) Sheet to thicker steel member for flare-bevel groove welds.
Allowable loads on welds shall be governed by the thickness, t, of the
sheet steel adjacent to the welds. Allowable loads shall not exceed:
For flare-bevel groove welds, transverse loading (see fig. 4.7) :
P= tLFn
3

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION 1-87

Figure 4.7 Flare- Bevel Groove Weld

For flare groove welds, longitudinal loading (see fig. 4.8) :


If the effective throat, t w , is equal to or greater than t but less than 2t or if the lip
height is less than weld length, L, then:
P = 0.8 tLFu
If tw is equal to or greater than 2t and the lip height is equal to or greater than L,
then:
P = 0.6 tLFu
In addition, if t > 0.15 in., then:
P = 0.8 twLFxx

~p
(A) Flare Bevel Groove

(C) Throat

Figure 4.8 Shellr In FIIIre Groove Welda

(B) Flare V-Groove

(Eq.4.2.1-18)
(Eq.4.2.1-19)
(Eq.4.2.1-20)

1-38

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

4.2.2

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

Resistance Welds

In sheets joined by spot welding the allowable shear per spot shall be as follows:
Thickness of
Thinnest Outside
Sheet, In.

Allowable Shear
Strength per
Spot, kips

Thickness of
Thinnest Outside
Sheet, In.

Allowable Shear
Strength per
Spot, kips

.010
.020
.030
.040
.050
.060

0.050
0.125
0.225
0.350
0.525
0.725

.080
.094
.109
.125
.188
.250

1.075
1.375
1.65
2.00
4.00
6.00

(The above values are based upon the AWS "Recommended Practices for Resistance
Welding," C1.1-66, * and apply to pUlsation welding as well as spot welding. They are
applicable for all structural grades of low carbon steel, and are based on a factor of safety
of approximately 21/2 applied to selected values from AWS C.1-66 Tables 1.1 and 1.3.
Values for intermediate thicknesses may be obtained by straight-line interpolation. The
above values may also be applied to medium carbon and low alloy steels. Spot welds in
such steels give somewhat higher shear strengths than those upon which the above values are based; however, they may require special welding conditions. In all cases welding shall be performed in accordance with AWS C1.1-66.)
4.3

(Eq.4.3-1)

(Eq.4.3-2)
(Eq.4.3-3)

Connecting Two Channels to Form an I-Section

The maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds or other connectors, Smax, in


inches, joining two channels to form an I-section shall be
(a) For compression members:
s = L rey
max
2 rI
where
L = unbraced length of compression member, in.
rI = radius of gyration of I-section about the axis perpendicular to the direction
in which buckling would occur for the given conditions of end support and intermediate bracing, if any, in.
ref = radius of gyration of one channel about its centroidal axis parallel to web, in.
(b) For flexural members:
Smax = L/6
In no case shall the spacing exceed the value
2gTs
Smax =
mq
where
L
Ts
g

q
m

(Eq.4.3-4)

= span of beam, in.


strength of connection in tension, kips
= vertical distance between the two rows of connections near or at top and bottom flanges, in.
= intensity of load on beam, kips per lin. in.
(For methods of determination see below)
= distance of shear center of channel from mid-plane of the web, in. For simple
channels without stiffening lips at the outer edges,

m=

2wt

wt 2

+ d/3

For C-shaped channels with stiffening lips at the outer edges,


(Eq.4.3-5)

~t:%t [wrd + 2d, (d -

4:DJ

Available from American Welding Society, Inc., 2501 N.W. 7th Street, Miami, Florida 33125.

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

wr

d
dl
Ix

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

projection of flanges from inside face of web, in. (For channels with flanges
of unequal width, Wt shall be taken as the width of the wider flange.)
= depth of channel or beam, in .
= overall depth of lip, in.
= moment of inertia of one channel about its centroidal axis normal to the web,
=

in.4

The intensity of load, q, is obtained by dividing the magnitude of concentrated loads


or reactions by the length of bearing. For beams designed for a uniformly distributed
load, the intensity, q, shall be taken equal to three times the intensity of the uniformly
distributed design load. If the length of bearing of a concentrated load or reaction is
smaller than the weld spacing, s, the required strength of the welds or connections closest
to the load or reaction P, is Ts = Pm/2g.
The required maximum spacing of connections Smax depends upon the intensity of the
load directly at the connection. Therefore, if uniform spacing of connections is used
over the whole length of the beam, it shall be determined at the point of maximum local
load intensity. In cases where this procedure would result in uneconomically close spacing
either one of the following methods may be adopted: (a) the connection spacing may be
varied along the beam according to the variation of the load intensity; or (b) reinforcing
cover plates may be welded to the flanges at points where concentrated loads occur. The
strength in shear of the connections joining these plates to the flanges shall then be used
for T'!J and g shall represent the depth of the beam.
4.4

1-39

Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements


The spacing, s, in inches, in line of stress, of welds, rivets, or bolts connecting a compression cover plate or sheet to a non-integral stiffener or other element shall not exceed
(a) that which is required to transmit the shear between the connected parts on the basis
of the design strength per connection specified elsewhere herein; nor
(b) s = 200tlV7 where s is spacing, in., t is thickness of cover plate or sheet, in., and f is
design stress in cover plate or sheet, ksi ; nor
(c) three times the flat width, w, of the narrowest unstiffened compression element tributary to the connections, but need not be less than 190t/VF\- if the value of Fe permitted in the unstiffened element is greater than O.54Fn or 228t/VF\- if the value
of Fe permitted in the un stiffened element is O.54Fy or less, unless closer spacing is
required by paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Section 4.4.
In the case of intermittent fillet welds parallel to the direction of stress the spacing
shall be taken as the clear distance between welds plus one-half inch. In all other cases the
spacing shall be taken as the center to center distance between connections.
Exception: The requirements of this Section 4.4 do not apply to cover sheets which act
only as sheathing material and are not considered as load-carrying elements.

4.5

Bolted Connections

4.5.1

Scope
The following requirements govern bolted connections of cold-formed steel
structural members in which the thickness of the thinnest connected part is less than
3/16 inch. For bolted connections in which the thinnest connected part is equal to or
greater than 3/16 inch, refer to AISC's "Specification for the Design, Fabrication
and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings," November 1, 1978*.

4.5.2

Materials
Bolts, nuts, and washers shall generally conform to one of the following specifications:
Carbon Steel Externally and Internally Threaded Standard Fasteners, ASTM* * A
307-78, Type A
High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints, ASTM A 325-79
Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded
Fasteners, ASTM A 354-79, Gr. BD (for diameter of bolt smaller than 1/2 in.)

Available from American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., 400 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois 60611.
Available from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103.

(Eq.4.3-6)

1-40

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs, ASTM A 449-78a (for diameter
of bolt smaller than 1J2 in.)
Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts for Structural Steel Joints, ASTM A 490-79
When other than the above are used, drawings shall indicate clearly the type and
size of fasteners to be employed and the allowable stresses assumed in design.
4.5.3

Bolt Installation

Bolts shall be installed and tightened to achieve satisfactory performance of the


connections involved under usual service conditions.
4.5.4

Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance in Line of Stress

The distance e measured in the line of force from the center of a standard hole*
to the nearest edge of an adjacent hole or to the end of the connected part toward which
the force is directed shall not be less than the value of emill determined below:
(Eq. 4.5.4-1)

(a) When Fu/Fy ~ 1.15: eml n

(Eq. 4.5.4-2)

(b) When Fu/Fy

0.5 Fut
P

< 1.15: emin = 0.45 Fut

where
P = force transmitted by bolt, kips
t = thickness of thinnest connected part, in.
F u = specified minimum ultimate tensile of steel of the connected part, ksi
F y = specified minimum tensile yield point of steel of the connected part, ksi
In addition, the minimum distance between centers of bolt holes shall provide
sufficient clearance for bolt heads, nuts, washers and the wrench but shall not be less
than 3 times the nominal bolt diameter, d. Also, the distance from the center of any
standard hole to the end or other boundary of the connecting member shall not be less
than 11/2 d.
For oversized and slotted holes, the distance between edges of two adj acent holes
and the distance measured from the edge of the hole to the end or other boundary of the
connecting member in the line of stress shall not be less than the value of [emill d h /2) ], in which eml n is the required distance computed from the applicable equation
given above, and dh is the diameter of a standard hole defined in the footnote of this
section. In no case shall the clear distance between edges of two adj acent holes be less
than 2d and the distance between the edge of the hole and the end of the member be less
than d.
4.5.5

(Eq. 4.5.5-1)
(Eq. 4.5.5-2)
(Eq.4.5.5-3)

Tension Stress on Net Section

The tension stress on net section of a bolted connection shall not exceed 0.6 Fy nor
shall it exceed the following allowable stress:
(A) When t ~. 3/16 in. :
See Section 4.5.1
(B) When t < 3/16 in. :
(a) With washers under both bolt head and nut
(i) Double shear connection
F t = (1.0 - 0.9r + 3rd/s) 0.50 Fu ~ 0.50 Fu
(ii) Single shear connection
F t = (1.0 - 0.9r + 3rd/s) 0.45 Fu ~ 0.45Fu
(b) Without washers under both bolt head and nut, or with only one washer
F t = (1.0 - r + 2.5rd/s) 0.45 Fu ~ 0.45 Fu
where
r = the force transmitted by the bolt or bolts at the section considered,
divided by the tension force in the member at that section. If r is less
than 0.2, it may be taken equal to zero.
s = spacing of bolts perpendicular to line of stress, in. In the case of a
single bolt, s = width of sheet
The diameter of a standard hole is 1/16 in. larger than the bolt diameter for 1/2 in. and larger bolts,
and is 1/32 in. larger than the bolt diameter for bolts less than 1/2 in. in diameter.

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

F t = allowable tension stress on net section, ksi


F u, F Y' d, and t are defined in Section 4.5.4.
4.5.6

Bearing Stress in Bolted Connections

The bearing stress on the area (d x t) shall not exceed the allowable stress given
in Tables 4.5.6 (A) and 4.5.6 (B), where Fp is the allowable bearing stress, ksi. Fu and
F yare defined in Section 4.5.4. For conditions not shown, stresses shall be determined
on the basis of test data using a factor of safety of 2.22.
TABLE 4.5.6 (A)
Allowable Bearing Stresses for Bolted Connections
with Washers under Both Bolt Head and Nut

Thickness of
connected part
(inches)

Type of joint
Inside sheet of
double shear connection

0.024
but < 3/16
~

3/16

Single shear and outside


sheets of double shear
connection

F u/F y ratio of
connected part

Allowable
bearing
stress, Fp
(ksi)

1.15

1.50 Fu

< 1.15

1.35 Fu

No limit

1.35 Fu

See Section 4.5.1

TABLE 4.5.6 (B)


Allowable Bearing Stresses for Bolted Connections
without Washers under Both Bolt Head and Nut, or with only One Washer

Thickness of
connected part
(inches)

~ 0.036
but < 3/16

4.5.7

3/16

Type of joint

Fu/Fy ratio of
connected part

Allowable
bearing
stress, Fp
(ksi)

Inside sheet of
double shear connection

1.15

1.35 Fu

Single shear and outside


sheets of double shear
connection

~.

1.15

1.00 Fu

See Section 4.5.1

Shear Stress on Bolts

The shear stress on the gross cross-sectional area of bolts designed for dead and
live loads shall not exceed the following values:
10 ksi
(a) ASTM A307-78 Bolts, Type A
(b) ASTM A325-79 Bolts
When threading is excluded from shear planes
30 ksi
21 ksi
When threading is not excluded from shear planes
(c) ASTM A354-79 Grade BD Bolts (less than 112 in. in diameter)
40 ksi
When threading is excluded from shear planes
24 ksi
When threading is not excluded from shear planes
(d) ASTM A449-78a Bolts (less than 1/2 in. in diameter)
30 ksi
When threading is excluded from shear planes
18 ksi
When threading is not excluded from shear planes
(e) ASTM A490-79 Bolts
40 ksi
When threading is excluded from shear planes
28 ksi
When threading is not excluded from shear planes

1-41

1-42

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SECTION 5-BRACING REQUIREMENTS


5.1

Wall Studs

The safe load-carrying capacity of a stud may be computed on the basis that wall
material or sheathing (attached to one or both sides of the stud) furnishes adequate
lateral and rotational support to the stud in the plane of the wall, provided the stud, wall
material, and attachments comply with the following requirements:
Both ends of the stud shall be braced against rotations about the stud axis and horizontal displacements perpendicular to the stud axis; however, the ends mayor may not
be free to rotate about both axes perpendicular to the stud axis. The cladding shall be
connected to the top and bottom members of the wall assembly to enhance the restraint
provided to the stud and stabilize the overall assembly.
5.1.1 Studs in Compression
5.1.1.1 For studs having identical wallboard material with design shear rigidity,

attached to both flanges, and neglecting any rotational restraint provided by the wall
material, the axial stress, P / A, shall not exceed the lowest value of F a3 determined by
the following criteria.
(i) To prevent column buckling between fasteners in the plane of the wall, F a3 shall
not exceed the allowable compression stress F al or F a2 under concentric loading according to Sections 3.6.1, with KL equal to two times the distance between fasteners.
(ii) To prevent flexural and/or torsional overall column buckling
If O'eR> 0.5QFYJ then:
_

(Eq. 5.1.1-1)

Faa - 0.522QFy
If

(Eq. 5.1.1-2)

(QFv) 2

767

O'CR

0.5QFy, then:
0.522 O'eR

O'eR::;

Faa =
where

the theoretical elastic buckling stress under concentric loading which shall
be taken as the smaller one of the two O'eR values specified below for each
section type:
(a) Singly symmetric channel and C Sections
O'eR = O'ey + Qa
O'CR =

(Eq. 5.1.1-3)
(Eq.5.1.1-4)
(Eq. 5.1.1-5)
(Eq. 5.1.1-6)

UCR

~ 2~ [

(u ox

(b) Z Sections
O'eR = O't +
U CR

UtQ) -

V(u ox + UtQ) , -

4f3 Uox UtQ

'it

(uox

+ 17., + Q.) -

V(uox + 17., + Q.)' -

4 (uoxu"

+ ,...Q. -U'oxy )]

(c) I Sections (doubly symmetric)

(Eq.5.1.1-7)
(Eq. 5.1.1-8)
(Eq.5.1.1-9)

O'eR =
O'eR

+ Qa

O'ey

O'ex

In the above formulas


2
7r E
k .
(L/ry)1I , SI
Il

(Eq. 5.1.1-10)

O'ex

(Eq. 5.1.1-11)

O'exy

7r

k .

(L/rx ) II' SI
2

7r

EIxy

k'

AL2 , SI
2

Q.

= Q ksi

(Eq.5.1.1-13)
(Eq. 5.1.1-14)

(Eq. 5.1.1-15)

ECwJ

k'
= Ar10 II [GJ + 7r LII
,SI
= O't + Qb ksi
= a factor determined according to Section 3.6.1.1.
= qB = design shear rigidity for two wallboards, kips
= design shear rigidity for two wallboards per inch of stud spacing (see
Table), kips/in.
= stud spacing, in.

(Eq. 5.1.1-12)

A'

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

cross-sectional area of stud, in. 2

_ Qd 2
Qt
- 4A o2 ,ksl
r
(3
= 1 - (xo/ro) 2
Xo
= distance from shear center to centroid along principal x-axis, in. (absolute value)
ro
=
rx 2 + r/ + x o2 = polar radius of gyration of cross-section about the
shear center, in.
r x, ry = radii of gyration of cross-section about centroidal principal axis, in.
d
= depth of section, in.
L
= length of stud, in.
= modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
E
F y = yield point, ksi
G
= shear modulus = 11,300 ksi
J
= St. Venant torsion constant of the cross-section, in.4. For a thin-walled
open section composed of n segments of uniform thickness,
J = (1/3) (llt 13 + 12t23 + ... liti3 ... + Intn3)
~
= thickness of segment i, in.
11
= length of segment i, in.
Cw
= warping constant of torsion of the cross-section, in. 6
Ixy
= product of inertia, in.4
(iii) F a3 also shall not exceed U /1.92, where U is determined to satisfy the requirement
that Y, the shear strain in the wallboard corresponding to u, shall not exceed the permissible shear strain of the wall board, )i, given in Table 5.1.1 (iii). The shear strain
Y is to be determined as follows:
A

1-43

~ i. [e, + El ~J

where
C1 and El are the absolute values of C1 and El specified below for each section type:
(a) Singly Symmetric Channel and C Sections
C
uC o
1
-Uey - U+ Qa
E
- U[(Uex - U) ( r2 o Eo - xoDo) - uxo-(D o - XoEo)]
1
(Uex - U) r20 (UtQ - u) - (UX o )2
(b) Z Sections
.
U [Co (Uex - u) - Do Uex~]
C1
=
2
(Uey - U+ Qa) (Uex - u) - CT exy
= uEo
UtQ -

CT

(Eq.5.1.1-16)
(Eq.5.1.1-17)

(Eq.5.1.1-18)

(Eq.5.1.1-19)

(Eq. 5.1.1-20)

(Eq. 5.1.1-21)
(Eq. 5.1.1-22)

(Eq. 5.1.1-23)
(Eq. 5.1.1-24)

(c) I Sections

(Eq. 5.1.1-25)

Co, Eo, and Do are initial column imperfections which shall be assumed to be at least
Co
= L/350 in a direction parallel to the wall, in.
Do
= L/700 in a direction perpendicular to the wall, in.
Eo
= L/ (d x 10,000), rad., a measure of the initial twist of the stud from the
initial, ideal, unbuckled location
In case U ~ 0.5QFy, then in the definitions for Uey, CTex, Uexy, and UtQ, the parameters E
and G are to be replaced in Section (iii) by E' and G', respectively.
Thus,
= 4Eu(QFy - u) / (QFy) 2, ksi
E'
= G (E'/E), ksi
G'

(Eq. 5.1.1-26)
(Eq.5.1.1-27)
(Eq. 5.1.1-28)

(Eq.5.1.1-29)
(Eq. 5.1.1-80)

1-44

. SEPTEMBER 8, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

TABLE 5.1.1 (iii)-1


Wall Board Parameters Cl )
-

(3)

Wall Board(lI)

qo
kline

in./in.

3/8 to 5/8 in. thick gypsum


Lignocellulosic board
Fiberboard (regular or impregnated)
Fiberboard (heavy impregnated)

2.0
1.0
0.6
1.2

.008
.009
.007
.010

(1) The values given 'are subject to the following important limitations:
All values are for wall boards on both sides of the wall assembly.
All fasteners are No.6, type S-12, self-drilling drywall screws with pan or bugle
head, or equivalent, 'a t 6 to 12 in. spacing.
(2) All wall boards are 1/2 in. thick except as noted
(3) q = qo (2 - s/12)
where s = the fastener spacing, in.
For other types of claddings, qo and Y may be determined conservatively from representative small-specimen tests as described by published documented methods. (See
Commentary)

(Eq.5.1.1-31)

Studs with cladding on one side only; or unidentical cladding; or when the
rotational restraint, F, is not neglected; or any combination of the above shall be designed in accordance with the same basic analysis principles used in deriving the provisions in Section 5.1.1.1. *
5.1.1.2

5.1.2

Studs with Combined Axial and Bending Stresses

The design strength of studs subject to combined axial compression and bending
shall be determined by:
:a , +
a3

(Eq.5.1.2-1)

when Ffa

f bx

[1 - i-:x] Fbx

~ 1.0

.'

~ 0.15, the following formula may be used in lieu of the above:

a3

(Eq. 5.1.2-2)

(Eq.5.1.2-3)

~+Jk-~1.0

Fa3
F bx
where
F a3 = allowable compression stress under concentric loading according to Section
5.1.1.1, ksi**
F bx = maximum bending stress in compression that is permitted by this Specification
where bending stress only exists (Sections 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3), ksi; however,
F bx shall not exceed 1. 7Fa3 **
1271"2E
k .
F 'ex
23 (L/rxf1' SI
fa
= axial stress = axial load divided by full cross-sectional area of member, P / A,
ksi
f bx = maximum bending stress = bending moment divided by appropriate section
modulus of member, noting that for members having stiffened compression
elements the section modulus shall be based upon the effective design widths
of such elements, ksi
5.2

Channel and Z-Sections Used as Beams

The following provisions for the bracing against twist of channel and Z-sections used
as beams, loaded in the plane of the web, apply only when (a) one flange is connected to
deck or sheathing material in such a manner as to effectively restrain lateral deftection of
Computer Program Ulrer's Manual, Program STUD, No. 80.1, September, 1980 Edition, American Iron
and Steel Institute.
May be increased one-third in accordance with Section 8.1.2.

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

1-45

the connected flange* or (b) when neither flange is so connected. When both flanges are
so connected, no further bracing is required.
5.2.1

Bracing When One Flange is Connected

Channel and Z-sections used to support attached covering material and loaded
in a plane parallel to the web, shall be designed taking into account the restraining
effects of the covering material and fasteners. Provisions shall be made for forces from
each beam which may accumulate in the covering material. These forces shall be transferred from the covering material to a member or assembly of sufficient strength and
stiffness to resist these forces.
5.2.1.1

Type and Spacing of Braces

The design of braces shall be in accordance with Section 5.2.2.2. In addition,


tests in accordance with Section 6 shall be performed to insure that the type and/or
spacing of braces selected is such that the test strength of the braced beam assembly
is equal to or greater than the beam design strength times 5/3, instead of that required by Section 6.
5.2.2

Bracing When Neither Flange is Braced by Deck or Sheathing Material

The following provisions for the spacing and design of discreet braces shall apply.
5.2.2.1

Spacing of Braces

Braces shall be attached both to the top and bottom flanges of the sections at
the ends and at intervals not greater than one-quarter of the span length in such a
manner as to prevent tipping at the ends and lateral deflection of either flange in
either direction at intermediate braces. If one-third or more of the total load on the
beams is concentrated over a length of one-twelfth or less of the span of the beam, an
additional brace shall be placed at or near the center of this loaded length.
Exception: When all loads and reactions on a beam are transmitted through members
which frame into the section in such a manner as to effectively restrain
the section against rotation and lateral displacement, no other braces
will be required .
5.2.2.2

Design of Braces

Each intermediate brace, at top and bottom flange, shall be designed to resist
a lateral force PI, determined as follows:
(a) For a uniformly loaded beam PI, = 1.5K' times the load within a distance O.5a
each side of the brace.
(b) For concentrated loads P L = 1.0K' times the concentrated load P within a distance O.3a each side of the brace, plus ~:~ [1 - ~] PK' for each such concentrated
load P located farther than O.3a but not farther than 1.0a from the brace.
In the above formulas:
For channels:
K' =m/d
where
m = distance from shear center to mid-plane of the web, as specified in Section
4.3, in.
d = depth of channel, in.
For Z-sections :
K' = Ixy/Ix
where
Ixy = product of inertia of full section about centroidal axes parallel and perpendicular to web, in."
Ix = moment of inertia of full section about centroidal axis perpendicular to
web, in.4
For channels and Z-sections ;
x = distance from concentrated load P to brace, in.
a
= length of bracing interval, in.
Braces shall be designed to avoid local crippling at the points of attachment to the
member.
*Where the Specification does not provide an explicit method for design, further information should be obtained from the Commentary.

(Eq.5.2.2-1)

(Eq.5.2.2-2)

1-46

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

5.2.3

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

Allowable Stresses

For channel and Z-beams intermediately braced according to the requirements of


Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2, the maximum compression stress shall be that specified in Section 3.3, except that the length of the bracing interval, a, shall be used instead of the
length L in the formulas of that Section.

5.3

Laterally Unbraced Box Beams

For closed box-type sections used as beams subject to bending about the major axis,
the ratio of the laterally unsupported length to the distance between the webs of the section shall not exceed 2,500/Fy

SECTION 6-TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES


6.1

General

(a) Tests shall be made by an independent testing laboratory or by a manufacturer's


testing laboratory.
(b) The provisions of Section 6 do not apply to cold-formed steel diaphragms.
6.2

(Eq.6.2-1)

(Eq.6.2-2)

(Eq.6.2-3)

(Eq.6.2-4)

Tests for Determining Structural Performance

Where the composition or configuration of elements, assemblies, connections, or details of cold-formed steel structural members are such that calculation of their safe loadcarrying capacity or deflection cannot be made in accordance with the provisions of this
Specification, their structural performance shall be established from tests and evaluated
in accordance with the following procedure.
(a) Where practicable, evaluation of tests results shall be made on the basis of the mean
values resulting from tests of not fewer than three identical specimens, provided
the deviation of any individual test result from the mean value obtained from all
tests does not exceed 10 percent. If such deviation from the mean exceeds 10 percent, at least three more tests of the same kind shall be made. The average of the
three lowest values of all tests made shall then be regarded as the result of the series
of tests.
(b) The required load carrying capacity shall be:
R = D FD + L Fr,
where D and L are the dead and live loads, respectively. D shall include the weight of
the test specimen. FD and Fr, are the dead and live load factors specified below. R shall
be taken as the largest applicable value determined as follows:
(i) The minimum load carrying capacity, R, shall be calculated from the formula
R ~ 1.5D + 2L
R shall be multiplied by 1.25 for steels listed in Section 1.2.3.2.
R may be divided by 11/3 when the loading consists of wind or earthquake loads alone,
or in combination with dead, live, or snow loads, but shall not be less than R calculated for the combination of dead and live loads only, without wind or earthquake
loads.
(ii) The load at which distortions interfere with the proper functioning of the specimen in actual use shall not be less than:
R ~ D + 1.5L
(iii) The load carrying capacity when limited by connection failure shall not be less
than:
R = 2.5D + 2.5L
(c) The test results shall be adjusted down to the specified minimum yield point of the
steel which the manufacturer intends to use, if the yield point of the steel from which
the tested sections are formed is larger than the specified value. The test results
shall not be adjusted upward if the yield point of the test specimen is less than the
minimum specified yield point. Similar adj ustments shall! be made on the basis of
tensile strength instead of yield point where tensile strength is the critical factor.
Consideration must also be given to any variation or difference which may exist
between the design thickness and the thickness of the specimens used in the tests.
6.3

Tests for Confirming Structural Performance

The procedures and formulas specified in Section 6.2 are not applicable to confirma.tory tests on specimens whose capacities can be computed according to this Specification

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980

COLD-FORMED SPECIFICATION

1-47

or its specific references. A successful confirmatory test shall demonstrate a safety factor
not less than that implied in the Specification for the type of behavior involved.
6.4

Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties of Formed Sections or Flat Material

6.4.1

Full Section Tests

Tests for determination of mechanical properties of full sections to be used in


Section 8.1.1.1 shall be made as specified below:
(a) Tensile testing procedures shall agree with Standard Methods and Definitions for
Mechanical Testing of Steel Products, ASTM A870-77 E
(b) Compressive yield point determinations shall be made by means of compression
tests of short specimens of the section. Recommendations regarding the details of
compression testing are given in Part VI of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual.
The compressive yield stress shall be taken as the smaller value of either the maximum compressive strength of the sections divided by the cross-section area or
the stress defined by one of the following methods:
(i) for sharp yielding steel the yield point shall be determined by the autographic
diagram method or by the total strain under load method.
(ii) for gradual yielding steel the yield point shall be determined by the strain
under load method or by the 0.2 percent offset method.
When the total strain under load method is used, there shall be evidence that the
yield point so determined agrees within 5 percent with the yield point which
would be determined by the 0.2 percent offset method.
(c) Where the principal effect of the loading to which the member will be subjected
in service will be to produce bending stresses, the yield point shall be determined
for the flanges only. In determining such yield points, tests shall be made on specimens cut from the section. Each such specimen shall consist of one complete flange
plus a portion of the web of such flat width ratio that the value of Q for the specimen is unity.
(d) For acceptance and control purposes, two full section tests shall be made from each
lot of not more than 50 tons nor less than 80 tons of each section, or one test from
each lot of less than 80 tons of each section. For this purpose a lot may be defined
as that tonnage of one section that is formed in a single production run of material
from one heat or blow.
(e) At the option of the manufacturer, either tension or compression tests may be used
for routine acceptance and control purposes, provided the manufacturer demonstrates that such tests reliably indicate the yield point of the section when subj ected to the kind of stress under which the member is to be used.
6.4.2

Tests of Flat Elements of Formed Sections

Tests for determining mechanical properties of flat elements of formed sections


and representative mechanical properties of virgin steel to be used in Section 8.1.1.1
shall be made in accordance with the following provisions:
The yield point of flats, F yt , shall be established by means of a weighted average
of the yield points of standard tensile coupons taken longitudinally from the flat portions
of a representative cold-formed member. The weighted average shall be the sum of the
products of the average yield point for each flat portion times its cross-sectional area,
divided by the total area of flats in the cross section. The exact number of such coupons will depend on the shape of the member, i.e., on the number of flats in the cross
section. At least one tensile coupon shall be taken from the middle of each flat. If the actual virgin yield point exceeds the specified minimum yield point, the yield point of the
flats, F yt , shall be adjusted by multiplying the test values by the ratio of the specified
minimum yield point to the actual virgin yield point.
6.4.3

Acceptance and Control Tests for Mechanical Properties of Virgin Steel

The following provisions apply to steel produced to other than the ASTM Specifications listed in Section 1.2 when used in sections for which the increased yield point
and ultimate strength of the steel after cold-forming shall be computed from the virgin
steel properties according to Section 8.1.1.1. For acceptance and control purposes, at
least four tensile specimens shall be taken from each lot as defined in Section 6.4.1 (d)
for the establishment of the representative values of the virgin tensile yield point and
ultimate strength. Specimens shall be taken longitudinally from the quarter points of
the width near the outer end of the coil.

~M

American Iron and Steel Institute


1000 16th Street. N W
Washington. 0 C 20036

en

COMMENTARY
ON THE SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE

SPECIFICATION
FORTHE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual-Part II

~M

W
e AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE
1000 16th STREET NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20036

11-2

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

The material presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information
only. This information should not be used without first securing competent
advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute - or of any
other person named herein - that this information is suitable for any
general or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent
or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

1st Printing-April 1983


2nd Printing-May 1983

Produced by W.P. Reyman Associates, Inc., New York


Copyright American Iron and Steel Institute 1982

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

PREFACE
This document, Part II of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, provides a
Commentary on the background for the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Specification
for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.
The Commentary should be used in conjunction with the other parts of the Design
Manual, which include Supplementary Information (Part III), Illustrative Examples
(Part IV), and Charts and Tables (Part V), in addition to the Specification (Part I).
The careful assistance and close cooperation of the Advisory Group on the Specification is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to the task force
which drafted and edited this Commentary, D. S. Wolford (Chairman), T. B. Pekoz,
Wei-Wen Yu, K. H. Klippstein, and A. L. Johnson; and to the late George Winter for his
invaluable review, edit, and counsel.

IN MEMORIUM
GEORGE WINTER
APRIL 1, 1907
NOVEMBER 3, 1982

American Iron and Steel Institute


November 1982

II-3

II-4

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE.........................................................................

NOTATION ............. ............................................................

COMMENTARY ON THE SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF


THE SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SECTION 1-GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1
1.2

Scope.. ..... ......... ... ......... ..................... ......... . ....... ...


Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 General.............................................................
1.2.2 Other Steels ........................................................
1.2.3 Ductility............................................................
1.3 Delivered Minimum Thickness ............................................
SECTION 2-DESIGN PROCEDURE ................................................
2.1 Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.2 Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3 Properties of Sections .....................................................
2.3.1
Properties of Stiffened Compression Elements .....................
2.3.2 Stiffeners for Compression Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.3 Maximum Allowable Flat-Width Ratios ............................
2.3.4 Maximum Allowable Web Depth and Stiffener Requirements ......
2.3.5
Unusually Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads ...........
SECTION 3-ALLOWABLE DESIGN STRESSES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.1 Basic Design Stress .......................................................
3.1.1 Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming .....................
3.1.2 Wind, Earthquake, and Combined Forces ..........................
3.2 Compression on Unstiffened Elements ....................................
3.3 Laterally Unbraced Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.4 Allowable Stresses in Webs of Beams .....................................
3.4.1 Shear Stresses in Webs ............................................
3.4.2 Bending Stress in Webs ............................................
3.4.3 Combined Bending and Shear Stresses in Webs....................
3.5 Web Crippling of Flexural Members.......................................
3.5.1 Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.5.2 Combined Bending and Web Crippling .............................

9
9
9
9
10
10
11
11
11
14
14
18
19
20
20
21
21
22
29
30
31
32
32
33
33
34
34
37

II-5

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

3.6
3.7

3.8
3.9

Axially Loaded Compression Members ....................................


3.6.1 Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Combined Axial and Bending Stresses ....................................
3.7.1 Doubly-Symmetric Sha-pes or Shapes Not Subject to Torsional or
Torsional-Flexural Buckling .......................................
3.7.2 Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened
Singly-Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes Having
Q = 1.0 Which May Be Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling .....
3.7.3 Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened
Singly-Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes Having
Q< 1.0 Which May Be Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling
3.7.4 Singly-Symmetric Shapes Which Are
Unsymmetrically Loaded ..........................................
Cylindrical Tubular Members in Compression or Bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Inelastic Reserve Capacity of Flexural Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

SECTION 4-CONNECTIONS ......................................................

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Welds .....................................................................
4.2.1 Arc-Welds ..........................................................
Connecting Two Channels To Form An I-Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements .........................
Bolted Connections .........................................................
4.5.1 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.5.2 Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.5.3 Bolt Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.5.4 Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance in Line of Stress ............
4.5.5 Tension Stress on Net Section .....................................
4.5.6 Bearing Stress in Bolted Connections .............................
4.5.7 Shear Stress on Bolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

SECTION 5-BRACING REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

38
38
40
40
40
40
40
40
41
42
42
42
42
45
46
47
47
47
47
47
48
48
48
50
50
50
50
51
51

Wall Studs ................................................................


5.1.1 Studs in Compression ..............................................
5.1.2 Studs with Combined Axial and Bending Stresses .................
5.2 Channel and Z-Sections Used As Beams ...................................
5.2.1 Bracing When One Flange is Connected ...........................
5.2.2 Bracing When Neither Flange is Braced
By Deck or Sheathing Material .................................... 51
5.3 Laterally Unbraced Box Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52
SECTION 6-TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES ......................................... 54
6.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 54
6.2 Tests for Determining Structural Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 54
6.3 Tests for Confirmatory Structural Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 54
6.4 Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties
of Formed Sections or Flat Material ...................................... 55
REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56
5.1

11-6

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

NOTATION
NOTE: Symbols and definitions not listed here are the same as those in the Specification
for the Design o/Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.
Symbol

Ft
Fw
fmax
Iyt
k
S

Q
IJ.

(J'cr
O"cr
O"cr

11-7

O"e
Tcr

Definition

A constant in effective width equation


Permissible unit tensile stress in sheet steel, ksi
Permissible unit shear stress in weld metal, ksi
Stress at edges of stiffened compression element, ksi
Moment of inertia of the tension portion of a section about
the gravity axis of the entire section parallel to the web, in.4
Edge support coefficient for plate buckling
Section modulus, in. 3
Actual vertical load, kips
Poisson's ratio
Critical buckling stress, ksi
Elastic buckling stress, ksi
or O"be
Euler buckling stress, ksi
Elastic critical shear buckling stress, ksi
O"bT

Section

2.3.1.1
4.2.1
4.2.1
2.3.1.1
3.3
2.3.1.1
2.3
5.2
2.3.1.1,
3.4.1
2.3.1.1
3.3
5.3
4.4
3.4.1

II-8

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

INTRODUCTION
This Commentary is intended to facilitate the use and provide an understanding of
the background of the September 3, 1980 edition of the Specification for the Design of
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. For the designer and the building code official,
it illustrates the substance and limitations of the various provisions, with particular
emphasis on changes made since the 1968 Edition. Further, it provides a guide to the
research background on which the various Specification provisions are based. Mainly,
this is accomplished through an extensive integrated bibliography of eighty two items,
as well as brief, substantive discussions.
Research on cold-formed steel construction was started under the sponsorship of the
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) at Cornell University in 1939. Since that
time, the research has continued at Cornell, as well as other institutions. In 1946 the
first edition of the Specification was published (Ref. 1). This and subsequent editions
are listed in Refs. 1 through 9. As Reference 3 indicates, beginning in 1956, the Specification has been Part I of the AISI's Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual. The other
sections of the Manual included are: Part II, this Commentary; Part III, Supplementary Information; Part IV, Illustrative Examples; and Part V, Charts and Tables. Parts
II through V illuminate and facilitate the use of the Specification for the designer,
building official, teacher, and student.
The Specification is coordinated with, and complements the American Institute of
Steel Construction's (AISC) Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of
Structural Steel for Buildings (Ref. 10). The latter applies to a limited assortment of
standardized, hot-rolled shapes and built-up members, while the AISI Specification
deals with members cold-formed to shape from flat steel, usually of relatively small
thickness. The range of shapes produced by cold-forming processes is practically unlimited. This is one of the factors which determines the nature of the AISI Specification.
In the Commentary, the individual sections, quoted equations, figures, and tables
are identified by the same serial numbers as in the Specification, and the material is
presented in the same sequence. This is different from previous editions of the Commentary, which were in a textbook format. However, to better facilitate practical use in
a well-established field, the present format was adopted.

-----;r
A

R
R

I
1

I
Ie

1"0
I~

IJi

1>-

1
I
I

-----------

Strain

om = Specified Offset
Showing Yield Point
Corresponding with
Top of Knee.

Figure C1.2.1-1

Or-1 m

(a)

(b)

Showing Yield Point of


Yield Strength by the
Offset Method. (Also Used
for Proportional Limit)

om = Specified Extension Under Load


(c)

Determination of Yield
Strength by Extension
Under Load Method.

Stress-Strain Diagrams Showing Methods of Yield Point and Yield Strength Determination

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

SECTION 1-GENERAL

1.1

Scope

The Specification is limited to steel structural members cold-formed from carbon


or low-alloy sheet, strip, plate, or bar. Cold-forming is carried out at, or near, room
temperature to achieve a desired member cross-section. Bending-brakes, press-brakes,
and roll forming machines are commonly used in the production of cold-formed structural members. Usually, the desired quantities of members determine the choice of the
equipment.
Some significant differences between cold-formed steel sections and hot-rolled
shapes are (1) absence of residual cooling stresses, (2) lack of corner fillets, (3) presence
of cold-forming stresses, (4) presence of cold-reducing stresses when cold-rolled steel
stock has not been final-annealed, (5) prevalence of elements having large width-tothickness ratios, (6) rounded corners, and (7) for some steels, different stress-strain
curves, some without sharp yield points.
The 1968 Specification contained information on steels up to and including one-half
inch in thickness. In 1971, research conducted at the University of Missouri-Rolla
(Refs. 11 and 12) verified the applicability of the Specification provisions for members
cold-formed of flat steels up to and including one inch in thickness.
1.2

Material

1.2.1

General

The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) is the basic source of steel
designations for use with the Specification. Section 1.2 contains the complete list of
ASTM standards for steels, that are accepted in connection with the Specification,
including their dates of issue. Changes in ASTM standards or additional standards
for steels to which the Specification applies will be reflected in future addenda to or
revisions of the AISI Specification.
The important structural properties of steel used for cold-forming are: yield
point, tensile strength, and elongation in 2 inches. Minimum values for these properties are specified in the ASTM standards. Ductility (i.e., the ability of a steel to
undergo sizeable plastic or permanent strains before fracturing) is important both
for structural safety and for cold-forming. This ductility is measured by the elongation in 2 in., but also is indicated by the ratio of the tensile strength to the yield point.
In these ASTM standards, yield points of steels with adequate ductility range from
25 to 70 ksi, though steels with yield points below 33 ksi rarely are used. The tensileto-yield ratios are no less than 1.17, and the elongations no less than 11 percent.
However, ASTM A446 and ASTM 611 also feature Grade E steels with a yield point of
80 ksi, a tensile strength of 82 ksi, with no stipulated minimum elongation in 2 in.
These low ductility steels only permit limited amounts of cold-forming, requiring
fairly large corner radii, and have other limits on their applicability. Nevertheless,
they have been used successfully for specific applications such as decks and panels
with large corner radii and little, if any, stress concentrations. The conditions for use
of these Grade E steels are outlined out in Section 1.2.3.2.
Standard methods and definitions for mechanical testing of steels and steel
products are given in ASTM A370.(Ref. 13). The methods for determining yield points
for sharply and for gradually yielding steels are schematically shown in Figure
C1.2.1-1.
The Specification's formulas involving buckling are based on the tacit assumption that proportional limits of suitable steels shall be at least 70 percent of
yield point based on tensile tests. Determination of proportional limits for informational purposes can be done by using the offset method shown in Figure C1.2.1-1(b)
with om equal to 0.0001 in.lin. (0.01 percent offset) and calling the stress R where mn
intersects the stress-strain curve at r the proportional limit (0.01 percent offset), ksi.
1.2.2 Other Steels

Although the use of ASTM-designated steels listed in Section 1.2.1 is encouraged, other steels also may be used in cold-formed steel structures, provided they
satisfy the requirements stipulated for them in this provision. Such options in material selection are desirable for trying out new steels offered by the steel industry, or
for substitution when ASTM steels are in short supply.

II-9

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

II-10

1.2.3.

Ductility

Ductility is the ability of a material to undergo plastic deformation without


fracture. The nature and importance of ductility and the ways in which this property
is measured were briefly discussed in the Commentary to Section 1.2.1.
Low carbon sheet and strip steels with specified minimum yield points from 25
to 50 ksi need to meet ASTM specified minimum elongations in a 2 in. gage length of
11 to 26 percent, which these materials usually do without difficulty. Steels with
yield points higher than 50 ksi often are low alloy steels, in order to meet ductility
requirements. However, Grades E of ASTM A446 and A611 are carbon steels, for
which the specified minimum yield strength is 80 ksi and no elongation requirement
is specified; these differ from the Specification's array of steels listed under Section
1.2. As new steels of higher strengths were developed, sometimes with lower elongations, the question of how much elongation is really needed in a structure arose. To
that end, a study initiated at Cornell University in 1968, investigated steels with
yield strengths ranging from 45 to 100 ksi, elongations in 2 in. ranging from 50 to 1.3
percent, and tensile-to-yield strength ratios ranging from 1.51 to 1.00 (Refs. 14 -16).
The investigators developed elongation requirements for ductile steels more accurately but more difficult to measure than those specified in the ASTM testing methods. Because these more accurate, but cumbersome measurements are not made, the
investigators recommended a more approximate determination of adequately ductile
steels:

1.2.3.1 The Specification requirements that the ultimate-to-yield strength ratio


shall not be less than 1.08 and that the total elongation in a 2 in. gage length shall
not be less than 10 percent, or not less than 7 percent in an 8 in. gage length are
stricter versions of the recommendations in Reference 16. Limiting the use of Sections 2 through 5 of the Specification to steels that satisfy these requirements
serves to remind the designer that the design provisions of these sections only
apply to adequately ductile steels.
1.2.3.2 Grade E steels of ASTM A446 and A611 must meet a specified minimum
yield strength of 80 ksi and a specified minimum tensile strength of 82 ksi. The low
tensile-to-yield strength ratio of 1.02, and the fact that no elongation requirement
is specified, means that these steels do not have adequate ductility. Their use is
limited to particular configurations like roofing, siding, and floor decking.
Limiting basic design stress to 0.45F y or 36 ksi, whichever is lower, introduces a higher safety factor, but still makes steels such as Grade E useful for
the named applications. Load tests are permitted, but not for the purpose of using
higher loads than can be calculated under Sections 2 through 5.
Past successful uses of steels such as Grade E for specific applications
and configurations are acceptable without load-testing or design calculations, if
the owner's engineering representative approves such uses.
1.3 Delivered Minimum Thickness
To guard against understrength of a member designed for a stated thickness, but
manufactured of significantly lesser thickness, the Advisory Group developing the
specification felt it necessary to stipulate a maximum permissible (accidental) negative
deviation from the design thickness.
Sheet and strip steels both coated and uncoated may, in most cases, be ordered to
nominal or minimum thickness. If the steel is ordered to minimum thickness, all thickness tolerances are over (+) and nothing under (-). If the steel is ordered to nominal
thickness, the thickness tolerances are divided equally between over (+) and under (-).
Therefore, in order to provide equity between the two methods of ordering sheet and
strip steel in keeping with the past philosophy of the cold-formed steel specification, it
was decided to require that the delivered thickness of the cold-formed product be at
least 95 percent of the design thickness. Thus, it is apparent that a portion of the factor
of safety may be considered to cover minor negative thickness tolerances.
Measurements of thickness should be taken at lbcations so as to an indication of
the gross strength of the product. Generally, thickness measurements should be made
in the center of flanges. For decking and siding, measurements should be made as close
as practical to the center of the first full flat each edge of the sheet. In any case
thickness measurements should not be made closer to edges than the minimum distances specified in ASTM A568. These minimum distances are three-quarter in. for mill
edges of hot-rolled sheet and three-eight in. for cut edges of hot-rolled sheet, for side
edges of cold-rolled and hot-dipped galvanized sheet, and edges of strip 1 in. or more in

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

width. Thickness measurement equipment should be designed to prevent indentation


of the sheet. If micromembers are used, they should be equipped with flat anvils and
ratchet stops or other friction-limiting devices. All thickness measurements should
obtain the base steel thickness exclusive of coatings .
The responsibility of meeting this requirement is chiefly that of the manufacturer
of the cold-formed product, not the steel producer.

SECTION 2-DESIGN PROCEDURE


2.1

Procedure
The phrase, conventional methods of structural design, used in the Specification
is included to mean that the load carrying capacities and deflections are computed
from applied loads, using widely established methods of structural analysis, and calculated section properties.
However, cold-formed members require some extension of established conventional methods used for hot-rolled members. These modifications primarily are caused
by the large width-to-thickness ratios of many flat elements of which cold-formed
members are composed (webs, flanges, etc.). Such large width-to-thickness ratios may
result in relatively low resistance to local buckling, to interaction of local and column
buckling, to twisting, or to differences in the behavior of connections, as compared to
the behavior of smaller width-to-thickness ratios usually found in hot-rolled construction. These and other special aspects are appropriately treated in the Specification.
2.2

Definitions
Many of the definitions in Section 2.2 are self-explanatory. Only those that are not
self-explanatory, or not listed, are briefly discussed below.

(a) Stiffened Compression Elements. Stiffened compression elements of various


sections are shown diagrammatically in Figure C2.2-1(a). (1) and (2) each have a web
and a lip to stiffen the compression element, i.e. the compression flange, the ineffective
portion of which is shown shaded. For the explanation of these ineffective portions, see
definition (e) Effective Design Width, below, and Sec. 2.3. (3), (4) and (5) show compression elements stiffened by two webs. (6) and (8) each have a full-depth element (web)
and a lip to stiffen the compression elements (flanges), (7) has four compression elements stiffening each other and (9) has each stiffened element stiffened by a lip and the
other stiffened element.
(b) Unstiffened Compression Elements. Unstiffened elements of various sections
are shown diagrammatically in Figure C2.2-l(b). (1), (2) and (3) have only a web to
stiffen the compression element and no edge stiffener is present. The legs of (4) provide
mutual stiffening action to each other along their common edges. (5), (6) and (7) acting
as columns have full-depth stiffened elements (webs) which provide support for one
edge of the unstiffened elements (flanges). The legs of (8) provide mutual stiffening
action to each other.
(c) Multiple-Stiffened Elements. Multiple-stiffened elements of two sections are
diagrammatically shown in Figure C2.2-l(c). Each of the two outer sub-elements of (1)
are stiffened by a web and an intermediate stiffener, while the middle sub-element is
stiffened by two intermediate stiffeners. The two sub-elements of (2) are stiffened by a
web and the attached intermediate middle stiffener.
(e) Effective Design Width. The effective design width is a device that facilitates
taking account of local buckling of stiffened compression elements and of shear lag on
short, wide flanges. These matters are treated in Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.5, respectively,
and the corresponding effective widths are discussed in the Commentary on these
sections.
(f) Thickness. In calculating section properties, the slight thinning that occurs at
corner bends is ignored and the thickness of the flat steel stock, exclusive of coatings, is
used in all structural calculations.
(g) Torsional-Flexural Buckling. The 1968 Specification pioneered methods for
computing column loads of cold-formed steel sections prone to buckle by simultaneous
twisting and bending. This complex action results in lower column loads than would
result from primary buckling by flexure alone.

II-ll

11-12

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(1 )

(3)

lipped Channel

Hat-Section

I-Beam Made of Two lipped


Channels Back-to-Back

t----w - - - - t

..---w---t

(5)

(4)

Inverted
"U"-Type Section

Box-Type Section

Flexural Members, such as Beams (Top Flange in Compression)

w'.!.

(6)

(7)

lipped Channel

Box-Type Section

(9)

I-Beam Made of Two lipped


Channels Back-ta-Back

lipped Angle

Compreasion Members, such as Columns


Figure C2.21(a)

Stiff.... Co........lon Elements Used In Cold-Formed Steet Structural Member.

II-13

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

f
h

h
h

(2)

(1 )

Plain Channel

Plain "Z" -Section -

W1
I

(3)

(4)

I-Beam Made of
Two Plain Channels
Back-to-Back

Plain Angle

Flexural Members, Such as Beams

~-w1
,

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Plain Channel

Plain "Z"-Section

I-Beam Made of
Two Plain Channels
Back-to-Back

Plain Angle

Compression Members, such as Columns


Figure C2.21(b)

Unstiffened Compression Elements Used In Cold-Formed Steel Structural Member.

(1 )

Multiple-Stiffened Hat-Section

"----w - -.........- - - w--~

(2)

Multiple-Stiffened Inverted" U" -Type Section


Flexural Members, such as Beams

Figure C2.21(c)

Multiple-Stiffened Compression Element. Used in


Cold-Formed Steel Structural Member.

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

II-14

2.3

Properties of Sections
Conventional methods of structural design require determination of crosssectional properties such as area, A, moment of inertia, I, section modulus, S, and
radius of gyration, r. For certain frequent situations, the Specification prescribes
utilization of reduced section properties using effective design widths for (1) stiffened
compression elements (Sec. 2.3.1) and (2) wide, short flanges subject to shear lag
(Sec. 2.3.5).
2.3.1

Properties of Stiffened Compression Elements


Section properties for flexural calculations, such as I and S, are derived on the
basis that stresses (and strains) vary linearly from a maximum tension value at one
extreme fiber, to a maximum compression value at the opposite extreme. Section
properties for columns, A, and r, as well as Q, the stress or area factor, are derived on
the basis that only compressive stresses (and str.ains) are present. In both beams and
columns, effective design widths, b or be, of stiffened compression elements must be
substituted for the actual flat-widths, w, when limiting values of flat-width-tothickness ratios, (W/t)lim, are exceeded. This treatment leads to reduced values of I
and S for beams and reduced values of Q for columns. In figuring section properties,
the ineffective portions of stiffened compression elements are considered as having
been removed at the center of the flat elements.

2.3.1.1

Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners


If a thin plate, such as the top flanges of the two beams of Figure C2.3.1.1-1,
is longitudinally compressed, it will buckle and distort in a wave-like manner, as
shown. Under ideal conditions, such buckling will occur at a stress determined by a
buckling equation for plates based on Bryan's work (Ref. 17), which is similar in
principle to the Euler formula for columns, as follows:
(Icr

=k

1T2E

12(1-

~2)(w/t)2

in which
(In = critical buckling stress, ksi
k= a factor
E = modulus of elasticity, ksi
~= Poisson's ratio
w = flat-width of compression element, in.
t= thickness of compression element, in.

As in columns, the factor k depends on the manner in which the compression


element is supported, chiefly along its edges parallel to the direction of the compressive stress. For the unstiffened element (stiffened along one edge) of Figure
C2.3.1.1-1(a), k is about 0.5, and for the stiffened element (stiffened along both
edges) of Figure C2.3.1.1-1(b), k is approximately 4.0. Actually, plates develop much
higher stresses than indicated for (Icr in this formula, .thus it is considered too
conservative to be used in practical design.

Figure C2.3.1.1-1

Compr...lon Element. (a' Un.tlffened Element Acting a. a Flange of an Unllpped Channel


Stlff_. Element Acting a. a Flange of a Hat-Section
and

(b'

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Figure C2.3.1.1-2 Strut and Bar Grid Model of a Plate Simply Supported along
Its Edges and Subjected to End Loading

Stiffened compression plates in the post-buckling range buckle into approximately square half-waves as shown in Figure C2.3.1.1-l(b). To better understand the post-buckling behavior, isolate a half-wave and replace it with a grid, as
shown in Figure C2.3.1.1-2. If the compression struts are simple columns, unsupported except at the ends, they would buckle and collapse simultaneously and
independently of each other under equal end loads. However, collapse of the struts
in the grid model is prevented by the transverse bars anchored at the sides of the
grid. Consequently, the model shown in Figure C2.3.1.1-2 (and the plate that it
represents) will not collapse and fail when its theoretical buckling stress, a en is
reached. This is in contrast to columns, which grossly deflect once buckling starts;
the edge-stiffened plates will develop slight deflections and continue to carry increasing loads. This is known as post-buckling strength of such plates. Essentially,
in the grid model, the center struts (or strips) deflect the most and tend to transfer
part of their loads to their less deflected neighbors, while the struts (or strips) near
the edges continue to resist increasing load with hardly any additional deflection.
That is, hitherto uniformly distributed compression stress at or below the buckling
load, ACT er , redistributes above that load as shown in Figure C2.3.1.1-3. The
nonuniformity of stress distribution increases with increasing compression load.

f, max

I
Figure C 2.3.1.1- 3

w
Effective Design Width of Stiffened Compression Element

11-15

II-16

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

The plate fails (i.e., refuses to carry any further load increases) when the most
highly stressed strips, near the supported edges, begin to yield (i.e., when the
compression stress, f max , reaches the yield stress, F y).
Post-buckling strength of plates was experimentally discovered in 1928.
An approximate theory for it was first given by T. von Karman in 1932 (Refs. 18,
19). He proposed an effective width equation, which has been used successfully in
airplane design:
-b = 1.9t

f!

Uy

From about 150 tests at Cornell University, with wit-ratios from 14 to 440,
Winter found (Refs. 20-23) that for cold-formed steel members, von Karman's
equation had to be modified in the following form:

~t = 1.9

E [1- 0.475
f max
(wit)

E J
f max

where the term in brackets is Winter's modification factor.


Equations 2.3.1-1, -2, -3, and -4 are based on the following generalization of
Winter's modification of von Karman's original effective width concept:

= 1.9

Jf~J

1- (:;t)

Jf~J

in which
b = effective design width, in.
f max = stress at edges of stiffened compression element, ksi
C= constant
For any given f max , every equation based on this formula has a (w/t)lim value below
which bit = wit and above which bit is always less than wit. The (w/t)lim value is
determined by letting bit equal wit, substituting values of E, f max , and C in the
formula, then solving the resulting quadratic equation for wit. Corresponding (wi
t)lim values are shown in 2.3.1.1.
This formula for bit has been used throughout the history of the AISI
Specification for deriving equations relating effective design width, b, to flatwidth, w, of stiffened compression elements. In beams, the actual stress, f, in the
compression element computed on the basis of the effective design width is used in
equations of 2.3.1.1, instead of f max used in the general formula for stress at edges of
the stiffened compression element. The equations of 2.3.1.1 for stressdetermination have a built-in safety factor of 1.67, but those for deflectiondetermination have no built-in safety factor. This is because they apply to service
conditions, rather than incipient failure.
Earlier editions of the Specification used the original C = 0.475 value.
Based on a re-study of the original tests, and on additional test results, the somewhat less conservative value, C = 0.415, was introduced in the 1968 edition and
maintained in the September 3, 1980, Specification.
The 1968 Specification first recognized the better stability of elements in
closed sections, such as square and rectangular tubes. Equation 2.3.1-2 and -4 for
such sections uses a C-value of 0.378 consistent with greater stability of compression elements in tubes.
In flexural members with stiffened compression flanges, if the distance
from the neutral axis to the compression flange i& larger than to the tension flange,
the basic design stress F applies to the compression flange and is used in the
effective width equation. However, if a stiffened compression element is closer to
the neutral axis than the tension flange, the actual stress in the compression
element, f, will be less than the basic design stress, F, and a larger effective design
width, b, will result. The change in the effective design width, b, will require redetermination of the neutral axis by balancing the area-moments again, with a
resultant increase of the actual stress, f, and decrease of effective design width, b.

II-17

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

This iteration must continue until changes in f and b are negligible for practical
purposes.
Figure C2.3.1.1-4 is a typical curve for bit versus wit determined by means
of Equation 2.3.1-1. Using a yield point of 33 ksi, the basic design stress is 20 ksi and
f= 20 ksi. Up to w/tlim = 38.2, bit = wit. Above wlt lim , bit increases very slowly with
increasing wit. Manual Part V, Charts and Tables, provides curves for the equations of 2.3.1.1 at various stresses in stiffened compression elements, f, and at
various flat-width ratios, w it.
2.3.1.2

Multiple-Stiffened Elements and Wide Stiffened Elements with


Edge Stiffeners
A wide stiffened compression element can be made more effective by adding one or more intermediate stiffeners, which creates sub-elements (Fig.
2.3.1.2-1). Both the effective design widths of elements and sub-elements are determined by using the equations of 2.3.1.1. However, Equation 2.3.1-5 reduces the
effective design width, b, to be when wit exceeds 60 for (1) the sub-elements of
elements with intermediate stiffeners, and (2) stiffened compression elements between a web and an edge stiffener. George Winter's explanation of stiffened compression element and sub-element behavior, taken from his Commentary on the
1968 Edition (Ref. 7), follows:
"In any flanged beam the normal stresses in the flanges are the result of
shear stresses between web and flange. The web, as it were, originates the normal
stresses by means of the shear it transfers to the flange. The more remote portions
of the flange obtain their normal stress through shear from those closer to the web,
and so on. In this sense there is a difference between webs and intermediate stiffeners in that the latter is not a shear-resisting element and, therefore, does not
originate normal stresses through shear. On the contrary, any normal stress in the
stiffener must have been transferred to it from the web or webs through the intervening flange portions. As long as the sub-element between web and stiffener is
flat or only very slightly buckled (i.e. with low wit) this shear proceeds unhampered. In this case, then, the stress at the stiffener is equal to that at the web and
the sub-element is as effective as a , regular stiffened element of the same wit.

bit

60

40
bit

38.2

wit

Equation 2.3.1-1 based on


Fy = 33ksi or F = 20 ksi
20

OL---------~----------~--------~----------~

Figure C2.3.1.14

50

100

150

200

wit

Effective-Deslgn-Wldth-to-Thickn..s Ratio, bIt, versus Flat-Wldth-to-Thlckness Ratio, wit,


for Stiffened Compression Elements

II-18

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Figure C2.3.1.2-1

Axial Compression Stresses in an Inverted "U"-Section


with Wide Element and Intermediate Stiffener

"However, tests indicate that for larger wit the slight buckling waves of
the sub-element interfere with complete shear transfer and create a shear lag
(somewhat similar to that reflected in Section 2.3.5 and discussed elsewhere in this
Commentary). Consequently, the stress-distribution in a multiple-stiffened element, when the wit of the sub-elements exceed about 60, can be thought of as
represented in Fig. C.5'[Fig. C2.3.1.2-1]. That is, since the edge stress of a sube~ement is less at the stiffener than at the edge, its effective width is less than that
of the corresponding stiffened element (with same wit). Also, the efficiency of the
stiffener itself is r~duced by this lower stress which is in fact best accounted for by
assigning a reduced, effective area to the stiffener."
These statements explain why it is necessary to reduce areas of edge stiffeners and intermediate stiffeners for section property determinations of stiffened
compression elements for which wit exceeds 60. Equation 2.3.1-6 is used to reduce
the actual stiffener area, ASh to a reduced effective value, A ec , for wit from 60 to 90,
while Equation 2.3.1-8 is used when wit exceeds 90. Both equations involve the
reduced effective design width, be, determined from Equation 2.3.1-5. Further, the
centroid of the stiffener for which the area has been reduced remains at the same
position as for the full stiffener area.
Stiffeners for Compression Elements
Stiffeners integrally formed with elements have adequate shear connection to
perform their functions. However, separately attached stiffeners must be provided
with sufficient shear connection to properly function, as stipulated in Section 4.4,

2.3.2

Spacing of Connections in Compression Members.


Edge Stiffeners
Equation 2.3.2-1 determines the minimum moment of inertia, I min , that any
stiffener must have about its centroidal axis to adequately support the edge of a
stiffened compression element. The lower limit of 9.2t4 is set to insure that the
stiffener itself will not buckle at the yield stress, F y, which the stiffened compression element is capable of developing at or below (w/t)lIm values of Equations 2.3.1-1
and 2.3.1-2. When wit of the stiffened compression element exceeds (w/t)lIm, a more
rigid stiffener is required to adequately stiffen the compression element. Hence,
the moment of inertia of the stiffener, I ml ", increases with increasing wit values of
the element.
In Equation 2.3.2-2, the minimum depth of simple lips, d mlm results from
setting I mln equal to (d mln)3t/12 in Equation 2.3.2-1 and solving for d mln .

2.3.2.1

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

2.3.2.2

Intermediate Stiffeners
Information in the Commentary (Sec. 2.3.2.1) concerning edge stiffeners
also applies to intermediate stiffeners, except that the latter must have twice the
value of I min as determined by Equation 2.3.2-1 because each intermediate stiffener
must support two adjacent sub-elements.
The shear lag in compression elements with wit> (w/t)lim, such as in the
post-buckling stage, was discussed in connection with Section 2.3.1.2. In addition,
Section 2.3.2.2(a) stipulates that only intermediate stiffeners adjacent to full webs
(see Fig. C2.2-1(c)(1 shall be counted as effective. Additional stiffeners would have
two or more sub-elements between themselves and the nearest shear-transmitting
element (i.e., web) and hence, would be quite ineffective. For this reason, only the
two intermediate stiffeners adjacent to the webs are considered effective. Section
2.3.2.2(b) applies the same reasoning to intermediate stiffeners between a web and
an edge stiffener.
If intermediate stiffeners are spaced so closely that the wit ratios of the
sub-elements do not exceed (w/t)lim, no plate buckling of the sub-elements occurs.
Therefore, the entire assembly of sub-elements and intermediate stiffeners between webs behaves like a single compression element whose rigidity is given by
the moment of inertia, Is, of the full, multiple-stiffened element; including stiffeners. Thus, for computing its flat-width ratio, ts of Equation 2.3.2-3 is used. N aturally, after having calculated the effective width of the multiple-stiffened element
including stiffeners by using wJts, the real thickness, t, must be used to calculate
the properties of the cross-section of which this element is a part.
2.3.3

Maximum Allowable Flat-Width Ratios


It is difficult to precisely account for the maximum allowable flat-width-tothickness ratios in the Specification, considering the influence that judgement and
experience have had in setting them. However, some comments can be made, as
follows:

(a) Stiffened compression elements with one edge stiffened by a simple lip and the
other by a web or a flange have a limit of 60, which calls for a lip depth of 10.9t,
using Equation 2.3.2-2 when F y is 50 ksi. The corresponding flat-width-tothickness ratio of the lip is (l0.9-2t)/t= 8.9 for an inside radius of 1t. The lip being
an unstiffened element (Section 3.2), also limits wit of the lip to 8.9 when F y is 50
ksi. That is, the lip depth of 8.9t called for a stiffened compression element whose
wit-value is 60, and will develop the full basic design stress, F b , even at the 50 ksi
level. However, if wit of the stiffened compression element is more than 60, it
would call for a deeper lip, which would buckle before reaching 50 ksi. The stiffened compression element would fall shy of developing 50 ksi for lack of proper
lip support. Thus, the lip depth required for a stiffened compression element is in
balance with need at wit = 60 for F y = 50 ksi, and lower values of yield.
The arbitrary wit limit of 90 set for other kinds of stiffeners such as folded lips,
lipped-lips, flat-sided, and round hollow stiffeners, as well as various types of ridged
and grooved beads, was set because flanges with a wit value of 90 will be quite
flexible and liable to damage in transport, handling, and erection.
(b) Stiffened compression elements with both edges stiffened by other stiffened elements, such as webs of beams, are limited to wit = 500.
(c) Unstiffened compression elements are permitted for wit values up to 60, beyond
which such elements become quite uneconomical and vulnerable to damage in
handling. The warning in the footnote that noticeable deformation will occur
under design loads when wit exceeds approximately (1) 30 for unstiffened compression elements, and (2) 250 for stiffened compression elements, is a caution
that is not intended to prevent the use of such elements, as long as the appearance of substantial elastic deformations is not objectionable. The use of wit values between 250 and 500 for stiffened compression elements contemplates substantial out-of-plane deformations under design loads, the seriousness of which
should be evaluated and controlled as much as possible.
(d) In beams that have unusually wide and thin, but stable flanges (i.e., primarily
tension flanges with large wit ratios), there is a tendency for these flanges to curl
under load. That is, the portions of these flanges most remote from the web
(edges of I-beams, center portions of flanges of box or hat beams) tend to deflect
toward the neutral axis. Deformations of this type have been observed in a
number of tests at Cornell University.

II-19

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

II-20

An approximate, analytical treatment of this problem is given in the latter


part of Reference 23. In Section 2.3.3(d), Equation 2.3.2-1 permits one to compute the
maximum admissible flange width, Wr, for a given amount of tolerable curling, Cr. This
formula is directly obtained from Equation 11 of Reference 23.
It will be noted that Section 2.3.3(d) does not stipulate the amount of curling
that can be regarded as tolerable; instead it merely suggests in the footnote that an
amount equal to about 5 percent of the depth of the section is not excessive under
usual conditions. It is relatively rare to have cases in which curling becomes a significant factor in limiting flange width. An exception is where, for the sake of appearance, it is essential to closely control out-of-plane distortions (e.g., when flat
ceilings are to be formed of very wide, cellular panels).
2.3.4

Maximum Allowable Web Depth and Web Stiffener Requirements

In the September 3,1980, AISI Specification the maximum web depth to thickness ratio, hit, for single, unreinforced webs is increased from 150 to 200. For webs
with adequate transverse stiffeners, the maximum hit ratio is increased from 200 to
300. These new, more liberal limitations are based on the studies reported in References 24-26.
In addition to these revisions, design requirements for attached transverse
stiffeners and for intermediate stiffeners were newly added in Section 2.3.4.2 of the
AISI Specification. Equation 2.3.4-1 serves to prevent end crushing of transverse
stiffeners, using a safety factor of 2.0, while Equation 2.3.4-2 is to prevent columntype buckling of the web-stiffeners. The equations for computing the effective areas
(Ab and Ac) and the effective widths (b l and b 2) were adopted with minor modifications
from Reference 26.
The newly added requirements for intermediate stiffeners included in Section
2.3.4.2.2 were adapted from Section 1.10.5.3 of the AISC Specification (Ref. 10). The
new equations for determining the minimum required moment of inertia (Eq. 2.3.4-9)
and the minimum required gross area (Eq. 2.3.4-10) of attached intermediate stiffeners are based on the studies summarized in Reference 26. In this reference, test data
show that even though the allowable shear stress formulas of Section 3.4.1 of the
AISI Specification are based on the buckling strength of web elements, rather than
on tension field action, it is still necessary to provide the required moment of inertia
and gross area of intermediate stiffeners. This is because the flanges of cold-formed
steel beams often are quite flexible, as compared with the flanges of hot-rolled
shapes and plate girders. In Equation 2.3.4-9, the minimum value of (h/50)4 was
selected from the AISC Specification.
No tests on the rolled-in transverse stiffeners covered in Section 2.3.4.2.3 have
been made in the experimental program reported in Reference 26. Lacking reliable
information, the required dimensions and the allowable loads should be determined
by special tests.
2.3.5

Unusually Short Spans Supporting Concentrated Loads

Table 2.3.5 Short, Wide Flanges-Maximum Allowable Ratio of Effective Design Width to Actual Width, applies to both tension and compression flanges. It is
based on analytical and experimental data (Ref. 27) evaluating the effect of shear-lag
with respect to L/wf , the ratio of beam span length to (1) the flange projection beyond
the web of an I-beam, or (2) half the distance between webs of box or U -type sections.
The problem arises when the span of the beam is less than 30 w f and it carries (1) one
concentrated load, or (2) several concentrated loads spaced farther apart than 2w f It
will be observed that thickness does not enter into consideration for this type of
shear-lag in contrast to that in multiple stiffened compression elements. The stipulation that the lip depth must be added to the flange projection in I-beam-type sections
increases Wf' which makes this requirement different from that for stiffened compression flanges, in which compression element width for an I-beam-type section is
measured between web and stiffener.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

SECTION 3-ALLOWABLE DESIGN STRESSES


3.1

Basic Design Stress


Basic design stress, F, on the net section of tension members and tension and
compression on the extreme fibers of flexural members is set at 60 percent of the
specified minimum yield point, F y , in the Specification. This results in a nominal factor
of safety of 1.010.60 = 1.67 (i.e., the ratio between the specified minimum yield point, F y ,
and the basic design stress, F). Generally, yield point is recognized as the stress at
which significant plastic deformation occurs in ductile steels and, therefore, is the
upper limit of structural usefulness in load-bearing members made of such steels.
The margin of safety between basic design stress and yield point is available for
covering unforeseen uncertainties in applied loads, design methods, dimensions, and
material properties, even though all conceivable and reasonable means are provided in
the Specification to control such variables.
The term basic design stress applies only to (1) the net section of tension members,
and (2) tension and compression on the extreme fibers of flexural members. Other
allowable design stresses are stipulated in the Specification for other structural
modes. Usually, they are less than the basic design stress and result in a number of
other safety factors, as revealed in Table 3.1-1, based on a similar table prepared by
Wei-Wen Yu (Ref. 28). This table shows a range of safety factors from 1.44 for shear
yielding in webs to 2.52 for ASTM A307 bolts in shear. The following examples. give
reasons for the differences:
(1) Section 3.1.2 Wind, Earthquake, and Combined Forces. Allowable design stresses
are one-third higher than those for dead and live load modes. This reduces safety
factors for beams from 1.67 to 1.67/1.33 = 1.26, and some columns from 1.92 to 1.92/1.33
= 1.44.
(2) Section 3.4.1 Shear Stresses in Webs. The safety factors vary from 1.44 for shear
yielding up to 1.71 for elastic shear buckling. The use of a smaller safety factor of 1.44
for yielding in shear is justified by long-standing use and by the minor consequences of
incipient yielding in shear, compared with those associated with yielding in tension
and compression.
(3) Section 3.4.2 Bending Stress in Webs. A safety factor of 1.67 is used in this section
for the newly revised design provisions.
(4) Section 3.5 Web Crippling of Beams. The safety factor of 1.85 was used to reduce
ultimate test loads to allowable design loads for numerous tests on single, unreinforced
webs. Similarly, the safety factor of 2.00 was used to reduce numerous ultimate test
loads to allowable design loads for I-beams with highly fixed double' webs (Ref. 25).
(5) Section 3.6 Axially Loaded Compression Members and Section 3.6.1.1 Shapes Not
Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling. The safety factor is 1.92, except
for those compression members in which Q is unity and thickness is not less than 0.09
in. (for these an AISC equation having a variable safety factor is used). The safety
factor value of 1.92 is 15 percent greater than the basic safety factor of 1.67, to allow for
imperfections of shape and accidental load eccentricities that occasionally occur in
cold-formed steel members. The AISC equation mentioned above presumes better
shape control and less likelihood of accidental load eccentricities in compact members
of sufficient thickness. For such compression members the AISC safety factor is 1.67 at
KL/r= 0, gradually increasing to 1.92 at KL/r= Ce A constant value of 1.92 is used for
large KL/r values up to 200.
(6) Section 4.2.1 Fusion Welds. The permissible stresses recommended by the American Welding Society (AWS) for various types of arc-welds are based on specified
minimum ultimate tensile strength of sheet steel, F u, and the strength level of the weld
metal designated in the A WS electrode classification, F xx. The permissible unit tensile
stress in sheet steel, Fh is 0.40 F u, and the permissible unit shear stress in weld metal,
F w, is 0.30 F xx (Ref. 29). Recent extensive tests by Pekoz and McGuire (Ref. 30) on fillet,
flare, spot, and seam welds, led them to conclude, "If one considers the uncertainties
which are inevitable in the strength of connections, a nominal safety factor of 2.5 is
consistent with the intention of having a minimum factor of safety of approximately
two." This is a fair statement of what has been, and what continues to be sought in
such arc-welds.

11-21

II-22

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(7) Section 4.2.2 Resistance Welds. "Allowable shear strengths per spot," in the table of
Section 4.2.2, are based on A WS recommendations using a safety factor of approximately 2.5 applied to selected values (Ref. 31).
(8) Section 4.5.4 Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance in Line of Stress. Assuming that
ultimate tensile strength governs, the safety factor when F u/F y is equal to, or greater
than, 1.15 is F u/(0.5F u)= 2.0; when F u/F y is less than 1.15, the safety factor is F u/(0.45F u)=
2.22.

(9) Section 4.5.5 Tension on the Net Section. With washers under both bolt head and
nut, double shear connections have a safety factor of F u/(0.5F u)= 2.0, while single shear
connections have a safety factor of F u/(0.45F u) = 2.22 against tension failure in the net
section.
(10) Section 4.5.6 Bearing Stress in Bolted Connections. Tests described in References
32 and 33 and subsequent research showed that for large edge distances, the ultimate
bearing stress values vary with the thickness of the connected parts, type of joint, use
of washers, and the F u/F y ratio. The safety factors given in Tables C4.5.6(A) and (B)
range from 2.20 to 2.33.
(11) Section 4.5.7 Shear Stress on Bolts. The new schedule of shear stresses on bolts in
the September 3, 1980, Specification, when threading is excluded from the shear
planes, allows 30 ksi for ASTM A325 and A449 bolts, and 40 ksi for ASTM A354 Grade
BD and A490 bolts. Winter found that shear failure in high strength steel bolts occurs
at about 0.6 of the tensile strength of the bolts (Ref. 34). On this basis, the safety factor
for ASTM A325 and A449 bolts is 0.6 x 120/30 = 2.40, and ASTM A354 Grade BD and
A490 bolts is 0.6 x 150/40 = 2.25. The safety factor for ASTM A307 bolts with threads in
the shear plane is 0.6 x (60/10 x 0.7) = 2.52, by considering the root area is equal to
approximately 70 percent of the gross area.
3.1.1

Strength Increase from Cold Work of Forming

Cold work produced when flat steel is cold-formed into structural members
causes it to be strain-hardened and alters the mechanical properties from the steel's
virgin state. This action is complex and usually does not have the same effect in the
transverse as in the longitudinal or rolling direction. In the longitudinal direction,
strain-hardening from stretching or cold-forming in press-brakes or roll-forming
machines causes (1) yield strength to appreciably increase, (2) tensile strength to
somewhat increase, and (3) elongation, as measured in a tensile test, to decrease.
Thus, the properties of the steel in the as-formed member are, to varying degrees,
different from those of the virgin steel prior to forming. Since allowable design
stresses in this Specification are based on yield points as determined on standard
specimens of the virgin material, or cut from the cold-formed section, it is more
economical to use the higher allowable stresses based on the latter. This action
presumes that minor increases in tensile strength and reductions in elongation are
harmless and do not prevent using the substantially higher allowable design
strengths based on the higher yield point.
The 1962 edition of the Specification was the first to permit basing allowable
design stresses on the raised yield strength of steel in a cold-formed member. This
better utilization of strength from cold work was, and still is, restricted to use for
certain structural modes as defined in Provision 3.1.1.l(d).
Originally, little was known about quantitative effects of cold-work on steel
properties; therefore, it was stipulated in the 1962 Specification that for any particular shape, the as-formed steel properties had to be proved by test, before they could
be used in design. Since that time, a large amount of research has been conducted to
quantify the effects of cold-forming. Based on the findings in References 35 through
38, the present Specification contains provisions that are more detailed and
liberalized for utilizing cold-work in the design.

Cold-Work Effects. Depending on the shape of the section and the cold-forming
process used to produce it, the kind and degree of cold-work to which the steel is
locally subjected varies widely. For instance, when sections are produced in pressbrakes, the flat portions of the shape, such as the web and flanges in a plain channel,
are hardly cold-worked at all. Inevitably, cold work and the resultant strengthening
does occur in the corners where the cold-forming takes place. The smaller the radius
of curvature, the greater the strain-hardening effect. In members produced by roll-

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE C3.1-1
Safety Factors by Subjects and Sections of the 1980 AISI Specification for the Design
of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Subject

Section

Safety Factor

Effective design width


for load determination

2.3.1.1

1.67 applied to yield point.

Basic design stress

3.1

1.67 applied to yield point.

Wind, earthquake, and


combined forces

3.1.2

A 25 percent reduction of nominal


safety factor is permissible provided
that the section thus designed is not
less than that required for the
combination of dead and live load.

Compression on
unstiffened elements

3.2

1.67 applied to yield point for small


wit ratios. 1.67 applied to the
inelastic buckling stress for
moderate wit ratios.

Lateral buckling
of beams

3.3

1.67 against yield point and lateral


buckling stress.

Shear buckling of beam


webs

3.4.1

1.44 against shear yielding.


1.67 against inelastic buckling in shear.
1. 71 against theoretical shear buckling
stress.

Bending stress in webs

3.4.2

1.67 against theoretical buckling stress.

Web crippling of beams

3.5

1.85 against web crippling strength for


single unreinforced webs .
2.0 against the web crippling strength
for I-beams.

Axially loaded
compression members

3.6

1.92 against flexural and torsionalflexural buckling stress, except


that for flexural buckling of
sections for which Q = 1 and t > .09 in.
the safety factor is 1.92 against elastic
buckling and for inelastic buckling
varies down to 1.67 for KL/r = O.

Cylindrical tubular
members

3.8

1.67 against yielding and local buckling


stress.

Inelastic reserve
capacity of flexural
members

3.9

1.33 against yield moment and 1.67 against


ultimate moment.

Fusion welds

4.2.1

2.50 against the ultimate value obtained


from tests.

Resistance welds

4.2.2

2.50 against ultimate shear.

Bolted connections

4.5

2.00-2.22 against the failure for minimum


edge distance in line of stress.
2.00-2.22 against tension failure in net
section.
(1.67 against yielding).
2.20-2.33 against failure in bearing.
2.25 - 2.52 against shear fail ure of the bolts.

Wall studs

5.1

1.92 against column buckling.


1.88 for computing q against the
ultimate shear load of the test
assembly.

11-23

II-24

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

forming, corners get cold-worked even more, and the flats between corners also may
get cold-worked. A source of cold-work in the flats of a roll-formed section comes from
direct roll pressure, tending to lengthen such elements. The other source of coldwork results from the roll-forming strategy used to produce the final section, which
often calls for bending the flat first one way, then the other, as the section progresses
through successive stands of rolls. Accumulated cold-work, especially with reversed
bending, causes appreciable strain-hardening in this case.
Another example of cold-forming is in the production of round mechanical
tubing for which a flat strip gradually is curved in successive roll-stands, until the
strip edges meet and can be fused by electric resistance welding. The major source of
cold-work in round tubing is from bending, although ,some stretching may result
from drawing the product through roll-stands, especially under radial pressure. The
strain-hardening in round tubing is nevertheless reasonably uniform; significant, as
reported in Reference 39. Square and rectangular tubes usually are cold-drawn to
shape using previously roll-formed round tubing, although square tubing is occasionally made by roll-forming previously roll-formed round tubing. In either event,
the corners of square tubing get more cold-work than the flats. These tubing examples serve to emphasize the fact that because various portions of the cold-formed
cross-section experience different kinds and amounts of cold-work, the as-formed
properties of the steel in the finished section may not be uniform around the section.
In achieving a required shape through cold-forming, the entire forming history determines strengths within flat and curved elements, as well as in the corners of the
cold-formed section.

Cold-Stretching. In uniform cold-stretching in one direction, the following effects are observed: (1) increasing amounts of cold-stretching in the same direction
progressively increase the yield strength, and (2) ultimate tensile strength also is
increased, but to a lesser degree. However, if the material is compressed in the same
direction as for prior cold-stretching, yield strength increases will be smaller, or may
be nil (Bauschinger effect). If the compression is applied perpendicular to the direction of previous cold-stretching, yield strength considerably increases in the direction of cold-stretching. However, if tension is applied perpendicular to the direction
of previous cold-stretching, the yield strength increase is smaller, or may be nil
(inverse Bauschinger effect).
Further, strain-hardening is approximately proportional to the amount of
cold-stretching, and is greater for steels having larger ratios of ultimate-to-yield
strengths, F u/F y, as determined by tensile tests on the virgin steel. After aging, steels
that are not stabilized against strain-aging, such as rimmed steels and, to a lesser
degree, semi-killed steels, will show marked increases in proportional limit, yield
point, and ultimate strength, both in tension and compression along both longitudinal and transverse directions. The elements of most cold-formed sections undergo
cold-work in a more complex manner than that caused by simple cold-stretching, but
the complicated effects can be better understood in light of the foregoing discussion.
Cold-Formed Corners. Forming a corner, regardless of process, results in the
outer layers being permanently, circumferentially stretched and longitudinally and
radially compressed while the inner layers are being permanently, circu~ferentially
compressed and longitudinally and radially stretched. Tests have shown no significant Bauschinger effect in corners, judging by the similar tension and compression
yield strengths obtained on corner specimens (Ref. 36). As in cold-stretching, the
amount of strain-hardening (indicated by strength increases in corners) is a measure
of the degree of cold-work. Geometry suggests that permanent strain in a coldformed section is proportional to the ratio between the inside corner radius and the
thickness of material, R/t. Figure C3.1.1.1-1, illustrates (a) corner geometry, (b) typical stress-strain curves, both in tension and compression for corner specimens of
hot-rolled, annealed and temper-rolled killed steel, and (c) typical stress-strain
curves, both in tension and compression for corner specimens of hot-rolled, semikilled steel. In each case, the tension and compression stress-strain curves for the
virgin material are shown for two corners that have substantially different R/t values. It will be observed that (1) corner curves for tension and compression are close to
each other (no significant Bauschinger effect), (2) corner curves for smaller R/t values lie well above those for larger R/t values, and (3) corners of hot-rolled, semi-killed
steel exhibit higher proportional limits and show more tendency toward sharpyielding, than corners of killed steel.
From theoretical considerations, and based on tests of over a hundred corners
made from different types of steels and with various R/t values (Ref. 36), it was found

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification


R = NOMINAL
INSIDE RADIUS

(a)

Cross-Sectional Dimensions of Specimens


70~------------------------~

Rlt = 1.31
.--------1.06

60

4.41
." -- - -4:58 -

50

'(ii
~

en
en

40

w
a: 30
t-

en
_ _ TENSION

20

___ COMPRESSION

10
(b)

0---...........---&.-------------'
o
.003
I

STRAIN SCALE-(IN.lIN.)

Typical Stress-Strain Curves both in Tension and


Compression for Corner Specimens of Cold-Roiled,
Annealed and Temper-Rolled Killed Steel

70.....---------R/t 1.28 _____-.


.,.",. - - - 1.24 - - 60
50
'(ii
~

enI

en
~
t-

"

r------I
3.87

4.22

40

30

en
_ _ TENSION

20

___ COMPRESSION

10
(c)

O~-~---&'---------------------------------'

o
I

STRAIN

.003
I

SCALE-(IN.lI~.)

Typical Stress-Strain Curves both In Tension and


Compression for Corner Specimens of Hot- Rolled
Semi-Killed Steel
Figure C3.1.1.1-1

11-25

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

II-26

that the yield strength of the corner can be calculated using the following formula:
F ye: = Be:F y/(R/t) m

in which Be: and m depend on the ratio of ultimate-to-yield strengths, F u/F y, from
tensile tests of the virgin material, as follows:

and

m= 0.192 (Fu/Fy)- 0.068

The values of F ye: are used in Equation 3.1.1-1 of the Specification along with F yf, the
weighted average tensile yield point from tests of the flat portions, or the virgin yield
point, to calculate the weighted average tensile yield point for the full section of
compression members and for the full flange section of flexural members. Additionally, the formula for F YC is accurate for corners of killed, semi-killed, and rimmed
steels.
Cold-Formed Flats. No equation can be given for calculating yield strengths of
flats that have been cold-worked during the cold-forming of a section. This is so
because the degree of strain-hardening of the flats depends on the entire history of
the particular forming operations. For instance, flats are not practically cold-worked
in press-braked sections, but are significantly cold-worked in draw-bench-formed
square and rectangular tubing made from roll-formed round tubing, as well as in
compact sections used as joist chords. Under such circumstances, this means that
the specified minimum yield point, F y, of the virgin material must be used for the
weighted average tensile yield point of the flat, F yf, unless the weighted average
tensile yield point is determined from tests according to Section 6.4.2, Tests of Flat
Elements of Formed Sections.

Cold-Formed Sections. Figures C3.1.1.1-2 and C3.1.1.1-3 show distributions of


yield and ultimate tensile strengths in two roll-formed shapes obtained by tension
testing numerous specimens taken from them (Ref. 37). Figure C3.1.1.1-2 refers to a
section of 0.058 in. thick steel, in which flats were 92 percent of the full, developed
width. Figure C3.1.1.1-3 refers to a relatively thick section of 0.150 in. thick steel, in
which flats were 60 percent of the full, developed width. These curves illustrate that
stresses in the flats of the thinner section were only slightly raised above virgin
values, while stresses in the flats of the thicker section were substantially raised
above virgin values. This demonstrates that the flats in the more compact section
underwent considerably more strain-hardening, than the flats in the less compact
section. For the thinner section shown in Figure C3.1.1.1-2, most of the cold-work
effect is concentrated in the corners, and the assumption that the flats have the
same properties as the virgin material is reasonable. However, using the properties
of the virgin material for the flats of the thicker section of Figure C3.1.1.1-3 would
greatly underestimate their strengths and would fail to fully exploit the beneficial
effects of cold-forming. In this case, good use of extra strength in the flats can be
made by determining the weighted average tensile yield point, F yf, by tests according
to Provision 6.4.2.

Testing Flats. The procedure for testing flats under Provision 6.4.2 of the
Specification calls for taking at least one tensile coupon from the middle of each flat.
Better determination of flat properties results when additional coupons located between middle and edge of flat are taken. In most cases, the actual virgin yield point of
the coil from which the specimen was formed will differ from the specified minimum
yield point. In this case, the measured yield strengths of the flats must be converted
to the specified minimum yield point by multiplying the measured yield points of the
flats by the ratio of the specified minimum yield point to the actual virgin yield point
of coil.
Roofing and Siding. Press-brakes or roll-forming machines are used to make
ro.ofing and siding of pre-coated galvanized and aluminum coated steels in thicknesses such as 0.022 and 0.019 in. During forming, cold-work is minimized to preserve
the integrity of the coatings. Flats and even curved elements undergo little workhardening. Additionally, the liberal corner radii used result in R/t values approaching the limit of 7, above which no increase in corner strength from cold-work can be
figured. Thus, there is little, or no advantage in calculating cold-work of forming
effects in roofing and siding.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11-27

(a)

70

CF - Cold-Formed
TS-Ultimate Strength
YS- Yield Strength

65
60

'c;;
~

enI
en
w
a: 50
~
en
55

45
40
(b)

50
40
'c;;
~

30

enI
en
w
a:
~ 20
en

J...

tJj

!J.:.

'"

10

CALCULATED
--COMPOSITE
CURVE
FULL SECTION
-~-TENSION CURVE

(c)

00

2
3
4
STRAIN-IN.IIN, X 10-3

Figure C3.1.1.1-2 Tensile Stress-Strain Characteristics of


Roll-Formed Hot-Rolled Semi-Killed Section

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11-28

3.68"

(a)

75

CF - Cold-Formed
TS-Ultimate Strength
YS- Yield Strength

70

60
55

"

I\

65

I
I
I

50

45
VIRGIN

40

YIELDST7

35
30
A

(b)

Fya = 50.6
50

'Cii

40

~30
w

a:

CALCULATED
- - - COMPOSITE
CURVE

(/) 20
10

--0--

FULL SECTION
TENSION
CURVE

(c)

2
3
4
STRAIN-IN.lIN.

5
X

10-3

Figure C3.1.1.1-3 Tensile Stress-Strain Characteristics of a


Roll-Formed Hot-Rolled Semi-Killed Joist Chord

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

3.1.1.1

Methods and Limitations


The Specification is quite explicit concerning how to utilize cold-work of
forming axially loaded compression members and flanges of flexural members. It
makes the distinction between such members for which Q is unity, and those for
which Q is less than unity.
3.1.1.l(a) Compact sections for which Q is unity are not subject to local
buckling; therefore, full advantage can be taken of cold-work effects. The Specification provides three aternatives for establishing full section properties of coldformed compact members: (1) by tensile tests of full sections, as stipulated in 6.1 (b)
of the Specification, (2) by compression tests of full sections in short lengths, as
stipulated in 6.4.1 (b) of the Specification, and (3) by calculating a weighted average
yield point, F ya, using Equation 3.1.1-1, as follows:

F ya = C F y<, + (1- C) F yf

in which C is the ratio of total corner area to total area of the full section, and F YC
and F yf are as defined before. The validity of this formula was demonstrated by
Karren and Winter (Ref. 37) as shown in Figures C3.1.1.1-2 and C3.1.1.1-3, which
were previously discussed. Part (a) of each figure shows where specimens for tensile tests were taken, A through Q for the track section and A through H for the
joist chord sections. Yield strengths and ultimate tensile strengths are plotted in
part (b) of the figures on which virgin values of yield points and tensile strengths of
the materials are also shown. Part (c) of each figure shows the composite stressstrain curve that is calculated by weighted averaging, using Equation 3.1.1-1, as
well as the curve obtained by full section tests. It can be seen that the weighted
averages agree very satisfactorily with the full section test results. In addition,
figures illustrate the overall benefit of cold-work of forming, which is substantial
for both shapes. In fact, the stockier shape of Figure C3.1.1.1-3, where much of the
material is in the corners, shows an increase of about 65 percent in the tensile yield
strength, when compared with the virgin steel value. In Figure C3.1.1.1-2, where
much of the material is in the flats rather than corners, the increase is much
smaller, approximately 23 percent; this still is a very significant improvement.
These examples illustrate the advantage of utilizing the cold-work of forming in
compact sections.
3.1.1.1(b) Sections for which Q is less than unity are subject to local buckling, so full advantage can not be taken of cold-work effects when such sections are
used in compression members or in compression flanges of beam sections. This is so
because for such sections it is possible that the raised yield point of the corners
cannot be fully mobilized due to premature local buckling of the flats. Correspondingly, this section, in essence, stipulates that the strengthening effect in the
corners shall be neglected in such shapes. It provides that the full section yield
point shall be taken as one of the following: (1) the specified yield point of the virgin
ASTM steel; (2) the tensile yield point of the virgin non-ASTM steel, established by
tests according to Section 6.4.3; or (3) the weighted average tensile yield point of
the flats, from tests according to Section 6.4.2, regardless of whether it is an ASTM
steel or not. Method (3) generally will give a somewhat higher yield point, but the
gain will be much smaller than for the members with Q = 1.
3.1.1.1(c) and 3.1.1.1(d), which deal with tension members and certain limitations on the utilization of cold-work of forming, are important, but selfexplanatory.
3.1.1.l(e) applies to members containing welded connection, such as two
channels welded back to back to form an I-shape. In such cases, the heat of welding
occasionally may reduce the residual stresses involved in cold-work. Therefore,
this section prescribes full section tests to ascertain this effect, if any.

3.1.2

Wind, Earthquake and Combined Forces


Recently, Ellifritt investigated the basis of the one-third increase in wind and
earthquake stresses (Ref. 40). He concluded that the main justification for the onethird increase in wind stresses is because "The action of wind on a structure is highly
localized and of very short duration. Therefore it is not necessary to have as high a
safety factor when designing for wind loads."
The logic for the one-third increase in allowable design stresses for earthquake loads is similar to that for the wind provision.

11-29

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11-30

3.2

Compression on Unstiffened Elements


The maximum permissible force in an unstiffened compression element, such as
an outstanding flange, is the product of the full, unreduced area times a reduced
allowable stress reflecting local buckling, post-buckling strength, and the effect of
out-of-plane distortions. The critical buckling stress for unstiffened elements can be
computed by the plate buckling equation given in the Commentary in Section 2.3.1.1.
The provisions for unstiffened compression elements are based in part on this expression; the buckling coefficient, k, is taken as 0.5, instead of 0.425, to account for the
restraint provided by the web element. Curve C in Figure C3.2-1 illustrates the
theoretical elastic buckling stress.
If the material exhibits sharp yielding, and if an unstiffened compression flange
were ideally plane, the flange would buckle at the theoretical critical stress corresponding to its wit, with a maximum of F y. However, such ideal conditions may not
exist, thus a compression flange with a moderate wit ratio may buckle below the
theoretical value.
On the basis of the experimental evidence of Reference 20, a straight line, B, has
been drawn in Figure C3.2-1, representing those stresses at which sudden and pronounced buckling occurred in tests of carbon steel members. The upper limit of line B
for inelastic buckling is at wit = 63.3/~ and the lower end point is at wit = 144/VF y'
In this region, the flange will buckle inelastically. If wit ::::; 63.3/~, the strength of the
flange will be governed by yielding represented by the horizontal line, A.
When the wit ratio of an unstiffened carbon steel flange exceeds about 25, the
flange distorts more gradually at a stress about equal to the theoretical local-buckling
stress (Curve C), and returns to its original shape upon unloading. This is because the
buckling stress is considerably below the yield point. Sizable waving can occur without
permanent set being caused by the additional stresses associated with this distortion.
Such compression flanges show considerable post-buckling strength.
Curve D in Figure C3.2-1 conservatively represents the corresponding ultimate
strength of the element, which is considerably higher than the elastic buckling stress
of curve C.
The allowable stresses for unstiffened compression elements with wit ratios between 0 and 25 are ascertained by dividing the yield stress (Curve A), inelastic buckling
stress (Curve B), or elastic buckling stress (Curve C), by a constant factor-of-safety of
1.67. For unstiffened elements with wit ratios between 25 and 60, two different ap-

,
'B
\\
\

,
", \

Fy

40

30

,".,

' \ \.
\,
\

Eq.3.2-1

VI
VI

\\

(j)

20

50 ksi
Yielding
Inelastic Buckling
Elastic Buckling
Ultimate Strength

'." .,
,

\ c

,,
"

o~------~----~--~--~

=-

A"'"
B "'"
C =D ....

., D

10

Figure C3.2-1

\
---~--~
A
\
\

50

iii

10

20

25

63.3

144

VF
y

FF
y

.~

.~

.................

______ 40______ 50______ 60


~

~_

30

bIt

Strength of Un.tlffened Carbon Steel Compr...lon Element. and cOrresponding Allowable


Design Str. . . .

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

proaches are used. In both cases, at wit = 25, the design stress is equal to the critical
buckling stress divided by a factor-of-safety of 1.67 to provide adequate safety against
pronounced and permanent buckling. For most of the region from wit = 25 to 60, for
other than angle struts, the allowable stress (Curve e) is practically identical with the
theoretical buckling stress (Curve C). Such a design approach prevents sizable distortions at design load and permits the relatively large post-buckling strength to be used
for providing the necessary factor-of-safety against collapse. For angle struts (Curve
d), Specification Equation 3.2-5 reflects the fact that angles show almost no post buckling strength, since local buckling immediately results in twist. Hence, for angles,
allowable design stresses are determined by dividing the critical buckling stresses of
Curve C by a factor-of-safety of 1.67.
Curve a through e in Figure C3.2.1 represent the expressions for the allowable
stresses specified in this section. The corresponding equations are also shown in this
figure.
3.3

Laterally Unbraced Beams

Section 3.3 of the Specification contains several design formulas for determining
allowable bending stresses to prevent lateral-torsional buckling, for symmetrical 1shaped beams or channels, and for point-symmetrical Z-shaped sections. The relationship between the allowable stress, F b , and the slenderness ratio, LtV dIYc/S xc , is shown
in Figure C3.3. These provisions do not apply to the design of multi-web decks, U-

FOR lOR CHANNEL/ " SHAPED SECTIONS

(a)

.j 0.3671'2 ECb

jdlyc
Sxc

Fy

FOR Z-SHAPED SECTIONS

(b)

.j d lye
Sxe

Figure C3.31

Allowable Design Stress for Lateral Buckling

II-31

11-32

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

members, hat sections, closed box-type members, and curved members. For laterally
unbraced box beams, reference shQuld be made to Section 5.3 of the Specification.
Further References 7 and 41 provide more information for laterally unbraced U ..
shaped sections.
For I-shaped sections symmetrical about an axis in the plane of the web, the
elastic critical stress for lateral buckling can be determined by the following general
equation as derived by Winter (Refs. 42 -44):

in which E = modulus of elasticity; Cb = bending coefficient, depending on the ratio of


end moments, L = un braced length of the member, Sxc = compression section modulus
of the entire section about the major axis, d = depth of section; Iyc = the moment of
inertia of the compression portion of a section about the gravity axis of the entire
section parallel to the web; I yt = the moment of inertia of the tension portion of a
section about the gravity axis of the entire section parallel to the web, Iy = moment of
inertia about y-axis of the entire section; G = shear modulus; and J = St. Venant
torsion constant of the cross section. Equation 3.3-2 of the AISI Specification is based
on a simplification of Winter's formula by neglecting the second term under the square
root, which represents the contribution of the St. Venant torsion stiffness and is generally small for thin-walled members. Additionally a safety factor of 1.67 is used. Since
Equation 3.3-2 is to prevent lateral buckling in the elastic range, it only can be applied
when the ratio of LtV dIYc/S xc exceeds the limiting value of V1.87T 2 ECJF y. This limiting
value is ascertained for an assumed proportional limit of O.555F y (Ref. 28).
When the ratio of L/V dIYc/S xc is less than Y1.87T 2 ECJF y, Equation 3.3-1 of the
Specification must be used to safeguard the beam from buckling in the inelastic range.
This equation is similar in form to the corresponding inelastic equation for axially
loaded compression members (Eq. 3.6.1-1). When the allowable stress computed by
Eg uation 2.3-1 of the Specification exceeds 0.60 F y (Le. when LtV dI YC/SXC <
VO.367T 2 EC 1jF y), the basic design stress F must be used as indicated in Figure C3.3-1(a).
For laterally unbraced channels, the critical buckling stress equation developed
for I-beams has been shown to be a satisfactory approximation (Ref. 45). Consequently,
in Section 3.3(a), the same design formulas are used for I-shaped sections and channels.
With regard to Section 3.3(b) of the Specification for Z-beams, if a channel and a
Z-beam have the same L/V dIyclSxc ratio, the Z-beam will buckle at a lower stress. For
this reason, a more conservative approach has been taken for Equation 3.3-4 in
specifying the allowable stress for Z-beams as one half of that of channel or I-beams
when Ltv dIn./Sxc > VO.97T 2 EC b /F y. For the case of VO.187T 2 ECJF y < L/V dIYc/S xc <
VO.97T 2 ECJF y, a transitional equation (Eq. 3.3-3) is used for inelastic buckling of Zbeams (see Fig. C3.3-l(b).
For channels and Z-beams, attention is drawn to the bracing provisions of Section
5.2 of the Specification. In many cases these provisions may be more stringent than
those of Section /3.3.
3.4

Allowable Stresses in Webs of Beams

3.4.1

Shear Stresses in Webs


In previous editions of the AISI Specification, the design formula for allowable shear stress was developed for beam webs without stiffeners. In the September
3, 1980, Specification, different allowable shear stresses are used for slender webs
with and without stiffeners. These provisions are applicable to beams and deck.
The shear strength of web elements depends on the depth-to-thickness ratio
(hit), the support conditions along the edges, the aspect ratio of the we b element, and
the mechanical properties of the material. If the hit ratio is small, the shear strength
is governed simply by yielding at a shear stress of F yiV3. For the web element having
a large hit ratio, the web will buckle at an elastic critical shear buckling stress given
in the following equation:
Tcr=

12(1- I.L 2)(h/t)2

in which kv = buckling coefficient, I.L = Poisson's ratio, h = depth of the web, and t =
thickness of the web. When the hit ratio is in the intermediate range, the shear
strength of web elements is limited by inelastic buckling (Refs. 7 and 28).

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Based on the results of a study on beam webs primarily subjected to shear


stress (Ref. 46), some revisions have been made in Section 3.4.1 of the September 3,
1980, Specification. In these revised design provisions, the limiting hit ratio and the
allowable stress equations are now expressed in terms of kv. This revision enables the
designer to use a larger allowable shear stress for beam webs with adequate transverse stiffeners. The definition of adequate stiffeners appears in Section 2.3.4.2. For
unreinforced beam webs, the allowable shear stresses are computed by using kv= 5.34
(Ref. 47). These are the same as those permitted by the 1968 edition of the Specification.
It should be noted that in the September 3, 1980 AISI Specification, the design
provisions of Section 3.4.1 are the same as Section 1.10.5.2 for the design of plate
girders and rolled beams in the 1978 AISC Specification (Ref. 10). In both specifications, a safety factor of 1.44 is used to prevent shear yielding. This relatively low
factor is justified by the minor consequences of such yielding, when compared to
flange yielding. For inelastic and elastic buckling, the safety factors are 1.67 and
1.71, respectively, on the basis of E = 29,500 ksi.
3.4.2

Bending Stress in Webs


Recently, the structural behavior of cold-formed steel beam webs subjected to
a pure bending stress has been studied in detail (Refs. 24, 48, 49, 50, and 51). It was
found that the post-buckling strength of web elements under bending usually varies
with the depth-to-thickness ratio of the web, the bending stress ratio of the web, the
type of compression flange, the flat-width ratio of the compression flange, and the
yield point. Based on the test results of 68 beams having stiffened compression
flanges and 34 beams having unstiffened flanges, four different design methods have
been developed (Ref. 24). The simplest method, which only accounts for the most
important of the enumerated factors, is used for the new equations in Section 3.4.2 of
the September 3, 1980 Specification. The allowable stress is based on a safety factor
of 1.67.
3.4.3

Combined Bending and Shear Stresses in Webs


For cantilever beams and continuous beams, high bending stresses often combine with high shear stresses at the supports. In the design of such members, it has

For webs with transverse stiffener

1.0 '--'_~
___
~------1IiIO..

..........

-........,

"

"-

0.7
For unreinforced webs
(fbw/F bw) 2 + (fv/F)2 = 1.0

",

"

/ "\ \
\

\
\

o~------------------~------------------~~

Figure C3.4.3-1

0.5

1.0

Interaction Formulas for Combined Bending and Shear Stresses in Webs

II-33

II-34

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

been a general practice to use Equation 3.4.3-1 to safeguard against elastic buckling
of flat webs due to the combination of bending and shear stresses (Refs. 7 and 19).
The same interaction formula is included in Section 3.4.3 of the September 3, 1980,
Specification for unreinforced flat webs. In addition, a new interaction equation (Eq .
3.4.3-2) is included for the beam webs with adequate transverse stiffeners. Figure
C3.4.3-1 shows a comparison between these two interaction formulas. The correlations between the test data and both formulas are given in Reference 52.
3.5

Web Crippling of Flexural Members


When concentrated loads or reactions are applied to cold-formed steel flexural
members over short bearing lengths, the high compressive load intensity may cripple
the unreinforced webs, as shown in Figure C3.5.1-1. This type of failure may limit the
load-carrying capacity of cold-formed steel members.

,
"
"
I"

,
I

II

II
II
II
II

__ :::1
77777777777777777

(a)

Figure C3.5.1-1

3.5.1

I:

"
~~

/I
/I

'I

""

/1

\\

\~~

n777f7777(~7777f777

Failure Modes of Web Crippling

Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads

Section 3.5.1 of the Specification provides several design equations to prevent


web crippling of flexural members having flat single webs (channels, Z-sections, hat
sections, tubular members, roof deck, floor deck, etc.) and I-beams (made of two
channels connected back to back, by welding two angles to a channel, or by connecting three channels). Different design equations are used for different loading conditions. As shown in Figure C3.5.1-2, Equation 3.5.1-1, 3.5.1-2, and 3.5.1-6 are used for
end one-flange loading; Equations 3.5.1-3 and 3.5.1-7 for interior one-flange loading;
Equations 3.5.1-4 and 3.5.1-8 for end two-flange loading; and Equations 3.5.1-5 and
3.5.1-9 for interior two-flange loading. These design equations are based on experimental evidence and the distribution of loads or reactions into the web as shown in
Figure C3.5.1-3.
Previously, the AISI design formulas primarily relied on the results of290 web
crippling tests conducted at Cornell University in the 1950's (Refs. 56, 59). Because
many additional investigations were conducted in the 1960's and 1970's at several
institutions and companies (Refs. 58, and 59), the AISI design provisions were revised in 1980 to reflect the recent research findings (Ref. 25).
Further, Section 3.5 includes two subsections. Section 3.5.1 deals with the
allowable reactions and concentrated loads to prevent web crippling, and Section
3.5.2 deals with combined bending and web crippling (Refs. 25, 53). When compared
with the previous editions of the Specification, the following major changes have
been made:
(a) The maximum hit ratio of single, unreinforced flat webs and I-beams was increased from 150 to 200.
(b) A new factor C8 was added for inclined single webs. This is based on the European
design provision in Reference 54.
(c) Different design formulas are now used for beam webs subjected to concentrated
loads or reactions applied at one flange only, or opposite to each other at both
flanges of members.

II-35

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(a)

< 1.5h ----il+----+otEq. 3.5.1-1,2 or 6


End One-Flange
Loading

Eq . 3.5.1-3 or 7
Interior One-Flange
Loading

Eq . 3.5.1-5 or 9
Interior Two-Flange
Loading

(b)

---.t-~-

< 1.5h

Eq .3.5.1-1 ,2 or 6
End One-Flange
Loading

Eq.3.5.1-1 ,2 or 6
End One-Flange
Loading
~--+-- < 1 . 5h

~---+---

< 1.5h

Eq. 3.5.1-5 or 9
Interior Two-Flange
Loading

Eq.3.5.1-3 or 7
Interior One-Flange
Loading

--+-if------+--

< 1.5h

Eq. 3.5.1-4 or 8
End Two-Flange
Loading

Eq. 3.5 .1-4 or 8


End Two-Flange
Loading
< 1.5h - - + - - - - t - -

(c)

-~--14_-

Figure C3.5.1-2 Application of Design Equations Listed In Tables 3.5.1-1 and 3.5.1-2

<1 .5h

11-36

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Th
~~~----------~~~~

-+-----i+- < 1. 5h

(a) End One-Flange Loading

<1.5h --+------14-

Th

~~~~~~~

__~_l

(b) Interior One-Flange Loading

~-+--<1.5h

(c) End Two-Flange Loading

f-- ~1 . 5h--~
I

(d) Interior Two-Flange Loading

Figure C3.S.1-3

Assumed Distribution of Reaction Or Load

11-37

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(d) For some special cases, larger allowable loads or reactions are permitted for
relatively large Nit ratios.
(e) The AISI design formulas now are applicable for Rlt ratios up to 6 for beams and
7 for decks.
(f) The design formulas for webs of I-beams were revised to reflect the effects of
yield point and thickness of material on allowable loads and reactions.
(g) The definition of N was revised to use the actual bearing length. It is no longer
limited by h. This provision is based on a recent study reported in Reference 55.
(h) The limitations of Nit and Nih for decks are based on recent test results on steel
decks (Ref. 55).
In the revised design formulas, a safety factor of 1.85 was used for single,
unreinforced flat webs, and 2.0 was used for I-beams. In the latter case, the safety
factor of 2.0 is less than the value of 2.2, which was used for the 1968 Specification.
This is because the newly revised equations are more accurate. For more detailed
discussion, see Reference 7, Part V, Cold-Formed Manual.
This is a new section, which contains two interaction formulas for the combination of bending and web crippling. These formulas primarily are based on the recent studies of the effect of bending on the reduction of web crippling loads (Refs. 25,
and 55). In view of the fact that the study of members having embossments or indentations in their webs has not been completed, Equations 3.5.2-1 and 3.5.2-2 now are
applicable only to flexural members having flat webs. For embossed webs, crippling
strength should be determined by tests according to Section 6.
3.5.2.1

Shapes Having Single Webs

It should be noted that in Section 3.5.2.1, an exception clause is included


for the interior supports of continuous spans using the decks and beams, as shown
in Figure C3.5.2-1. This is because the results of continuous beam tests of steel
decks (Ref. 55) and several independent studies of individual manufacturers indicate that for these types of members, the post-buckling behavior of webs at interior
supports differs from the type of failure mode occurring under concentrated loads
on single span beam. This post-buckling strength enables the member to redistribute the moments in continuous spans. For this reason, Equation 3.5.2-1 is not
applicable to the interaction between bending and reaction at interior supports of
continuous spans. It should be realized that this exception only applies for the
members shown in Figure C3.5.2-1 and similar situations explicitly described in
Section 3.5.2.1.

(a) Decks

Dik
.

D tJ
(b) Beams

Figure C3.S.21

or cladding

\~ e\

>

I ~10" I \
~

Deck, cladding
or braces

Sections used for the Exception Clause of Section 3.S.2.1

11-38

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

3.5.2.2 With regard to Equation 3.5.2-2, previous tests indicate that when the hit
ratio of an I-beam web does not exceed 400YF';, and when the wit ratio of the beam
flange does not exeed (w/t)lim, the bending moment has little or no effect on the we b
crippling load. For this reason, the allowable reaction or concentrated load can be
determined by the formulas given in Section 3.5.1 without reduction for the presence of bending. In the above discussion, the limiting width-to-thickness ratios,
(w/t)lim, are equal to 1711Yf for stiffened flanges, in accordance with Section 2.3.1,
and 63.3/~ for unstiffened flanges, in accordance with Section 3.2 of the Specification.

3.6 Axially Loaded Compression Members


3.6.1 Stress
Shapes Not Subject to Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling
This section deals with the flexural buckling strength of axially loaded
compression members. For doubly symmetric shapes, closed cross-section shapes,
or cylindrical sections axially loaded by a concentric load; torsional-flexural buckling is not a possible mode. For such sections, flexural buckling needs to be investigated with the provisions of this section. For some open shapes, such as C-sections,
hat sections, point symmetric sections, or lipped or plain angles, flexural, torsional,
or torsional-flexural buckling may govern, depending on the bracing conditions,
cross-sectional dimensions, and the unbraced length.
Equations 3.6.1-1 through 3.6.1-4 are based on Equations 3.23 and 3.27
given and discussed in Reference 60. A constant factor of safety of 1.92 is used in
these equations. In addition, Equation 3.6.1-6 uses a varying factor of safety, depending on the slenderness ratio of the member. The difference reflects the sensitivity of the thinner-walled sections (thicknesses less than, or equal to 0.09 in.) to
accidental cross-sectional imperfections and load eccentricities. The varying factor
of safety specified in Equation 3.6.1-6, and the reasoning behind it, are identical
with the AISC provision of Reference 10. The effective length approach used in this
section is fully discussed in several steel design texts, in Reference 10, and in
Chapter 15 of Reference 60.
The effect of the local buckling of the component plates of a section on the
overall column buckling is expressed in terms of a form factor Q. When local plate
buckling occurs, the overall axial and flexural stiffnesses are reduced.
Hence, there is a reduction in the column buckling strength. The basis of
the general procedure for determining and using Q is described in detail in Chapter
9 of Reference 60. The following is a brief description of the basic concepts. As
discussed in the Commentary on Section 2.3.1.1, the post-local-buckling effective
area of stiffened plate elements is found using the effective width concept. For
compression members composed entirely of stiffened elements, Q is calculated for
the effective cross-section using the effective widths of the individual component
elements. In contrast, for unstiffened elements, the Specification accounts for the
post-local-buckling behavior by an allowable stress approach, which is discussed in
the Commentary on Section 3.2. Correspondingly for compression members consisting of unstiffened elements, the reduced load carrying capacity is calculated by
using for Q the ratio of the reduced allowable stress to the basic design stress.
For members composed of both stiffened and unstiffened elements, the
final value of Q is calculated as the product of Qs, the Q value for the aggregate of
the stiffened elements, times Qa, the Q value for the aggregate of the unstiffened
elements. It is important to calculate these values for the stress magnitude specifically defined in the Specification.

3.6.1.1

3.6.1.2 Singly Symmetric and Nonsymmetrlc Shapes of Open Cross-Section or


Intermittently Fastened Singly Symmetric Components of Built-Up Shapes
Which May Be Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling
Centrally loaded columns can buckle by bending in one of the principal
planes, by twisting about the shear center, or by simultaneous bending and twisting. As was previously indicated (Section 3.6.1.1) members can, but need not,
torsional-flexurally buckle, if they are thin-walled, of open section, and if their
shear center and centroid do not coincide (e.g., channels, C- and hat-sections, angles, and I-sections with unequal flanges). Such torsional-flexural buckling can
occur at loads well below those that would cause simple flexural buckling.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

It should be emphasized that one needs to design for torsional-flexural


buckling only when it is physically possible for such buckling to occur. For example, a member may be so connected to other parts of the structure, such as wall
sheathing, that it can only bend, not twist. In such a case, it needs to be designed
for flexural buckling only. This may hold for the entire member, or for individual
parts. For instance, the chord of a roof truss is easily connected to girts or purlins
in a manner that prevents twisting at these connection points. In this case,
torsional-flexural buckling needs to be checked only for the sub-lengths between
such connections. Likewise, a doubly-symmetrical compression member can be
made up by connecting two spaced channels at intervals by batten plates. In this
case, each channel constitutes an intermittently fastened component of a built-up
shape in the sense of Section 3.6.1.2 and 3.6.1.3. Here, the entire member, being
doubly-symmetrical, is not subject to torsional-flexural buckling. Therefore, this
mode only needs to be checked for the individual component channels between
batten connections. In certain structural systems such as racks, the bracing provided against flexure and torsion may be of different effectiveness and at different
locations. A rational analysis procedure for this is provided in Reference 61.
3.6.1.2.1

Shapes Having Q = 1.0

Inspection of Section 3.6.1.2.1 will illustrate that in order to calculate f3


and (Th it is necessary to determine Xo = distance between shear center and centroid, J = St. Venant torsion constant, and Cw = warping constant, in addition to
several other, more familiar cross-sectional properties. Because of these complexities, the calculation of the torsional-flexural buckling stress cannot be made
as simple as that for flexural buckling. However, a variety of design aids, given in
Parts III and V of the Cold-Formed Manual, considerably simplify these calculations, at least for the most common cold-formed shapes.
For one thing, any singly-symmetrical shape can buckle either flexurally about the y-axis, or torsional-flexurally, depending on its detailed dimensions. One can determine the governing mode by calculating F al for flexural
buckling from Section 3.6.1.1, and F a2 for torsional-flexural buckling from Section
3.6.1.2; the smaller of the two will govern design. This cumbersome method is
avoided by using the diagrams in Part V. These were developed for common
shapes in References 62 and 63. They permit one to determine which of the two
buckling modes governs, depending on simple combinations of the cross-sectional
dimensions and the length of the member. If the pertinent diagram indicates
that the member flexurally buckles about the y-axis, then Section 3.6.1.1 governs
and the entire complex calculation of Section 3.6.1.2 can be omitted.
In contrast, if torsional-flexural buckling is indicated, the supplementary information and design aids in Parts III and V of the Manual facilitate and
expedite the necessary calculations according to Section 3.6.1.2.
For non symmetric open shapes, the analysis for torsional-flexural
buckling becomes extremely tedious, unless its need is sufficiently frequent to
warrant computerization. The method of calculation is outlined in Part I I I of the
Manual. Section 3.6.1.2.1 (b) of the Specification provides that calculation shall be
used, or tests according to Section 6 shall be made, when dealing with nonsymmetrical open shapes.
3.6.1.2.2 Shapes Having Q < 1.0
For sections with component plate elements having sufficiently high
width-to-thickness ratios, Q < 1.0), the flexural and torsional stiffnesses will be
reduced due to local buckling. The Specification suggests that this problem be
treated by using Q in exactly the same way as for the interaction of local and
overall flexural buckling. Furthermore, since this approach is known to be quite
conservative, the determination of the design load by test also is allowed.
3.6.1.3

Point-Symmetric Sections Which May Be Subject to Torsional Buckling

Some point symmetric shapes such as cruciform sections may, depending


on their cross-sectional dimensions and unbraced length, buckle purely torsionally; that is, by twisting without simultaneous bending. Section 3.6.1.3 provides the
fairly simple method for checking such sections for torsional buckling.
Of course, the member also must be checked for flexural buckling, (Le., its
axial compression stress PIA may not exceed F ab as specified in Sec. 3.6.1.1). In fact,
the latter requirement mainly will be found to govern.

II-39

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11-40

3.7

Combined Axial and Bending Stresses

3.7.1

Doubly-Symmetric Shapes or Shapes Not Subject to Torsional or


Torsional-Flexural Buckling
This section is applicable to torsionally rigid sections, such as tubes, and to
doubly-symmetric open sections that are not subject to torsional or torsionalflexural buckling when loaded by a concentric axial load.
Essentially, the provisions are identical with those in the AISC Specification
(Reference 10). Comments on this section are provided in the AISC Commentary in
Reference 10. A general discussion of the interaction equation approach used in this
section also can be found in Reference 60.

3.7.2

Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric


Components of Built-Up Shapes Having Q = 1.0 which may be subject to
Torsional-Flexural Buckling.
This section deals with singly-symmetric open sections subject to an axial
force and bending in the plane of symmetry. In such sections, the centroid and shear
center do not coincide. Various possibilities exist, primarily depending on where the
line of action of the eccentric load is located with regard to the centroid and shear
center. Failure is possible by outer fiber yielding, if this occurs before buckling; by
purely flexural buckling; or by torsional-flexural buckling. The various provisions of
Section 3.7.2 reflect these different possibilities. That is, provision (i) has to be
checked in all cases, as well as provisions (ii), (iii), or (iv), depending on the location of
the line of action of the longitudinal force.
This section is based on References 64 and 65. An explanation of the derivation
of the equations of this section can be found in these references. A summary of the
basis of the provisions also can be found in Reference 60.
3.7.3

Singly-Symmetric Shapes or Intermittently Fastened Singly-Symmetric


Components of Built-Up Shapes Having Q < 1.0 which may be subjected to
Torsional-Flexural Buckling.
In the case of shapes with Q< 1.0, the recommended approach is the same as
that of Section 3.6.1.2.2; hence, the comments on that section are valid here as well.

3.7.4

Singly-Symmetric Shapes Which Are Unsymmetrically Loaded


Due to the lack of sufficiently general studies and analytical design formulations, the Specification states that tests must be conducted to design singlysymmetric open shapes subject to both axial compression and bending out of the
plane of symmetry. For preliminary design purposes, the analytical procedure given
in Reference 61 can be used.
3.8

Cylindrical Tubular Members in Compression or Bending


It is a well known fact that the strength of axially compressed thin-walled cylindrical tubular members is very sensitive to imperfections of shape. Therefore, the
provisions of this section are based on test evidence on real members, as reported in
References 66 and 67. The development of the provisions is discussed in Part V of
Reference 7. A factor of safety of 1.67 is implied in this section.
Equation 3.8-1 of the Specification is for mean diameter to thickness, D/t, ratios,
which would lead to failure stresses between yield point and proportional limit of the
material. The proportional limit is assumed to be equal to .75 F y. For D/t ratios smaller
than the lower limit of this range of D/t (i.e., 3,300/F y), the failure stress can be assumed
to be equal to Fyo D/t ratios larger than the upper limit of the range (i.e., D/t= 13,000/F y),
are not covered in this section. However, shapes with D/t ratios larger than this upper
limit are subject to early local buckling; therefore they are very inefficient.
The provisions of this section deal with the local (shell type) buckling behavior.
Thus, overall column type buckling failure must be separately checked.
The formulation in this section is based on tests of longitudinally compressed
tubular sections. However, in a tubular flexural member, the local buckling tendency
in the compression half basically is the same as in a tubular compression member.
Hence, the same limitations on wall thickness and allowable stresses apply in both
situations. (See Chapter 10 of Reference 60 for a detailed discussion of cylindrical
tubular member behavior.)

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

3.9

Inelastic Reserve Capacity of Flexural Members


Inelastic reserve capacity of flexural members, newly introduced in the September
3, 1980, Specification is meant to designate the additional moment that many flexural
members develop over and above the yield moment, before the ultimate failure moment is reached (i.e. the inelastic reserve capacity is Mu/MYield). Compact, hot-rolled
sections develop the full plastic yield moment on which plastic design in the AISC
Specification is based (Reference 10). Thin-walled members, as used in cold-formed
construction, generally do not reach plastic hinge moments. Yet, many of them develop
considerable reserve capacity over and above the yield moment. A particularly favorable situation is obtained when the neutral axis is so located that yielding starts in the
tension fiber.
A detailed discussion of the inelastic reserve capacity of flexural members is given
in Reference 68, which was used as the basis for this section. The provisions of Section
3.9 are aimed at utilizing the inelastic reserve capacity to increase the allowable design
load, while providing adequate margins of safety against failure and yielding at service
loads. The following is an explanation of some of the conditions for using the inelastic
reserve capacity.

(a) The attainment of an ultimate moment larger than the yield moment requires that
prior lateral buckling does not occur. In the absence of research on cold-formed
sections that would give a specific maximum unbraced length at or below the point
at which this ultimate moment can be reached, the proposed criteria are limited to
sections that are prevented from lateral buckling either by continuous lateral
bracing or by the fact that the lateral stiffness is greater than the stiffness about
the axis of bending, such as in decks.
(b) The research upon which this section is based did not include the effects of coldforming on yield stresses and on the ultimate capacity. Therefore, the benefit from
this effect, if any, is to be ignored.
(c) The tests of Reference 68 indicated that the maximum reliable strain near failure
is stiffened fairly compact compression flanges (wit ~ 34) is about three times the
yield strain. At this stage, the maximum web stress at the flange junction is the
same as in the flange (i.e., three times the yield strain). The requirement that the
depth of the compressed portion of the web shall not exceed 190t/\!F\. is based on
the assumption that this web portion will behave the same as a stiffened flange
under uniform compression, which is strained to three times the yield strain. Because of the strain gradient in the web (in contrast to the flange), this requirement
should be quite conservative.
(d) The added requirement of limiting the web slenderness to 640/VF y is taken directly
from Section 1.5.1.4.1 of the AISC Specification (Ref. 10), and it is intended to insure
the overall compactness of the web. It is based on research on the plastic rotation
capacity of hot-rolled, doubly symmetric wide-flange beams, and is conservative for
cases of singly-symmetric, cold-formed sections for which the depth of tensile
yielding in the web exceeds the depth of compressive yielding. For the case where
the depth of compressive yielding is larger, the restriction of 190/\!F\. will limit the
web slenderness.
(e) The provision limiting the shear force on the web is intended to avoid yielding of
the web in shear. A rather weak interaction between web stresses in shear and in
flexure can be expected. Thus, the stipulated conservative value of the limiting
shear force should be adequate to prevent premature failure.

(0 The limiting angle of the sloping web has been based upon engineering judgement.
The ultimate moment is to be computed, as described in the Specification and
explained in detail in Reference 68. Means of determining the ultimate compressive
strain of flanges is essential for computing the ultimate moment. To date only the
ultimate compression capacity of stiffened cold-formed steel plate elements beyond
yielding has been studied and verified. For this reason, ultimate inelastic strain values
larger than e;v are stipulated only for stiffened elements. For other types of elements,
conditions (2) and (3) amount to limiting the compression strain to the value of the
allowable stresses times the safety factor 1.67 and divided by the modulus of elasticity.
For cases when the initial yielding is in tension, in spite of this stringent limitation, the
values of ultimate moment may be computed to be significantly higher than the yield
moment.

11-41

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11-42

SECTION 4-CONNECTIONS
4.1

General

The Specification contains provisions only for welded and bolted connections. A
considerable variety of other means of connection finds application in cold-formed
construction. Some of these are listed below:
(a) Rivets. While hot rivets have little application in cold-formed construction, cold
rivets find considerable use, particularly in special forms, such as blind rivets (for
application from one side only), tubular rivets (to increase bearing area), high
shear rivets, and explosive rivets.
(b) Screws. These are mostly self-tapping, and of a wide variety of shapes, dimensions,
and details.
(c) Special devices. These include: (i) metal stitching, achieved by tools that are special
developments of the common office stapler, and (ii) connecting by upsetting, by
means of special clinching tools that draw the sheets into interlocking projections.
Most of these means of connections are proprietary devices for which information
on strength of connections must be obtained from manufacturers or from tests carried
out by or for the prospective user. Guidelines provided in Section 6 are to be used in
these tests.
4.2

Welds

4.2.1

Arc Welds

4.2.1.1

Thickness Over 0.18 in.

The provisions contained in this section have been primarily based on


experimental evidence obtained in an extensive test program at Cornell University. The results of this program are summarized in Reference 30. These provisions
represent a significant expansion of the provisions in the 1968 edition of the Specification. The scope has been extended to different types of welds commonly used in
cold-formed steel construction. All possible failure modes are covered in the present provisions, whereas the earlier provisions mainly dealt with shear failure.
The tests reported in Reference 30 were conducted on 130 connections
made in steel fabricating shops, 122 connections made under field conditions, and
90 connections fabricated in the Cornell Laboratory under simulated field conditions. All specimens were welded with E6010 electrodes.
In most of the connection tests reported in Reference 30, the onset of
yielding was either poorly defined or followed closely by ultimate failure. Therefore, in the provisions of this section, rupture rather than yielding is used as a
more reliable criterion of failure.
In addition, the Cornell research has provided the experimental basis for
Reference 29. In most cases, the provisions of Reference 29 are in agreement with
this section. Further, the factor of safety in these provisions is approximately 2.5.
4.2.1.2

Thickness 0.18 In. and Less

The tests, which served as the basis of the provisions given in Section 4.2.1,
were conducted on sections with single and double cover plates. The largest total
sheet thickness of the cover plates was approximately 0.15 in. For the Specification, the validity of the equations was extended to sections with cover plates of 0.18
in. combined thickness. For arc spot welds the maximum combined thickness is set
at 0.15 in.
The terms used in this section agree with the standard nomenclature
given in Reference 29.
4.2.1.2.1

is self-explanatory.

4.2.1.2.2

Arc Spot Welds

The thickness limitation is due to the range of the test program that
served as the basis of these provisions.
On sheets below 0.028 in. thick, weld washers are required to avoid
excessive burning of the cover plates and, hence, inferior quality welds.
In the Cornell tests, three modes of ultimate failure of arc spot welds
were observed. The first is simple shear failure of the weld metal in the plane of
the faying surface (see Fig. C4.2.1.2.2-1a). Equation 4.2.1-1 is intended to
safeguard against this type of failure.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

a. Weld Shear

b. Sheet Tear
Figure C4.2.1.2.21

c. Sheet Tear and Buckling

Typical Failure Modes of Round Arc Spot Welds

The second type of failure is tearing of the loaded side of the sheet.
Failure of this sort starts by tearing along the contour of the weld. Then it
progresses across the sheet (see Fig. C4.2.1.2.2-1b). This type of failure is most
likely to occur for dafT ~ 140fv'F: and accounted for by Equation 4.2.1-2.
The third type of failure is tearing along the contour of the weld on the
tension side, followed by plowing of the weld into the end material as that material buckles and shears. This is illustrated in Figure C4.2.1.2.2-1c. This type of
failure may occur when the end distance is small. Equation 4.2.1-4 covers this
situation, along with the edge distance requirements of Equations 4.2.1.6 and
4.2.1.7 .
Equation 4.2.1-3 is for cases when a combination of second and third
types of failure can occur. This equation provides a transition between the
ranges of validity of Equations 4.2.1-2 and 4.2.1-4.
It should be noted that many failures, particularly those of the plate
tearing type, may be preceded or accompanied by considerable inelastic out-ofplane deformation of the type indicated in Figure C4.2.1.2.2-2. This form of behavior is similar to that observed in wide, pin-connected plates. Such behavior
should be avoided by closer spacing of welds.

4.2.1.2.3 Arc Seam Welds


The general behavior of arc seam welds is similar to that of arc spot
welds. No simple shear failures of arc seam welds were observed in the Cornell
tests. Therefore, Equation 4.2.1-8 which accounts for shear failure, is adopted
from Reference 29.
Equation 4.2.1-9 is intended to prevent failure by a combination of tensile
tearing of the cover plates along the forward edge of the weld contour, plus
shearing of the cover plates along the longitudinal sides of the welds .

'

Figure C4.2.1.2.2-2 Out-of-Plene Distortion

11-43

11-44

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

4.2.1.2.4

Fillet Welds

For fillet welds on the specimens tested in the Cornell research, the
dimension WI of the leg on the sheet edge generally was equal to the sheet
thickness; the other leg, W2, often was two or three times longer. In connections
of this type, the fillet weld throat commonly is larger than the throat of a conventional fillet weld of the same size (see Sec. A-A, Fig. C4.2.1.2.3-1). Usually ultimate failure of fillet welded joints is found to occur by the tearing of the plate
adjacent to the weld. Tearing is the result of applied shearing or tensile forces,
depending upon whether the weld is longitudinal or transverse. These conditions
are illustrated in Figure C4.2.1.2.3-1.

a.

b.

Transverse Fillet
Sheet Tear
Figure C4.2.1.2.31

Longitudinal Fillet
Sheet Tear
Fillet Weld Failure Modes

Since the higher strength of the weld material prevents weld shear
failure, the provisions of this section are based on sheet tearing.
Specimens up to 0.15 in. thickness were tested in the Cornell research.
The last provision in this section is to cover the possibility that for sections
thicker than 0.15 in., the throat dimension may be less than the thickness of the
cover plate and, hence, the tear may occur in the weld rather than in the plate
material.
4.2.1.2.5

Flare Groove Welds

The chief mode of failure in cold-formed channels welded by flare


groove welds, and loaded transversely or longitudinally, also was sheet tearing
along the contour of the weld. Figure C4.2.1.2.4-1 shows these conditions.
Except for Equation 4.2.1-20, the provisions of this section are intended
to prevent sheet tear failure. The last provision, Equation 4.2.1-20, covers the
possibility that thicker channels may have effective throats less than the thickness of the channel and hence, weld failure may become critical.

Transverse Sheet Tear


Figure C4.2.1.2.4-1

Longitudinal Sheet Tear


Flare Groove Weld

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

r
T

Figure C4.3-1 (a) Typlcall-Beam

11
Figure C4.3-1 (b)

Right Channel of a Short Portion of the Beam


Indicated by Dotted Lines in Figure C4.3-1 (a)

4.3

Connecting Two Channels to Form an I-SectIQn*


In cold-formed steel construction, I-sections made by connecting two channels
back-to-back often are used as compression or flexural members. For the I-sections to
be used as compression members, the longitudinal spacing of connectors must not
exceed the value of Smax, computed by using Equation 4.3-1 of the Specification to
prevent flexural buckling of the individual channels about the axis parallel to the web
at a load smaller than that at which the entire I-section would buckle. This provision is
based on the requirement that the slenderness ratio of an individual channel between
connectors, smax/rcY! not be greater than one-half of the pertinent slenderness ratio,
Llr., of the entire I-section (Ref. 7). This allows for the case that anyone of the connectors may be loosened or ineffective.
For the I-sections to be used as flexural members, the longitudinal spacing of
connectors is limited by Equations 4.3-2 and 4.3-3 of the Specification. The first requirement (Eq. 4.3-2) is an arbitrarily selected limit to prevent any possible excessive
distortion of the top flange between connectors. The second (Eq. 4.3-3) is based on the
strength and arrangement of connectors and the intensity of the load acting on the
beam. This is due to the fact that when the transverse load is applied to the I-beam, the
load Q to be carried by each channel (i.e., half of the total beam load over the length, s)
actually acts in the plane of the web, as shown in Fig. C4.3-1(b) (Ref. 7). Because the
load Q does not pass through the shear center of the channel section, each channel
tends to rotate about its own shear center and to separate along the top. The twisting
moment Qm is resisted by the torque, Tsg, provided by the connectors. The location of
shear center is given by Equations 4.3-4 and 4.3-5 for channels having unstiffened and
stiffened flanges, respectively.

* Even though Section 4.3 of the Specification refers only to I-Sections, Eq. 4.3-1 also can be used for determining the maximum spacing of connectors for box-shaped compression members made by connecting two
channels tip-to-tip. In this case, r, is the larger of the two radii of gyration of the box-shaped section.

11-45

11-46

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

4.4

Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements


When compression elements are joined to other parts of built-up members by
intermittent connections, these connections must be closely spaced to develop the required strength of the connected element. Figure C4.4-1 shows a box-shaped beam
made by connecting a flat sheet to an inverted hat section. If the connectors are
appropriately placed, this flat sheet will act as a stiffened compression element with a
width, w, equal to the distance between rows of connectors; and the sectional properties can be calculated accordingly.
Section 4.4(a) of the Specification requires that the necessary ,shear strength be
provided by the same standard structural design procedure as that is used in calculating flange connections in bolted or welded plate girders or similar structures.
Section 4.4(b) of the Specification ensures that the part of the flat sheet between
two adjacent connectors will not buckle as a column (see Fig. C4.4-1) at a'stress less
than 1.67f, where f is the design stress of the connected compression element. This
provision is based on a conservative effective length of 0.6s, instead of a theoretical
value of 0.5s, where s is the spacing taken as the center-to-center distance between
connections. On this basis, the formula of Section 4.4(b) is directly obtained from the
Euler formula, (J'e = 1T 2E/(KL/r)2, by substituting (J'e = 1.67f, K = 0.6, L = s, and r = tl'v'i2.
Even though no research tests were specifically aimed at verifying this provision, one
of the major panel manufacturers, has in its development work, extensively tested it
and found it reliable (Ref. 7).
Section 4.4(c) ensures satisfactorily close spacing to make a row of connections act
as a continuous line of stiffening for the flat sheet under most conditions. A possible
exception is a relatively narrow unstiffened flat sheet with wit up to about 20. The
allowable stresses for unstiffened elements (Sec. 3.2) are based on a buckling stress
computed from a buckling coefficient of k = 0.5. If a projecting flange simply were
supported (hinged) at the web, it would have a buckling coefficient of 0.425 and would
buckle in a half-wave equal to its full length (see Table 26 of Ref. 19). Therefore, the
chosen coefficient of 0.5, corresponds to a slight rotational restraint of the unstiffened
element along its supported edge (web), and to a correspondingly smaller half-wave
length. Without detailed investigation, this length can be assumed to be no less than
6w, judging from Table 9.2 of Reference 47. In order for an intermittently connected
line to act as a continuous line of stiffening, at least two connections should be located
within one half-wave, resulting in a spacing of 3w.
This consideration has led to the provision of Section 4.4(c), which stipulates that
for unstiffened elements, connections should be made at distances not exceeding 3w.
For large wit ratios, Section 4.4(b) will automatically provide that this is so. Hence, the
provision in Section 4.4(c) governs only for relatively narrow unstiffened elements.
According to Section 3.2 of the Specification, the limiting flat width for which the
allowable stress is 0.6 F y, i.e., below which failure occurs by yielding and above which it
occurs by local buckling, is w = 63.3t/~. Correspondingly, for these conditions, Section 4.4(c) stipulates a maximum permissible connection spacing equal to three times
this amount. (i.e., s = 190t/~). If the flat width of the portion of steel sheet to be
considered as an unstiffened element is larger than 63.3t/\l'F\ by a sufficient amount,
so that the allowable compression stress according to Section 3.2 drops to 0.54 F y or
less, a 20 percent increase in this maximum permissible connector spacing is provided,
allowing it to be s = 228t/V'F\,.

Figure C4.4-1

Spacing of Connections In Compression Elements

Commentary on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

4.5

Bolted Connections

The AISI design provisions for bolted connections were revised in the Specification to reflect the results of continuing research (Ref. 69) as well as to provide a better
coordination with the specifications of the Research Council on Structural Connections
(RCSC) (Ref. 70) and AISC (Ref. 10). In the revised design provisions, three new subsections were added: scope, materials, and bolt installation. In addition four other previously existing subsections concerning minimum spacing and edge distance, tension
stress on net section, bearing stress between bolt and connected parts, and shear
stress on bolts were revised and renumbered.
4.5.1

Scope

Previous studies and practical experiences have indicated that the structural
behavior of bolted connections used for joining relatively thick cold-formed steel
members is similar to that for connecting hot-rolled shapes and built-up members.
The revised criteria now are applicable only to cold-formed steel members or elements less than 3/16 in. in thickness. For materials not less than 3/16 in., reference is
made to the AISC Specification (Ref. 10).
4.5.2

Materials

This new section lists five different types of fasteners which normally are used
for cold-formed steel construction. In addition to A307 and A325 bolts, which were
previously included in the 1968 edition of the AISI Specification, three other types
(A354, A449, and A490 bolts) now are added for a possibly more economical design of
bolted connections. In view of the fact that A325 and A490 bolts are available only for
diameters of 1/2 in. and larger, A449 and A354 Gr. BD bolts should be used as an
equivalent of A325 and A490 bolts, respectively, whenever smaller bolts (less than 112
in. in diameter) are required.
During recent years, other types of fasteners, with or without special washers,
have been widely used in steel structures using cold-formed members. The allowable
stresses for design of these fasteners should be determined by tests in accordance
with Section 6 of this Specification.
4.5.3

Bolt Installation

This is a new section in the September 3, 1980 Specification. Even though no


specific requirements are given in this section, bolts should be properly tightened
according to good practice used in building construction.
4.5.4

Minimum Spacing and Edge Distance in Line of Stress


The AISI provisions for minimum spacing and edge distance were revised in
the September 3, 1980, Specification to include additional design requirements for
bolted connections with standard, oversized, and slotted holes. The minimum edge
distance of each individual connected part, emim now is determined by using the
tensile strength of steel (F u) of the connected part, instead of the yield point (F y),
which was used in previous editions of the AISI Specification. According to the
different ranges of the Fu/F~. ratio, two design formulas (Eqs. 4.5.4-1 and 4.5.4-2) are
given for determining the required minimum edge distance. These design equations
are based on the following basic formula established from the test results:

in which ereQuirl'd is the required minimum edge distance to prevent shear failure of
the connected part for a force, P, transmitted by one bolt, and t is the thickness of the
thinnest connected part. For design formulas, a factor of safety of 2.0 was used for
Equation 4.5.4-1 , and 2.22 for Equation 4.5.4-2, according to the degree of correlation
between the above formula and the test data. As a result, whenever Fu/Fy~ 1.15, the
revised AISI requirement is the same as the specifications of RCSC and AISC. In
addition, several new requirements are added to the revised criteria concerning (a)
the minimum distance between centers of holes, as required for installation of bolts,
(b) the required clear distance between edges of two adjacent holes, and (c) the
minimum distance between the edge of the hole and the end of the member.
In the new criteria, the diameter of a standard hole is defined in a footnote to
Section 4.5.4.

11-47

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

II-48

4.5.5 Tension Stress on Net Section


In the revised criteria, the formula used for computing the allowable tension
stress, Fh for the net section of connected parts has been changed as follows:
0) The provisions are applicable only to the thinnest connected part, only if it is less
than 3/16 in. thick. For thicker materials (Le. t~ 3/16 in.), the allowable tension
stress is determined by using the AISC Specification (Ref. 10).
(2) The allowable tension stress for the net section of a connected member is determined by the tensile strength of the connected part (F u), instead of the yield point
of steel (F y).
(3) Different formulas are given for bolted connections, with and without washers.
(4) The allowable tension stress for the net section of a connected member is based
on the type of joint, either a single shear lap joint or double shear butt joint (Refs.
71 and 72).
A comparison of the revised and previous editions of the Specification indicates that when washers are used under the bolt head and nut, the revised design
formula for single shear connections gives about the same allowable tension stress
as the 1968 AISI Specification. However, in the case of double shear connections, the
revised formula permits an allowable tension stress about 13 percent higher than
that computed according to the 1968 Specification.

4.5.6

Bearing Stress in Bolted Connections


In the 1968 edition of the AISI Specification, the allowable bearing stress was
determined on the basis of the yield point of the connected parts. In the revised
design provisions, it is based on the tensile strength. Because the available test data
show that the bearing strength of bolted connections depend on several conditions,
such as, thickness of the connected parts, joints with single shear or double shear
conditions, the F ufF y ratio, and the use of washers (Refs. 71 and 73), a number of
different cases are now listed in Tables 4.5.6 (A) and (B) for determining the allowable bearing stress. The bearing strength formulas and the corresponding safety
factors are given in Tables C4.5.6 (A) and (B) of this Commentary.
For the thicknesses of materials not covered in Tables 4.5.6 (A) and (B), the
allowable bearing stress has to be determined by tests in accordance with Section 6
of the Specification, using a safety factor of 2.22.
4.5.7

Shear Stress on Bolts


To achieve a better coordination of the specifications of the RCSC (Ref. 70) and
AISC (Ref. 10), the allowable shear stresses for A325 bolts of the 1968 edition of the
Specification were increased by 36 percent in the 1980 edition. In addition, design
values for A449, A490, and A354 Grade BD bolts were added for use of small size, high
strength bolts (less than 1/2 in. in diameter) and quenched and tempered steel bolts.
The new AISI Specification permits the same allowable shear stresses for A307,
A325, and A490 bolts as those in the RCSC and AISC Specifications (Refs. 10, 70) for
bearing-type connections. For A449 and A354 bolts with threads in the shear planes,
the use of smaller allowable shear stresses than those for A325 and A490 bolts are
due to the fact that the ratios of the root area to the gross area of the small bolts (14
in. and 3/8 in. in diameter) are less than those of bolts with V2 in. and larger diameters.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11-49

TABLE C4.5.6(A)
Bearing Strengths and Allowable Bearing Stresses of Bolted Connections with Washers
Under Both Bolt Head and Nut

Thickness of
Steel Sheet
(in.)

Type of
Joint
Inside sheet
of double
shear
connections

<3lt6 but
~0.O24

Single shear
connections
and outside
sheets of
double shear
connections

Fu/Fy Ratio
of
Steel Sheet

Bearing
Strength
Formula,
O"b (ksi)

Allowable
Bearing
Stress
(ksi)

Factor
of
Safety

~1.15

3. 5F u

1.50F u

2.33

<1.15

3.0Fu

1.35F u

2.22

~1.15

3.0Fu

1.35F u

2.22

<1.15

3.0Fu

1.35F u

2.22

TABLE C4.5.6(B)
Bearing Strengths and Allowable Bearing Stresses of Bolted Connections without
Washers Under Both Bolt Head and Nut

Thickness of
Steel Sheet
(in.)

Type of
Joint
Inside sheet
of double
shear
connections

<3lt6 but
~0.O36

Single shear
connections
and outside
sheets of
double shear
connections

Fu/F y Ratio
of
Steel Sheet

Bearing
Strength
Formula,
O"b (ksi)

Allowable
Bearing
Stress
(ksi)

Factor
of
Safety

~1.15

3.0Fu

1. 35F u

2.22

I
~1.15

2. 2Fu

1.00F u

2.20

1150

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

SECTION 5-BRACING REQUIREMENTS


5.1

Wall Studs
The provisions of this section are primarily based on References 74 and 75.
These references contain procedures for computing the strength of C- and Zsection wall studs that are braced by wallboard materials. The bracing action is due to
both the shear rigidity and the rotational restraint supplied by the wallboard material.
Shear rigidity restrains the lateral deflections of the studs. The rotational restraint is
supplied by the flexural rigidity of the wallboard, as well as by the fixity of the connection between the studs and the wallboard. The treatment in References 74 and 75 is
quite general and includes the case of studs braced on one as well as on both flanges.
This research also has resulted in the development of a computer program (Ref. 76)
that can be used for a variety of design problems. In general, the provisions of Section
5.1.1.1 deal with the simplest case of identical wallboard material on both sides of the
stud. For simplicity, only the restraint due to the shear rigidity of the wallboard material is considered. Other cases, such as dissimilar wallboard materials on each flange,
or the evaluation of the effect of rotational restraint, are covered in Section 5.1.1.2.
The general assumptions of the theoretical treatment and, hence, the design provisions, are stated in the beginning of Section 5.1. In case the ends of the wall studs are
not free to rotate about both axes perpendicular to the stud axis, the provisions in the
Specification are conservative.
5.1.1

Studs in Compression

5.1.1.1 The provisions in this section are given to prevent three possible modes of
failure. Provision (i) is for column buckling between fasteners, even if one fastener
is missing or otherwise ineffective. Provision (ii) contains formulas for allowable
axial stresses for overall column buckling. Essential to these provisions is the
magnitude of the shear rigidity of the wallboard material. A table of values and an
equation for determining the shear rigidity is provided in the Specification. These
are based on the small scale tests described in References 74 and 75. For other
types of materials, the provided parameters can be determined using the procedures described in these references.
The effect of the local buckling of multiple punched or slit flat elements of
wall studs on the overall behavior is accounted for in provision (ii) through the use
of the Q factor. Where applicable, Section 3.6.1 is to be used to calculate Q. For
punched or slit sections, an accurate determination ofQ requires testing. However,
Q may be conservatively calculated on the basis of the net section and by using

Section 3.6.1.
Provision (iii) is to insure that the wallboard has sufficient distortion capacity. Due to the complexity of the formulas, the procedure involves assuming a
value of the ultimate stress and checking whether the shear strain at the load
corresponding to the ultimate stress exceeds the allowable design shear strain of
the wallboard material. In principle, the procedure is one of successive approximations. However, if the smaller of the F a3 values obtained from provisions (i) and (ii)
times 1.92 is tried first and is shown to be satisfactory, then the need for iteration is
eliminated.
The wall board parameters q and y for some frequent wall boards can be
obtained from Table 5.1.l(iii)-1. This table is based on the testing and evaluation
procedures outlined in References 74 and 75. Both of these parameters were determined at 0.8 times the ultimate shear load of the test assembly described in
these references. A factor of safety of 1.5 was used in calculating q.
5.1.1.2 This Section specifies that situations that cannot be treated with the provisions of Section 5.1.1.1 can be designed according to accepted published analytical methods. The procedures described in References 74 and 75 can be considered
as an accepted analytical method. The case of dissimilar wallboard materials on
each side of the studs can be conservatively treated by the provisions of Section 5.1,
if both of the wallboards are assigned the smaller of the shear rigidity and shear
strain allowable valJJes.
5.1.2

Studs with Combined Axial and Bending Stresses


This section gives provisions formulated on the basis of precedent for other
types of members and engineering judgement, and is believed to be sufficiently accurate.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

5.2

Channel and Z-Sections Used as Beams


Channel and Z-sections often are used as beams to support transverse loads
applied in the plane of the web. These members may laterally twist and deflect unless
adequate lateral supports are provided. Section 5.2 of the September 3,1980, Specification has been revised to include two subsections. The first (Sec. 5.2.1) is a new provision
that deals with the bracing requirement when one flange of the beam is connected to
deck or sheathing material. The second subsection (Sec. 5.2.2) covers the requirements
for spacing and design of braces, when neither flange of the beam is braced by deck or
sheathing material. The requirements of Section 5.2.2 are the same as in previous
editions of the Specification except that quarter-point bracing is not required when
the load is introduced only at brace points.
5.2.1

Bracing When One Flange is Connected


When channel and Z-sections are used in roofs and walls to directly support
attached covering material, the latter provides some measure of lateral support to
the connected flange of the beam. As a result, forces are generated in the plane of the
covering material by the tendency to lateral movement and/or twist of the beam.
These accumulated forces must be transferred into a sufficiently stiff part of the
framing system. There are several ways in which this transfer may be accomplished:
1. By a system of sag members (rods, angles, or channels) sufficiently strong to carry
the forces to a stiff member.
2. By arranging equally loaded alternating members to face each other. Then, facing
pairs tend to move toward each other and to cancel the opposing lateral forces
generated by each member.
3. By a diaphragm with sufficient rigidity to transfer the forces to a stiff perimeter
member, coupled with devices that restrain rotation of the beams at the~r supports.
'
4. By direct axial stress in the roof sheets. The forces in this case can be taken out at
the ridge where equal and opposite forces meet. (This method may not be feasible
for unsymmetrical roofs resulting in unequal forces meeting at the ridge.)
5. By other designs in which the forces might be transferred to stiff members at the
eaves such as the eave struts in a shed roof structure .
There may be other ways to resist these forces which designers may select to accomplish the required results.
5.2.1.1

Type and Spacing of Braces


The new provision of Section 5.2.1.1 for the design of braces calls for special
tests in accordance with Section 6 of the Specification to insure the adequacy of the
type and spacing of braces to be used for such beams when one flange is connected
to covering material. However, in the evaluation of the test data, a factor of safety
of 5/3 should be used, instead of that required by Section 6 for determining structural performance. This is because the beam member itself is analytically designed
for a safety factor of 5/3.
For all types of single web beams, the flange that is not attached to the
deck or sheathing material may be subject to compressive stresses under certain
loading arrangements, such as beams continuous over supports or uplift wind load.
The elastic lateral support provided through the web may allow an increase in
allowable stress over that calculated by assuming that the compression flange is a
column with pinned ends at points of lateral bracing. Ways of accounting for this
elastic lateral support are given in Part III of Reference 8 and Reference 77.
Pertinent research indicates that the allowable compressive stress also is very
sensitive to the rotational flexibility of the joint between the beam and the deck or
sheathing material. A potential procedure taking this parameter into account is
given in Reference 78. Joint flexibility is also discussed in Reference 79.
5.2.2

Bracing When Neither Flange Is Braced by Deck or Sheathing Material


When neither flange is braced by deck or sheathing material, discrete bracing
must be provided at intervals. 5.2.2.1 specifies the spacing of such braces, applicable
to both channel and Z-beams, and 5.2.2.2 specifies the forces for which these braces
must be designed.
One exception added in the September 9,1980, Specification permits omission
of discrete braces when all loads and reactions on a beam are transmitted through
members that frame into the section in such a manner as to effectively restrain the
member rotation and lateral displacement. Frequently this occurs in the end walls of
metal buildings.

II-51

II-52

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

If neither flange of a channel is braced by deck or sheathing material, braces


must be provided at intervals to prevent the member from rotating about the shear
center. Bracing must be so arranged that any additional stresses due to the rotation
tendency are so small that they will not significantly reduce the load-carrying capacity of the channel. In addition, the rotations must be kept small enough to be
unobjectionable, approximately 1 to 2 degrees. Based on the tests and the study
reported in Reference 80, it was found that these requirements are satisfied for any
type of load, if not less than three equidistant braces are placed between end supports. One exception is the case where a large part of the total load of the beam is
concentrated over a short portion of the span. In this case, an additional brace must
be placed at such a load location, as required in Section 5.2.2.1.
For such braces to be effective, it is necessary that their spacing be appropriately limited. In addition, their strength must suffice to provide the force required to
prevent the channel from rotating. These forces are found, if one considers the action
of a load Q applied in the plane of the web, as shown in Figure C5.2-l(a). Each half or
the channel then can be regarded as a continuous beam loaded by the horizontal
forces and supported at the braced points (see Fig. C5.2-l(b)). The horizontal brace
forces are simply the appropriate reactions of this continuous beam. The provisions
of Section 5.2.2.2 represent a simple and conservative approximation for determining
these reactions, P L , which the brace is required to resist at each flange.
Z-beams are point-symmetric sections for which the principal axes are oblique
to the web as shown in Figure C5.2-l(c). When a Z-beam is vertically loaded in the
plane of the web, it deflects not only vertically, but also horizontally. If such deflection is permitted to occur, then the loads, moving sideways with the beam, are no
longer in the same plane with the reactions at the ends. As a result, the loads produce lateral deflection, as well as a twisting moment about the line connecting the
reactions. The additional stresses caused by this behavior produce failure at a load
considerably lower than when the same beam is fully braced.
The results of tests on Z-beams and the corresponding study that is reported
in Reference 81 show that intermittently braced Z-beams can be analyzed in much
the same way as intermittently braced channels. It is merely necessary to apply a
fictitious horizontal load, P = Q (Ixy/I x), at the point of each actual vertical load Q .
Likewise, the forces in the braces are obtained as the reactions of continuous beams
horizontally loaded by fictitious loads.
Laterally Unbraced Box Beams
Box beams are more laterally stable than single-web sections having the same
depth/width ratio. Section 5.3 specifies that when the ratio of the laterally unsupported
length to the distance between the webs of the section (Lib) does not exceed 2500/F y,
the box sections can be used without any stress reduction to account for lateral buckling. This design requirement is based on Part II of Reference 8 which indicates that
the failure stress in box beams is practically unaffected by lateral buckling up to Lib as
high as 100 for a steel having a yield point of 33 ksi. On the basis of this AISI design
criterion, when the box beams are bent about the major axis, the laterally unsupported
length shall not exceed 75 times the distance between webs for a steel with F y= 33 ksi.
This conservative design approach is identical with the previous edition of the AfSf

5.3

Specification.
Similar to box sections, hat ,sections also are more stable against lateral buckling
when the closed side of the hat section is in compression. At the present time, the AfSf
Specification does not provide any specific provisions for the design of un braced hat
sections. However, the following suggestions given in Part II of Reference 8, have been
used in design. Taking the y-axis as the axis of symmetry and with bending applied
about x-axis of the hat section:
(a) When Iy ~ Ix, no stress reduction is needed for lateral buckling.
(b) When Iy < Ix, the allowable bending stress can be conservatively computed by
using Equation 3.6.1-4 for slender columns.
In Equation 3.6.1-4, K = 1.0, L is the unsupported length and ry is the radius of
gyration about the compression portion of the hat section of the y-axis.
For more accurate allowable bending stress, the following formulas may be used
in lieu of the above simple equation:
(i) When

U er

(ii) When

U er

when

O'er

> 0.545F y, Fb = 2F y/3


~ 0.545F y, Fb ,= 0.6u er

stands for

Specification.

<TbT

or

<TbC '

F /1(5.4u er )

as applicable, to be determined in Section 3.7.2 of the

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

r
m

----..

s.c./)

J
Figure CS.2-1 (a)

p=

am
d

01

Vi
.--.
p =

am
---d

Lateral Force P Due to the Vertical Load Applied in the Plane of Web

Figure CS.2-1 (b)

Lateral Force for the Design of Braces

-y

------- \

-x-------"'+=-------+x
\

Figure CS.2-1 (c) Z-Sectlons

II-53

II-54

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

SECTION 6-TESTS FOR SPECIAL CASES


6.1

General
The provisions (a) and (b) are self-explanatory. Information on tests for coldformed steel diaphragms can be found in Reference 82.
6.2 Tests for Determining Structural Performance
This section makes provision for proof of structural adequacy by load tests. The
intent of this section is clearly expressed by the restriction to cases where calculation
of safe load-carrying capacity or deflection cannot be made in accordance with the
provisions of this Specification. This is so because for structures of such shape and type
that they can be calculated according to the Specification, the results of such calculations usually possess a greater degree of certainty than the results of load tests. This is
because the provisions are a result of systematic and extensive testing performed in
parametric studies of significant variables for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of the load carrying as well as the strengths of cold formed members, assemblies, and fasteners. Field experience is incorporated in the Specification provisions as well as the results of testing.
There are in cold-formed steel (as in other kinds of structures) perfectly acceptable and safe types of construction, whose composition or configuration are not covered
by provisions of the Specification. Therefore, their performance and adequacy cannot
be demonstrated by reference to the Specification. To mention but one example: Apart
from those methods of connection covered in the Specification, a number of other
means of connecting are in use. The fact that these are not specifically covered in the
Specification is not intended to exclude their use. However, since structures so connected cannot be calculated according to the Specification (at least as to strength of
connections), tests according to Section 6 are the only means of supplying proof of
structural adequacy. Other similar examples could be added.
Provision (b) prescribes that the structure, when tested, shall support without
failure and harmful distortions design loads increased by load factors. This is to provide reasonable safety factors against failure and harmful distortions. The safety factor thus obtained is somewhat larger than the basic factor of safety of 1.67 on which the
body of the Specification is based. This takes into account the uncertainties in translating test results into practical carrying capacities, such as the example mentioned
above. Additionally, in some instances, the factors of safety in the body of the Specification are larger than 1.67 (Table C3.1-1). In the case of connections, the factors of
safety implied in the Specification are significantly larger than 2. Therefore, provision
(b) also is aimed at insuring factors of safety consistent with those implied in the
Specification for connections.
Provision (c) applies to cases such as when the steel of the test specimen is of
larger strength than the minimum specified steel strength. This means that the test
results must be reduced in the ratio of the actual strength to the specified minimum
strength to obtain the reliable load carrying capacity by test. The provison is selfexplanatory regarding similar corrections for tensile strength when it governs, or for
sheet thickness.
6.3 Tests for Confirming Structural Performance
Members, connections, and assemblies, which can be designed according to the
provisions of Sections 2 through 5 of the Specification, need no confirmation of calculated results by test. As pointed out in connection with Section 6.2, in general, calculations are more reliable than tests. However, special situations may arise where, in
spite of appropriate design calculations, it appears desirable to confirm the results of
such calculations by test. They may be called for by the manufacturer, the engineer, or
a third party.
Since design has been made according to the Specification, the higher load factors
of Section 6.2 do not apply. All that is needed is that the tested specimen or assembly
perform according to the safety factor implied in the applicable specification provision.
The appropriate value of the applicable safety factor generally can be obtained from
Table C.3.1-1.

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

6.4 Tests for Determining Mechanical Properties of Formed Sections or Flat Material
Explicit methods for the utilization of the strengthening effects of cold-work in
designing members are incorporated in Section 3.1.1 of the Specification. In that section, it is specified that as-formed mechanical properties, in particular the yield
strength, can be determined by two methods. The first is by full-section tests; and the
second by calculating the strength of the corners and computing the weighted average
of strength of corners and flats. The strength of flats, in turn, can be taken as the
virgin strength of the steel before forming, or can be determined by special tension
tests on specimens cut out of the flat portions of the formed section. This section spells
out in considerable detail the types and methods of these tests, and their number as
required for use in connection with Section 3.1.1. These provisions are self-explanatory.
For details of some testing procedures that have been used for such purposes, but that
in no way should be regarded as mandatory, see References 7, 35, and 36.

II-55

II-56

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

REFERENCES
1. American Iron and Steel Institute, Specification for the D'esign of Light Gage Steel
Structural Members, April, 1946, New York, NY
2. American Iron and Steel Institute, Light Gage Steel Design Manual, January, 1949,
New York, NY
3. American Iron and Steel Institute, Light Gage Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual,
1956 Edition (Part I-Specification, Part II-Supplementary Information, Part
III-Illustrative Examples, Part IV-Charts and Tables of Structural Properties
and Appendix), New York, NY
4. American Iron and Steel Institute, Specification for the Design of Light Gage
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, 1960 Edition, New York, NY
5. American Iron and Steel Institute, Light Gage Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual,
1961 Edition (Part I-Specification, Part II-Supplementary Information, Part
III-Illustrative Examples, Part IV-Charts and Tables of Structural Properties
and Appendix), New York, NY
6. American Iron and Steel Institute, Light Gage Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual,
1962 Edition (Part I-Specification, Part II-Supplementary Information, Part
III-Illustrative Examples, Part IV-Charts and Tables of Structural Properties,
Appendix, and Commentary on the 1962 Edition of the Specification by George
Winter), New York, NY
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Steel Structural Members, 1968 Edition (Part II-Supplementary Information,
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York, NY
8. American Iron and Steel Institute, Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, 1977 Edition
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March 1977, Part IV-Illustrative Examples, 1972 Edition of March 1977, and Part
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10. American Institute of Steel Construction, Specification for the Design, Fabrication
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Products, 1977
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Low-Ductility Steels," Paper 8442, ST10, Journal of the Structural Division, October 1971, American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY
10001
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American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 445-464

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

17. Bryan, G. H., "On the Stability of a Plane Plate under Thrusts in Its Own Plane
with Applications on the 'Buckling' of the Sides of a Ship," Proc. London Math. Soc.,
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18. v. Karman, T., Sechler, E. E., and Donnell, L. H., "The Strength of Thin Plates in
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19. Bleich, F., Buckling Strength of Metal Structures, 1952, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
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20. Winter, G., "Strength of Thin Steel Compression Flanges," Transactions, American
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21. Winter, G., "Strength of Thin Steel Compression Flanges" (with Appendix), Bulletin No. 35/3,1947, Cornell University Engineering Experiment Station, Ithaca, NY
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33. Cissel, J. H. and Legatski, L. M., "Strength of Bolted Connections in Light Gage
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II-57

II-58

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

41. Douty, R. T., "A Design Approach to the Strength of Laterally Unbraced Compression Flanges," Bulletin No. 37, 1962, Cornell University Engineering Experiment
Station
42. Winter, G., "Lateral Stability of Unsymmetrical I-beams and Trusses," Transactions, Vol. 198, 1943, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 247 -260
43. Winter, G., "Strength of Slender Beams," Transactions, Vol. 109, 1944, American
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by Karl deVries, Transactions, Vol. 112, 1947, American Society of Civil Engineers,
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46. LaBoube, R. A. and Yu, W. W., "Structural Behavior of Beam Webs Subjected
Primarily to Shear Stress," Final Report, June, 1978, Civil Engineering Study 78-2;
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47. Timoshenko, S. P. and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elastic Stability McGraw-Hill, 1961
48. LaBoube, R. A. and Yu, W. W., "Study of Cold-Formed Steel Beam Webs Subjected
to Bending Stress," Proceedings of the Third International Specialty Conference on
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49. LaBoube, R. A. and Yu, W. W., "Effective Web Depth of Cold-Formed Steel
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Dynamic Loads, May, 1977, Washington, DC
50. DeWolf, J. and Gladding C., "Web Buckling in Beams," Proceedings of the Fourth
International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures, June, 1978,
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51. DeWolf, J. and Gladding, C., "Post-Buckling Behavior of Beam Webs in Flexure,"
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52. LaBoube, R. A. and Yu, W. W., "Structural Behavior of Beam Webs Subjected to a
Combination of Bending and Shear," Final Report, Civil Engineering Study 78-3,
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53. Hetrakul, N. and Yu, W. W., "Cold-Formed Steel I-beams Subjected to Combined
Bending and Web Crippling," Proceedings of the International Conference on
Thin-Walled Structures, April 1979, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
54. European Convention for Constructional Steel, Work Committee 17-Cold-Formed
Thin-Walled Sheet Steel in Building, "Stressed Skin Design," Draft of European
Recommendation, May 1975, (Rolf Baehre, Chairman of Committee 17)
55. Yu, W. W., "Web Crippling and Combined Web Crippling and Bending of Steel
Decks', First Progress Report, (May 1980) and Second Progress Report (Au,gust
1980), University of Missouri-Rolla
56. Zetlin, L., "Elastic Instability of Flat Plates Subjected to Partial Edge Loads,"
Proceedings, American.Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 81,1955, pp. 795-1 to 795-24
57. Winter, G. and Pian, R. H. J., "Crushing Strength of Thin Steel Webs," Bulletin No.
35/1, 1956, Cornell University Engineering Experiment Station
58. NAHB Research Foundation, Inc. Tests of United States Steel Super-C Steel Joists
for Interaction of Bending and Web Crippling, CR-7858, 1972
59. Ratliff, G. D., "Interaction of Concentrated Loads and Bending in C-Shaped
Beams," Proceedings of the Third Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel
Structures, November 24-25, 1975, University of Missouri-Rolla, MO
60. Johnston, B. G. (Editor), Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures,
Third Edition, 1976, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY
61. Rack Manufacturers Institute, Specification for the Design, Testing, and Utilization of Industrial Steel Storage Racks. 1979, 1326 Freeport Road, Pittsburgh, PA
15238
62. Chajes, A. and Winter, G., "Torsional-Flexural Buckling of Thin-Walled Members,"
Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 91, No. ST4, August 1965, American Society
of Civil Engineers, pp. 103-124
63. Chajes, A., Fang, P. J., and Winter, G., "Torsional Flexural Buckling, Elastic and
Inelastic, of Cold Formed Thin Walled Columns," Engineering Research Bulletin
No. 66-1, 1966, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Commentary on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

64. Pekoz, T. B. and Winter, G., "Torsional-Flexural Buckling of Thin-Walled Sections


under Eccentric Load," Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 95, No. ST5, May,
1969, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 941-963
65. Pekoz, T. B. and Celibi, N., "Torsional Flexural Buckling of Thin-Walled Sections
under Eccentric Load," Cornell Engineering Research Bulletin No. 69-1, 1969, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
66. Plantema, F. J., "Collapsing Stresses of Circular Cylinders and Round Tubes," Report S.280, 1946, Nat. Luchtvaartlaboratorium, Amsterdam, Netherlands
67. Wilson, W. M. and Newmark, N. M., "The Strength of Cylindrical Shells as Columns," Bulletin No. 255, 1933, University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, IL; and Wilson, W. M. and Olson, E. D., "Tests of Cylindrical Shells,"
Bulletin No. 331, 1941, University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, IL
68. Reck, H. P., Pekoz, T., and Winter, G., "Inelastic Strength of Cold-Formed Steel
Beams," Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 101, No. ST11, November 1975,
American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 2193-2203
69. Yu, W. W. and Mosby, R. L., "Bolted Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Structures," Final Report, Civil Engineering Study 81-1, January, 1981, University of
Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri
70. Research Council on Structural Connections, Specification for Structural Joints
Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts, 1980
71. Chong, K. P. and Matlock, R. B., "Light Gage Steel Bolted Connections Without
Washers," Journal of the Structural Division, Vol. 101, No. ST7, July 1974, American Society of Civil Engineers

72. Popowich, D. W., Tension Capacity of Bolted Connections in Light Gage ColdFormed Steel, Thesis presented to Cornell University in 1969, in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.
73. Dhalla, A. K. and Winter, G., "Influence of Ductility on the Structural Behavior of
Cold-Formed Steel Members," Report No. 336, June, 1971, Department of Structural Engineering, Cornell University
74. Simaan, A., "Buckling of Diaphragm-Braced Columns of Unsymmetrical Sections
and Applications to Wall Studs Design," Report No. 353, August 1973, Department
of Structural Engineering, Cornell University
75. Simaan, A. and Pekoz, T., "Diaphragm-Braced Members and Design of Wall
Studs," Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 102, ST1,
January, 1976
76. American Iron and Steel Institute, Computer Programs User's Manual, Program
STUD, No. 80.1, September, 1980, Edition.
77. Haussler, R. W., "Strength of Elastically Stabilized Beams," Journal of Structural
Division, ASCE Proceedings, Vol. 90, No. ST3, June, 1964; also ASCE Transactions,
Vol. 130, 1965
78. Pekoz, T. and Sorovshjian, P., "Behavior of C- and Z-Purlins Under Wind Uplift,"
Report No. 81-2, February, 1981, Department of Structural Engineering, Cornell
University
79. Haussler, R. W. and Pahers, R. F., "Connection Strength in Thin Metal Roof Structures," on Cold-Formed Structures, October 1973, University of Missouri-Rolla,
Rolla, MO
80. Winter, G., Lansing, W., and McCalley, R. B., Jr., "Performance of Laterally Loaded
Channel Beams," Research, Engineering Structures Supplement (Colston Papers,
Vol II), 1949. Reprinted in "Four Papers on the Performance of Thin-Walled Steel
Structures," Reprint No. 33, Cornell University Engineering Experiment Station,
Ithaca, NY
81. Zetlin, L. and Winter, G., "Unsymmetrical Bending of Beams With and Without
Lateral Bracing," Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 81,
1955
82. American Iron and Steel Institute, Design of Light Gage Steel Diaphragms, First
Edition, 1967

II-59

~M

American Iron and Steel Institute


1000 16th Street. N W
Washington. 0 C 20036

I
I

I ~JJ
!S

c:

c. >-

SUPPLEMENTARY
INFORMATION

TO THE SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE

SPECIFICATION
FORTHE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual-Part III

~M

AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE

1000 16th STREET NW


WASHINGTON, DC 20036

III-2

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

The material presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information
only. This information should not be used without first securing competent
advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute - or of any
other person named herein - that this information is suitable for any
general or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent
or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

1st Printing-May 1983

Produced by

w.P. Reyman Associates,

Inc., New York

Copyright American Iron and Steel Institute 1981

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

PREFACE
This document, Part III of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual supplements the
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. It contains two
different types of information: (a) design procedures of specification nature which are
not included in the Specification itself, either because they are infrequently used or are
regarded as too complex for routine design, and (b) other information intended to assist
users of cold-formed steel.
This Supplementary Information should be used in conjunction with the other
parts of the Design Manual, which include Commentary (Part II), Illustrative Examples (Part IV), and Charts and Tables (Part V), in addition to the Specification (Part I).

American Iron and Steel Institute


May 1983

111-3

111-4

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Supplementary to the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

111-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
3

PREFACE

PART III
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

TO THE

SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE


SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED

STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

SECTION 1-LINEAR METHOD FOR COMPUTING PROPERTIES OF


FORMED SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
SECTION 2-COMPRESSION MEMBER DESIGN PROCEDURES ......................
8
2.1 Design Procedures ......................................................
8
2.1.1 Axially Loaded Compression Members .............................. 8
2.1.1.1. Shapes Subject Only to Flexural Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8
2.1.1.2 Shapes Subject to Flexural or Torsional-Flexural Buckling .....
2.1.1.3 Shapes Subject Only to Torsional-Flexural Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.2 Members Subject to Axial Compression and Bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11
2.1.2.1 Shapes Subject Only to Continuous Flexural
Beam-Column Behavior ................................... 11
2.1.2.2 Shapes Subject to Beam-Column Behavior and
to Torsional-Flexural Buckling ............................. 11
2.1.2.3 Shapes Whose Strength Must Be Determined by Tests. . . . . . . .. 14
2.2 Algebraic Subroutines ................................................... 14
2.2.1 Subroutine I-Calculation of Section Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14
2.2.1.1 Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric) With and Without Lips ...... 15
2.2.1.2 Channels (Singly-Symmetric) With and Without Lips and Hat
Sections (Singly-Symmetric .............................. 16
2.2.1.3 I-Sections with Unequal Flanges (Singly-Symmetric) and
T-Sections (Singly-Symmetric) ............................. 17
2.2.1.4 Z-Sections (Point-Symmetric) With and Without Lips. . . . . . . . .. 19
2.2.2 Subroutine II-Calculation of Torsional and Torsional-Flexural
Buckling Stresses for Concentric Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20
2.2.3 Subroutine III-Calculation of Torsional-Flexural Buckling Stress
for Eccentric Loading; Case Where e is Positive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20
2.2.4 Subroutine IV-Calculation of Torsional-Flexural Buckling Stress
for Eccentric Loading; Case Where e is Negative. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 21
SECTION 3-LATERALLY UNBRACED COMPRESSION FLANGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21
SECTION 4-SUMMARY OF SCOPE AND PRINCIPAL TENSILE PROPERTIES,
ASTM SPECIFICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

22

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

111-6

PROPERTIES OF LINE ELEMENTS


3-r--------~~--~------3

,(_

,~--~-+I-~-,-rE,

Z 0

,0

= [cos

'2

0] f3 = 1m:!
12

13
h=-

1
12

12

= [sin 0cos 0] /3 = Imn


12

12

13 = la 2 + In = l(a2+ n'2)

Ia = la 2

12

o(expressed

4-

12

!1

0]13 = In12

~-+---+--I

h = [sin

12

12

in radians) = 0.01745 0 (expressed in degrees and


decimals thereof)

I
I
I

_ sin O2 C1 02 -

C,

.3

sin 01 R
01
'

Co

cos 01 -

O2

cos O2 R
01

----.3
Cz

CASE I: 01

0, O2

90 0

= 0, O2 = 0

CASE II: 01

1 = OR

':[--

.3

1= 1.57 R, c

--

= 0.637

I" = [

0.137 R3

I. = 0.785 R3

R (I-cos 0)
0

It = [0 + sin Ocos 0 _ sin 20]R3 12 = [O-Sin oCOS 0 _ (I-cos 0)'2 ]R3


0'

13

C2

R sin 0
0

=-

c,

112

C1

1,=[

sin 0

0+ sin 0 cos 0
2
2

I" = [

sin 0
2

sin 0 (cos 0-1)

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

PART III
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
TO THE SEPTEMBER 3,1980 EDITION OF THE
SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
SECTION 1-LINEAR METHOD FOR COMPUTING PROPERTIES OF
FORMED SECTIONS

Computation of properties of formed sections may be simplified by using a so-called


linear method, in which the material of the section is considered concentrated along the
centerline of the steel sheet and the area elements replaced by straight or curved "line
elements." The thickness dimension, t, is introduced after the linear computations
have been completed.
The total area of the section is found from the relation: Area = L x t, where L is the
total length of all line elements.
The moment of inertia of the section, I, is found from the relation: .I = I' x t, where I'is
the moment of inertia of the centerline of the steel sheet. The section modulus is computed
as usual by dividing I or I' x t by the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber,
not to the centerline of the extreme element.
First power dimensions, such as x, y and r (radius of gyration) are obtained directly
by the linear method and do not involve the thickness dimension.
When the flat width, w, of a stiffened compression element is reduced for design
purposes, the effective design width, b, is used directly to compute the total effective
length Leff of the line elements, as shown in Example No.' 6 in Part IV of the Manual.
The elements into which most sections may be divided for application of the linear
method consist of straight lines and circular arcs. For convenient reference, the moments
of inertia and location of centroid of such elements are identified in the sketches and
formulas in Fig. 1-1.
The formulas for line elements are exact, since the line as such has no thickness
dimension; but in computing the properties of an actual section, where the line element
represents an actual element with a thickness dimension, the results will be approximate
for the following reasons:
1. The moment of inertia of a straight actual element about its longitudinal axis is
considered negligible.
2. The moment of inertia of a straight actual element inclined to the axes of reference is
slightly larger than that of the corresponding line element, but for elements of like
length the error involved is even less than the error involved in neglecting the moment
of inertia of the element about its longitudinal axis. Obviously, the error disappears
when the element is normal to the axis.
3. Small errors are involved in using the properties of a linear arc to find those of
an actual corner, but with the usual small corner radii the error in the location of the
centroid of the corner is of little importance, and the moment of inertia generally
negligible. (See Table 11 in Part V of the Manual, showing actual properties of a
90 corner.) When the mean radius of a circular element is over four times its
thickness, as for tubular sections and for sheets with circular corrugations, the errors
in using linear arc properties practically disappears.
Using the computed values of Ix, Iy and Ix~" the moment of inertia about principal axes
of the section can be calculated by the following equation:
0

I::;: = Ix

~ I,

(I, ; Ix ) + Ixz'

where Ix and Iy are the moment of inertia of the section about x- and y-axis, respectively,
and Ixy is the product of inertia.
The angle between the x-axis, and the minor axis is

ta -1
() -- ~
2
n

2IX1 ]
Iy - Ix

Examples No.1 to 12 in Part IV illustrate the application of the linear method.

III-7

111-8

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

SECTION 2-COMPRESSION MEMBER DESIGN PROCEDURES


Design procedures are outlined for determining allowable stresses for various cases of
compression members within the following general categories: axially loaded members
and members subject to axial and bending stresses. Reference is made throughout these
procedures to the pertinent sections in the Specification for the Design of Cold Formed
Steel Structural Members, 1980 edition. A set of algebraic expressions (Subroutines I
through IV) and a set of design charts (Part V of the Manual) provide two alternate
ways of calculating the parameters needed for the evaluation of the allowable stresses
for some typical simple cross-sections. For convenience the design charts have been
grouped according to shape. In addition, the necessary equations are included for
calculating the torsional-flexural buckling stress, <TTFO, for the general case of a nonsymmetrical cross-section subjected to concentric loading.

2.1 Design Procedures


2.1.1 Axially Loaded Compression Members [Spec. Sec. 3.6.1]*

Most axially loaded compression members fail either as a result of flexural


buckling or due to torsional-flexural buckling. For simplification, purely torsional
buckling, a rare and unimportant mode of failure, is not considered here. The crosssectional shapes considered are divided into three categories: those that fail by flexural
buckling, those that fail by torsional-flexural buckling, and those that can fail in either
mode depending on their dimensions.
2.1.1.1 Shapes Subject Only to Flexural Buckling [Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1]

Doubly-symmetric shapes, closed cross-sectional shapes, point-symmetric


Z-sections and other point-symmetric sections and members braced against
rotation fail only by flexural buckling. The allowable average axial stress, Fal
(=p / A) for these shapes may be obtained graphically from Charts 3.6.1.1 (A) or
(B) in Part V of the Manual, or analytically as follows:
(a) For all sections not covered by paragraph (b) below:
if KL < ~. F = 0.522QF. _ (
~

111

QF~.KL/r
1494

if J(L 2:: ~
_ 151,900
V<f' Fnl - (KL/r) 2
r
in which,
Fal = allowable average compression stress (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1), ksi
Cc = Y27r2E/F~.
F, = yield point of steel, ksi
E' = modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
K = effective length factor
L = unbraced length of member, in.
r = radius of gyration of full unreduced cross-section, in.
Q = factor defined in Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1
(b) When Q = 1.0 and the steel thickness is equal to or greater than 0.09 in. and
KL/r<C c :
[ 1-

Fal = 5

(~~~~']

3 (KL/r)

-+
3
8

(C e )

Fy

(KL/r) 3
8(C e )3

2.1.1.2 Shapes Subject to Flexural or Torsional-Flexural Buckling [Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2.1 (a)]

Singly-symmetric shapes of open cross-section or intermittently fastened


singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes can fail by flexural or torsionalflexural buckling. The curves in Charts 3.6.1.2( A) of the Manual make it possible to
determine which of the two modes of failure is critical for a given member. **
*Information in brackets identifies the section of the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members which deals with the same topic.
**If it is desired to use only algebraic expressions and no charts in the determination of the allowable
stress, as would be the case when a computer program is used, both the allowable stress for
flexural buckling and the allowable stress for torsional-flexural buckling must be evaluated
according to Section 2.1.1.2.1 and 2.1.1.2.2 in this procedure and the smaller of the two used to
design the member.

Supplementary Information to the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

2.1.1.2.1 Flexural Buckling

If the curves in Chart 3.6.1.2(A) predict failure by flexural buckling, the


allowable average axial stress is determined in accordance with Section 2.1.1.1 above.
2.1.1.2.2 Torsional-Flexural Buckling

If the curves predict failure by torsional-flexural buckling, the allowable


average axial stress Fa!?, is calculated as follows:
(a) Determine the torsional-flexural buckling stress, O'TFO, either analytically
or graphically as outlined in (i) and (ii) below,
(i) Analytical solution for O'TFO:
1. Calculate section properties using Section 2.2.1 (Subroutine I).
2. Calculate TFO using Section 2.2.2 (Subroutine II).
(ii) Graphical solution for

O'TFO:

1. Determine ratios of centerline dimensions as necessary, namely


cia and b/a.
2. Obtain Cx/a: 2 from Chart 3.6.1.2(B), a ex is then given by
O'ex=

Cx ) ( a )
( 8: 2
KL

3. Obtain

O"to

(!

Chart 3.6.1.2(D),
O"t

= (

O"~:')

from Chart 3.6.l.2(C) and CT/s' from


O't

is then given by

( :-)' + ( ~: ) (:L ),

4. Determine R = atlO'ex and obtain F from Chart 3.6.1.2(E),


O'TFO is then given by aTFO = F O'ex.
(b) The allowable average axial stress Fa2 (=p I A) is given by

F2

Fa2 = 0.522Fy - 767-1"- - if

F II~
Fa2

a'J'FO

a'I'FO

> O.5Fy

= 0.522 aTI<'O

if a'l'F'O ::; 0.5F y in which,


allowable average axial stress (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2)
aTFO = elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress
Use above formulas if Q = 1.0 or replace F y with QF y if Q< 1.0.
=

2.1.1.3 Shapes Subject Only To Torsional-Flexural Buckling [Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2.1 (bJ]

Shapes, whose cross-sections do not have any symmetry, either about an axis
or about a point fail only by torsional-flexural buckling. For these sections a'l'FO can be
determined either by rational analysis (Section 2.1.1.3.1 below) or by testing
according to Section 6 of the Specification. The allowable average axial stress Fn!? is
then determined by Section 2.1.1.2.2 (b) above.
2.1.1.3.1 Torsional-Flexural Buckling of Non-Symmetrical Shapes

For a non-symmetric section, the elastic torsional-flexural buckling stress,


is less than the smallest of the Euler buckling stresses about the x- and
y-axes and the torsional buckling stress. The value of 0' TFO can be obtained from
the following equation by trial and error:

0' TFO,

a'ITO

-0'-=1
t

The following equation may be used for a first approximation:


0'

TFO -

(O'.. xaI'Y + O'l'XO't + al'ya t )


2 ( q.x'Y + a py f3 + O't)

vi (a

I'X

0'I'~'

0'I'X a t

a1'.'- a)
t 2

4 (0'I'X 0' I'~' 0')


t

( 0'I'X 'Y

+ a 1'~-fJf.J + 0' t )

111-9

111-10

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification


2

(J

1 [ GJ
ECw] k .
== ~+ 7T(KL)
2
,
SI

=1 =1 =1 -

(xo/ ro) 2 - (Yo/ ro) 2


(yolro) 2
f3
(xolro) 2
E = modulus of elasticity = 29,500 ksi
L = unbraced length of compression member, in.
rx = radius of gyration of cross-section about the x-axis, in.
ry = radius of gyration of cross-section about the y-axis, in.
ro = polar radius of gyration of cross-section about the shear center, in.
Ip = polar moment of inertia about shear center, in.4 = Aro2 = Ix + Iy + AXo2 + Ay,,2
G = shear modulus = 11,300 ksi
J = St. Venant torsion constant of the cross-section, in. 4 For open sections
composed of n segments of uniform thickness\= (1/3) (llt 13 + l:lt 2 3 + ... +l.tn3)
Cw = warping constant of torsion of the cross-section, in. 6
II = length of cross-section middle line of segment i, in.
t l = wall thickness of segment i, in.
Xo = distance from shear center to centroid along the principal x-axis, in.
Yo = distance from shear center to centroid along the principal y-axis, in.
For any section, the values of xo, Yo and Cw can be computed from the
following relationships (terms are defined in Fig. 2-1) :
P
y

Xo =

I~

I!

W,.yt ds, in.

Yo --

1 fl
-T

CW=

I!

.
W,.Xt ds, In.

(w,,) 2t ds

-1 [I!

w"t dS]

~ in. 6

where Ix and Iy = centroidal moments of inertia of the cross-section about the


principal x- and y-axes, in.4
A = total area of the cross-section, in. 2
t = wall thickness, in.
=

I,~

R(. ds, in.

w" =

f(~

R" ds, in.

We

x and y

the coordinates measured from the centroid to any point P


along the middle line of the cross-section, in.
y

- -x0

---------j

x
C.G.

;xs

C.G. = Centroid
S.C. = Shear Center

Fig. 2-1 Non-Symmetric Cross-Section

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

distance measured along middle line of cross-section from one


end to the point P, in.
l = total length of the middle line of the cross-section, in.
Rc and Ro = perpendicular distances from the centroid (C.G.) and shear
center (S.C.), respectively, to the middle line at P. Rc or Ro is
positive if a vector tangent to the middle line at P in the
direction of increasing s has a counter-clockwise moment about
C.G. or S.C. as shown in Fig. 2-1, in.
2.1.2 Members Subject to Axial Compression and Bending [Spec. Sec. 3.7]
Members subject to axial and bending stresses can fail either by yielding as a result
of continuous flexural beam-column behavior or by torsional-flexural buckling. The crosssectional shapes considered have been divided into three categories; those that need
only be designed for continuous flexural beam-column behavior, those that must be
designed considering the possibility of both continuous flexural beam-column behavior
and torsional-flexural buckling, and those whose mode of failure and strength must
be determined by tests.
2.1.2.1 Shapes Subject Only to Continuous Flexural Beam-Column Behavior
[Spec. Sec. 3.7.1]
Doubly-symmetric shapes, closed cross-sectional shapes, point-symmetric
shapes and members braced against rotation fail by yielding as a result of
continuous flexural beam-column behavior. These sections shall be designed according
to one of the following formulas, as applicable:
=

if~::; 0.15; ~+ f hx + f"" ::; 1.0


Fnl

if ~,-nl > 0.15;

F III

F hx

:' + (
111

F hr

C"'t

1 - -F,ll

F hx

+(

PX

Cor:f'' ) Fh~ < 1.0

1- F" "

pY

or for points braced in plane of bending.

if }:! > 0.15;


_fn_ + ~x_ !'!;r_< 1 0
Fa!
Fuo
F blx
FillY - .
where the subscripts x and y in the above formulas indicate the axis about which
the bending takes place and
fa = applied axial stress, P I A, ksi
fb = applied maximum bending stress, MI S, ksi
F al = maximum allowable axial stress in compression when only axial stress
exists (Section 2.1.1.1 of this procedure), ksi
Fb = maximum allowable bending stress when only bending stress exists
(Spec. Secs. 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3), ksi
Cm = factor defined in Spec. Sec. 3.7.2
F'e = (127f 2E) I (23 (KL,j rb) 2) or 1.33 times this according to
Spec. Sec. 3.1.2 ksi
F no = allowable compressive stress determined in accordance with Section
2.1.1.1 of this procedure, when L = 0, ksi
FbI = maximum allowable bending stress when only bending stress exists and
the possibility of lateral buckling is excluded (Spec. Sees. 3.1 and 3.2), ksi
2.1.2.2 Shapes Subject to Beam-Column Behavior and to Torsional-Flexural Buckling
[Spec. Sec. 3.7.2]
Singly-symmetric shapes (e.g., see Figs. 2-2 through 2-8) or intermittently
fastened singly-symmetric components of built-up shapes subject to bending applied
in the plane of symmetry fail either by yielding as a result of continuous flexural
beam-column behavior or by torsional-flexural buckling. Since it is not possible to
determine readily which mode governs, allowable stresses must be calculated for both
in accordance with Sections 2.1.2.2.1 and 2.1.2.2.2; the smaller of the two allowable
stresses governs.
2.1.2.2.1 Continuous Flexural Beam-Column Behavior [Spec. Sec. 3.7.2(i)]

To safeguard the member against failure by continuous flexural beamcolumn behavior it must be designed according to one of the following formulas,
as applicable:

111-11

111-12

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

~ + -~-::; 1.0
Fat

if J~ ::; 0.15

Fhl

if ~ > 0.15

F al

Fal

~+
F n1

fhC m

F (1- _f~)

::;

1.0

F'e
or for points braced in plane of bending.
bl

if

_h > 0.15
Fa1

__fa_+_f~::; 1.0
Fno

Fhl

The symbols fa, f b, F b, Fao, Fat, FbI, F'e, Cm are defined at the end of Section 2.1.2.1 of
this procedure.
2.1.2.2.2 Torsional-Flexural Buckling [Spec. Sec. 3.7.2(ii), (iii) and (iv)]

Depending on the location of the eccentrically applied load and the shape
of the cross-section, the allowable average axial stress can be determined in
accordance with Sections 2.1.2.2.2.1, 2.1.2.2.2.2 or 2.1.2.2.2.3, below.
2.1.2.2.2.1 Load on Side of Centroid Away From Shear Center, i.e., e is positive
[Spec. Sec. 3.7.2(;;)]

For any singly-symmetric section, if the point of application of


eccentric load is located on the side of the centroid opposite from that of the
shear center, the allowable average axial stress is calculated as follows:
(a) Determine the torsional-flexural buckling stress O"'l'F, either
analytically or graphically as outlined in (i) and (ii) below.
(i) Analytical solution for O"'l'F:
1. Calculate section properties Section 2.2.1 (Subroutine I).
2. Calculate O"t and O"'l'FO, using Section 2.2.2 (Subroutine II).
3. Calculate O"TF using Section 2.2.3 (Subroutine III) .
(ii) Graphical solution for O"n':
1. Determine ratios of centerline dimensions as necessary,
namely /3: and cia.
2. Obtain Cja 2 from Chart 3.6.1.2(B), (1ex is given by
0"

ex -

Cx)
( KL
a )
3:

3. Obtain

u t"

(}) ,

Chart 3.6.1.2(D),
O"t

=~tt~2 (

from Chart 3.6.1.2(C) and CT/li' from


O"t

is then given by

i )2+ (i: )(:L

4. Determine R = O"t/O"px and obtain F from Chart 3.6.1.2(E),


O"TFO is then given by O"TFO = F O"ex.
5. Obtain W from Chart 3.7.2( A) and use R = O"tl O"px to
obtain G1 from Chart 3.7.2(B). MT is then given by
MT =
A O"ex a WGt, in which A is the area of the
cross-section.
6. Calculate 0"1' using the expression
2
2
0"1' = (7T E) I(KI.JjJrb)
where
K~ = effective length in plane of bending, in.
rb = radius of gyration about axis of bending, in.
7. Calculate
1

= (0

cp:!. =

TFO)

(OTFO

(0" .. )

+ 0"(') +

CTFeA

-M---- CPl
T

where
e
= eccentricity of applied load with respect to centroid,
e is negative when on shear center side of
centroid, in.
CTF = coefficient defined in Spec. Sec. 3.7.2.

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

8. Calculate

(]TF

(]TF

= ~ [ ep'2 -

vep g - 4epl ]

(b) The allowable average axial stress Fa is given by:


Fe!
if (]TF > 0. 5Fn Fa = 0.522Fy - 767
Y

if

(]TF

(]TF

:s; 0.5F y , Fa = 0.522 (]TF

Use above formulas if Q

using the expression

1.0 or replace Fy with QFy if Q

< 1.0.

2.1.2.2.2.2 Load Between Centroid and Shear Center, i.e., e is Negative


[Spec. Sec. 3.7.2 (iii) and (iv) (a)]
If the point of application of the eccentric load is located between the
shear center and the centroid the allowable average axial stress is
determined as follows:
(a) Calculate F a2 , the allowable average axial stress considering
torsional-flexural buckling under concentric loading, according
to Section 2.1.1.2.2 of this procedure.
(b) Calculate Fat, the allowable average axial stress for flexural
buckling in the plane of symmetry under concentric loading
according to Section 2.1.1.1 of this procedure.
(c) If Fal < F a2 , torsional-flexural buckling need not be considered
and the allowable average axial stress is F al .
(d) If Fal > F a'2, torsional-flexural buckling must be considered.
Depending on the cross-sectional shape the allowable average
axial stress is determined according to (i) or (ii) below.
(i) Any Singly-Symmetric Section Except an I-Section with
Unequal Flanges or a T-Section [Spec. Sec. 3.7.2.(iii)]
For any singly-symmetric section except an I-section with
unequal flanges or a T-section, the allowable average axial stress
is calculated as follows:
1. Calculate the average allowable compression stress when
the load is applied at the shear center according to Section
2.1.2.2.1 of this procedure. Let FUE be equal to this stress.
2. The allowable average axial stress F Uis given by
Fa = Fa2 + e/xo (FilE - F a'2)
where e is the eccentricity of the applied load in inches and
Xo the distance between centroid and shear center. The
distance Xo can be obtained analytically from Section 2.2.1
(Sub-routine I).
(ii) I-Sections With Unequal Flanges or T -Sections
1. Calculate the average allowable compression stress when
the load is applied at the shear center according to
Sections 2.1.2.2.1 and 2.1.2.2.2.3 of this procedure. Let
F aC be equal to the smaller of the two.
2. The allowable average axial stress, Fa is given by

Fa = Fa:! + e/xo (F aE - Fa:!)


where e is the eccentricity of the applied load and Xo the
distance between centroid and shear center, both in inches.
The distance Xo can be obtained analytically from Section 2.2.1
(Subroutine I).
2.1.2.2.2.3 Load on Side of Shear Center
[Spec. Sec. 3.7.2(iv)(b)]

Aw~y

From Centroid

If the point of application of the eccentric load is located on the side of


the shear center opposite from that of the centroid, the allowable average axial
stress is determined, depending on the cross-sectional shape, according to
(a) or (b) below:

III-13

111-14

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(a) Any singly-symmetric section except an I-section with unequal


flanges or a T-section fails as a result of continuous flexural
beam-column behavior. The allowable average axial stress for
these sections is determined according to Section 2.1.2.2.1 of
this procedure.
(b) For I-sections with unequal flanges or T-sections the allowable
average axial stress is determined as follows:
(i) The torsional-flexural buckling stress O'n', is calculated as
follows:
1. Calculate section properties using Section 2.2.1
(Sub-routine 1).
2. Calculate O'TF using Section 2.2.4 (Sub-routine IV).
(ii) The allowable average axial stress Fa is given by:
for

F:!

O"n'

> 0. 5Fn F n = 0.522F y -7 67 O'TI-'


y

for 0"'1" ::::: 0.5F~. , Fa = 0.5220''1'F


Use above formulas if Q = 1.0 or replace

F~.

by QF y if Q < 1.0.

2.1.2.3 Shapes Whose Strength Must be Determined by Tests [Spec. Sec. 3.7.4]

Singly-symmetric shapes subject to axial compression and bending applied


out of the plane of symmetry and non-symmetrical sections subject to combined
axial compression and bending, must be designed in accordance with Spec. Sec. 6.2.
2.2 Algebraic Subroutines
2.2.1 Subroutine I, Calculation of Section Properties

Algebraic expressions are included for the properties of the following simple
cross-sections: angles with and without lips, channels with and without lips, hat
sections, I-sections with unequal flanges, T-sections and Z-sections.
The following explanatory comments on Subroutine I should be noted:
(1) Three different types of dimensions are employed: capital letters (A) for
outside dimensions, lower case barred letters (a) for centerline dimensions,
lower case letters (a) for flat dimensions. The flat dimensions are required
to obtain properties such as I where corners are assumed to be round. The
centerline dimensions are needed for torsional properties such as C"" where
corners are assumed to be square. The outside dimensions are shown because
they are the dimensions usually given in tables.
(2) All expressions consider the sections to contain round corners with the
exception of those for some torsional properties (m, j and CII')' These
expressions' are based on a square corner approximation with the
exception that round corner values are used for quantities such as moment
of inertia which appear in the torsional property expressions. However,
allowable stresses calculated by this procedure are sufficiently accurate for
routine engineering design of sections with small ratios of corner radius
to thickness.
(3) In the moment of inertia calculations, all quantities are accounted for except
the moment of inertia of a flat element about its own axis when this is the
weak axis. Moments of inertia of corners about their own axis are included to
provide for the case of sections with large corner radii.
(4) All expressions are given for the full sections, i.e. Q = 1.

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

2.2.1.1 Equal Angles, [SinglySymmetric], With and Without Lips


y

I
I

- - - x

C.G.
S.C.

= Centroid
= Shear Center
Equal Angle (Singly-Symmetric)
Without Lips
Fig. 2-3

Equal Angle (Singly-Symmetric) With Lips


Fig. 2-2

NOTE: The x and y axes defined in Fig. 2-2 and Fig. 2-3 are referred to as the x2 and Y2 axes in
Table 7 and 8 of the Tables of Section Properties, Part V of the Design Manual.

1. Basic Parameters,
a = A' - [r + t/2 + a (r + t/2)] *
a = A' - [t/2 + at/2]

C = a [C' - (r + t 12) ]
C=a [C'-t/2]

u = 1.57r
2. Cross-sectional area
A = t [2a + u + a (2c + 2u)]
3. Moment of inertia about x-axis
Ix = 2t (a [-i-(a/2 + r)2 + .0417a 2] + .143r 3 + a [c(+ (r + a - C/2)2
+ .0417c 2) + u (.707a + .898r) 2 + .014r 3)
4. Distance between centroid and centerline of corner

x = ~.! a (.353a + .293r) + ~. (.102r) +


+u(.707a+r)]

[c(.707a + .353c + 1.707r)

5. Moment of inertia about y-axis


1,1 = 2t (a(.353a + .293r)2 + .0417a 3 + .015r 3 + a [u(.707a + r):!
-+ .353c + 1.707r) 2 + .0417c3 + .285r:'] } - A (x) 2
6. Distance between shear center and center line of corner
2-)
m= ta-(c):!
- - (3a-c

3v!z I x
7. St. Venant torsion constant
3

t
= -3-

[2a + u +

+ 2u)]

(2c

. constant Cw = ----1~t2 00 4 (C) 3 (4-a + 3c-)


8. WarpIng
9. Distance from centroid to shear center Xu = - (x + m) **
10. Parameter used to determine elastic critical moment
j

= .i~~.

[(a) 4

+ 4 (8:)

(c) - 6 (8:) 2 (c) 2

*For sections with lips, a = 1.0; for sections without lips, a = 0


**Negative sign indicates Xo is measured in negative x direction.

(c) 4]

Xo

+ c(.707a

III-IS

111-16

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

2.2.1.2 Channels [Singly-Symmetric] With and Without Lips and Hat Sections [SinglySymmetric]

1. Basic Parameters
a = A' - (2r + t)
a= A'-t
b = B' - [r + t/2 + ex (r + t/2)]
b = B' - [t/2 + ext/2J
c = ex [e' - (r + t/2) J
c= ex [C' - t/2J
u = 1.57r
~--B'-----

f-----

--

b- --b

cf'{f
A'

a IS.C.

L~

--: :~T---'

--. C

c
-

s.c.

--I'~. -_--.x

'*'"

Channel (Singly-Symmetric) With Lips

Fig. 2-4

C.G.
S.C.

C'

= Centroid
= Shear Center

Channel (Singly-Symmetric) Without Lips


Fig. 2-5

Hat Section (Singly-Symmetric)

Fig. 2-6

NOTE: The x and y axes defined in Fig. 2-6 are referred to as the x2 and Y2 axes in Table 9 of the Tables
of Section Properties, Part V of the Design Manual.

2. Cross-sectional area A = t [a + 2b + 2u + ex (2c + 2u) ]


3. Moment of inertia about x-axis
Channel:
Ix = 2t {.0417a3 + b(a/2 + r)2 + u(a/2 + .637r) 2 + 0.149r 3
c
+ ex [.0833c3 + 4"
(a - c) 2 + u (a/2 + .637r) 2 + 0.149r 3 ]
Hat Section: Ix

= 2t~ .0417a

+ b (a/2 + r) + u (a/2 + .637r) + 0.149r


2

+ " [.0833c' + ~ (a + c + 4r)' + u (a/2+ 1.363r)' + O.149r


4. Distance between centroid and web centerline

x= ~ {b(b/2+r)

+u(.363r) +ex [u(b+1.637r) +c(b+ 2r)]}

3
])

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

5. Moment of inertia about y-axis


Iy = 2t {b(b/ 2 + r)2 + .0833b3 + .356r3 + a [c (b + 2r)2 + u (b + 1.637r) 2
+ .149 r :l] } - A (X)2
6. Distance between shear center and web centerline
m = bt [6c(a)2 + 3bOi)2 - 8(C)3]
12Ix
7. Distance between centroid and shear center
XI) = - (x + m)*
8. St. Venant torsion constant
3

t
= S[a
+ 2b + 2u +

a(2c + 2u)]

9. Warping constant
a) Channel with lips:
C = ~ ~ xA (3:) 2
w
A~
t

(~L +

2 _

b]

+ _~_[ (m)2(a)3+(b)2(C)2(2C+3a)]- Ix~2

(2a+4c)

[8(b)'(C) +2m (2C(c-a) +b(2C-3a)] +


[ (3c + b) (4c + a) - 6(C)'] -

+m~C)2

(b)~(a)'

m'~a)'l

Channel without lips:


2

C - ta b
w 12

.l?J> + 2a)
61) + a

10. Parameter f3w


/3\1' = - [.0833 (tx (a) 3) + t (x) 3a]
11. Parameter f3f
/3f =

(b -

x)

12. Parameter f3,


a) Channel: f3,

(x) 4

+ t

(!)

2 [

<1> -

x) 2

(x) 2 ]

_ _

= 2ct

_. 2 - _ _
'\
_ ,) _ 3
(b - X)3 + 3t(b - x) [(a / 2) - (a/ - - c) ]

b) Hat Section: f3t = 2ct (0 - x):J +

it

(1) - x) [ (3: '2

+ C):I

- (a 2) :1]

13. Parameter used in determination of elastic critical moment


.

J=

1
2t;

f3w + f3f + f3,) -

XII

2.2.1.3 I-Sections With Unequal Flanges [Singly-Symmetric] and T-Sections


[Si ngly-Symmetric]

1. Basic Parameters
a = A' - [r + t/2 + a(r + t/2)]**
a = A' - [t/2 + at/2]
b = B' - (r + t/2)
b = B' - t/2
c = arc' - (r + t/2)]
c= arC' -t/2]
u = 1.57r
*For I-sections a =1.0; for T-sections a = 0
**Negative sign indicates Xo is measured in negative x direction.

III-17

111-18

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

2. Cross-sectional area
A = t[2a + 2b + 2u + a(2c + 2u)]
3. Moment of inertia about x-axis
Ix = 2t{b(b/2 + r + t/2)2 + .0833b3 + u(.363r + t/2)2
+ .149r3 + a[c(c/2 + r + t/2) 2 + .0833b3 + u(.363r

+ t/2)2

+ .149r

3
]}

I-Section With Unequal Flanges (Singly-Symmetric)


Fig. 2-7

C.G.
S.C.

= Centroid
= Shear Center

T-Section (Singly-Symmetric)
Fig. 2-8

4. Distance between centroid and longer flange centerline

x = ~ !U(.363r)

+ a(a/2 + r) + a[u(a+1.637r)+c(a+2r)]1

5. Moment of inertia about y-axis


Ir = 2t{.358r 3 + a(a/2 + r)2 + .0833a3 + a[u(a + 1.637r) 2
+ .149r3 + c(a + 2r)2]} - A(X)2
6. Distance between shear center and longer flange centerline
__ (
m- a

(1) 3
1 - (b) 3 + (c) 3

7. Distance between shear center and centroid


Xc, = - (x - m)*
*Negative sign indicates

Xo

is measured in negative x direction.

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

8. St. Venant torsion constant


2t3
J = g [ a + b + u + a(u + c)]
9. Warping constant
For I-Sections the value of Cw is twice the value of each channel if
fastened at the middle of the webs; however, if the two channels are
continuously welded at both edges of the web to form the I-Section,
the warping constants are as follows:
Unlipped I-Sections and T -Sections
_ tii2 ( 8 (6) 3 (c) 3 )
w
C - 12 (13 + (C)3
For double symmetric, lipped I-Sections
c = length of lip, see Fig. 2-4
Cw = t(~)2 a)2b + 3(a)2c + 6a(c)2 + 4(C)3)
10. Parameter used in determination of elastic critical moment
j

= 2~y {-2XbX)2+
+

(b)2/3) + 2c(a-x)[(a-x)2+ (c)2/3]

[(1 - x) 4 - (x) 4] } -

Xo

y
X2

/
~

_J

11
1 1

c c'

Y'r~
I

1
~I
~

A'

A'

.. x

__ x
C.G., S.C.

"~

I
I

)'

L:!:~E::==::I?I
C.G. = Centroid
S.C. = Shear Center

Z-Section (Point-Symmetric) Without Lips


Fig. 2-10

Z-Sections (Point-Symmetric) With Lips


Fig. 2-9

2.2.1.4 Z-Sections (Point-Symmetric) With and Without Lips

1. Basic parameters
a = A' - (2r + t)
a=A'-t
b = B' - [r + t/2 + a(r + t/2)] *
b = B' - [t/2 + at/2]
c = arC' - (r + t/2)]
c = arC' - t/2]
u= 1.57r
2. Cross-sectional area
A = t[a + 2b + 2\1 + a(2c + 2u)]
3. Moment of inertia about x-axis
Ix = 2t{.0417as + b(a/2 +r)1I + u (a/2

+ .637r) + .149r
c
3
+ a[.149r + u(a/2 + .687r)1+ .OS83c + 4(a
- C)2]}
2

*For sections with lips, a = 1.0, for sections without lips, a

111-19

III-20

Supplementary Information to the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

4. Moment of inertia about y-axis


Iy = 2t{b (b/2 + r) 2 + .0833b3 + .356r3 + a[c (b + 2r) 2
+ u (b + 1.637r) 2 + .149r3 ] }
5. Product of inertia (See note below)
Ixy = 2t{b (a/2 + r) (b/2 + r) + .5r3 + .285 ar 2 + a[C (2r + b)
(a/2 - c/2) - .137r3 + u (b + 1.637r) (.5a + .637r)]}
6. Location of principal axis (See note below)
21xy
2 () = arct an Iy - Ix
7. Moment of inertia about X2 axis (See note below)
IX2 = IxCOS2(} + l y sin 2(} - 2l xy sin(} cos(}
8. Moment of inertia about Y2 axis (See note below)
l y2 = Ixsin2(} + lycos 2(} + 2l xy sin(} cos(}
Note: The algebraic signs in Formulas 5, 6, 7 and 8 are correct
for the cross-section oriented with respect to the coordinate
axes as shown in Fig. 2-9 and Fig. 2-10.
9. Radius of gyration about any axis
r

= v'I7A

10. Minimum radius of gyration, about X2 axis


rrnlll=~

11. St. Venant torsion constant


J

t3

3 [a + 2b + 2u +

(2c + 2u)]

12. Warping constant

\.~

+ 2a1) + 4 a be + 6 ac) + 4 a (c)


+ 3al) + 4hc + 2ac + (c)~)]/(a + 2b + 2c)

Cw = t

[(a) 2 ( (b) 2

(3 (it) 2

2.2.2 Subroutine II, Calculation of Torsional and Torsional-Flexural Buckling Stresses


Concentric Loading

1. Radius of gyration about x-axis squared


= I,/A
2. Radius of gyration about y-axis squared
r 2y = I y / A
'
3. Distance between centroid and shear center

r:

Xo

=-

(x

+ m)

4. Polar radius of gyration about shear center squared


r2o = r2x + r2Y + x 2
0

5. Shape factor
f3 = 1 - (xo/ro) 2
6. Flexural buckling stress about x-axis
7l"2E
<Tel(

= (KL/ rJ"2

7. Torsional buckling stress


<Tt

A1? [11,300 (J)

r-o

+ 7l"2EC w /

(KL) 2]

8. Torsional-flexural buckling stress


a""o

~ ~/3

[ (a" + at) -

V (a.. + at)' -

4/3 a, a" ]

2.2.3 Subroutine III, Calculation of Torsional- Flexural Buckling Stress for Eccentric
Loading, Load Applied on Side of Centroid Opposite from Shear Center, i.e., e Is
positive
77'2E

1. Flexural buckling stress about axis of bending

<Te

(KLb/rb) 2

fOI

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

2. Elastic critical moment for positive eccentricity


MT = - Auex
vlj2 + r:(ut/uex)]

[j -

3. Buckling stress parameters

</>1

= UTFOUe
_

</>2 -

UTFO

CTFeA
+ Ue ) + M:;</>1 *

4. Torsional-flexural buckling stress

UTF = 1

I</>2 -

vi</>: -

4</>1]

2.2.4 Subroutine IV, Calculation of Torsional- Flexural Buckling Stress for Eccentric
Loading, Load Applied on Side of Shear Center Opposite from Centroid; i.8., 8 is
negative
1. Flexural buckling stress about axis of bending
2
7r E
e
U = (K~/rb) 2
2. Elastic critical moment for negative eccentricity

r:

[j

= - AO"ex + vir + (Uti O"f'x) ]


3. Buckling stress parameters
Me

</> _
3 -

upxueMe
CTI..Axoupx -

M(.

Me (U . + O"px) + Gn,AO"('XUe (e - x o) **
Me - C,fFAxoO"ex
4. Torsional-flexural buckling stress
</>4 =

O"n'

= J [ </>4 - Vc/>: + 4</>3 ]

SECTION 3-LATERALLY UNBRACED COMPRESSION FLANGES


There are many situations in cold-formed steel structures where a flexural member is
so shaped or connected that it will not buckle laterally as a unit, but where the
compression flange or flanges themselves are laterally unbraced and can buckle separately
by a deflection of the compression flange relative to the tension flange, accompanied by
out-of-plane bending of the web and the rest of the section. Examples of such situations
are the following: Use of hat sections as flexural members in such a manner that the
"brims" are in compression; use of a sheet-stiffener combination in bending in such a
manner that the sheet is in tension and the flanges of the stiffeners in compression, etc.
An accurate analysis of such situations is extremely complex and beyond the scope of
routine design procedures. The method outlined below is based on considerably
simplifications of an exact analysis. Its results have been checked against more than a
hundred tests. It has been found that discrepancies rarely exceed 30 percent on the
conservative to 20 percent on the unconservative side. Thus, this method allows a
reasonable estimate of allowable design strength to be made which, if desired, can be
further improved by test.
For ease of explanation, the design procedure is presented in the following nine steps:
(1) Determine the location of the neutral axis and define as the "equivalent column"
the portion of the beam from the extreme compression fiber to a level which is
( 3c12~e Ct ) d distance from th,eextreme compression fiber. In this expression
Cc and Ct are the distances from the neutral axis to the extreme compression and tension
fibers respectively; d is the depth of the section.
(2) Determine the distance, Yo, measured parallel to the web, from the centroid of the
equivalent column to its shear center. (If the cross-section of the equivalent column is of
angle or T-shape, its shear center is at the intersection of web and flange; if of channel
shape, the location of the shear center is obtained from Section 4.3 of the Specification.
If the flanges of the channel are of unequal width, for an approximation take w as the
mean of the two flange widths, or compute the location of the shear center by rigorous
methods.)

*1) e is positive in this relation


2) CTF is a coefficient defined in Spec. Sec.
*e is negative

9.7.~.

111-21

111-22

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(3) To determine the spring constant {3, isolate a portion of the member one inch long,
apply a force of .001 kip perpendicular to the web at the level of the column centroid, and
compute the corresponding laterial deflection D of that centroid. Then the spring
constant f3 = .001/D
(4) Calculate To = h/ (h + 3.4yo) where h is the distance from the tension flange to
the centroid of the equivalent column in inches.
(5) If the flange is laterally braced at two or more points calculate
P e = 290,000 I/L\ C =f3L2/P e, and L' = 3.7~(h/t)S
where I = moment of inertia of equivalent column about its gravity
parallel to web, in. 4 ,
L = unbraced length of equivalent column, in.
If C is smaller than or equal to 30, compute
Per = TPe[l +f3L2/(7I"2Pe)]
If C is larger than 30, compute
Per = TPe[0.60 + 0.635 -V /8 L 2 /Pe]
In both cases, T = To if L is equal to or greater than L'
T = LTo/L' if L is less than L'
(6) If the flange is braced at less than two points, compute
Per = To,/ 4,8EI
(7) Determine the slenderness ratio of the equivalent column,
(KL/r)eq = 490/V Perl Ae
where Ae = cross-sectional area of equivalent column.
(8) From paragraph (a) 'Of Section 3.6.1.1 of the Specification, compute the stress
Fal corresponding to (KL/r)eq, using Q = 1 and K = 1.
(9) The allowable compression bending stress is
Fb2 = 1.15Fal (cc/Yc) with a maximum of F
where
Ce = distance from neutral axis of beam to extreme compression fiber, in.
Ye = distance from neutral axis of beam to centroid 'Of equivalent column, in.
The application of this design procedure for beams having laterally unbraced
compression flanges is illustrated by Example No. 17 in Part IV of Design Manual.

..........,--

SECTION 4-SUMMARY OF SCOPE AND PRINCIPLE TENSILE PROPERTIES,


ASTM SPECIFICATIONS
ASTM
Designation
SCOPE

PRODUCT

GRADE

Fy.
ksi
(min)

This specification covers steel sheet of structural


(Ph"sical) nuality in coils and cut lengths, zinc-coated
(ga vanized . Sheet of this quality is intended primarily
where mechanical or structural ~rogerties of the base
metal are specified or required. uc properties or values include those indicated by tension, hardness. or
other commonly accepted mechanical tests. Sheet of
this quality can be produced in six grades, A through F,
according to the base metal mechanical requirements
prescribed in Table 2. Structural (phrsical) quality galvanized sheet islroduced with anI 0 the types of coating and coating esi~nations liste in the latest revision
of Specification A 5 5.

Sheet

A
B
C
D
E
F

33
37
40
50
80
50

45
52
55
65
82
70

30
33
36
40
45
50

30
33
36
40
45
50

49
52
53
55
60
65

Fu.
ksi
(min)

Percent
elonf;ation
in 2 mches
(min)

Lt
Fy

A 446-76
20
18
16
12
12

1.36
1.41
1.38
1.30
1.02
1.40

21 to 25
18 to 23
17 to 22
15 to 21
13 to 19
11 to 17

1.63
1.58
1.47
1.38
.1.33
1.30

A 570-79
This specification covers hot-rolled carbon steel sheet
and strip of structural 3uality in cut lengths or coils.
This material is intende for structural purposes where
mechanical test values are reguired, and is available in
a maximum thickness of 0.22 9 in. (5.8 mm) except as
limited by Specification A 568.

Sheet
and
Strip

Supplementary Information to the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

111-23

ASTM
Designation

Percent

F y,
ksi
(min)

Fu,
ksi
(min)

elon~ation

in 2 mches
(min)

~
Fy

SCOPE

PRODUCT

GRADE

This s~ecification covers high-strength, low-alloy, hotand co d-rolled sheet and strir in cut lenfiths or coils,
intended for use in structura and misce aneous purposes, where savings in weight or added durabilitI; are
Important. These steels have enhanced atmosp eric
corrosion resistance and are supplied in two types:
Type 2 having corrosion resistance at least two times
that of plain carbon steel and Type 4 having corrosion
resistance at least four times that of plain carbon steel.
The degree of corrosion resistance is based on data acceptable to the consumer.

Sheet
and
Strip

Hot Rolled
-As Rolled
Cut Lengths

50

70

22

1.40

Hot Rolled
-As Rolled
Coils

45

65

22

1.44

65

22

1.44

65

22

1.44

Hot-Rolled 25
Cold-Rolled 22
Hot-Rolled 22
Cold- Rolled 20
Hot-Rolled 20
Cold- Rolled 18
Hot-Rolled 18
Cold-Rolled 16
Hot-Rolled 16
Cold-Rolled 15
14

1.33

26
24
22
20

1.68
1.50
1.45
1.30
1.02

A 606-75

Hot Rolled
-Annealed
or
Normalized

Note: Type 2 cold-rolled material is intended to re~ace


ASTM Skecification A 374, for High-Strength owAlloy Co d-Rolled Steel Sheets and Strip, and ~pe 2
hot-rolled material is intended to reclace ASTM lIecification A 375, for Hi~h-Stren~t Low Alloy otRolled Steel Sheets and trip, whlCh appear in the 1971
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 3.

45

Cold Rolled
45

A 607-75
This specification covers hi~h-stren~th, low-alloy columbium and/or vanadium ot-rolle and cold-rolled
steel sheet and strip in either cut lengths or coils, intended for use in structural and miscellaneous hurposes, where greater strength and savings in weig tis
Important. This material is available in six strength
levels as provided for in Table 2. Atmospheric corrOSIOn
resistance of these steels (without copper specified) is
equivalent to plain carbon steel. With copper specified,
the atmospheric corrosion resistance is twice that of
plain carbon steel.

Sheet
and
Strip

45

45

60

50

50

65

55

55

70

60

60

75

65

65

80

70

70

85

A
B
C
D
E

25
30
33
40
80

42
45
48
52
82

50

50

60

22 to 24

1.20

60

60

70

20 to 22

1.17

1.30
1.27
1.25
1.23
1.21

A 611-72 (1979)
This specification covers cold-rolled carbon structural
steel sheet, in cut lengths or coils. It includes five
strength levels designated as Grade A with yield point
25 000 Bsi (170 MPa) minimum; Grade B with 30 000 ~si
(210 M a) minimum; Grade C with 33 000 Bsi (230 M a)
minimum; Grade D with 40 000 psi (280 M a) minimum;
and Grade E with 80 000 psi (550 MPa) minimum.

Sheet

A 715-75
This specification covers high-strength low-alloy, hotrolled steel sheet and strip having improved formability
when compared with steels covered by Specifications
A 606 and A 607. The product is furnished as either cut
lengths or coils and is available in four strength levels,
Grades 50, 60, 70, and 80 (corresponding to minimum
yield point (see Table 2), and in seven ty*es (according
to chemical composition (see Table 1. ot all ~rades
are available in all types. The steel is killed, rna e to a
fine grain practice, and includes microalloying elements such as columbium, titanium, vanadium, zirconium, etc. The product is intended for structural and
miscellaneous applications where higher stren~th, savings in weight, lmproved formability, and we dability
are important.

Sheet
and
Strip

~M

American Iron and Steel Institute


1000 16th Street, N W
Washington, 0 C 20036

o
~

WI

....

~
I

:D

ILLUSTRATIVE
EXAMPLES
BASED ON THE SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE

SPECIFICATION
FORTHE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual-Part IV

t::;)M
_
_

AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE

1000 16th STREET NW


WASHINGTON, DC 20036

IV-2

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

The material presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information
only. This information should not be used without first securing competent
advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute - or of any
other person named herein - that this information is suitable for any
general or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent
or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

1st Printing-May 1983

Produced by W.P. Reyman Associates, Inc., New York


Copyrlgh~

American Iron and Steel Institute 1981

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

PREFACE

This document, Part IV of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, contains examples intended to illustrate the application of various provisions of the Specification, and
the use of the Charts and Tables and the Tables of Section Properties.
These Illustrative Examples should be used in conjunction with the other parts of
the Design Manual, which include Commentary (Part II), Supplementary Information (Part III), and Charts and Tables (Part V), in addition to the Specification (Part
I).
As a general rule, section properties are computed to three significant figures,
while dimensions are given to three decimal places. However, in some cases it was
impractical to adhere strictly to this guideline.
The weight of the sections is calculated based on steel weighing 40.80 pounds per
square foot per inch thickness.
Slight discrepancies should be expected between the calculated section properties
given in the examples and the tabulated values given in Part V of the Manual which
were calculated by computer.
For the design of compression members, results obtained by utilizing either the
graphical or the analytical procedure as outlined in Part I I I of the Manual will differ
somewhat. The reason for this is that in the graphical procedure, properties are computed assuming square corners for the section, while the analytical procedure is based
on round corners (except for the torsional properties given by C w j and m which are
based on square corners). In general, this will cause only small differ'e nces in the results
(see Examples No. 21 and 22). The exception occurs when dealing with angle sections.
The parameter x which is the distance between the centroid of the section and the
centerline of the corner is sensitive to the type of corner utilized. This causes discrepancies in the order of ten percent between the two procedures as illustrated by Example
No. 20.
The linear method outlined in Part I I I of the Manual is used for computing the
properties of formed sections.

American Iron and Steel Institute


May 1983

IV-3

IV-4

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-5

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART IV
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
BASED ON THE
SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE
SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Preface ..................................................................
Correlation of Specification and Illustrative Examples ...........................
Correlation of Supplementary Information and Illustrative Examples ...............

3
6
7

CALCULATION OF SECTION PROPERTIES (Using Linear Method)


Example 1. Steel Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Example 2. Wall Panel ....................................................
Example 3. Beam Section, Unstiffened Flanges ...............................
Example 4. Beam Section, Stiffened Compression Flange .......................
Example 5. Beam Section, Compression Flange with Intermediate Stiffener .......
Example 6. Beam and Wall Section ..........................................
Example 7. Beam Section, Composite ........................................
Example 8. Column Section, Doubly-Symmetric ...............................
Example 9. Column Section, Point-Symmetric ................................
Example 10. Column Section, Singly-Symmetric ...............................
Example 11. Column Section, Singly-Symmetric ...............................
Example 12. Column Section, Singly-Symmetric ...............................

8
14
17
20
21
23
25
29
30
32
34
36

UTILIZATION OF COLD WORK


Example 13. Beam Section .................................................. 38
BEAM DESIGN
Example 14. Beam, Un stiffened Flanges ........................ . ............
Example 15. Beam, Stiffened Flange .........................................
Example 16. Beam, Stiffened Flange .........................................
Example 17. Beam, Laterally Unbraced Compression Flanges ....................

39
39
41
42

COMPRESSION MEMBER DESIGN


Example 18. Column, Flexural Buckling, Combined Axial and Bending ............ 45
Example 19. Compression Member, Point Symmetric, Axially Loaded,

Allowable Load ................................................ 47


Example 20. Compression Member, Singly-Symmetric, Axially Loaded,

Allowable Load ................................................ 47


Example 21. Compression Member, Singly-Symmetric, Axially Loaded,

Allowable Load ................................................ 48


Example 22. Compression Member, Singly-Symmetric, Subjected to

Combined Axial and Bending Stresses, Allowable Load .............. 50


Example 23. Wall Stud, Flexural Buckling .................................... 53
CONNECTIONS
Example 24. Resistance Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Example 25. Connecting Two Channels .......................................
Example 26. Bolted Connections .............................................
Example 27. Arc Spot Welded Connections ....................................
Example 28. Arc Seam Welded Connection ....................................
Example 29. Lap Fillet Welded Connection ....................................
Example 30. Single Flare Bevel Groove Welded Connection ......................

55
56
58
59
61
62
63

MORE BEAM DESIGN


Example 31. Inelastic Reserve ............................................... 64

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-6

CORRELATION OF SPECIFICATION AND


ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
In the table below are shown the examples used to illustrate the application of the provisions of the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members. Examples placed in brackets merely contain incidental references
to the indicated Sections of the Specification.
Specification
Section No.

1.1
1.2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.1.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.2
2.3.2.1
2.3.2.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.2.1
3.1.2.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.1.1
3.6.1.2
3.6.1.3 .
3.6.2

Is Illustrated
in Example:

1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 13, 15, 16 and 18
1,2 and 5
1,2,5,6 and 7
1,2 and 5
2,4 and 7
1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7
9, 10, 11, 12 and 13
18
1,2,6,7,9,10,11,12,14
and 22
14 and 16
1,7 and 15
1 and 6
1,
7 and 15
[6], [8], [9], [10], [11],
[12], [13], 17, 18, 19,
21,22 and 23
[10], [11], [12], 20
and 21
21

Specification
Section No.

3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.8
3.9
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.1.2.2
4.2.1.2.3
4.2.1.2.4
4.2.1.2.5
4.2.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
4.5.7
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3

Is Illustrated
in Example:

18
22
22
31

27
28
29
30
24
[16] and 25
24

26
26
26
23
16
16

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

CORRELATION OF SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION AND


ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
The following examples are used to illustrate the application of the provisions of the
Supplementary Information on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Specification for the
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.
Section No. of
Cold-Formed Steel
Is lIIust.rated
Design Manual-Part III in Example:
1

1 thru 12
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.1.1
2.1.1.2
2.1.1.2.1
2.1.1.2.2
2.1.1.3
2.1.1.3.1
2.1.2
2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2
2.1.2.2.1
2.1.2.2.2
2.1.2.2.2.1
2.1.2.2.2.2
2.1.2.2;2.3
2.1.2.3
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2
2.2.1.3
2.2.1.4
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

19 and 21
20 and 21
21
20 and 21

22
22
22

10
11 and 12
9
20,21 and 22
22

17

IV-7

IV-8

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO.1

STEEL DECK
15.000" COVER WI DTH
7.500"

7.500"
5.000"
2.000"

1.000"

2.000"

0.0299"
x

7.22

ALL RADII = 1/8" inside

Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SE CTI 0 N: as shown in the sketch.

Required:

1. Section properties for positive and negative bending.


2. Allowable uniform load as controlled by either bending or deflection
when deck is continuous over three 10'0" spans. Deflection due to live
load is to be limited to 1/240 of span.

Solution:
(1) Section Properties

Elements

and

Radius to centerline, r = R + t/2 = 0.125 + 0.0299/2 = 0.140 in.


Angle () = 8247'40" = 1.445 radians sin () = 0.992 cos () = 0.125
Distance of C.g. from center of radius c = r sin () = 0.140 x 0.992
,1
()
1.445
Length of arc, u = 1.445 x 0.140
centroidal axis is negligible.
Element
n

of arc element about its own

= l sin () = 1.769 x 0.992 = 1.755 in. I' = l n 2/12 = 1.769 x

Element

(Eq. 2.3.2-1)

= 0.202 in. I'

= 0096
.
.
In.

(1.755) 2/12

= 0.454 in.

When the panel is subjected to negative bending, the stiffening lip is an


unstiffened compression element subject to the requirements of
Sections 2.3.2.1 and 3.2.
From Section 2.3.2.1 w /t = 1.500/0.0299 = 50.2 < 60 satisfactory
dDiin = 2.8t -{V ( w It) 2 - 4,000/F1 but not less than 4.8t
d m1n = 2.8 x 0.0299 ~ (1.500/0.0299) 2 - 4000/50 = 0.30 in. but not less than
4.8 x 0.0299 = 0.14 in.
dmin = 0.30 in. < 0.50 in. satisfactory

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

From Section 3.2 w/t = 0.500/0.0299:;:: 16.7 63.3/VF;""= 8.95 144/YF; = 20.36
Fe = Fy [0.767 - (2.64/10 3 ) (w/t) VF;] since 63.3/YF; < w/t < 144 VF;
Fe = 50 [0.767 - (2.64/10 3 ) (16.7)VOO] = 22.75 ksi

IV-9

(Eq.3.2-2)

Check allowable stress in element


when stiffened element
is stressed to
maximum allowable design stress of 30 ksi.
Assume Cl = 1.30 in. and C2 = 0.94 in.
Then F = 30 (C2/Cl) = 30 x (0.94/1.30) = 21.69 ksi < 22.75 ksi satisfactory
Element

For the arcs: () = 3618'50" = 0.634 radians


In = ()r = 0.634 x 0.140 = 0.089 in.
_ r sin () _ 0.140 x 0.592 - 0 131 .
Cl ()
0.634
-.
In.

sin ()

= 0.592

cos ()

= 0.806

I' of arcs about their own centroidal axes is negligible.


For the straight segments:
n = 1 sin () = 0.415 x 0.592 = 0.246 in.
1'1 = 2ln2/12 = 2 x 0.415 x (0.246)2/12 = 0.00418 in. 3

-,

1.000"

1'1 of element = 0.00418 + 4 x 0.0891 x (0.15 - r + cd 2 = 0.01126 in. 3


II = I'lt = 0.01126 x 0.0299 = 0.00034 in.4
From Sections 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.2.2
1111 ill = 2 x 1.83t4 Y(W/t)2 - 4000/F y but not less than 2 (9.2t4)

=2 x

1.83 x (0.0299) 41x

(2.00/0.0299) 2 - 4000/50
(0.0299) 4 = 0.000015 in.4
tllill = 0.00019 in.4 <0.00034 il!.4 satisfactory
L"t = 4ln + 2lb = 4 x 0.089 + 2 x 0.415!= 1.186 in.
For wit = 2.000/0.0299 = 66.89
Apt = aAKt or 4.t = aLllt (Section 2.3.1.2)
IlIIill

= 0.00019 in.4 but not less than 2 x 9.2

(Eq. 2.3.2-1)

(Eq.2.3.1-6)

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the ColdFormed Specification

IV10

(Eq. 2.3.1-7)

= (3 = (3 -

where a

2be/w) - 1/30 (1 - be/w) (wit)

2be /2.000) - 1/301(1 - be/2.000) (2.000 / 0.0299)1= 0.770 + 0.115be


Lef = (0.770 + 0.115be ) 1.186 = 0.913 + 0.136be
Element
a

wit = 0.25010.0299 = 8.36 63.3/YF; = 63.3/v~ = 8.95 > 8.36


Therefore, the allowable compressive stress is :
Fe = 0.60 Fy = 30 ksi (Section 9.!)
SECTION MODULUS FOR LOAD DETERMINATION -

POSITIVE BENDING

Since the neutral axis will be above the center of the cross section, the compression
stress is unknown. Furthermore, because the effective design width of the flat compres-.
sion elements is a function of stress, it will be necessary to determine the location of the
neutral axis by a series of approximations. To simplify the computations, the nonvarying elements
thru
will be tabulated initially.

Element

L
Effective Length
(in.)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Sum

0.250
2x1.500 = 3.000
4x 1.769 = 7.076
2x1.085*= 2.170
4xO.202 = 0.808
5xO.202 = 1.010
0.500
14.814

y
Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)

1'1

2.000
2.000
1.000
0.150
0.044
1.956
1.631

Ly
(in.2)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

0.500
6.000
7.076
0.326
0.036
1.976
0.816
16.730

1.000
12.000
7.076
0.049
0.002
8.864
1.330
25.321

About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

1.816

0.010
-1.826

*Lcf = 0.913 + 0.136b c (previously computed). From Chart ~.3.1.1.(B) with an assumed compressive stress
of 23 ksi and wit == 66.89, bIt == 43. From Section 2.3.1.~., b~ = 1.265 in.
Therefore, Let = 0.913 + 0.136 (1.265) = 1.085 in.

CD

Element
In accordance with Section 2.9.1.1. for load determination:
(Eq. 2.3.1-1)

~_ 253 [1 _

vr

t -

55.3
(wit)

55.3 ] = 7.565 [1 - 0.827/0]


66.89
Vi
Since wit = 66.89 is larger than 60, the effective width is to be reduced further in
accordance with Section 2.9.1.2:
b

(Eq.2.3.1-5)

253xO.0299 [1 -

Vi

b,./t = hi t - 0.10 (
bl'

=b -

vr

7- 60 )

0.10xO.0299 (66.89-60)

= b - 0.021 == 7:; [1-0.827/Vll - 0.021


L

= 4b.. =

30.260 [1-0.827/0] - 0.084

Vf

The maximum allowable tensile stress islF

=0.60F =0.60x50 = 30 ksi(Section 9.1)


7

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-ll

16.730
y=--

Lr

Assumed
fc
(ksi)

L
(in.)

Lr=
L+14.814
(in.)

30.00
22.80
21.50

4.605
5.156
5.277

19.419
19.970
20.091

Distance from
N.A. to
Center of
Top Flange
(in.)

f = fc (2.000 - y + t/2)
y + t/2

0.862
0.838
0.833

39.46 > 30 ksi


31.48 > 30 ksi
29.99 Satisfactory

Tensile Stress

Yeg = 0.833 in. (measured from center line of top flange)


I'x = 1'1 + Ly2 - Lry 2r ll = 1.826 + 25.321- 20.091 (0.833) 2 = 13.208 in. 3
Ix = I'xt = 13.208 (0.0299) = 0.395 in. per 15 in. of width
Ix = 0.395 (12/15) = 0.316 in. per foot of width
For load determination for positive bending:
Sx = Ix/ (2.000 - YCJr + t/2)= 0.316/ (2.00 - 00.833 + 0.0299/ 2)
= 0.267 in. 3 per foot of width
MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR DEFLECTION DETERMINATION -

Element

POSITIVE BENDING

CD

In accordance with Section 2.3.1.1 for deflection determination:

~
t

= 326 [
VI

1_

71.3
]
(w/t) yf

(Eq.2.3.1-3)

b ::..: 326 x 0.0299[ 1 _ ~~] = 9.747 [1 - 1.066/ v I ]


VI
66.89 Vf
Vi
Since w /t = 66.89 is larger than 60, the effective width is to be reduced
further in accordance with Section 2.3.1.2:
b('/t == b/t - 0.10

(7 - 60 )

b..

= b - 0.021 =

=4b. = 3~;;.o

9~

[1 - 1.066/ 0

[1 - 1.066/ 0

1 - 0.021

1 - 0.084
16.730
y=--

Lr

Assumed
fc
(ksi)

L
(in.)

Lr=
L+14.814
(in.)

21.50
19.00
19.30

6.390
6.673
6.637

21.204
21.487
21.451

Distance from
N.A.to
Center of
Top Flange
(in.)

f = f(, (2.000 - y + t / 2)
Y + t/2

0.789
0.779
0.780

33.19>30 ksi
29.61<30 ksi
29.99 satisfactory

Tensile Stress

= 0.780 in. (measured from center line of top flange)


I'x = 1'1 + Ly2 - Lry c" = 1.826 + 25.321- 21.451 (0.780) = 14.096 in.
Ix = I'xt = 14.096 x 0.0299 = 0.421 in. per 15 in. of width
Ix = 0.421 (12/15) = 0.337 in. per foot of width
Ye,

IV-12

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification


SECTION MODULUS FOR LOAD DETERMINATION -

NEGATIVE BENDING

Since the neutral axis will be above the center of the cross section, the compression
stress will control. It was shown previously that elements
and
are
satisfactory and will not require a width reduction.

Element

In accordance with Section 2.9.1.1 for a design compressive stress of 30 ksi:


= 50.17

wit = 1.500/0.0299

(Eq.2.8.1-1)

bit = 253
," [ 1 VJ.

55.3]
,a

(wit)

VJ.

= 36.902 (Chart 2.3.1.1. (B))

= 1.103 in.

y
Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)

Ly
(in. 2)

= 8.000

0.250
= 2.206
= 7.076
= 2.372
= 0.808
= 1.010
0.500
22.222

2.000
2.000
1.000
0.150
0.044
1.956
1.631

L
Effective Length
(in.)

Element

1'1

Ly2
(in. 3)

About
Own Axis
(in. 3)

0.500
4.412
7.076
0.356
0.036
1.976
0.816
15.172

1.000
8.824
7.076
0.053
0.002
3.864
1.330
-22.149

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Sum

YCfl

4x2.000
2x1.103
4x1.769
2 x 1.186
4xO.202
5xO.202

1.816

0.010
1.826

--

= 15.172/22.222 = 0.683 in.

I'x = 1'1 + Ly2 - Ly 2cg = 1.826 + 22.149 - 22.222 (0.683)2 = 13.611 in. 3
Ix = I'xt = 13.611 x 0.0299 = 0.407 in.4 per 15 in. of width
Ix = 0.407 (12/15, = 0.326 in.4 per foot of width
Sx = Ix/ (2.000 - Yeg + t/2) = 0.326/2.000 - 0.683 + 0.0299/2)
= 0.245 in. 3 per foot of width
MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR DEFLECTION DETERMINATION -

NEGATIVE BENDING

(Eq.2.3.1-3)

Element
In accordance with Section '2.3.1.1 for deflection determination:
~ = 326 [ 1 _
71.3
]
t
Vi
(w/t) Vi
bit = 44.1 for f = 30 ksi (Chart 2.3.1.1 (B))
b = 44.1t = 44.1 x 0.0299 = 1.318 in.
Compute the changes from the previous computation for load determination.
Element
3

X from Load
Determination
Sum

6L
(in.)
2 x (1.318 - 1.103)

(in.)

6Ly
(in. 2)

6Ly2
(in.3)

2.000

0.860

1.720

Y
=

0.430

22.222
22.652

15.172 22.149
16.032 23.869

61'
(in. 3)

1.826
1.826

IV-13

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Ycg

I'x
Ix
Ix

16.032 0 708 .
= 22.652
=. In.
= 1'1 + Ly2 - Ly2cg = 1.826 + 23.869 - 22.652 (0.708) 2 = 14.340 in.
::: I'xt = 14.340 x 0.0299 = 0.429 in.4 per 15 in. of width
= 0.429 (12/15) = 0.343 in.4 per foot of width

Summary.

Positive bending Ix = 0.337 in.4


Sx = 0.267 in. 3
Negative bending Ix = 0.343 in.4
Sx = 0.245 in. 3

(for deflection determination)


(for load determination)
(for deflection determination)
(for load determination)

(2) Compute Allowable Uniform Load

For a continuous deck over three equal spans, the maximum bending
moment is negative and occurs over the interior sup.ports. It is given by:
M = 0.100 wL 2 = fbS x
Therefore, the maximum uniform load is
30xO.245x10 3
fhS x
f
w = 0.100 L2
0.100x102x12 = 61.25 ps .
The maximum deflection is given by: II = 0.0069 wL 4/EI x and occurs at a
distance of 0.446L from the exterior supports.
This deflection is limited to

6.

= 2~0

Therefore, the maximum live load which will satisfy the deflection requirement is
given by:
6
EIx
29.5x10 xO.337
4169 f
3
WLL = 240XO.0069 L
= 240xO.0069x103x144 = . ps
Assuming a dead load of 10 psf for deck, insulation and roofing material,
the total uniform load is w = 41.69 + 10 = 51.69 psf < 61.25 psf.
Therefore, deflection controls and the allowable uniform load is 51.7 psf.
At the interior support there is a combination of web bending and web shear
forces, the effect of which is treated in Section 3.4.3.
h
= (2.00 - 0.0299) /cos 7.22 = 1.986 in.
From Section 3.4.1:
hit = 1.986/0.0299 = 66.4 from CHART V -3.4.1 (A),
Fv
= 16.2 ksi
V
= 0.600 x wL = 0.600 x 51.69 x 1.25 x 10/1000 = 0.388 kips
fv
= V / (area of webs @) ) = 0.388/ (4 x 1.986 x 0.0299) = 1.63 ksi
fv/Fv = 1.63/16.2 = 0.101
From Section 3.4.2.1 :
From Chart V-3.4.2( A),
F bw = 31.5 ksi
From Section 3.4.3 :
(fbw/FbW) 2 + (fv/Fv) 2 ::::; 1.0
The largest allowable value of (fbw/FbW) 2 is 1.0 - (fv/Fv) 2 = 1.0 - 0.10r

(Eq.3.4-1)
=

0.990

Solving for the allowable web bending stress,


f bw

F bw

V0.990 = 31.5 "0.990 = 31.2 ksi

Since this is greater than the actual compressive stress 30 x 51.69/61.25 = 25.3
ksi, the combined web bending and shear is satisfactory.

IV-14

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO.2

WALL PANEL

3.000"

3.000"

3.000"

3.000"

2.000"

14.000"

Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in the sketches.

Required:

Section properties for positive and negative bending.

Solution:

Linear Properties.

Elements

90 corners, r = R + t/2 = 0.125 + 0.030/2


Length of arc, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.140
Distance of C.g. from center of radius, Cl
Element
r
c}
n

and
= 0.140 in.
= 0.220 in.

= 0.637r = 0.637 x 0.140 = 0.089 in.

= 0.140 in. f) = 45 = 0.785 rad.

= r sin O/f) = 0.140 x 0.707/0.785 = 0.126 in.


= 0.350 - 2 x 0.140 (1 - cos 45) = 0.350 - 0.082 = 0.268 in.

0.350"

Element

(j)

0.932"

lb = 0.268/sin 45 = 0.379 in.


la = f)r = 0.785 x 0.140 = 0.110 in.
I' (straight portions) = 2 x 1/12 x 4, x n 2 = 2 x 1/2 x 0.379 x 0.268 2
I' (Arcs) = 4 x 0.110 x (0.350/2 - 0.140 + 0.126) 2 = 0.0114 in. 3
I' = I' (straight portions) + I' (Arcs) = 0.0045 + 0.0114 = 0.0159 in. a
I = I't = 0.0159 x 0.030 = 0.000477 in!
Check adequacy of stiffener according to Sections 2.9.2.1 and 2.9.2.2.

= 0.0045 in.

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-15

For wit = (3.000 - 0.140 - 0.932/2) 10.030 = 79.8 (Element )


Illllu = 2 [1.83t4y'(W/t)2 - 4,000/Fr] but not less than 2 (9.2t4) = 0.000015 in.4
I utiu = 2 [1.83 x (0.030) 4y1 (79.8) 2-4,000/50] = 0.000235 in.4 < 0.00477 in.4
satisf actory
L'f = 4lll + 2lb = 0.440 + 0.758 = 1.198 in.
2
A,t = (L,t)t = 1.198 x 0.030 = 0.0359 in.
According to Section 2.9.2.1, for wit between 60 and 90
A,o f = aA"t, where a will be determined later.
Element

(Eq. 2.3.2-1)

(Eq.2.3.1-6)

CD

R = 1/8"
y

90 Corner
Straight Segments
Semi-Circle
Sum
0

L
Length
(in.)

Distance from Center


of Top Flange
(in.)

0.220
0.500
0.440
1.160

0.140 - 0.089 - 0.051


0.265
0.390 + 0.089 = 0.479

--

YCg= 0.355/1.160 = 0.306 in.


I'x = 1'1 + Ly2 - Ly 2cg = 0.003

Ix

Ly
(in. 2)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

0.011
0.133
0.211
-0.355

0.035
0.101
0.136

+ 0.136 - 1.160 x 0.306 2

= I'xt = 0.030 x 0.030 = 0.00090 in..

1'1
About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

0.003

0.003

= 0.139 - 0.109 = 0.030 in. 3

<D

Element
is adequate to act as edge stiffener by comparing with Element
Ast = ~Lt = 1.160 x 0.030 = 0.348 in. 2
A(>f = aA"h where a will be determined later.

(Eq.2.3.1-6)

SECTION MODULUS FOR LOAD DETERMINATION-POSITIVE BENDING

Since the neutral axis will be below the center of the cross section, the compression
stress will govern: F = 0.6 Fr = 30 ksi. (Section 9.1)

Element
From Section8 2.9.1.1 and 2.8.1.2:
wi t = (3.000 - 3 x 0.140)/0.030 = 86.0 < 90.0 (Section 2.9.9)
b,,/ t= bit - 0.10 (wit - 60) = 40.8 - 2.6 = 38.2 bit is obtained from

(Eq; 2.3.1-5)

Chart 2.3.1.1 (A))

bl' = 38.2 x 0.030 = 1.15 in.


Element
(Edge Stiffener)
Al'f = aAst L"f = aL (Section 2.9.1.2)
a
= (3 - 2be /w) - 1/30 (1 - be/w) (w/t)
a
= (3 - 2 x 1.15/2.58) - 1/30 (1 - 1.15/2.58) 86.0 = 2.109 - 1.589 = 0.520
A"f = 0.520 x 0.0348 = 0.0180 in/~
Ll'f = 0.520 X t.'16 = 0.603 in.
Element From Sections 2.9.1.1 and 2.9.1.2:
w /t == (2.000 - 2 x 0.140) /0.030 57.3 < 60 (Section 2.9.9)
bit == 38.1 (Chart 2.9.1.1 (A))
b
= 38.1 x 0.030 = 1.14 in.
According to Section 2.9.2.1, and Table 2.8.2.1 (B), the minimum depth of the
simple lip edge stiffener for Element
is:
dmin = 10.7 x 0.030 = 0.32 in. < 0.415 in. being provided

<D

(Eq.2.3.1-6)
(Eq.2.3.1-7)

IV-16

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Element
w/t = (0.415 - 0.030 - 0.125) /0.030 = 8.667 < 63.3/.yF;
Theref.ore, a compression stress of 30 ksi is satisfactory. (Section 3.2)
y

Element

L
Effective Length
(in.)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum

0.603
1.150
1.140
3 x 0.220 = 0.660
2 x 1.720 = 3.440
2"x 2.394 = 4.788
2 x 1.198 = 2.396
2.068
0.260
2 x 0.220 = 0.440
16.945

Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)
0.321
0.015
0.015
0.066
1.015
2.015
1.840
2.015
0.285
1.964

Ly
(in. 2)
0.194
0.017
0.017
0.044
3.490
9.650
4.410
4.170
0.074
0.864
22.930

1'1
About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

Ly2
(in. 3 )
0.062

0.030

0.003
3.550
13.440
8.110
8.400
0.021
1.700
41.224

0.849

0.002

-- 0.913

= 22.930/16.945 = 1.353 in.


I'x = Ly2 + 1'1 - Ly2c~ = 41.224 + 0.913 - 16.945 x 1.353 2 = 42.14 - 31.02
= 11.12 in. 3
Ix = I'xt = 11.12 x 0.030 = 0.334 in.4
Sx = Ix/Ycg = 0.334/1.353 = 0.247 in. 3 per 14 in. of width or 0.247 x 12/14
= 0.212 in. 3 per foot of width
YCg

MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR DEFLECTION DETERMINATION-POSITIVE BENDING


According to Sections 2.3.1.1 and 2.3.1.2 :

(Bq.2.3.1-5)

Element
b('/t = b/t - 0.10 (w/t - 60) = 50.5 - 2.6 = 47.9 (Chart 2.3.1.1 (B))
be
= 47.9 x 0.030 = 1.437 in.
Element
For wit = 86.0 and b('/t = 47.9, a = 0.619 (Table 2.3.1.2)
L('f = aL = 0.619 x 1.16 = 0.718 in.
Element
b/t = 46.0 b = 46.0 x 0.030 = 1.380 in. (Chart 2.3.1.1 (B))
Compute the changes from the previous computation for load determination

CD

~L

Element
1
2
3

Sum
Y('g

I'x
l~

(in.)
0.718 - 0.603 = 0.115
1.437 = 1.150 = 0.287
1.380 - 1.140 = 0.240
from Load
Determination 16.945
17.587

(in.)
0.321
0.015
0.015

~ Ly
(in. 2)

~Ly2

(in.3)

0.037
0.004
0.004

0.012

22.930
22.975

41.224
41.236

= 22.975/17.587 = 1.306 in.


= 41.236 + 0.913 - 17.590 x 1.306 = 42.15 - 30.00 = 12.15 in.
= 12.15 x 0.030 x 12/14 = 0.312 in.4 per ft. of width
2

~I't

(in. 3)

0.913
0.913

--

IV..17

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

SECTION MODULUS FOR LOAD DETERMINATION-NEGATIVE BENDING

Since the N.A. may be closer to the compression flange than to the tension flange,
the compression stress is unknown, and therefore the effective width of the
compression flange and section properties must be determined by an iterative method.
, ' @, @, and @ do not vary with stress level.
Elements

0,

L
(in.)

Element
1
2
8
4
5
9
10
Sum

y
Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)

1.160
2.580
1.720
3 x 0.220 = 0.660
2 x 1.720 = 8.440
0.260
2 x 0.220 = 0.440
-10.260

Ly2

Ly
(in.2)

0.821
0.015
0.015
0.066
1.015
0.285
1.964

0.372
0.039
0.026
0.044
3.490
0.074
0.864
4.909

(in.3)
0.119
0.001

0.003
3.540
0.021
1.700
-5.384

1'1
About
Own Axis
(in.3)

0.030

0.849
0.002

-0.881

From Section 2.3.1.2:


Element
,w It = (3.000 - 0.140 - 0.466) 10.030 = 2.394/0.030 '= 79.8
bE'lt = bit - 0.10 (wit - 60) = bit - 1.98
be = (bit - 1.98)t
Element
L(>f = aL = a X 1.198
Element
wit = (3.000 - 0.932) 10.030 = 2.068/0.030 = 68.9
bE'lt = bit - 0.10 (wit - 60) = bit - 0.89
bE'
= (b/t - 0.89) t
Overall wit of compression flange (9.000 - 0.280) /0.030 = 291 < 500

(~tq.

2.8.1-5)

CV

According to Section 2.3.3, it is satisfactory.


Iterative procedure (for Elements @,
and

Assume compressive stress fc

belt

40.4
- 2 x 1.198
68.9
39.4

38.4

wit

6
7
8
Sum

79.8

*From Table 2.9.1.2, based on wit

38.5

bE' or L
(in.)

0.66*

2.304
1.581
1.155
5.040

y
(in.)

beY
(in. 2)

b ey2
(in. 3)

1'1
(in. 3 )

2.015 4.643 9.855


1.840 2.909 5.858 0.032
2.015 2.327 4.690
9.879 19.398 0.082

--

= 79.8 and b/t = 38.4 to be conservative.

= 10.260 + 5.040 = 15.300 in.


= 4.909 + 9.879 = 14.788 in.
Ycr = 14.788/15.300 = 0.967 in.
Tensile stress = fc x 0.967/ (2.080 lL
lLy

= 80 ksi

bit or L

Element

(Elf. 2.3.1 ..5)

0.967) = 27.3 ksi

--

IV-18

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Since the tensile stress is less than 30 ksi, no further computation is r~quired.
However, if the tensile stress as shown above were to exceed 30 ksi, then a
smaller fc must be assumed and the above computation repeated.
I'x = 5.884 + 0.881 + 19.398 + 0.032 - 15.300 x 0.967 2 = 25.695 - 14.307
= 11.388 in. 3
Ix = I'xt = 11.388 x 0.030 = 0.342 in.4
Sx = Ix/ (2.030 - 0.967) = 0.342/1.068 = 0.322 in. 3 per 14 in. of width or 0.322
x 12/14 = 0.276 in. 3 per foot of width
MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR DEFLECTION DETERMINATION -

(Eq.2.3.1-5)

NEGATIVE BENDING

According to Section 2.3.1.2 for deflection determination


b('/t = b/t - 0.10 (w/t - 60) where h/t is obtained from Chart 2.3.1.1 (C)
Element ~. bl' = (49.8 - 1.98) x 0.030 = 1.435 in.
Element 7 aL = 0.73* x 1.198 = 0.875 in.
Element 8 bl' = (48.3 - 0.89) x 0.030 = 1.422 in.
Compute the changes from the previous computation for load determination
for negative bending.
~L

(in.)

Element
6
7
8

Sum

YCg

I'x
Ix

2 x 1.485 - 2.304 = 0.566


2 x 0.875 - 1.581 = 0.169
1.422 - 1.155 = 0.267
I from Load
Determination
15.300
16.302

~Ly

~Ly2

(in. 3 )

(in. 3 )

2.015
1.840
2.015

1.140
0.311
0.538

2.298
0.572
1.084

14.788
16.777

--

= 0.312 in.4 (for deflection determination)


= 0.212 in. (for load determination)
= 0.319 in.4 (for deflection determination)
= 0.276 in. (for load determination)
3

*Based on wit = 79.8 and b./t = 47.8 for element

to be conservative.

0.913
0.913

24.782
28.736

= 16.777/16.302 = 1.029 in.


= 28.736 + 0.913 - 16.302 x 1.029 = 29.649 - 17.261 = 12.388 in.
= 12.388 x 0.030 x 12/14 = 0.319 in.4 per foot of width

Summary
Positive bending Ix
Sx
Negative bending Ix
Sx

~I'l

(in.)

(in.2)

--

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-19

EXAMPLE NO.3

BEAM SECTION, UNSTIFFENED FLANGES

1 208"

0292"

en
N
o.J

II
-IN

-,.

...-

~
en
N

co
co

--'----x 80

X~-

cO

= 0.105"
3/16" R.

'--

1.500'

Given:
Required:

.1

1. STEEL: Any grade.


2. SECTION: 6 x 1112 x 0.105 Channel with unstiffened fianges.
The section modulus, Sx, measured about the major axis of the section.

Solution:

Properties of 90 corners:
r = R + t/2 = 0.1875 + 0.105/2 = 0.240 in.
Length of are, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.240 =_0.377 in.
Distance of c.g. from center of radius, Cl = 0.637r = 0.637 x 0.240
Section Modulus:

Element
Web
Corners
Flanges
Sum

L
(in.)

y
(in.)

5.416
2 X 0.377 = 0.754
2 X 1.208 = 2.416

2.861
2.948

=LYS + 1'1 =27.169 + 13.289 =40.408 in.'


=I'xt = 40.408 x 0.105 =4.24 in.&
Sx =4.24/3.00 = 1.41 in.1

I'x
Ix

Lx2
(in. 3)

= 0.153 in.

1'1 About
Own Axis
(in.3)

13.239

6.172
20.997
27.169

13.239

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-20

EXAMPLE NO.4

BEAM SECTION, STIFFENED COMPRESSION FLANGE


I

9.000"

O.154;~~I-""'"~._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _8._69_2_"_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.j~O.154"


5

0.060"

b
o
o

X--+--tt---- - - - - - - - - - - - -

Given:
Required:

--- ---

-.:i

-+t---X

1. STEEL: Fy = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in sketch.
Beam strength about the major axis (positive bending).

Solution:

Properties of 90 corners:
r = R + t/2 = 0.094 + 0.060/2 = 0.124 in.
Length of arc, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.124 = 0.195 in.
Distance of C.g; from center of radius, Cl = 0.637r = 0.637 x 0.124
I' of corner about its own centroidal axis is negligible.

(Eq.3.1-1)

Computation of Ix, first approximation:


For the first approximation, assume a compression stress of F
in the top fibers of the section (Section 3.1).

= 0.079 in.

= 0.6

Fy

= 30

ksi

For element
hit = 3.880/0.060 = 64.7
From Chart V-3.4.2( A) the allowable bending stress in the web:
From Chart V-9.4.2( A) the allowable bending stress in the web: F bw = 30 ksi
For element (5) w /t = 8.692/0.060 = 144.9 < 500 satisfactory (Section 2.9.3)
According to ~ction 2.3.1.1, the effective width is:
b = 43.0t = 43.0 x 0.060 = 2.58 in. (Chart 2.3.1.1 (A))

L
Effective Length
(in.)

Element
1
2
3
4
5
6
Sum

2
4
2
2

x
x
x
x

0.596 = 1.192
0.195 = 0.780
2.692 = 5.384
3.692 = 7.384
2.580
2 x 0.195 = 0.390
17.710

y
Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)

3.548
3.925
3.970
2.000
0.030
0.075

Ly
(in. 2)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

4.229
3.061
21.374
14.768
0.077
0.029
43.538

15.004
12.016
84.855
29.536
0.002
0.002
141.415

1'1
About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

0.035

8.388

-8.423

IV-21

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Distance of axis from top fiber is YCg= 43.538/17.710 = 2.458 in.

Since distance of top compression fiber from neutral axis is greater than one
half the beam depth, a compression stress of 30 ksi will govern as assumed and no
further approximation will be required.
Total area of the section Lt = 23.822 x 0.060 = 1.43 in.:!
I'x = Ly2 + 1'1 - Ly 2cg = 141.415 + 8.423 - 17.710 x 2.458 2 = 42.84 in. 3
Actual Ix = I'xt = 42.84 x 0.060 = 2.57 in."
Section Modulus Sx = 2.57/2.46 = 1.04 in. 3
Resisting Moment = 30 x 1.04 = 31.2 kip-in. (positive bending).

EXAMPLE NO.5
BEAM SECTION, COMPRESSION FLANGE WITH INTERMEDIATE STIFFENER

_ _ _ ~_.OOO_" _ _ _ ~
0.4,96 ___- - - 4
_ _ _ _ _ _-+---+
.098"
--0.154"
I
R = 3/32"
11

~d===~====~======~

-------------~

0.350"

= 3/32"-

01

~I

x--+--++---

~! --------

bo
o

0.060"

~~J~

~~o
Given:

1. STEEL: F = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in the sketch. (same as Example 4 except for the
added stiffener).

Required:

1. Beam strength about the major axis (positive bending).


2. Compare the structural economy of this section with the almost identical
section without an intermediate stiffener computed in Example 4.

Solution:

1. Beam strength about the maj or axis.


From Example 4, for a single corner:
Length of arc, u = 0.195 in.
Distance of C.g. from center of radius = 0.079 in.
I' of single corner about its own axis is negligible.
Computation of IXI first approximation:
For the first approximation, assume a compression stress
F = 0.6Fy = 30 ksi in the top fiber of the section (Section 9.1).
For Element
wit = 4.098/0.060 = 68.3 bit = 39.4 (Chart 2.9.1.1 (A))
Since wit is greater than 60, further reduction of effective width is required

(Section 2.9.1.2).
b,./t = bit - 0.10 (wit - '60)
be = 38.57 x 0.060 = 2.31 in.

= 39.4 -

0.83

= 38.57

(Eq.2.3.1-5)

IV-22

(Eq.2.3.1-1)

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

According to Sections 2.9.2.1 and 2.9.2.2, the required minimum moment of inertia
of the intermediate stiffener is
4
1111111 = 2 X 1.83t V (w /t) 2 - 4,QOO/F y but not less than 2 x 9.2t4
I m1n = 2 x 1.83 X 0.060 4 V 68.3 2 - 4,000/50 = 0.0032 in.4 but not less than 18.4
xO.060 4 = 0.00024 in.4 (Table 2.9.2.1(A))
I of Element
2 x 0.060 x 1/12 x 0.350 3 + 4 x 0.060 x 0.195 x (0.350/2 + 0.079) 2
= 0.00043 + 0.00302
= 0.00345 in.4 > 0.0032 in.4
This is satisfactory.
From Section 2.9.1.2, the effective area of stiffener
A('f = aA>;t Ll'c = aL
a
= (3 - 2b,./w) -1/30 [(1 - b./w) (w/t)]
a
= (3 - 2 x 2.31/4.098) - 1/30 (1 - 2.31/4.098) 68.3 = 1.87 - 0.99
a
= 0.88 (Table 2.3.1.2)
Ll'f = 0.88 [(4 x 0.195) + (2 x 0.350)] = 1.302 in.

CD:

(Eq.2.3.1-6)
(Eq.2.3.1-7)

CD :

Element
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sum

y
Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)

L
Effective
Length
(in.)
2 x 0.596
4 x 0.195
2 x 2.692
2 x 3.692
2 x 2.31
2 x 0.195
Stiffener

= 1.192
= 0.780
= 5.384
=

7.384

= 4.620
= 0.390
1.302
21.052

3.548
3.925
3.970
2.000
0.030
0.075
0.329

1'1

Ly
(in.2)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

4.229
3.061
21.374
14.768
0.139
0.029
0.428
44.028

15.004
12.016
84.855
29.536
0.004
0.002
0.141
141.558

About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )
0.035

8.388

0.003
-8.426

Distance of axis from top fiber is YCg = 44.028/21.052 = 2.091 in.


Total area of the section = total actual length x t = 24.806 x 0.060 = 1.49 in. 2
l'x = Ly2 + 1'1 - Ly2('jr = 141.558 + 8.426 - 21.050 x 2.0912 = 149.984 - 92.125
= 57.859 in.
Actual Ix = I'xt = 57.859 x 0.060 = 2.47 in.4
Section Modulus, Sx = 3.47/2.09 = 1.66 in. 3
Resisting Moment = 30 x 1.66 = 49.8 kip-in. (positive bending).
3

2. Compare the structural economy of this section with the same section without
an intermediate stiffener in Example 4.
Weight increase about 4.1 percent
Moment capacity increase about 60 percent
This illustrates the economy to be' gained by adequate stiffening.

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-23

EXAMPLE NO.6
BEAM AND WALL STUD SECTION

~
~

r-..:

<.0

x-++-~---x

=:
T""

('t')

+-+-1-........

-L--~.:::u:==t::-

LO

2.412"
Given:
Required:

1. STEEL: F,. = 50 ksi.


2. SECTION: 7 x 20/.. x 0.075 Channel with stiffened flanges.
1. Column properties.
2. Strength in bending about the major axis.

Solution:

Properties of 90 corners:
r = R + t/2 = 0.094 + 0.075/2 = 0.132 in.
Length of arc, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.132
Distance of C.g. from center of radius, Cl
1. Column properties
(a) Full section about x-axis

= 0.207 in.
= 0.637r = 0.637 x

0.132

= 0.084 in.

Element

L
(in. )

Web
Lips
Corners
Flanges
Sum

6.662
2 x 0.531 = 1.062
4 x 0.207 = 0.828
2 x 2.412 = 4.824
-13.376

A=
I'x=
Ix =
rx =

Distance
from
Centerline
of Section
(in.)

3.065
3.415
3.462

Lt = 13.376 x 0.075 = 1.003 in. 2


Ly2 + 1'1 = 102.116 in. 3
I'xt = 102.116 x 0.075 = 7.66 in.4
yl'JL= Yl02.116/13.376 = 2.76 in.

Ly2

(in. 3 )

9.977
9.656
57.818
77.451

1'1
About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

24.640
0.025

24.665

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV24

(b) Full section about y-axis

L
(in.)

Element
Web
Lips
Near corners
Far corners
Flanges
Sum

6.662
1.062
0.414
0.414
4.824
-13.376

x
Distance
from Back
of Web
(in.)
0.038
2.712
0.084
2.665
1.375

1'2
Lx
(in.)

Lx2
(in.3)

0.253
2.880
0.035
1.103
6.633
10.904

0.010
7.811
0.003
2.940
9.120
19.884

= 0.815 in.
Lx 2(.g = 19.884 + 2.342 - 13.376 x 0.815 2

Xc g = 10.904/13.376

I'y
Iy
ry

(Eq.2.8.2-2)

= LX2 + I':! = 13.342 in.:\

About
Own Axis
(in.3)

= 22.226 -

2.342
2.342

8.884

= Lt = 13.342 x 0.075 = 1.001 in.4


= JI'~.jL = Y13.342/13.376 = 0.999 in.

(c) Effectiveness of lip as edge stiffener. (Section 2.3.2.1)


dm1n = 2.8t '\Y(w/t) 2 - 4000/F y but not less than 4.8t = 0.360 in.
= 2.8 x 0.075 '\Y(2.412/0.075) 2 - 4000/50 = 0.659 in. (Table 2.3.2.1. (B))
d provided = 0.700 in. > 0.659 in. satisfactory
(d) Computation of Q (Section 3.6.1.1 (a) (3))
w /t of lip = 0.531/0.075 = 7.08 < 63.3/ VF;Therefore, F = Fe and QH = 1.

= 8.96 (Section 3.2)

From Section 2.3.1.1:


Flange w/t = 2.412/0.075 = 32.2, b/t = 31.7 for f = 30 ksi (Chart 2.3.1.1(B))
Web w /t = 6.662/ 0.075 = 88.8, b/t ~ 40.9
Qn = [13.38 - 2(32.2 - 31.7) x 0.075 - (88.8 - 40.9) x 0.075]/13.38
= [13.38 - 0.08 - 3.59] /13.38 = 9.71113.38 == 0.726
Q = Q" x Qn = 1 x 0.726 == 0.726

2. Strength in bending about major axis


The deduction from the flat width of the corn pression flange is:
(32.2 - 31.7) X 0.075 = 0.038 in.
L(>t = 13.376 - 0.038 = 13.338 in.
The distance yCit from x-x axis is :
YCg = - 0.038 x 3.462/13.338 = 0.010 in. (below x-x axis)
I'x = 102.116 - 0.038 x 3.462 2 - 13.338 X 0.010 2 = 101.659 in. 3
Sx = 101.659 x 0.075/ (3.500 + 0.010) = 2.17 in. 3
Web h/t

6.850/0.075 = 91.3

From Chart 3.4.2A:


F b ". = 29.7 ksi
When the flange is stressed to 30 ksi the stress in the extreme fiber of the web is :
f bw = 30 x (6.662/2 + 0.010) / (3.462 + 0.01) = 28.9 ksi < 29.7 ksi.
Therefore the allowable stress is not controlled by web bending.
For calculation of the permissible increase in yield point due to cold work, see
Example 13.
Resisting moment = 30 ksi x 2.17 = 65.1 kip-in. (positive bending) based on an
allowable stress of 30 ksi (Section 9.1).

IV-25

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO.7
BEAM SECTION, COMPOSITE

12.000"
.161"

1.338"
0.060"

1.440"

9.000"
LINE OF WELDS

.060"

LINE OF WELDS

~
o

ci

TOP FIBER

lit

1.000

0.075"

8.000"

0.075"

1.000"

cO

,....
LO

o
ci

1. STEEL: Fy = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in sketch.
3. Flat plate is in compression and channel shaped element is on tension side.

Given:

Required: 1. Section modulus for load determination.

2. Moment of inertia for deflection determination when loaded to capacity


as determined by (1) preceding.
3. The allowable end reaction for 3 in. of bearing.
4. Check allowable end reaction based on allowable shear stress.
5. The allowable interior reaction for 3 in. of bearing
Solution:

1. Section modulus for load determination.


For a first approximation assume a compression stress of 30 ksi in the top plate.
(Section 3.1)
Element @
wit = 9.000/0.060 = 150 < 500 (Section 2.3.3)
The use of w = 9.000 in. assumes that the longitudinal spacing of welds satisfies
the requirements of Section 4.4(b). For this computation see Example No. 24.
According to Section 2.3.1.1 the effective design width of the flat plate between
welds is:
b
43.1t = 43.1 x 0.060 = 2.586 in. (Chart 2.3.1.1 (A))
Total effective width of top flange:
L = 2.586 + 1.338* + 1.440*
5.864

*Since the wit ratios, 1.338/0.060 and 1.440/0.060, do not exceed (w/t)llm
reduction in effective width is required.

= 171

VI = 1711 V30

= 31.2, no

IV-26

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Properties for the flat plate:

Element

L
(in.)

1
2
3
4
5
Sum

0.400
0.411
0.710
5.364
0.500
7.385

Y,o;: =

y
Distance
from
Top Fiber
(in.)
0.510
0.793
0.355
0.030
0.250

Ly
(in.2)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

0.204
0.326
0.252
0.161
0.125
1.068

0.104
0.258
0.089
0.005
0.031
-0.487

0.005
0.001
0.030

0.010
-0.046

~:~~~ = 0.145 in. I' of flat plate = 1'1 + Ly2 - Ly2('~ =


+ 0.487 - 7.385 x 0.145 2 = 0.378 in.

1'1
About
Own Axis
(in. S)

0.046

11 = It = 0.378 x 0.060 = 0.023 in.4


Element
acting as an unstiffened element (Section 3.2)
wit = 0.50010.060 = 8.3 < 63.3/~ satisfactory
Element
acting as an edge stiffener (Section 2.3.2.1)
For wit = 1.44010.060 = 24, d lllill = 7.8t = 7.8 x 0.060 = 0.468 in. < 0.500 in.
satisfactory (Table 2.3.2.1 (B))

Properties for the Channel Section:


---------

Element

L
(in.)

6
7
8
Sum

2 x 1.000 = 2.000
2 x 6.000 = 12.000
8.000
22.000

YI";:

y
Distance
from Top
Fiber
(in.)
0.098
3.060
6.022

1'1

Ly
(in. 2)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

0.196
36.720
48.176
85.092

0.019
112.363
290.116
402.498

-3. 868'In. I' 0 f ch


I sec
t 'IOn -- I' 1
85.092 22.000anne

+ LY2 -

LY2

About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

_._-

36.000

36.000

eJ{

= 36.000 + 402.498 - 22.000 (3.868 2 ) = 109.347 in. 3


11 = It = 109.347 x 0.075 = 8.201 in.4

Element (j) acting in bending, Chart V-3.4.2( A):


For hit = (6.000 - 2 x 0.075) /0.075 = 78
F bw
= 30 ksi
Properties for the Composite Section:

Area
(in. 2)

Element
Flat plate
Channel
Sum
YCf{

7.385 x 0.060 = 0.443


22.000 x 0.075 = 1.650
2.093

.
6.446
= -2~093
=.3080 In.

y
Distance
from Top
Fiber
(in.)
0.145
3.868

r------------

II

Ay
(in.S)

Ay2
(in.4)

About
Own Axis
(in.4)

0.064
6.382
-6.446

0.009
24.686
-24.695

0.023
8.201
8.224

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-27

Since the distance of the top compression fiber from the neutral axis is greater
than 1/2 depth (6.060/2 = 3.030 in.) a compression stress of 30 ksi will govern
as assumed and no further approximation will be required.
1= 11 + Ay2 - Ay 2 1'/l = 8.224 + 24.695 - 2.093 (3.080 2 ) = 13.064 in.4
Section modulus Sx

= Jl~~4= 4.242 in.a

Resisting moment M = fbS x

= 30.0 x 4.242 = 127.26 kip-in.

2. Moment of intertia for deflection determination.


Properties for the fiat plate:
For a first approximation assume an effe~tive width of flat plate based on a
compression stress of 27 ksi.
Element @. According to Section 2.3.1.1 :
w /t = 9.000/0.060 = 150.
From Chart 2.3.1.1 (B)) the effective design width of the flat plate between
welds is:
b = 57t = 57 x 0.060 = 3.420 in.
Total effective width of top flange:
L = 3.420 + 1.338* + 1.440* = 6.198 in.
Compute the changes from the previous computation for load determination.
AArea
(in. 2)

Element

4
0.060 (6.198 - 5.364)
~from Load
Determination
Sum

YI'j:

y
(in.)

AAy
(in.3)

0.030

0.002

-- --

0.050

2.093
2.143

--

AAy2
(in.4)

All
(in.4)

24-.695
24.695

6.446

6.448

8.224
8.224

--

3009 .
6.448
= --2.143
=.
In.
= 11

+ Ay2 - Ay2 1l = 8.224 + 24.695 - 2.143 (3.009) 2 = 13.517 in.4


'
1

Check stress in flat plate:


f(, = Me/Ix = 127.26 x 3.009/13.517 = 28.33 ksi > 27 ksi (assumed)
For a second approximation assume a compressive stress of 28.5 ksi
Element @. According to Section 2.3.1.1, using Chart 2.3.1.1 (B)), bit = 55.6
b = 55.6 x 0.060 = 3.336 in.
L = 3.336 + 1.338 + 1.440 = 6.114 in.
Compute the changes from the previous computation for deflection determination.
~Ay2
y
AAy
~II
AArea
3
(in.2)
(in.)
(in. )
(in. 4)
(in. 4)
Element
4
~ From Deflection
Determination
Sum
Y('1l

0.060 (6.198 - 6.114) = - 0.005 0.030


2.143
2.138

--

--

6.448
6.448

--

24.695
24.695

8.224
8.224

--

6.448
.
= 2.138
=.3016 In.
= 11 + Ay2 - Ay2 = 8.224 + 24.695

- 2.138 (3.016) 2 = 13.471 in.4


1' Jr
Check stress in flat plate:
fl' = Mc/lx = 127.26 x 3.016/13.471 = 28.49 ksi
Since this checks closely with the previous assumption that fc = 28.5 ksi no
further approximations are necessary and the moment of inertia to be used
in deflection computations is 13.47 in.4 when the beam is loaded to capacity.
I

"'Since the wIt ratios, 1.338/0.060 and 1.440/0.060, do not exceed (wIt) 11m = 2211
in effective width is required.

V1 = 2211 V27 = 42.5,

no reduction

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

3. (A) Allowable end reaction for 3-in. bearing. From Section 9.5.1 :
.h/t = 5.85/ 0.075 = 78
N /t = 3.000/0.075 = 40
From Chart V-9.5.1 (A) for h/t = 100, Pallo\\" = 1.15 kips and for
hit = 50, P allow = 1.28 kips.
Interpolating yields,
.
100 - 78)
Pallo,," = 1.15 + (1.28 - 1.15) ( 100 _ 50 = 1.21 kIPS

(Eq.3.4.1-2)

From Chart V-8.5.1 (K) for R / t = 0.101 / 0.075 = 1.35,


Correction Factor = 0.948.
From Chart V-9.5.1(A), the Adjustment Factor for Fy = 50 ksi is 1.26.
From Chart V-8.5.1(J), for () = 90, C = 1.00.
Therefore P allow = 1.21 X 0.948 X 1.26 X 1.00 = 1.44 kips
Since there are 2 webs per panel, the total reaction is 2P = 2 x 1.44 = 2.88 kips
4. Check allowable end reaction based on allowable shear stress.
From Section 3.4.1 :
h/t = 78> 237 \j k\./Fy = 237 V5.34/ 50
From the provision of Section 9.4.1 (b), the allowable shear stress is:
F v = 15,600 kv/ (h/t) 2 = 15,600 X 5.34/78 2 = 13.69 ksi.
The total allowable end reaction based on allowable shear stress is:
V = 2 x 13.69 x 5.85 x 0.075 = 0.075 = 12.02 kips
For computation for the allowable end reaction based on the shear stress in the
welds connecting element @) to element
see Example No. 24.
This value is substantially greater than the allowable end reaction computed for
web crippling, therefore the allowable end reaction is 2.88 kips.
5. Allowable interior reaction.
From Chart V-9.5.1 (C), for h/t = 50, P ullow = 1.80 kips and for
h/t = 100, P allow = 1.95 kips. Interpolating yields,

P allow

1.80

+ (1.95 - 1.80)

(lgg

~g~

1.87 kips.

From Chart V-9.5.1 (K) the Correction Factor for R/t = 0.101/0.075
= 1.35 is C2 = 0.979. From Chart V-3.5.1 (J) C(} = 1.0 for () = 90.
From Chart V-3.5.1 (C) for Fy = 50 ksi the Adjustment Factor is 1.34.
Therefore,
P allow

(Eq. 3.4.3-1)

(Eq.3.5.2-1)

1.87 x 0.979 x 1.34 x 1.0 = 2.45 kips.

Since there are 2 webs per panel, the total allowable reaction is 2P = 4.90 kips.
Combined bending and shear stresses are limited in
Section 9.4.8. Assuming the shear stresses on each
side of the reaction are equal:
(fbw/Fbw)2 (fv/Fv) 2 = (fbw/30.67) 2 + (2.461/12.04)2 ~ 1.0
The maximum value of f bw is therefore f bw = 30.0 ksi
Combined bending and web crippling are limited in Section 3.5.2.1 :
1.2(P/P allow ) + (M/ Mallow ) = 1.2 (P4.90) + (M/ Mallow ) ~ 1.5
In order to utilize the full moment capacity of the beam, M would equal
Mallow and P would have to be equal to or less than (1.5-1) x 4.90/1.2
= 2.04 kips. If the actual value of P exceeds 2.04, the actual moment
would have to be reduced or the bearing length increased.

IV-29

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO.8
COLUMN SECTION, DOUBLY-SYMMETRIC

0.128''--

3744"

'"

~0.1

28"

:\

= 1/16""""""'"

::

0.065"

0
0
0
~

-/

I'\:

4.000"

Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: 4 x 4 x 0.065 Square Tube.

Required:

Column Properties

Solution:
Properties of 90 corners:
r = R + t/2 = 0.063 + 0.065/2 = 0.095 in.
Length of arc, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.095 = 0.149 in .
Distance of C.g. from center of radius, Cl = 0.637r = 0.637 x 0.095 = 0.061 in.

Element
Flanges
Corners
Web
Sum

L
(in.)
2 x 3.744 =
4 x 0.149 =
2 x 3.744 =

7.488
0.596
7.488
15.572

Distance
to Center
of Section
(in.)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

About
Own Axis
(in. 3 )

1.968
1.933

29.001
2.227

1'1

31.228

= Lt = 15.572 x 0.065 = 1.01 in. 2


I' = Ly2 + 1'1 = 8.747 + 31.228 = 39.975 in. 3
I = I't = 39.~75 x 0.065 = 2.60 in.4
r = v'llA = v' 2.60/1.01 = 1.60 in.
w/t= 3.744/0.065 = 57.6
For f = 0.6F;\. = 30 ksi, the effective width is: (Section 2.3.1.1)
b = 38.8t = 38.8 x 0.065 = 2.52 in. (Chart 2.3.1.1 (C))
Aef = (4 x 0.149 + 4 x 2.52) x 0.065 = 10.676 x 0.065 = 0.694 in. 2
Q = A,.rlA = 0.694/1.01 = 0.687 (Section 3.6.1.1 (a) (1))
A

8.747
8.747

--

IV-30

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO.9

COLUMN SECTION, POINT-SYMMETRIC

~~--~---

-----x

o~

0.833"
1.073"
1.125"

Given:
Required:

1. STEEL: Fy = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 3 x 11/R x 0.105 Z-section with un stiffened flanges.
Column properties. (axial loading)

Solution:

Using formulas given in Part II, Section 2.2.1.4.


1. Basic parameters:
From the sketch, a = 2.415 in., b = 0.833 in.
Centerline radius, r = R + t/2 = 0.187 + 0.105/ 2 = 0.240 in.
Length of arc, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.240 = 0.377 in.
0:
= 0 for sections without lips
2. Area:
A = t [a + 2b + 2u] = 0.105 [2.415 + 1.66 + 0.754] = 0.508 in. 2
wt per ft = A x 501.81/144 = 0.508 x 3.485 = 1.77 lbs.
3. Moment of inertia about x-axis:
Ix = 2t {0.0417a 3 + b(a/2 + r)2 + u(a/2 + 0.637r)2 + 0.149 r 3}
1:. = 0.210 {0.0417 (2.415) 3 + 0.833 (1.207 + 0.240) 2 + 0.377 (1.207 + 0.637
xO.240)2 + 0.149 (0.240)3}
Ix = 0.636 in.4
4. Moment of inertia about y-axis:
3
I~. = 2t {b (b/2 + r) 2 + 0.0833b + 0.356r 3}
ly = 0.210 {0.833 (0.416 + 0.240)2 + 0.0833 (0.833)3 + 0.356 (0.240)3}
ly = 0.0863 in.4
5. Product of inertia:
Ixy = 2t {b (a/2 + r) (b/2 + r) + O.5r 3 + 0.285ar:l}
Ixy = 0.210 {0.833 x (1.207 + 0.240) x (0.416 + 0.240) + 0.5 (0.240) 3
+ 0.285 x 2.415 x (0.240)2} = 0.176 in.4

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-31

6. Calculation of angle () between x and X2 axes:


2Iu
2 () = arctan - - --'-'Iy -Ix
2()

2 x 0.176

= arctan 0.0863--=' 0.636 = arctan

( -0.640)

() = 73.7
7. Minimum moment of inertia: (about X2 axis)
Ix2 = Ix cos 2 () + I). sin 2 () - 2Ixy sin () cos () = 0.636 (0.281) 2 + 0.0863 (0.960) 2 - 2
x 0.176 x 0.281 x 0.960 = 0.0347 in.4
8. Minimum radius of gyration:
rmin

jO.0347
0261'In.
= r2 = V~
'A"'::::" =
0.508 =.

9. Factor Q (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1(a))


Since the member is composed of both stiffened and unstiffened elements,
Paragraph (3) in Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a) applies.
For the flanges:
From Spec. Sec. 3.2, (w/t) Ii = _~3.3 = 63.3 = 11.02
33
VFy
0.833
Flange wi t = ' -0.10'5" = 7.93 < 11.02
III

Hence, Fe
Qs = 1.0

= 0.60F = 0.60 x 33 = 19.8 ksi,which is usually rounded off to Fe = 20 ksi


y

(Eq. 3.2-1)

For the web:


Since the web is a stiffened element Spec. Sec. 2.3.1.1 applies.
171
171
(W/t)lhll = yT= V20 = 38.24

2.415
0.-105

= 23.0 < 38.24


Therefore, b = wand QIl = 1.0
Q = Qs X QIl = 1.0
Webw/ t

An increase in stress due to cold work is allowable for sections with a Q value of
1.0 according to Section 3.1.1.1 (a) :
C = 2u/ (a + 2b 2u) = 0.754/ (2.415 + 1.665 + 0.754) = 0.156
Be = 3.69(FII / F~.) - 0.819 (Fu/Fy) 2 -1.79
Be = 3.69(45/33) - 0.819(45/33)2 - 1.79 = 1.719
m = 0.192 (FII/ Fy) - 0.068 = 0.192 (45/ 33) - 0.068 = 0.194
F)c = BeF).j (R/t) m = 1.719 x 33/ (0.1875/ 0.105) 0 . 194 = 50.7 ksi
Fya = CFye+ (I-C) F Yf = 0.156 x 50.7 + (1-0.156)33 = 35.8 ks
F = 0.69FYIl = 0.60 X 35.8 = 21.4 ksi.
Rechecking Q :
From Section 3.2: (w It) 11m = 63.3/V'Fy = 63.3 / V 35.8 = 10.6 > 7.93
From Section 2.3.1.1: (w/t) II = 171/VT = 171/V 21.4 = 37.0 > 23.0
III

Therefore Q = 1.0 and the calculated stress F YR


average yield point.
.

35.8 ksi may be used as the

(Eq.3.1.1-3)
(Eq.3.1.1-4)
(8'q.3.1.1-2)
(Bq. 3.1.1-1)

IV-32

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO. 10
COLUMN SECTION, SINGLY-SYMMETRIC

Given:

1. STEEL: Fy = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 3 X 3 X 0.105 Angle with stiffened legs.

Required:

Column properties. (axial loading)

Solution:

(Using formulas given in Part II, Section 2.2.i .1)


1. Basic parameters:
From the sketch, a = 2.415 in., c = 0.508 in.,
a = 2.895 in., c = 0.748 in.
Centerline radius, r = R + t/2 = 0.187 + 0.105/2 = 0.240 in.
Length of arc, U = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.240 = 0.377 in.
a
= 1 for sections with lips
2. Area:
A = t [2a + U + 2c + 2u] = 0.105 [4.830 + 0.377 + 1.016 + 0.754] = 0.733 in.2
wt per ft = A x 501.81/ 144 = 0.733 x 3.485 = 2.55 lbs.
3. Moment of inertia about x-axis:
Ix = 2t {a [1/~ (a/ 2 + r)2 + 0.0417a2] + 0.143r :J + c [l/~ (r + a - C/2)2
+ 0.0417c~] + u (0.707a + 0.898r) 2 + 0.014r!l}
Ix = 0.210 {2.415 [l/~ (1.208 + 0.240)2 + 0.0417 (2.415)2] + 0.143 (0.240)3
+ 0.508 [1/2 (0.240 + 2.415 - 0.254fz + 0.0417 (0.508) 2] + 0.377
(0.707 X 2.415 + 0.898 x 0.240) 2 + 0.014 (0.240) 3}
I x = 1.26 in. ~
4. Distance from centroid of section to centerline of corner:

x = ~ {a(0.353a + 0.293r) x ~ (0.102r)+ c (0.707a + 0.353c + 1.707r)

+ u (0.707a + r)}
x

~:~!~

{2.415 (0.353 x 2.415

+ 0.293 x 0.240) + 0.189 x 0.102 x 0.240

+ 0.508 (0.707 x 2.415 + 0.353 x 0.508 + 1.707 x 0.240) + 0.377 (0.707


x 2.415 + 0.240) }

x = 1.18 in.

5. Moment of inertia about y-axis:


2
3
1,1' = 2t {a (0.353a + 0.293r) + 0.417a + 0.015r: ' + U (0.707a + r)2 + c (0.707a
+ 0.353c + 1.707r)2 + 0.0417c :J + O.285r 3} - A (x):l

IV-33

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

= 0.210 {2.415

(0.353 X 2.415 + 0.293 X 0.240):! + 0.0417 (2.415)


+ 0.015 (0.240) :3 + 0.377 (0.707 X 2.415 + 0.240):! + 0.508 (0.707 X 2.415
+ 0.353 X 0.508 + 1.707 X 0.240)2+ 0.0417 (0.508r + 0.285 X (0.240r

I~.

- 0.733 (1.184):!
Iy = 0.392 in.4
6. Distance from shear center to centerline of corner:
m = ta(c)2 (3a _ 2c) = 0.105 X 2.895 X (0.748)2 (3 X 2.895 - 2
3 \12 X 1.257
3 v'21x
m = 0.23 in.

0.748)

7. St. Venant torsion constant:


J ==

[2a + u + 2c + 2u]

= (0.~05)

[4.830 +

0.3~7 + 1.016 + 0.754]

= 0.00269 in.4
8. Warping constant:
C . == (t2) (a)4 (C)3 (4- + 3-) = [ (0.105)2 X (2.895)4 X (0.748)3]
18 Ix
a
c
18 x 1.257
6
x (4 x 2.895 + 3 x 0.748) = 0.198 in.
9. Distance from centroid to shear center:
XII == -(x + m) = -(1.18 + 0.23)= -1.41 in.
\I

10. Radii of gyration:


r x == VIJA = \1;:';-1.=-;25=7;--;/ 0:;: -'.7;;: ;-; 3""'3 =

vr.m = 1.31 in.

r.\. = VI)'/ A == YO.392/0.733 = VO.535 = 0.73 in.


ro:! = r/ + r/ + X()2 = (1.31) 2 + (0.73) 2 + (1.41) 2 = 4.24 in. 2
11. Torsional-flexural constant:
f3 == 1- (xo/rn) 2 = 1 - (1.41)2/4.24 = 0.53 (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2)
12. Factor Q (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a))
Paragraph (3) in Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1(a) applies since the member is composed of
stiffened and un stiffened elements.
For the legs of the angles:
171
171
(W/ t)lilll= _ IF = _ .fi)7\ = 38.24 (Spec. Sec. 2.3.1.1)
vf
v 20
2.415
= 0.105 = 23.0 < 38.24 Therefore,
wi t

bi t
= wi t and QIl 1.0 For the lips (Spec. Sec. 3.2)
w /t
= 0.508/ 0.105 == 4.838 < 63.6/\lFy Therefore,
F(.
= 20 ksi and Q" = 1~0
Q
= QIl X Q" = 1.0
An increase in stress due to cold work is allowable for sections with a Q value of
1.0 according to Section 3.1.1.1 (a):
C = 3u/(2a -7- 2c -7- 3u) = 3 x 0.377/ (4.830 + 1.016 + 1.131)
C = 0.162
Be = 3.69 (FII/Fy) - 0.819(Fu/ F y)2 - 1.79
Be = 3.69(45/33) - 0.819(45/ 33) 2 - 1.79 = 1.719
m = 0.192 (FlI/Fy) - 0.068 = 0.192(45/ 33) - 0.068 = 0.194
Fye = BcFy/(R/t)m = 1.719 x 33/ (0.1875/ 0.105)194 = 50.7 ksi
Fya = CFyc -7- (I-C) Fyt = 0.162 X 50.7 + (1-0.162) 33 = 35.9 ksi
F = 0.60F ya = 0.60 X 35.9 = 21.5 ksi.
Rechecking Q :
From Section 3.2, (w/t)11m = 63.3/~ = 63.3/V35.9 = 10.6 > 4.83
From Section 2.3.1.1, (w/t) 11111 = 171/VT= 171/ \12[5 = 36.9 > 23.0
Therefore Q = 1.0 and the calculated stress Fya = 35.9 ksi may be used as the
average yield point.

(Eq . 3.1.1-3)
(Eq.3.1.1-4)
(Eq.3.1.1-2)
(Eq. 3.1.1-1)

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-34

EXAMPLE NO. 11

Column Section, Singly-Symmetric


1 125"
1.095"
0.971"

v:

-r--

I:

I:

C\I

~
,...

0.060,,1 V

=+
-~ vJ2.

~
en

<0

,...

Given:

1. STEEL: Fy = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 2x1.125xO.060 Channel with unstiffened flanges.

Required:

Column properties. (axial loading)

(Using formulas given in Part II, Section 2.2.1.2)


1. Basic parameters:
From sketch, a = 1.692 in., b = 0.971 in.,
a = 1.940 in., b = 1.095 in., c = 0.0 in.
Centerline radius, r = R + t/2 = 0.094 + 0.060/2 = 0.124 in.
Length of arc, u = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.124 = 0.195 in.
a
= 0 for sections without lips
2. Area:
A = t[a + 2b + 2u] = 0.060[1.692 + 1.942 + 0.390] = 0.241 in. 2
501.81
wt per ft = A x 144 = 0.241 x 3.485 = 0.840 lbs.

Solution:

3. Moment of inertia about x-axis:


Ix = 2t{0.0417a 3 + b (a/2 + r) 2 + u (a/2 + 0.637r):l + O.149r:'}
Ix = 0.120 {0.0417 (1.692) 3 + 0.971(0.846 + 0.124):l + 0.195 (0.846 + 0.637
x 0.124) 2 + 0.149 (0.124) 3}
Ix = 0.154 in.4
4. Distance from centroid of section to centerline of web:
x = A{
2t b(b/
0.120
2 + r) + u (0.363r)} = 0.241 {0.971 (0.486 + 0.124) + 0.195 (0.363
x 0.124) }
x = 0.299 in.
5. Moment of inertia about y-axis:
1.\. = 2t{b(b/2 + r)2 + .0833b3 + 0.356r 3 } - Ax:!
1.\. = O.120{0.971 (0.486 + 0.124) 2 + 0.0833 (0.971) 3 + 0.356 (0.124) 3}
- 0.241 (0.299):l
1.\. = 0.031 in.4
6. Distance from shear center to centerline of web:

= l:tlx [6c(ii)' + 3b(a)' = (1.095)

8(C)3]

x 0.060 x (1.940) 2
4 x 0.154

= (1) ~ ~~a)'

= 0440 .
.

In.

since c = 0

IV-35

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

7. Distance from centroid to shear center:


Xo = - (x + m) = - (0.299 + 0.440) = - 0.739 in.
8. St. Venant torsion constant:
J =

t'J

[a + 2b + 2u]

= (0.0 60) 3x [1.692 + 1.942 + 0.390] = 0.00029 in.~


3
9. Warping constant:
C _ tOi)2 (b):l (31) + 2a) = [0.060 x (1.940)2 x (1.095)3]
\\' 12
6b + a
12
(3 x 1.095) + (2 x 1.940)
[
(6 x 1.095) + 1.940
Cw = 0.0208 in.
10. Radii of gyration:
rx = v'DA = \10.154/0.241 = VO.639 = 0.799 in.
r,\ = VI),/A = \10.031/0.241 = VO.129 = 0.359 in.
ro:! = r/ + r/ + X,,2 = (0.799) 2 + (0.359) 2 + (0.739):! = 1.314 in.:!
11. Torsional-flexural constant:
J

I;

Ii = 1 -

(~J

=0

1-

(~'.~;~' =

0.584 (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2)

12. Factor Q (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a))


Since the member is composed of both stiffened and un stiffened elements,
Para[Jraph (3) in Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a) applies.
For the flanges: From Spec. Sec. 3.2,

63.3

= 63.3 = 11.02

VF;

v'F;

V33

33
and
_14~ = _!44_= 25.07
Flange w /t = _,Q~97 = 16 18
0.060
.
Since 11.02 < w /t < 25.07
Fe = Fy [0.767 - (2.64/103) (w/t) v/F;]
= 17.21 ksi
Q

>I

= 33 X

[0.767 - 2.64/10 3 X 16.18

ygg]

= Fe
= 17.21-=
086
F
20
.

For the web:


Since the web is a stiffened element, Spec. Sec. 2.3.1.1 applies.
(w /t) 11m =
Web wit

171
fij{\ = 38.24
y20
1.692
0.060= 28.20 < 38.24

Therefore b = wand Qa = 1.0


Then, Q = Qs X Qa = 0.86 x 1.0 = 0'.86
An increase in Fe due to cold work may be possible by testing in accordance with
Section 9.1.1.1 (a), methods (i) or (ii) ; however, since Q is less than 1.0,
calculation of the increase by method (iii) is not applicable.

(.I!J'q.3.2-2)

IV-36

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO. 12

Column Section, Singly-Symmetric

4.000"

g
<0

~
Lri

:; I--+-+--

- -...x

to

Y""

Given:
Required:

-,

co
~

C?

:t

.-

..-

Y""

1. STEEL: Fy = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 4 x 6 x 0.105 Hat Section.
Column properties (Combined axial load and bending).

(Using formulas given in Part II, Section 2.2.1.2)


1. Basic parameters:
From sketch, a = 5.415 in., b = 3.415 in.,
c = 1.048 in., a = 5.895 in., 0 = 3.895 in.,
c = 1.288 in.
Centerline radius, r = R + t/2 = 0.187 + 0.105/2 = 0.240 in.
Length of arc, U = 1.57r = 1.57 x 0.240 = 0.377 in.
a = 1.0 for hat sections
2. Area:
A = t [a + 2b + 2u + 2c + 2u] = 0.105 [5.415 + 6.830 + 0.754 + 2.096 + 0.754]
= 1.66 in. 2
3. Moment of inertia about x-axis:
Ix = 2t {0.0417a3 + b(a/2 + r)2 + u(a/2 + 0.637r) 2 + 0.149r3 + 0.0888c3
+ c/4(a + c + 4r)2 + u(a/2 + 1.868r) 2 + 0.149r3 }
Ix ='0.210 {0.0417 (5.415) 3 + 3.415 (2.707 + 0.240) 2 + 0.377 (2.707 + 0.637
x 0.240) 2 + 0.149 (0.240) 3 + 0.0833 (1.048) 3 + 0.262 (5.415 + 1.048 + 0.960):1
.
+ 0.377 (2.707 + 1.363 x 0.240):1 + 0.149 (0.240) 3 }
Ix = 12.05 in.4
4. Distance from centroid of section to centerline of web: (Element
-x = -J:
2t {b (b /2 + r) + u(0.868r)+ u(b + 1.687r) + c(b+ 2r) }

Solution:

0.210
= -[66
{8.415 (1.707 + 0.240) + 0.877 (0.868 x 0.240)
+ 0.877 (8.415 + 1.687 x 0.240) + 1.048 (3.415

x = 1.54 in.

+ 0.480) }

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

5. Moment of inertia about y-axis:


1.\. = 2t {b (b/2 + r) 2 + 0.0833b3 + 0.356r 3 + c (b + 2r) 2 + u (b + 1.637r) 2 + 0.149r3 }
-Ai2
I~. = 0.210 {3.415 (1.707 + 0.240):1 + 0.0833 (3.415) 3 + 0.356 (0.240) 3
+ 1.048 (3.415 + 0.480):1 + 0.377 (3.415 + 1.637 x 0.240):1
+ 0.149 (0.240) 3 } - 1.66 (1.54) 2
1.\. = 3.96 in.4
6. Distance from shear center to centerline of web: (Element (2)
lit - [6-()
- 3.895x12~05
xO.105 x [6 x.
1 288 x (5 .89 5) 2
m -- '12I
c ~ 2 + 31> (-)
a 2 - 8 (-)
c 3] ---12.0
x
+ 3 x 3.895 x (5.895) 2 - 8 (1.288) 3]
m = 1.86 in.
7. Distance from centroid to shear center:
Xu = - (x + m) = - (1.54 + 1.86) = - 3.40 in.
8. St. Venant torsion constant:
J

= ;~ [a + 2b + 2u + 2c + 2u] = (0.~5)3 [5.415 + 6.830 + 0.754 + 2.096


+ 0.754] = 6.12 x 10'3 in.

9. Warping constant, Cw :
(Ii) 2

Cw = 4 - Iy + (x) A
[

+ [ 2(0) ~t(C) ,

1-

(-):1 A )]

~ Ix

_ ii (b)' (c)' t

+ (il)'

Ii; i~)' x A _ (Ii); ::(C)"]


4

x [ 3.96 + (1.54)' x 1.66 x (1-

= (5.8:5)'

(5.!9!);2~0~66)]

+ [{- x (3.895)' x 0.105 x (1.288)' - 5.895(3.895)'(1.288)'(0.105)


+

(5.895) 2 x 3.895 x 0.105 x (1.288) 3 x 1.54 x 1.66


3 x 12.05

_ 4 x (3.895)2 X (0.105)2 X (1.288)6]


9 x 12.05
C w = 16.48 in.o
10. Constant j :
j

-2\

(fJ",
y

+ f3t

+f3l) -

XI)

where
#'" = - [0.0833 (tx (a) 3 + t (x) 3 a] = - [0.0833 x 0.105 x 1.54 x (5.895) 3
+ 0.105 X (1.54)3 X 5.895] = - 5.020
#r

=:

[(b - X)4 _(X)4] + t(!)2 [(b - X)2 - (X)2] = 0.053 [(3.895 -1.54t

- (1.54)4]
fJz

= 2ct(b_ -

+ 0.105 X ~5.895)2 [(3.895 -1.54)2- (1.54)2] =4.228


X)3

_ [_
_
( a )
+ 32t (b
- x)
(a/2 + C)3 - 2'

x (3.895 - 1.54) 3 +
- (2.948) 3]
j

= 2 x ~.96

2 X~105

= 2 x 1.288 x 0.105

x (3.895 - 1.54) x [(2.948 + 1.288) 3

= 11.839

(-5.020 + 4.228 + 11.839)

-+ 3.40 = 4.79 in.

IV-37

IV-38

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

11. Radii of gyration:


r x = v'Ixl A = v'r:-;12::-:.0:-=5-:-:::/1--:::.6~6 = v'7.26 = 2.69 in.
r y = yI y / A = V3.96/1.66 = '\1'2.39 = 1.54 in.
ro 2 = r/ + r/ + x} = (2.69) \I + (1.54) 2 + (3.40) 2

= 21.2 in.

12. Constant /1 :

= 1 - ( ~), = 1 - (~i~r = 0.455

{1

(Spec. Sec. 9.6.1.2).

13. Factor Q: (Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a))


The member is composed of stiffened and unstiffened elements. Therefore,
Paragraph (3) in S1Jec. Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a) applies.
For the web: (Element
5.415
wit = 0.105 = 51.57

For the flanges: (Element


3.415
wit = 0.105 = 32.52

<D)

Since these are stiffened elements, Spec. Sec. 2.3.1.1 applies.


171
171
(w/t)lim =
= v'2O = 38.24

vr

For the web: (Element


wit> (wit) 11m and
(Bq.2.3.1-1)

bit

253 [

= VI

55.3]
1 - (w/t) yIf

For the flanges: (Element

253

= V20

55.3]
1- (51.57) V20

= 43.01

CD)

wit < (wit) 11m and the flanges are fully effective.
Web: b = 43.01 x 0.105 = 4.516 in.
Flanges: b = 3.415 in.
A pf = 1.66 - [(5.415 - 4.516) x 0.105] = 1.566 in. 2

= Effective area =

1.566 = 0 943
Gross area
1.66
.
For the lip: (Section 3.2)
wit = 1.048/0.105 9.981 < 63.3/YF;
Therefore, Fe == 0.60Fy = 20 ksi and Q~ = 1.0
Q = Q>4 X QIl = 0.943
An increase in Fe due to cold work may be possible by testing in accordance with
Section 3.1.1.1 (a), methods (i) or (ii) ; however, since Q is less than 1.0,
calculation of the increase by method (iii) is not applicable.
Q

II

EXAMPLE NO. 13
Beam Section
Given:
Required:

1. STEEL: F y = 40 ksi, F u = 60 ksi.


2. SECTION: as shown in Example No.6.
Increase in yield point stress due to cold work.

Solution:
Compression flange wit = 2.412/0.075 = 32.2
From Section 2.3.1.1, for f 0.60 x 40 24 ksi, (w/t)llm

(Table 2.9.1.1(A))

= 34.9 > 32.2


effective and its Q = 1.0

Therefore, the compression flange is fully


(Sec. 9.6.1.1 (a) (1)). The increase in yield point due to cold work can be
calculated according to Sec. 8.1.1.1.

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Corners:
r
= R + t/2 = 0.094 + 0.075/2 = 0.132 in.
R/t = 0.094/0.075 = 1.250
Fu/F,. = 60/40 = 1.5
Fn./F\. = 1.81) (Table 3.1.1.1)
F~.e . = 1.81 x 40 = 72.4 ksi
Length of corners
= 4 x 1.57r = 4 x 1.57 x 0.132 = 0.829 in.
Length of flanges + corners
= 2 x 2.412 + 0.829 = 5.653 in.
C
= 0.829/5.653 = 0.147
The increased average yield point of the flange section is
F~'I\
= C F~'e + (1 - C) F yf = 0.147 x 72.4+ (1 - 0.147) x 40
F~'II
= 10.6 + 34.1 = 44.7 ksi

IV-39

(Eq.3.1.1-1)

EXAMPLE NO. 14
Beam, Unsliffened Flanges
Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in Example No.3.
3. Unbraced length of the member = 6 ft.

Required:

Allowable resisting moment, Mx.

Solution:

Local Buckling: (Section 3.2)


For Fe = 0.60Fy = 30 ksi, wit of unstiffened flange is limited to 63.'3/y1F-;= 8.95
Actual w /t = 1.208/0.105 = 11.5 > 8.95
Therefore, the allowable compression stress in flexure must be reduced:
Fe' = F~. [0.767 - (2.64/103 ) (w/t)\IF;]
Fe = 50 [0.767 - (2.64/10 3 ) (11.5) V5Q] = 27.6 ksi
Lateral Buckling: (Section 3.3)
From Example No.3, Sxc = Sx = 1.41 in. 3
I~.(. = ~I~. =.~ (0.158) = 0.079 in.4 (Table 2)
If Cb is assumed to be unity, then
L2 Sxc _ )(6 x 12) 2 x 1.41 124
) C dt.c 1 x 6 x 0.079
b
From Chart' 3.3(A)), Fb = 11.3 ksi < 27.6 ksi.
Therefore, lateral buckling controls.
Allowable resisting moment, Mx = FbS xc = 11.3 x 1.41 = 15.9 kip-in.

EXAMPLE NO. 15

Beam, Stiffened Flange


Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in Example No.4.
3. SPAN: L = 8 ft., with simple supports.
4. LOAD: LIVE LOAD = 300 lb. per lin. ft.
DEAD LOAD = 20 lb. per lin. ft.

Required:

1. Bending compressive stress.


2. Bending deflection.
3. Check of shear stress in web.
4. Check of web crippling.

',
. '; \ .

(Eq.3.2-1)

(Eq.3.2-2)

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-40

Solution:

1. Maximum applied moment, Mx = WL2/8 = 0.32 x 8 2 / 8 = 2.56 kip-ft


From Example No.4, Sx = 1.04 in. 3 (based on fll = 30 ksi)
fh = Mx/Sx = 2.56 x 12/1.04 = 29.6 ksi < 30 ksi
Assuming the compression flange i.s braced laterally, the section is satisfactory.
Since the actual stress is virtually the same as the stress assumed in calculating
Su no revision of Sx is required.
2. For computing deflection, (Section 2.3.1.1), the effective width of the top
flange (w /t = 144.9) is b = 54.5t = 3.27 in. (Chart 2.3.1.1 (B))
For computing bending stress, the effective width from
Example No.4 is 2.58 in.
Based on Example No.4, the correction for Ix is computed as follows:
L = 17.71 + (3.27 - 2.58) = 17.71 + 0.69 = 18.40 in.
Ly = 43.538 + 0.69 x 0.030 = 43.56 in. 2
Ly2 = 141.415 + 0.69 x 0.030 2 = 141.42 in. 3
Yf /.r
= 43.56/ 18.40 = 2.37 in.
I'x = Ly2 + I', - L y 2 f./.r = 141.42 + 8.42 - 18.40 x 2.37 2 = 149.84 - 103.35
= 46.49 in.:!
5WL4
Ix = I'xt = 46.49 x 0.060 = 2.79 in.4 Live Load Deflection = 384 EI

= J5 xQ~~ x _(~r__~ (12)~_ =

0.336 in. or 1 /286 span


384 x 29,500 x 2.79
3. Shear stress in web:
End reaction = 0.32 x 8/ 2 = 1.28 kips
h = 4.000 - 2 x 0.060 = 3.880 in.
Shear stress = 1.28/ (2 x 0.060 x 3.880) = 2.75 ksi
h t = 3.88010.060 = 64.7
From Chart V-3.4.1A the allowable web shear is,
F" = 16.6 ksi.
Since 16.6 ksi > 2.75 ksi, the section is satisfactory. (Section 3.4.1)
4. Web crippling:
Assuming a trial bearing length of 2 in., see Section 3.5.1:
hi t = 64.7
From Chart V-3.5.1A for hit = 50, Pallo,," = 0.78 kips and for hit = 100,
Pill low = 0.70. Interpolating yields,
P lillow

0.70 + (0.78 - 0.70)

(~~~

=~g.7)

0.756 kips

From Chart V-3.5.1J, for = 90, Co = 1.00.


From Chart V-3.5.1K, for R / t = 0.094/ 0.060 = 1.57, C4 = 0.915.
From Chart V-S.5.1A the Adjustment Factor for F~. = 50 ksi is 1.26.
Therefore,
PilI/OW = 0.756 x 1.00 x 0.915 x 1.26 = 0.87 kips, or for two webs 0.87 x 2
= 1.74 kips.
Since this is greater than the actual bearing load of 1.28 kips, the trial bearing
length of 2 in. is satisfactory

".

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-41

EXAMPLE NO. 16

Beam, Stiffened Flange


Given:

1. STEEL: Fy = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in Example No.6.
3. SPAN: L = 16 ft., with simple supports.
4. LOAD: 1.2 kips concentrated load at mid-span.

Required:

1. Actual and allowable bending stresses.


2. Design of lateral bracing.

Solution:

1. Actual and allowable bending stresses.


(a) Maximum applied moment, Mx = PL/4 = 1.2 x 16/4 = 4.8 kip-ft
(Weight of beam neglected)
From Example No.6, Part 2, the section modulus, Sx, based on f = 30 ksi,
is 2.17 in. 3 f" = Mx/Sx = 4.8 x 12/2.17 = 26.5 ksi in compression < 30 ksi.
Since the neutral axis of the effective section is below the center of the cross
section, the stress in the tension flange will be less than the compressive
stress of 26.5 ksi.
Since the actual stress is somewhat lower than the assumed stress, the section
modulus should be recalculated. From Chart 2.3.1.1 (B), it is determined that
the compression flange is fully effective for a stress of 26.5 ksi (Section
2.3.1.1). From example No.6, Part la, the section modulus of the full section is
Sx = SX(' = 7.66/3.50 = 2.19 in. 3 The revised bending stress is
f" = 4.8 x 12/2.19 = 26.3 ksi
(b) According to Section 5.2.1, lateral bracing must be provided at the quarter
points. The unbraced length is L = 16 x 12/4 = 48 in.
Check lateral buckling (Section 3.3) From Example No.6, d = 7.000 in. and lye
= JI,\' = J (1.001) = 0.501 in.4
If C" is conservatively assumed to be unity, then yL2 SX(./C" d l~,('
= V482 x 2.19/1 x 7.000 x 0.501 = 48 x 0.787 = 37.8
From Chart 3.3(B), F" = 30 ksi > 26.3 ksi satisfactory.
2. Design of lateral bracing.
According to Section .5.2.2.2., the bracing at mid span should be designed to resist
a lateral force Pl., where for a single concentrated load P, PI. = 1.0 K'P, with
K' =m/d.
(Eq.5.2.2-1)
According to Section 4.3, the distance of shear center of channel from the
mid-plane of the web is
(Eq.4.3-4)
m = (w f dt/4 IX> [wfd + 2d t (d - 4d 12/3d)] = (2.600 x 7.000 x 0.075/4 x 7.66)
[2.600 x 7.000 + 2 x 0.70 (7 - 4 x 0.7 2/3 x 7)] = 0.0445 x [27.86] = 1.24 in.
K' = mid = 1.24/7.000 = 0.177
(Eq.5.2.2-1)
PI. = 1.0 K'P = 1.0 x 0.177 x 1.2 = 0.212 kips
Therefore, the brace at mid-span should be designed to resist a lateral force of
0.212 kips. The Same brace may be used at the quarter points of the beam,
although bracing force at quarter points is .
PI. = 1.0/0.7 (1 - x/a) PK' = 1.0/0.7 (1- 48/48) PK' = 0.0 kips
Design of the end braces is based on the reaction equal to P /29 therefore the end
force is:
PI, = 0.212/2 = 0.106 kips.

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-42

EXAMPLE NO. 17

Beam, Laterally Unbraced Compression Flanges


:: 0.957"

'~
=>

roc:i

1.250"

::

LO

1/

'0=>

__

(,)

._-'---

R=3/16"

-_.

<ri

0.153"

0140"
7.414"

0.293"

8.000"
A

1. STEEL: F v = 33 ksi.
2. SECTION; as shown in Figure (a).
, 3. The beam is laterally braced at third points of the span and the
unbraced length is 50 inches.

Given:

Estimate the allowable compression bending stress in the un braced


compression flanges.
1. With braces.
2. Without braces.
Solution:
Following the design procedures and notation described in
Section 3 of Part I I I, the allowable compression bending stress in the flanges
of the beam can be computed step by step as follows:
Part 1. With braces.
1. Using the linear method to determine the location of the neutral axis and to
define the "equivalent column".
(a) Properties of the 90 corners r = R + t/2 = 0.1875 + 0.105/2 = 0.240 in.
Length of arc, u = 1.57 r = 1.57 x 0.240 = 0.377 in.
Distance of C.g. from center of radius = 0.637r = 0.637 x 0.240 = 0.153 in.
I' of corner about its own centroidal axis is negligible.
(b) Computation of the distance from the outer fiber to the neutral axis
Required:

L
(in.)

Element
1
2
3
4
5
Sum

2x
2x
2x
2x

0.957 = 1.914
0.377 = 0.754
5.414 = 10.828
0.377 = 0.754
7.414
21.644

y
Distance from Top
Fiber (in.)
0.052
0.140
3.000
5.860
5.948

Ly
(in. 2 )
0.100
0.106
32.484
4.418
44.098
81.206

Therefore, the distance from the neutral axis to the compression fiber is
Cc = 81.206/21.664 = 3.748 in.
(c) Equivalent column
As defined in Step (1) of the design procedures, the "equivalent column" is an
angle section in dicated by the shaded area in Figure (b) having a total
, depth equal to (3cc - Ct) d/12cc = (8 x 3.748 - 2.252) (6.000) / (12 x 3.748)
= 1.20 in.

IV-43

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification


b,
..q-

('t)

ci ~0.957"
II U')

0.293"

M
CJ)

010

C\I

~ci

SHEAR
CENTER

ci

:;

CJ)
CJ)
('t)

("')
:;

(,)

Lri X

= 0.105"

II

"""'
co >U')

(J

>-

--f+'-X

II~C\I
UN
B

EQUIVALENT
COLUMN

2. Determination of the vertical distance from the centroid of the equivalent


column to its shear center
(a) Distance from centroid of equivalent column to top fiber of the section
Y(g = 0.781/2.241 = 0.349 in.
(b) Since the equivalent column is an angle section, its shear center is located
at the intersection of web and flange. Therefore, the vertical distance
from the centroid of the equivalent column to its shear center is
Yo = Y(g - t/2 = 0.349 - 0.052 = 0.297 in.

Element

L
(in.)

Distance from Top


Fiber (in.)

Ly
(in. 2 )

1
2
6
Sum

0.957
0.377
0.907
-----2.241

0.052
0.140
0.747

0.050
0.053
0.678
0.781

1/~

,.

("')
0

..<-

IX)

CJ)

LO

7.895"

Lri

CJ)

.I

C.G. OF

EQUIVALENT
COLUMN

SHEAR CENTER )
0.001 kip

C\I

ci

* ---+-

-tJ-

~ 0.064"

it
I

I
------.-~

IV-44

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

3. Determination of spring constant "{3"


In order to determine the spring constant "{3", a portion of the member one
inch in length is considered isolated from the beam as shown in Figure (c).
The lateral deflection, D, of the column centroid due to a force of 0.001 kip
applied per pendicular to the web at the level of the column centroid can be
computed by using conventional methods. As shown in Figure (d), the moment
area method is used in this example.
D = 5.59g:1 (10-:1) / 3 EI + 5.598 2 (7.895 x 10-:1) / 2 EI = 182.181 x 10-:1/ EI in.
For E = 29.5 x 10: ksi and I = 1/ 12 x (0.105f ' = 0.0000965 in.4
D = 182.181 x 10-:1/ (29.5 x 103 x 96.5 x 1{)-r.) = 0.0640 in.
and the spring constant, {3, = O.OOl/ D = 0.001/0.0640 = 15.625 x 10-3 kip/inch
4. Calculation of Tn
Following Step (4) of the desi~n procedures, the value of To can be computed
as follows:
Til = hi (h + 3.4 yu) = 5.651/ (5.651 + 3.4 x 0.297) = 0.848
5. Computing value of P r
a) Consider the equivalent column section isolated from the whole section as
shown in Figure (e) and compute the moment of inertia about its
centroidal axis parallel to the web.

l'

0>

ci
-......... t = 0.105"

Element
1
2
6
Sum

L
(in.)

0.957
0.377
0.907
2.241

x
Distance from
Z-Axis (in.)
0.771
0.140
0.052

Lx
(in. 2 )

Lx 2
(in.a)

0.738
0.053
0.047
0.838

0.569
0.007
0.002
0.578

1'1
About
Own
Axis
(in. a)

0.073
0.002

0.075

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

= 0.838/2.241 = 0.374 in.


I'y = LX2 + 1'1 - LX2cg = 0.578 + 0.075 - 2.241 x 0.374 2
I'l' = 0.653 - 0.313 = 0.340 in. 3
Iy = l'yt = 0.340 x 0.105 = 0.036 in.4
Area, Ac = l(L)t = 2.241 x 0.105 = 0.235 in. 2
(b) Since the compression flanges of the beam are braced at two points,
the values of P!" C, and L' are computed in accordance with Step (5) of the
design procedure as follows:
Pp= 290,000 I/L2 = 290,000 X 0.036/(50)2 = 4.176 kips
C = ,8L2/P e = 15.625 x 10-3 x (50)2/4.176 = 9.354
L'= 3.7 ~I (h/t)3 = 3.7 ~0.036(5.651/0.105)3 = 32.02 in.
Since C is less than 30 and L is greater than L', then T = To and
Pel' = TP [1+,8L2/(,,2P p)] =0.848 X 4.176 [1 +15.625 X 10-3 X (50)2/(7I" 2 x4.176]
= 6.898 kips
6. Step (6) does not apply in this example.
7. Determination of the slenderness ratio of the equivalent column
(KL/r) = 490/yfP(.,./ Ac = 490/Y6.898/0.235 = 90.4
8. Determination of compression stress Fill from Paragraph (a) of Section 3.6.1.1
of the Specification for an equivalent column with (KL/r) I'll = 90.4, Q = 1 and K = 1.
Ce = yl2iT 2 E/Fy = y2iT 2(29.5 x 103 ) /33 = 133
(E9,. 3.6.1-5)
Since KL/r is less than Cj-v'Q,
(Eq.3.6.1-2)
Fal = 0.522 QF~. - [QF~.(KL/r)/(1494)]2 = 0.522(1) (33) - [lX33x90.4/1494]2
= 13.24 ksi
9. Allowable compression bending stress
The allowable compression bending stress is
Fh2 = 1.15 Fill (CjYf') = 1.15 x 13.24 (3.748/3.399) = 16.79 ksi
XCg

PI(

IV-45

Part 2. Without braces.


Per

ToY 4f3EI

Per

0.848V4(I5.625

10. 3) (29.5 X 103 ) 0.036

6.91 kips

Comparing this value of Pc,' with that obtained in step (5) of Part 1 where
Fer = 6.898 kips it can be seen that in this particular example the bracing is
of no value. The reason is that the natural lateral buckling is essentially a sine
wave that in this instance has nodal points at approximately the same spacing as
the braces. In such cases the designer can often make a neater design with less
fabrication labor by utilizing the existing components for lateral stabilization of
the compression flange without adding special bracing.

EXAMPLE NO. 18
Column, Flexural Buckling, C~mbined Axial and Bending
Given:

Required:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in Example No.8.
3. LENGTH: 8'-6" (Section is adequately braced about the Y-Y axis,
unbraced about the X-X axis) .
4. AXIAL LOAD: P = 13 kips.
5. APPLIED WIND MOMENT AT BOTH ENDS: Mx = 1.0 kip-ft.
Check the adequacy of the given section.

IV-46

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Solution:

(Eq.3.7.1-1)

The effective length factor, K, will be assumed equal to 1.0 for this example.
1. Axial load alone P = 13 kips
Average stress = P / A = 13/1.01 = 12.9 ksi
From Example No.8, Q = 0.687, r = 1.60 in.
QF~. = 0.687 x 50 = 34.4, KL/r = 1.0 x 8.5 x 12/1.60 = 63.8
From Section 3.6.1.1, Fal = 15.8 ksi > 12.9 ksi satisfactory (Chart 3.6.1.1 (A)).
2. Combined axial load and bending moment (increase allowable stress by 1/3 due
to wind in accordance with Section 3,1.2.2).
According to Section 3.7.1
~+
C f hx
~ 1.0
F nl
(1 - fn/F'px) F hx where fn = 12.9 ksi
F nl X 1.33 = 15.8 x 1.33 = 21.0 ksi
Since the section is laterally braced against buckling due to bending,
F"x = 30 ksi
F"x x 1.33 = 30 x 1.33 = 40 ksi
From Example No.8, b = 2.52 in. for f = 30 ksi. Determine Sx
IJIX

L
(in.)

Element

y
Distance to
Center of
Section
(in.)

Ly
(in.)

Ly2
(in. 3 )

-1.968
1.968
1.933

-4.959
7.368

9.759
14.500
2.227

-2.409

26.486

1'1
About
Own
Axis
(in. 3 )
----

Compression flange
Tension flange
Corners
Webs
Sum

2.520
3.744
0.596
7.488
14.348

8.747
8.747
------- .

--'--

Y(.g = 2.409/14.348 = 0.168 in.


Ix = Ly2 + 1'1 -lLy2('g = 26.486 + 8.747 - 14.348 x 0.168 2 = 35.233 - 0.405
= 34.828 in. 3
Ix = I'xt = 34.828 x 0.065 = 2.26 in.4
Sx = Ix/c = 2.26/ (2.000 + 0.168) = 1.04 in. 3
f"x = 1.0 x 12/1.04 = 11.5 ksi
For this example, assume C = 0.85

IJIX

(Eq.3.7.2-18)
(Eq.3.7.1-1)

127T E
1 33 151,900 x 1.33 49 6 k .
F 'ex x 1.33 = 23 (K4/rb)
2x . =
63.82
= . Sl

~+
Cmx f bx
= 12.9 +
0.85 x 11.5
=0.613 + 0.330
Fnl
(1 - fa/F'ex) F bx
21.0
(1 - 12.9/49.6) x 40
= 0.943 < 1.000
This section is satisfactory.

IV-47

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO. 19

Compression Member, Point-Symmetric, Axially Loaded, Allowable Load


Given:

1. STEEL: Fy = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 3 x 1118 x 0.105 Point symmetric Z-section with unstiffened
flanges. Column properties ~or this section have been calculated
in Example No. 9 by the linear method.

Required:

Allowable axial load P, for the given section for length L


length factor K assumed to be 1.0).

= 4 ft.

(effective

Solution:

The full section properties calculated in Example No.9 are


A = 0.508 in.2, r2 = 0.261 in., Q = 1.0
For L

= 4 ft the slenderness ratio is ~~ = 0.~~1 = 184

In accordance with Section 2.1.1.1. in Part III of the Design Manual


and Spec Sec. 3.6.1.1 (a), point-symmetric Z-sections are not subject to
torsional-flexural buckling. The allowable compression stress is therefore
determined either from Chart 3.6.1.1 (B) in Part V of the Design Manual
or computed as follows:
Cc = \1'271"2 E/Fy = Y2X9.87X29,500!33 = 133
Cc/ VQ =

~~g = 133

Since KL/r is greater than Cc/VQ


151,900
151,900
.
Fill = (KL/r)2 = (184)2 = 4.49 kSl, and allowable load P
= 2.28 kips

(Eq.3.6.1-5)

= AFlll = 0.508 x 4.49

EXAMPLE NO. 20
Compression Member, Singly-Symmetric, Axially Loaded, Allowable Load
Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 30 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 3 x 3 x 0.105 Angle with stiffened legs (singly-sym
metric). Column properties for this section have been calculated in
Example No. 10 using the linear method.

Required:

Allowable axial load for the given section for length L


length factor K assumed to be 1.0) .

9 ft. (effective

Solution:

The centerline dimensions and full section properties calculated in Example 10 are
a = 2.895 in., c = 0.748 in., A = 0.733 in.2,
rx = 1.31 in., ry = 0.73 in., ro2 = 4.24 in.2,
J = 0.00269 in.,\ Cw = 0.198 in.6, f3 = 0.53,
Q = 1.0
In accordance with Section 2.1.1.2 of Part III and Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2,
singly-symmetric sections fail either by flexural or torsional-flexural buckling.
The critical mode is determined from Chart 3.6.1.2 (A) i of Part v.
cia = 0.748/2.895 = 0.26
t/a 2 = 0.105/ (2.895) 2 = 0.0125
From Chart 3.6.1.2(AJi, Lcr = 142 in.

(Eq.3.6.1-4)

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-48

Since L = 108 in. is less than Lcr , the torsional-flexural mode is critical.
The allowable stress is computed according to Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.2.
The torsional-flexural buckling stress O'n'o can be obtained analytically or
graphically.

(Eq.3.6.1-10)

1. Analytical solution in accordance with Section 2.1.1.2.2. (a) (i) of Part III
KL/l"x = 108/1.31 = 82.4
17'2E
9.87x29,500 42 88 k .
O'('x
(KL/r x ) 2 = (82.4) 2
= . S1

(Eq.3.6.1-11)

= A;2o

<Tt

[11,300 (J)

17'2

EC w/ (KL) 2]

= (0.733~4.24)

[ 11 ,300xO.00269 + 9.87X29,500XO.198]
(108)2
at

(Eq.3.6.1-9)

"TFO

= 11.37 ksi
= i/J [( "ex+ (Tt) -v' ("ex+ "t) '- 4/J"t"ex] = 2 X ~.53

[(42.88+ 11.37)

- V (42.88+ 11.37) 2-4xO.53x11.37x 42.88]


O'TFO

= 9.95 ksi

2. Graphical solution for <TTFO outlined in Section 2.1.1.2.2 (a) (ii) of Part III.
The required design charts are given in Part V.
cia = 0.748/2.895 = 0.26
From Chart 3.6.1.2(B)i, ~: = 6.15x10 4
a
2
0'
= (Cx) a
= (6.15x104)
x (2.895)2 - 44 2 k .
{Ox
a2 ( KL) 2
( 108) 2
-.
St
<

From Chart 3.6.1.2(C)i, (t~i)2

= 6.9x10

3
- 9. 07 k S1.
to -- ~
(t/a2 (t/-)
a 2 -- (6 .9 x 10 ) x (0.105)2
2.895 -

0'

From Chart 3.6.1.2(D)i, ~: = 1.85x103


a
3
2
) x (2.895) 2
0' = 0'
+ (C'l') "8.
= 9 07 + (1.85x10(108)
t
to
a2 (KL) 2 '
2

= 104
k .
. 81

10.4 -- 0.235
('x -- 44.19
From Chart 3.6.1.2(E)i, F = 0.21
O:I'FO = F O;'X = 0.21 x 44.2 = 9.28 ksi
Based on the analytical solution for O"J'FO, the allowable load is calculafed below.
0''1'1''0 < 0.5 F.,<
Fa:! = 0.522 O''!'FO = 0.522x9.95 = 5.19 ksi, and allowable load, P = AFn!!
= 0.733x5.19 = 3.80 kips
R --

(Eq.3.6.1-8)

0' /0'
t

EXAMPLE NO. 21
Compression Member, Singly-Symmetric, Axially Loaded, Allowable Load
Given:

1. STEEL: Fy = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 2 x 11/8 x 0.060 Channel with unstiffened flanges
(singly symmetric). Column properties for this section have been
calculated in
Example No. 11 using the linear method.

Required:

Allowable axial load for the given section, (1.) if length L = 5 ft and (2.)
if length L = 2 ft-6 in. Assume effective length factor K = 1.0 in both
cases.

IV-49

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification


Solution:

The centerline dimensions and full section properties calculated in


Example No. 11 are
a = 1.940 in., b = 1.095 in., c = 0.0 in.,
A = 0.241 in.2, rx = 0.799 in., ry = 0.359 in.,
ro2 = 1.314 in.\ J = 0.00029 in.4,
Cw = 0.0208 in. 6 , (3 = 0.584, Q = 0.86
In accordance with Section 2.1.1.2' of Part III and Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.3,
singly-symmetric sections fail either by flexural or torsional-flexural buckling.
The critical mode is determined from Chart 3.6.1.2( A)'ii of Part V.
b/a = 1.095/1.940 = 0.564
c/a- = 0
t
0.060
a2 = (1.94) 2 = 0.016
From Chart 3.6.1.2(A)ii, Lcr = 47 in.
1. Length L = 5 ft.
Since L is greater than Lcr, the flexural mode is critical and the allowable axial
stress is determined from Chart 3.6 . 1.1. (B) of Part Vor calculated according
to Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1.
(a) as follows:
Cc = yl27!"2 E/Fy = yl2X9.87x29,500/33 = 133

VQ

133
ylO.86

= 143

. KL
Slenderness ratIO: ~

(Eq.3.6.1-5)

60
= 0.359
= 167

SInce
-KL > ~ C17\' th en,
ry
vQ
151,900 -_ 151,900 -_ 544 k .
F a1 -- (KL/r)2
(167)2
.
SI

(E

361 4)

q . .. -

P = AF al = 0.241 x 5.44 = 1.31 kips


2. Length L = 2 ft. 6 in.
Since L < LeI'! the torsional-flexural mode is critical. The allowable stress is
computed according to Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.3. 0' '1'1<'0 can be obtained analytjcally
or graphically.
(a) Analytical solution according to Section 2.1.1.2.2. (a) (i) of Part III .
. KL
30
Slenderness ratIo rx = 0.799 = 37.5
,

O't

(E~

,,2 E
__ 9.87x29,500 __ 207 k .
(KL/rx) 2
(37.5)2
SI

0" '".

= A;o2

[ 11,300 (J) +

(~~~~] = 0.241 ~ 1.314

x [ 11,300 x 0.00029

3 6 1 10)

q . .. -

(Eq.3.6.1-11)

+ 9.87 x 29,500 x 0.0208]


900
O't

= 31.6 ksi

O'TFO=

2~

[(O'p:\: +0"1) - yI(O'('x + <1t)2 - 4(3O'tO'ex] =

2XO~584

x [(207+31.6)

- yl207+31.6) 2 - 4xO.584x31.6x207]
<1'n'o= 29.5 ksi
(b) Graphical solution for O"I'}o'o as outlined in Section 2.1.1.2.2 (a) (ii) of Part III.
The required charts are found in Part V.

lia = 1.095
= 0.564 aC = 0
1.94
From Chart 3.6.1.2(B)ii,
a
"X

= (Cx) a
a2

(KL) 2

~:
= 5.0 x 104
a

= (5.0x104) X (1.94)
(30) 2

= 209 k .
SI

(Eq.3.6.1-9)

IV-50

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

From Chart 3.6.1.2(C)ii,


",,, =

(t~:)'

(till)'

(t/i)2 = 11.1 X 10

= (1l.1x 10') X (Oi~96: = 10.6 ksi

~:

From Chart 3.6.1.2(D)ii,


= 0.50 x 10'
(5.05x 103 ) x (1.94) 2
CT ) "8. 2
.
O't=O't,,+ ( a 2
(KL)2=10.6+
(30)2
= 31.7ksl
R = ~ = 31.7 = 0.15
O'I'X
209
From Chart 3.6.1.2(E)ii, F = 0.14
O"rFo = F ~'X = 0.14 x 209 = 29.3 ksi
Based on the analytical solution for
Since 0''I'Fo>0.5QF.\., F a :!=0.522QF.\.-

(Eq.3.6.1-15)

(1,1'1-'0,

the allowable load is calculated as follows:

7(6Q7F~.)

O''l'F()

= 0.522xO.86X33 -

(70'6876X::~2

Fn2 = 11.3 ksi, and allowable load P = AFn2 = 0.241 x 11.3 = 2.72 kips

EXAMPLE NO. 22
Compression Member, Singly-Symmetric, Subject to Combined Axial and Bending Stresses,
Allowable Load

1. STEEL: F.\" = 33 ksi (F = 20 ksi).


2. SECTION: 4 x 6 x 0.105 Hat (singly-symmetric).
Column properties of this section have been calculated in Example No. 12
using the linear method.

Given:

Required:

Allowable axial load for the given section if length L = 15 ft (assume


effective length factor K = 1.0) and if the eccentricity of the axial load is
e = +2 in. at both ends (i.e., load is on side of centroid away from shear
center) .

Solution:

(Eq. 3.7.2-2)

The centerline, dimensions and full section properties calculated in


Example No. 12 are
a = 5.895 in., b = 3.895 in., c = 1.288 in.,
A = 1.66 in.:z, rx = 2.69 in., ry = 1.54 in.,
ro2= 21.2 in.2, J = 0.00612 in.\ Cw = 16.48 in. 6 ,
j = 4.79 in., f3 = 0.455, Q = 0.943,
Iy = 3.96 in.\ x = 1.54 in.
In accordance with Section 2.1.2.2 of Part III and Spec. Sec. 3.7.3,
singly-symmetric sections fail either by yielding as a result of continuous
flexural beam-column behavior or by torsional-flexural buckling. Allowable
stresses will be calculated for both modes of failure and the smaller of the two
will govern.
1. Continuous flexural beam-column behavior The allowable load for continuous beam-column behavior is calculated according
to Spec. Sec. 3.7.2.(i).
Assume fll/Fol>0.15, then the first relation to be satisfied is the following:
~+
fhe m
:51
Fat
FbI (l-fn /F't
This expression can be rewritten in the form,
PIA + (Pe/Sy)C m :51
Fat

FbI

(l-f,/F'(,)

In order to solve for P, a value must be assumed for fa. One way of doing this
is to calculate F al and let fa = 112 F al as a first approximation.

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

KL = 180 = 117
ry
1.54
E......
IF--y = -j2x9.87X29,500133 = 133
Cc = y-=-27l". . .2. ......

Cc

IV-51

(Eq.3.6.1-5)

133 = 137
v'Q YO.943
KL
Cc
.
SInce - < ry
Q
Fa.

= 0.522QF, - [QFi~9ljr,.] ~ 0.522 X0.943 X33 -

X!!X117]'

[0.943
t4

(Eq.3.6.1-2)

(Spec Sec. 3.6.1.1)


F al = 10.3 ksi
Assume fa = lh Fill = 5.16 ksi
Noting that the maximum compression stress due to bending and axial loading is at
the lips, the full section modulus can be used to calculate f b.

Iv
S~. = -;

3.96

3.96

1 64' 3
In.

= 4.00- (x+0.05) = 2.41 = .


fb = Pe = Px2.00 = ~
Sy
1.64
0.82
Since w /t (at lips) = 1.048/0.105 =

9.98
= 11.0, Fhl is determined in accordance with Spec. Sec. 3.2, i.e.,
FbI = 0.6 Fy = 20 ksi
Cm = 1.0
127l"2E
12x9.87x29,500
.
23(117)2
= 11.1 kSI
F'e = 23 (KL/ry) 2 =
<63.3/~

(Eq.3.7.2-18)

The relation to be satisfied can then be written as follows:


P /1.66
P /0.82
10.3 + 20x [1- (5.16/11.1)] =1.0
Solving this expression for P leads to
P = 5.81 kips
Based on this value of P, fa = 5.81/1.66 = 3.50 ksi (compare with 5.16 ksi for
first approximation)
Assume fn = 3.9 ksi as a second approximation.
P /0.82
P /1.66
10.3- + 20x [1- (3.9/11.1)] = 1.0
P = 6.51 kips
39 k .
f n = 6.51
1.66 =. SI
Therefore P = 6.51 kips (Based on the first interaction equation in
Spec. Sec. 3.7.2(i) for fn/Fnl>0.15)
A second value of P is obtained from the relation

.l~+ ~::::;; 1.0


Fao

Fill

In order to solve for the allowable value of P, this relation can be rewritten as
follows:
PIA + Pe/S y < 1.0
Fao

FbI

F ao = 0.522QF y = 0.522 x 0.943 x 33 = 16.2 ksi when L = O.


(Spec. Sec. 3.6.1.1)
Hence, the second relation to be satisfied can be written as follows:
P
+ P x 2.0 = 1.0
1.66x 16.2
1.64x20
From which, P = 10.20 kips
The lower value of P = 6.51 kips obtained from the first relation governs for
the continuous beam-column failure mode.

(Eq.3.7.1-2)

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-52

2. Torsional-Flexural Buckling
Since the axial load is located on the side of the centroid away from the shear
center, the allowable load for torsional-flexural buckling is calculated in
accordance with Spec. Sec. 3.7.2 (ii) and Section 2.1.2.2.2.1 of Part III.
The torsional-flexural buckling stress O'TF can be obtained analytically or
graphically.
(a) Analytical solution according to Section 2.1.2.2.2.1 (a) (i) of Part III.

= 2.69
18<2 = 669
.

KL
rx

7I"2E
9.87x29,500
(KL/r,J 2 = (66.9) 2

(Bq.3.6.1-10)
(Ell. 3.6.1-11)

= Alru 2 [11,300

(J)

65 1 k .
SI

= .

+ 71"2 EC"./ (KL) 2]


+ 9.87x29,500x 16.48 ]

= (

1
) x [ 11 300xO 00612
,.
1.66x21.2
= 6.17 ksi

O't
(Eq.3.6.1-9)

[( IT., + ITt) - V(IT.x + ITt)' -

0:,.,.... = 2~

(180) 2

4,B~tIT.x] = (O.~l)

[(65.1

+ 6.17)

- yf (65.1 + 6.17) 2 - 4xO.455x6.17x65.1]


0"1'(-'( ,= 5.85 ksi
7I"2E
9.87x29,500 216 k .
O'e
(KL/ry) 2 : : (180/1.54) 2 = . SI
(Eq.3.7.2-21)

= - AO'ex [j - v'j2 + ro2 ( O't/O'ex)]


= - (1.66x65.1) x [4.79 - v'14.79) + 21.2x6.17/65.1]
= 22.2 kip-in.
= O''I' O'p = 5.85X21.6 = 126
GI'FeAcJ>1
=
+ + M 'I'

MT

MT
<PI

FO

<P2

0''1'1''0

0'

Assuming that there is no relative joint translation and since Ml

= 5.85 + 21.6 + 1.0X2.02~~266X126


= 46.4
= ~ [<P2 - V ~ - 4<pl] = ~ x [46.4 -

<P2
<P2
O"n'

= M~, GrF = 1.0

\1(46.4)2 - 4 x 126]

2.91 ksi
(b) Graphical solution for O'TF as outlined in Section 2.1.2.2.2.1 (a) (ii) of Part III.
The required charts are found in Part V.

0"1'1-'

::

lia =

3.895 = 0 66
5.895
.

I =
a

1.288 = 0 22
5.895
.

From Chart 9.6.1.2(B)iii,

= (Cx)
a 2a2 (KL)
2

0'

ex

~
= 6.1
a

x 10

(61 10.) .(5.895)2 _


. X x (180) 2 - 65.4 kSl.

From Chart 3.6.1.2(C)iii, (t~;)2


ITto

= (t~i).

(t/ii)' =

= 6.3 X 10
(6.3 x 10') x ( 5~~:~ ). = 2.0 ksi

From Chart 3.6.1.2(D)iii,


0'
t

0'

to

R = .3...
O'ex

(CT)
i2

~:
a

il
-20
(KL)2 - .

= 6.29
= 0.096
65.4

=0.4 x 10
+ (0.4x104) X (5.895)2 -629k'
(180)2

-.

SI

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-53

From Chart 3.6.1.2(E) iii, F = 0.09


O'TFO = FO"ex = 0.09 x 65.4 = 5.9 ksi
From Chart 3.7.2(A) iii, W = 0.79
From Chart 3.7.2(B)iii, G 1 = 0.044
MT = AO'exaWGl = 1.66x65.4x5.895xO.79 xO.044
M'f = 22.2 kip-in.
2
7r E
9.87x29,500 21 6 k .
O'e
(KL/ry) 2 = (180/1.54) 2 = . SI
CPl
O',],FOO'e = 5.9 x 21.6 127

,/,.
'/"2

0"",

] 1'0

+ 0' + CTF eAl = 5 9 + 21 6 + (1.0) (2.0) (1.66) (127)


('

= 46.6
0'']'1'' = 112 [CP2 - Vcp~
= 2.92 ksi

M,l'

..

22.2

cf>2

4cpd

= lh x [46.6 -

V(46.6)2 - 4 X 127]

0",1'1"

Calculation of allowable load for torsional-flexural buckling mode based on


analytical solution for O"'F'
Since O'n' < 0.5QF~.
Fu = 0.5220',J'f' = 0.522 x 2.91 = 1.52 ksi
P = 1.52 x 1.66 = 2.52 kips for failure in the torsional-flexural mode.
Comparison of this allowable load with that obtained for flexural beam-column
failure (P = 6.51 kips) indicates that the torsional-flexural failure mode is critical
and hence the allowable load is P
2.52 kips.

EXAMPLE NO. 23
Wall Stud, Axial Compression
Given:

1. STEEL: F y = 50 ksi.
2. SECTION: as shown in Example No.6 with the Y-axis perpendicular
to the wall, spaced 24 in. o.c.
3. LENGTH: 15 ft.
4. CLADDING: Both wall surfaces covered with 1/ 2 in. gypsum board.
Fasteners are No.6, type S-12, self drilling pan head drywall screws
spaced 12 in. o.c.

Required: 1. The allowable axial load.


2. The allowable axial load in combination with a 5 psf lateral load.
Solution:
1. Allowable axial load.
From Example No. 6 the section properties are as follows:
Full section,
A = 1.003 in. 2 , Ix = 7.66 in.4, I~. = 1.001 in.\ rx = 2.76 in., rr = 0.999 in.
As a column, Q = 0.726
From Table 1, part V, page 47,
J = 0.00188 in.\ C w = 9.94 in. 6 , ro =,3.57 in, absolute value of Xu = 2.03 in.
Column strength between fasteners:
From Sections 5.1.1.1 (i) and 3.6.1,
KL/ r,. = 2 x 12/0.999 = 24.0
Cr/ vtI =
217'2 E/QFy) = Vr-:2:--17'""ft2-=2=-9,-:::;-50::-;;0:--;/~(5::-::0:--X--=0.-=72A":6~) = 126.7
Fnl = 0.522QFy - (QFy x (KL/r,.) /1494) 2 = 18.6 ksi.
f3 = 1 - (xo/ro) 2 = 1 - (2.03/3.57) 2 = 0.677
O't
= (1/ ( Aro2 (GJ + 17' 2EC",/ (KL) 2)
O't
= (1/ (1.003 x 3.57 2 (11,300 x 0.00188 +17'2 x 29,500 X 9.94/242) = 395 ksi.
O'ex = 17'2E/ (KL/r x ) 2 =1T 2 x 29,500/ 2 x 12/2.76 2 = 3,850 ksi.
O"TFO = (1/ (2 (3) ) [ (O'ell: + O't) (O'ex + O't) 2 - 4 (3O'ex O't]

(Eq.3.6.1-5)
(Eq.3.6.1-2)
(Eq. 3.6.1-12)
(Eq.3.6.1-11)
(Eq.3.6.1-10)
(Eq.3.6.1-9)

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-54

(Eq.3.6.1-7)

O"1'FO = (11 (2 X 0.677) ) (3,850 + 395 - V (3,850 + 395) 2 - 4 X 0.677 X 3850


O'TFO = 381 ksi > 0.5QF~. = 0.5 X 0.726 X 50 = 18.1, also < 395 and < 3,850.
Fa2 = 0.522QF y = (QFr) 2 1(7.67 O''I'FO)
Fa2 = 0.522 X 0.726 X 50 - 0.726 2 X 50 2 / (7.67 X 381) = 18.5 ksi.

(Eq. 5.1.1-17)

Using the smaller value of Fnl and F u :.!, Fila = 18.5 ksi. trial value for col'Umn
buckling between fasteners.
Flexural and/or torsional overall column buckling from Section 5.1.1.1 (ii) (a)
f3 = 1 - (xo/ro) 2 = 1 - (2.03/3.57) 2 = 0.677
From Specification Table 5.1.1 (iii) -1
qo
= 2.0 K/in., ~ = 0.008 in./in.
q = <10 (2-S/12= 2.0 (2-12/12) = 2.0 kips/in.

(Eq. 5.1.1-31)

(Eq. 5.1.1-14)

O'er = O'ey + QII


L/ry = 180/.999 = 180.2, O't.~ = 8.97 ksi (from Design Chart V-5.1.1(E))
L/rx = 180/2.76 = 65.2, O'I'X = 68.5 ksi (from Design Chart V5.1.1 (E))
Q
= qB 2.0 X 24 = 24 kips

(Eq.5.1.1-16)

Qt

(Eq. 5.1.1-3)

Qd 2

- 4Aro2

48 X 72
4 (1.003) (3.57) 2

__
-

395)

46.0 kSl

(Eq. 5.1.1-12)
(Eq. 5.1.1-15)

O't

(Eq.5.1.1-13)

Q/A = 48/1.003

8.65 ksi

O'tQ

O't + Qt

O'tQ
O'ex

8.65

+ 46.0

(Eq. 5.1.1-3)

77'2

x 29,500

9.94/180

2
)

54.6 ksi

54.6 = 080
68.5
.

Section Dimensions, b/a


O'er

47.9 ksi

(1.003)\3.57) 2 (11,300 x 0.00188

O't

~~~~

0.39, cia

~..;;2

= 0.10

= 0.565 from Chart 5.1.1 (C)


O'ex X a = 68.5 X 0.565 = 38.7 ksi

O'er = O'er + Qa

8.97

+ 47.9 = 56.9 ksi > 38.7 ksi

use 38.7 ksi = O'er


From Chart V-5.1.1 (A)
With: O'er = 38.7 ksi
QF r = 0.726 X 50 = 36.3 ksi
F a3 = 14.5 ksi trial value for overall column buckling.
(Eq. 5.1.1-26)
{Eq.5.1.1-27)
(Eq.5.1.1-28)

(Eq. 5.1.1-21)
(Eq. 5.1.1-22)

(Eq.5.1.1-20)

Wallboard shear strain from Section 5.1.1.1 (iii):


Co = L/350 = 180/350 = 0.514 in.
Do = L/700 = 180/700 = 0.257 in.
Eo = L/ (d X 10,000) = 0.00257 rad.
Trial value of 0' can be based on the largest stress for the elastic values of E and G:
0' = 0.5QFy = 0.5 X 0.726 X 50 = 18.1 ksi.
C1 = O'C o/ ( O'ey- 0' + Qa) = 18.1 x 0.514/ (8.97 - 18.1 + 47.9) = 0.240
El = 0' [(O'ex - 0') (ro2Eo - xoDo) - O'Xo (Do - xoEo)]/[(O'ex - 0')ro2(O'tQ - 0')
- (O'xo)2]
El = 18.1 68.5 - 18.1) (3.57 2 x 0.00257 - 2.03 X 0.257) - 18.1 x 2.03 (0.257
- 2.03 x 0.00257) 68.5 - 18.1) 3.57:' (54.6 - 18.1) - (18.1 X 2.03) 2)
= -0.0278, Absolute value 0.0278
y = (77'/L) (C 1 + E ld/2) = (77'/180) (0.240 + 0.0278 x 7/2) = 0.00588 in./in.
Using a square-root extrapolation in the inelastic range for the next iteration,
(1 ~ 18.1 -V y Iy =
18.1 -V 0.008/0.00588 = 21.1 ksi trial value.
From Chart V-5.1.1 (F) with (1 = 21.1 ksi and QFy = 0.726 x 50 = 36.3 ksi,
E' = 28,700 ksi.

IV-55

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

G' = G(E'/E) = 11,300(28,700/29,500) = 11,000 ksi.


O"t = (1/ (Aro2) ) (GJ + '7I"2EC w /L2)
O"t = (1/ (1.003 X 3.57 2) ) (11,001 X 0.00188 + 7r 2 X 28,721 X 9.94/180 2)
0" t = 8.42 ksi.
O'tQ = O't + Qt = 8.42 + 46.0 = 54.4 ksi.
O'ey = 7r 2 E / (L/r~.) 2 = '71"2 28,721/ (180/0.999) 2 = 8.73 ksi.
O'ex = 7r 2 E / (L/rx) 2 = 7r 2 28,721/ (180/2.76) 2 = 66.6 ksi.
C1 =O"Co/(O"ey -0"+ Qa) = 21.1 X 0.514/(8.73 - 21.1 + 47.9) = 0.305
El = 0" ( (O'ex - 0") (ro2Eo - xuDo) - O'Xu (Do - xoEo / ( (O'ex - 0') ro2 (O"tQ - 0') - (O'Xo) 2)
El = 21.1 66.6 - 21.1) (3.57 2 X 0.00257 - 2.03 X 0.257) - 21.1 X 2.03(0.257 2.03 X 0.00257) ) / ( (66.6 - 21.1) 3.57 2(54.4 - 21.1) - (21.1 X 2.03) 2) =
= 0.0399, absolute value 0.0399

Y = (7r/L) (C 1

+ E 1d/2) = (7r/180) (0.305 + 0.0399

7/2)

0.00776 in./in.

(Eq. 5.1.1-30)
(Eq. 5.1.1-12)
(Eq.5.1.1-13)
(Eq.5.1.2-9)
(Eq. 5.1.1-10)
(Eq. 5.1.1-21)
(Eq. 5.1.1-22)

(Eq.5.1.1-20)

Again using a square-root extrapolation,


0' ~ 21.1

Vy /Y =

21.1

V0.008/0.00776 =

21.4 ksi.

Since this iteration will increase 0' only to 1.4 % .there is no need for further
refinement and a conservative value is 0' = 21.4 ksi.
Faa = 0"/1.92

21.4/1.92

11.1 ksi, trial value for wallboard shear strain computation.

Comparing the trial values of Faa, the smallest is obtained from the wallboard
shear strain computation:
Faa = 11.1 ksi.
The allowable load on a stud is:
P s = 11.1 X 1.003 = 11.1 kips.
The allowable axial load in combination with a 5 psf lateral load, Section 5.1.2:
From Example 6, the allowable resisting moment for a stud is 65.1 kip-in, and
according to Section 3.1.2.2 this may be increased by one-third for combined
loads. From Section 2.3.1. it is not necessary to recompute the value of Sx =
2.17 in 3 at the increased stress level.

For a simply supported stud 15 ft. long, spaced 24" oc under uniform 5 psf
horizontal load,
f bx = WL/8 X Sx = (5 X 2 X 15/1000) 180/8 X 2.17 = 1.555 ksi.
F'ex = 12'71"2 E/ (23 (L/r x) 2) = 1271"229,500/ (23 (180/2.76) 2) = 35.7 ksi.
Assuming fa/Fa3 > 0.15, rearranging the first equation of Section 5.1.2, and
including a one-third increase in F values,
0.75fa/Faa = 1.0 - 0.75fhx/ (F bx (1.0-0.75fa/F'ex
F bx = 1.7 X Fafl see definition of F bx
The largest possible value of fa is 11.1 ksi which can be used as a trial value
in the right-hand side of the equation.
0.75f8/11.1 = 1.0 - 0.75 x 1.555/ (18.87 (1.0-0.75 x 11.1/35.7
Solving for fa on the left side,
fa = 13.6 ksi. > 11.1 therefore fn = 11.1 ksi.
The allowable load on a stud is
P s = 11.1 x 1.003 = 11.1 kips.

EXAMPLE NO. 24
Resistance Welds
Given:

1. STEEL: Fy = 50 ksi.
2 SECTION: As shown in Example No.7.

Required:

1. The maximum longitudinal weld spacing to allow the line of welds


to be considered a line of stiffening for the 0.060 in. plate.
2. The maximum allowable shear using the weld spacing as
determined in (1).

(Eq. 5.1.2-3)

IV-56

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Solution:

1. Determination of maximum longitudinal weld spacing to allow the line of welds


to be considered a line of stiffening.
Check weld spacing required for plate.
From Example No.7, t = 0.060 in. and f = 30.0 ksi.
From Section 4.4(b) or Chart 4.4,
Spacing, s = 200tylf = 200 x 0.060/V30.O = 2.19 in.
Check spacing required for un stiffened lip on hat.
From Section 4.4(c),
s = 3w or 190t/yFy (since Fe > 0.54 Fy)
w = 1.000 - 0.425 = 0.575 in., 't = 0.075 in.
s = 3 x 0.575 = 1.725 in.
s = 190 x 0.075/Y50 = 2.02 in. Use 2 in. spacing.
Determination of maximum allowable shear using weld spacing of 2 in. To
satisfy Section 4.4 (a) :
V = 2Iq/sQ
where
V = Total shear.
I = Moment of inertia as determined in beam strength calculations = 13.06 in.4
from Example No.7.
q = Weld value = 0.725 kip per weld for 0.060 in. thick steel, according to
Section 4.2.2.
Q = Statical moment of the plate about the neutral axis of the composite section
= 7.385 x 0.060 x 3.050 = 1.351 in. 3 from Example No.7.
V = 2 x 13.06 x 0.725/2.00 x 1.351 = 7.01 kips.
Comparing this value with Items 3 and 4 of Example No.7, it is seen that the
maximum allowable reaction is governed by web crippling and is 2.78 kips.
Provision of adequate bearing stiffeners would raise this value to 7.01 kips.

EXAMPLE NO. 25
Connecting Two Channels

Given:

1. STEEL: F y

= 33 ksi.

2. Two channels with stiffened flanges: 2 - 6 X 21/2 X 0.060

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-57

1. Determine the maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of

Required:

connectors joining two channels to form an I-section used as


compression member with unbraced length of 12 ft.
2. Design resistance welds connecting the two channels to form an
I-section used as a beam with the following load, span and support
conditions:
a. Span: 10'-0"
b. Total uniformly distributed load including dead load: 0.340 kips
per lin. ft.
c. Length of bearing at end support: 3 in.

Solution:

1. Maximum longitudinal spacing of connectors for compression member.


For compression members, the maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of
connectors is specified in Section 4.3 (a) of the Specification as follows:
Smax = Lrcy/2rl = (12 x 12) x 0.909/2 x 1.18 = 55.5 in.
r(.y is from Table 1 and rl from Table 5.
Therefore, the maximum spacing of connectors used for connecting these two
channels as a compression member is 55 in.
2. Design resistance welds connecting the two channels to form an I-section used
as a beam.
(a) Spacing of welds between end supports:
The maximum permissible longitudinal spacing of welds for a flexural member is
specified in Section 4.3 (b) as follows:
SllIax = L/6 = 12x10/6 = 20 in.
Maximum spacing is also limited by
Smax = 2gT H/mq
in which
g = 5.0 in. (assumed for 6 in. deep section)
T H= 0.220 kips (assumed value for 0.060 sheet)
m= 1.15 in. (From Table 1)
q = 3 x 0.340/12 = 0.085 kips per lin. in.
Therefore
Smax = 2 x 5.0 x 0.220/1.15 x 0.085 = 22.5 in.
Smax = L/6 controls. Use a spacing of 20 in. throughout the span.
(b) Strength of welds at end supports.
Since the weld spacing is larger than the bearing length of 3.0 in., the strength of
the welds directly at the reaction, according to Section 4.3(b) must be:
T = Pm/2g = 0.340 x 5 x 1.15/2 x 5 = 0.196 kips
which is less than 0.220 kips as provided.
H

(Eq.4.3-1)

(Eq.4.3-2)
(Eq.4.3-3)

(Eq.4.3-6)

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO. 26
Bolted Connections

_ c:::====~CJ:?~===F=:
===-W
t=O.105"
BOLT DIA = 1/2"

P = 3.8

kips~

Given:

-p

1. Steel: F~. = 33 ksi., Fn = 45 ksi.


2. Bolts conforming to ASTM A-307
3. Detail of connections: Shown in above sketch.

= 3.8 kips

Required: Determine the maximum allowable load p.


Solution:

(Eq.4.5.4-1)

1. Allowable load based on bolt shear:


From Table V-4.5 (A), two one-half inch diameter ASTM A-307 bolts have
an allowable single shear strength of P = 2 x 1.96 = 3.92 kips trial value.
2. Allowable load based on bearing:
From Section 4.5.4, for Fn/Fy = 45/33 =.:: 1.36 > 1.15
elllin = P/ (0.5 Fnt) = 1.96/ (0.5 x 45 x 0.105)
eml n = 0.83 in. < 1
From Section 4.5.6, for t < 3/16 but ~ 0.024, single shear, with washers,
Table (A),
Fl' = 1.35 Fn = 1.35 x 45 = 60.8 ksi.
P = 2F p dt = 2 x 60.8 x 0.5 x 0.105 = 6.38 kips trial value.
3. Allowable load based on tension stress on net section:
From Section 4.5.5, with washers, single shear,
r = p/p = 1.0, d/s = 0.5/2.0 = 0.25 from Chart V-4.5.5(B),
F t /0.45 FII = 0.85, or F t = (0.45 x 45) 0.85.
F t = 17.2 ksi.
P = F t t(4 - 2(1/2 + 1/16
P = 17.2 x 0.105(4 - 2(1/2 + 1/16
P = 5.19 kips trial value
4. Comparing the values of P from 1, 2 and 3 above, the shear stress in the bolts
controls and P = 3.92 kips.

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-59

EXAMPLE NO. 27

Arc Spot Welded Connections

Section A-A

.1

11
11At

Plan

4 ..., ...- ........ -~

..........--....................-+~.....+-~~----~

Visible Diameter
of Weld, d
~

= .

Det.1I1

Given:

1. Steel: Fu = 65 ksi, F'I = 50 ksi


2. Total Load: P = 4.6 kips
3. Detail of connection shown in sketch.

Required: Design the connection to transmit 4.6 kips using arc spot welds

having 34" visible diameter.

IV-60

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Solution:
(Eq.4.2.1-5)

(Eq. 4.2.1-2)

(Eq.4.2.1-1)

1. Assume arc spot welds having 3,4 in. diameter.


de = (0.7d - 1.5t) = (0.7 X 0.75 - 1.5 X 0.06) = 0.44
0.55d = 0.55 X 0.75 = 0.41
0.44 > 0.41, use d.. = 0.41 > 3fs in., O.K.
2. Determine number of arc spot welds required. (Section 4.2.1.2.2)
d. = d - t = 0.75 - 0.060 = 0.69
d. - 0.060
0.69 -- 115
Comput eT.

~=HQ...=174
VF:l
V65
.

11.5 < 17.4, P = 0.88td F u


P = 0.88 X 0.06 X 0.69 x 65 = 2.37k each weld
Number of welds = 4.6k/2.37 = 1.9 welds, use 2.
Using E60 electrode, Fu = 60
1l

P = de

2F u

4
2
P = 0.41 X 60 = 2.5 kip
4

Number of welds = ~:: = 1.84 welds, use 2.


3. Determine minimum edge distance in line of stress.
(Eq. 4.2.1-6)

a.

~: = ~g =

1.3> 1.15

P
_
2.4 kip
1.18"
em 111 - 0.5Fu t - 0.5 x 65 x 0.06
1.25 edge distance> 1.18" ok
b. Edge distance shall not be less than 1.5d
1.5d = 1.5 x 0.75 = 1.125, 1.25" > 1.125" ok
c. Clear distance from edge of weld to end of member shall not be les~
than 1.0d:
1.0 x 0.75 = 0.75" maximum allowable clear distance
1 ~ edge distance less 0/8" = 0.875" > .75 ok
H

Use connection shown with E60 electrode.

-Distance from centerline of weld to end of member.

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-61

EXAMPLE NO. 28

Arc Seam Welded Connections

0.06::;: t

p::;: 2.8 kips

p::;: 2.8 kips

..-

1. Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, FII = 65 ksi


2. Total Load: P = 2.8 kips
3. Detail of Connection shown in above sketch .

Given:

Required: Design the connection to transmit P


Try d = 1/2 in.

2.8 kips using Arc Seam Welds.

Solution:

1. Allowable Load P shall not exceed either


2
p = de + LdeJ F

r[ 4

(Eq.4.2.1-8)

xx

Try E60 electrode F xx = 60 ksi


L = 1.5 in. or maximum 3d, 8 x 0.5 = 1.5 in. ok.
d n = (d - t) = 0.440 in.
de = (0.7d - 1.5t) = 0.260 in.
p ~ [0.~6' + 1.5 ~ 0.26 60 ~ 8.8 kips

(Eq. 4.2.1-10)
(Eq. 4.2.1-12)

OR

P = tFII (0.25L + 0.96d


P = 0.06 x 65 (0.25 x 1.5 + 0.96 x 0.44) = 3.1 kips
Lesser P = 3.1 kips> 2.8 kips Req'd., ok
ll )

(Eq.4.2.1-9)

2. Determine minimum edge distance in line of stress and perpendicular thereto.

~::

~~

(Eq.4.2.1-6)

= 1.8 > 1.15


P
2.8
144'
emin = 0.5 F ut = 0.5 x 65 x 0.06 =. In.
e
= 1.5 in. > .1.44 in. ok
Edge distance (e) shall not be less than 1.5d
1.5d = 1.5 x 0.5 = 0.75 in. 1.5 in > 0.75 in. ok
8. Clear distance between weld and end of member shall not be less than 1.0d,
1.0d = 1.0 x 0.5 = 0.5 in.
Clear distance = 1.5 in. - 0.25 in. = 1.25 in. > 0.5 in. ok
4. Use arc seam welded connection per sketch with E60 electrode and d =
*Distance from centerline of weld to end of member.

Ih in.

IV-62

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO. 29

Lap Fillet Welded Connection

&xxxxxxxxxxxxx

f
t:= 0.06

'yyyyyylj

P = 4.0 kips

3"

p:= 4.0 kips

2Yz

1)1.

Y4

Given:

1. STEEL:

J{.
I

2"-

'"

F~.

= 50 ksi, FII = 65 ksi


2. Total Load = 4.0 kips = P
3. Detail of Connection shown in above sketch.

Required: Design the connection to transmit P = 4.0 kips using longitudinal fillet welds.
Solution:

(Eq. 4.2.1-14)

1. Li t = 2/ 0.06 = 33 > 25,


For Li t> 25, P = 0.3tLF II
P = 0.3 X 0.06 x 2 x 65 = 2.34 kips
2.34 kips x 2 welds = 4.68 kips> 4.0 kips ok

2. Use lap fillet welded connection per sketch with E60 electrode.

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

IV-63

EXAMPLE NO. 30
Single Flare Bevel Groove Welded Connection

1. STEEL: Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi

Given:

Total Load: P = 4.0 kips


2. Detail of connection shown in above sketch and Fig. 4.7.
3. Transverse loading.
Required: Design the welded connection to transfer P

4.0 kips.

Solution:

1. Determine length L of flare groove weld required,

2. P

tLiu

.
L - 3P - 3 X 4.0 - 3 08"
T ransposlng,
- tF u - 0.06 x 65 - .
3. Use 3.5" long flare groove weld per sketch with E60 electrode.
Note: When this type of weld is used on a member that can rotate about the weld axis, a bending moment
may be introduced in the weld that would cause overstress. To avoid this the design generally employs at least one other parallel weld.

(Eq. 4.2.1-17)

IV-64

Examples Based on the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

EXAMPLE NO. 31
Inelastic Reserve

""

1.37

R = ~6

-0.135 in.

'y

:
I ""--1.67-

7.57------------------~1

Given:

1. SECTION in above sketch.


2. Properties from Table 9, Part V
3. Top flange continuously supported.
4. Unsupported length = 10 ft. (simply supported)
5. Concentrated load at mid span.
6. Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, F u = 65 ksi

Required: Maximum value of concentrated load at mid span based on

inelastic reserve capacity.


Solution:

Check hit ratio of compression portion of web less than 1901" F,.. The distance from
extreme compression fiber to neutral axis is 1.37 in.,
(1.37 - 0.135) = 9 15
0.135
.

< J.rul
VF";.

190 =
SO

269 k

Section 3.9(c)

Check hit ratio of entire web less than 640/VF';,


3.00 - 2 (0.135)
0.135

20.2

640

< y-F; =

640
50

"

90.5 ok

ey = Fy/E = 50/29500 = 0.00169

Section 3.9(d)
Section 3.9(1)

Compute wit of compression element,


w It

= 4.5 - 2 (0.135) - 2 (0.1875) = 286


0.135
.

Examples Based on the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

From Section 2.9.1.1, (w/t) II = 171VT, where f = 0.60F y


171/VSO = 31.22 > 28.6, therefore b = w.
From Chart V-3.9( A) with wit = 28.6, Cr = 2.23.
Compute the location of ey on the strain diagram,
The summation of longitudinal forces should be zero:
Height of N.A. = 3.00/2 + (4.50 - 2 x 1.67) /4 = 1.79 in.
III

2.23(0.00169)
1.21

IV-65

30 ksi.

0.00169 h = 054 .
hy , Y

In.

0.67

-{--I---I'

0.67

./-t-

1.21

0.54

0.54

N . A 1 - - - - - - r - - - - - + - N.A.
0.54

0.54

-l

1.79

1'j5
~-----..

F,

_---L..
_ _ _

______'__

Siress Diagram

Strain Diagram

~_._..

1.2 5

Neglecting corners and summing moments of the stresses in the component plates,
Mu = 50 x 0.135 [(4.5 - 2 x 0.135) (1.21 - 0.135/2) + 2 (0.67 (0.67/2 + 0.54
+ 4(1/2 x 0.54 x 2/3 x 0.54) + 2 (1.25 x (1.25/2 + 0.54 + (3.34 - 2 x 0.135)
(1.79 - 0.135/2)] = 98.5 kip-in.
Compute the yield moment,
F'y Ix=
= -

Mr

Yten~lon

50 x 2.47 = 75 8 k'lp-In
.
1.63
.
.

The design moment cannot exceed 0.60M or 0.75My,


0.60M = 0.60 x 98.5 = 59.1 kip-in.
0.75My = 0.75 x 75.8 = 56.8 kip-in.
Use 56.8 kip-in. as the maximum allowable design moment.
Determine the maximum allowable concentrated load at mid span of the simply
supported beam.
II

II

PL P

=~,

4x M
L

4 x 56.8
1 89 k'
10x12 =.
IpS.

Check that the web shear is less than 0.35F y ,


2 x

~xt

2 x (3 _ 2

;'g;35)

x 0.135

2.56 ksi

< 0.35Fy =

0.35(50)

17.5 ksi. ok

Use P = 1.89 kips as the maximum con~entrated load at mid span of the simply
supported beam. The section should be checked for combined bending and
web crippling Specification Section 3.5.2.

c.:t..'i

American Iron and Steel Institute


1000 16th Street, NW
Washington, 0 C 20036

CHARTS AND TABLES


FOR USE WITH THE
SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE

SPECIFICATION
FORTHE DESIGN OF
COLD-FORMED STEEL
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual-Part V

~M

W
e .AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE
1000 16th STREET NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20036

V-2

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

The material presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information
only. This information should not be used without first securing competent
advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation
or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute - or of any
other person named herein - that this information is suitable for any
general or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent
or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.

1st Printing-May 1983

Produced by W.P. Reyman Associates, Inc., New York


Copyright American Iron and Steel Institute 1981

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

PREFACE
This document, Part V of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, contains two
groups of design aids: (A) charts and tables prepared to assist in the use of particular
design provisions of the Specification, and (B) tables of section properties. Included in
Group A is an extensive series of graphs related to the compression member design
procedures contained in Part III, Supplementary Information.
These Charts and Tables should be used in conjunction with the other parts of the
Design Manual, which include Commentary (Part II), Supplementary Information
(Part III), and Illustrative Examples (Part IV), in addition to the Specification (Part I).

American Iron and Steel Institute


May 1983

V-3

V-4

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART V
CHARTS AND TABLES
FOR USE WITH THE
SEPTEMBER 3, 1980 EDITION OF THE
SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED
STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
PREFACE..................................................................

GROUP A-CHARTS and TABLES RELATED TO PARTICULAR

SPECIFICATION PROVISIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

General Notes ..............................................................

Chart Y-2.3.1 CA) Effective Width Concept, Flexural Members ......................

Chart Y-2.3.1 (8) Effective Width Concept, Compression Members ..................

Chart Y-2.3.1.1 (A) Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners:

Effective Width for Load Determination for All Elements Except Flanges of Closed
Square and Rectangular Tubes ............................................... 10
Chart Y-2.3.1.1 (8) Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners:

Effective Width for Deflection Determination for All Elements Except Flanges of
Closed Square and Rectangular Tubes ........................................ 11

Chart Y-2.3.1.1 (C) Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners:

Effective Width for Load Determination for Flanges of Closed Square and
Rectangular Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12
ChartY-2.3.1.1 (D) Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners:

Effective Width for Deflection Determination for Flanges of Closed Square and
Rectangular Tubes ........................................................ 13
Table Y-2.3.1.2 Multiple-Stiffened Elements and Wide Stiffened Elements with Edge

Stiffeners: Reduction Factor, a, for Computing Effective Area of Stiffener


(AE't = aAst) .............................................................. 14
Table Y-2.3.2.1 (A) Stiffeners for Compression Elements: Minimum Moment of Inertia

of Edge Stiffener, Imin/t4 .................................................... 14


Table Y-2.3.2.1 (8) Stiffeners for Compression Elements: Minimum Depth of Simple

Lip Edge Stiffeners, dmin/t .................................................. 14


Chart Y-2.3.2.2 Intermediate Stiffeners: Equivalent Thickness, t~, of Elements With

Closely Spaced Intermediate Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15


Chart Y-2.3.3 Maximum Allowable Flat-Width Ratios, Maximum Flange Projection,

w f, for Unusually Wide Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15


Table Y-3.1.1.1 Utilization of Cold Work of Forming: Corner Yield Point/Virgin Yield

Point vsR/t .............................................................. 16


Chart Y-3.2 Compression on Unstiffened Elements: Allowable Design Stress, Fe . . . . .. 17
Chart Y-3.3 CA) Laterally Unbraced Beams: Maximum Allowable Compression Stress,

F b, for I-Shaped Section Symmetrical About an Axis in the Plane of the Web or
Symmetrical Channel-Shaped Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-5

Chart V-3.3 (8) Laterally Unbraced Beams: Maximum Allowable Compression Stress,

F b, for Point-Symmetrical Z-Shaped Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19


Chart V-3.4.1 (1) Shear Stress in Unreinforced Webs. Maximum Allowable Average

Shear Stress, Fv, on the Gross Area of a Flat Unreinforced Web ................... 20
Table V-3.4.1 (1)-(12) Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs. Maximum

Allowable Average Shear Stress, F v, on a Flat Web ............................ 21-24


Chart V-3.4.2 (A) Bending Stress in Webs Beams Having Stiffened Compression

Flanges .................................................................. 25
Chart V-3.4.2 (8) Bending Stress in Webs Beams Having Unstiffened Compression

Flanges .................................................................. 25
Chart V-3.S.1 (1) Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of

Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends. Distance from the Edge of


Bearing to the End of Beam is Less Than 1.5h, Stiffened Flanges, 8 = 90 . . . . . . . . .. 26
Chart V-3.S.1 (2) Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of

Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends Distance from the Edge of Bearing
to the End of Beam is Less Than 1.5h, Unstiffened Flanges, 8 = 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 27
Chart V-3.S.1 (3) Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable Reactions or

Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam is Equal
1.5h or Greater, Stiffened or Unstiffened Flanges, 8 = 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28
ChartV-3.S.1 (4) Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of

Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends. Distance from the Edge of


Bearing to the End of Beam is Less than 1.5h, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges,
8 = 90 ................................................................... 29
Chart V-3.S.1 (S) Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes Allowable Reactions and

Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam is
Equal to 1.5h or Greater, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges, 8 = 90 ..............
Chart V-3.S.1 (6) Web Crippling of Double Web Shape Allowable End Reactions of
Beams and Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends Distance from the Edge of
Bearing to the End of Beam is Less Than 1.5h, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges .. "
Chart V-3.S.1 (7) Web Crippling of Double Web Shapes Allowable Reactions and
Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam is
Equal to 1.5h or Greater, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Chart V-3.S.1 (8) Web Crippling of Double Web Shape Allowable End Reactions of
Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends Distance from the Edge of
Bearing of Beam is Less than 1.5h Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges .............
Chart V-3.S.1 (9) Web Crippling of Double Web Shapes. Allowable Reactions and
Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam is
Equal to 1.5h or Greater, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Chart V-3.S.1 (10) Adjustment Factor Ce for Charts V-8.5.1 (1 thru 5) ..............
Chart V-3.S.1 (11) Correction Factors for Corner Radii up to 7t, Beams Having Single
Unreinforced Webs ........................................................
Chart V-3.6.1.1 (A) Axially Loaded Compression Members: Allowable Average
Compression Stress Under Concentric Loading, Fat, For Shapes Not Subject to
Torsional Flexural Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

30

31
32

33
34
35
85
36

Chart V-3.6.1.1 (8) Axially Loaded Compression Members: Allowable Average

Compression Stress Under Concentric Loading, Fah For Shapes Not Subject to
Torsional Flexural Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37

V-6

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TORSIONAL-FLEXURAL DESIGN CHARTS

Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric) With and Without Lips)


Chart V-3.6.1.2 (A) i Buckling Mode ....................................... .
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (B) i Cxl a 2
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (C) i O'to (a/t) 2
ChartV-3.6.1.2{D)i CT /a 2
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (E) iF-Factor ............................................ .
ChartV-3.7.2 (A) i W-Factor ............................................ .
ChartV-3.7.2 (B) i G1-Factor ............................................ .

88
89
89
89
40
89
41

Channels (Singly-Symmetric) With & Without Lips


Chart V-3.6.1.2 (A) ii
ChartV-3.6.1.2 (B) ii
ChartV-3.6.1.2 (C) ii
ChartV-3.6.1.2 (D) ii
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (E) ii
ChartV-3.7.2 (A) ii
ChartV-3.7.2 (B) ii

Buckling Mode ....................................... . 42


Cx /a 2 48

44
45
F-Factor ............................................ . 46
W-Factor ............................................ . 47
G1-Factor ............................................ . 48
O'to (a/t)2 ............................................ .
CT /a 2

Hat-Sections ( Singly-Symmetric)
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (A) iii
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (B) iii
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (C) iii
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (D) iii
Chart V-3.6.1.2 (E) iii
ChartV-3.7.2 (A) iii
ChartV-3.7.2 (B) iii

Buckling Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 49


Cxl a 2 50
O'to

(a/t)

CT /a 2
F-Factor ............................................ .
W-Factor ........................................... .
G1-Factor ........................................... .

51
52
58
54
55

Table V-3.7 (B) Combined Axial and Bending Stresses, Values of F'e ................ . 56
Chart V-3.S Cylindrical Tubes in Compression or Bending: Maximum Allowable
Compression Stress; Fr .................................................... . 57
Chart V-3.9 (A) C~. Factor for Stiffened Compression Elements Without
Intermediate Stiffeners .................................................... . 58
Chart V-3.9 (B) Cy Factor for Unstiffened Compression Elements .................. " 59
Chart Y-4.2.1 CA) Maximum Allowable Shear Stress (PI (t x d a ), on Each Arc Spot Weld
Between Sheet or Sheets and Supporting Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60
Table V-4.2.1 (4) (10) (11) Arc Spot Welds-Average Diameter (d a ) of Arc Spot Weld
at Mid Thickness of t; Arc Seam Welds-Average width (d ll ) of Seam Weld ........ 61
Table V-4.2.1 (12) Arc Seam Welds-Effective Width of Arc Seam Weld at Fused
Surfaces, d(' ............................................................... 61
Table V-4.2.1 (13) Arc Spot Welds-Effective Diameter of Fused Area, d(! ............ 6:1
Chart V-4.2.1 (B) Fillet Welds Allowable Load Per Inch of Weld in Lap or Tee
Joints t = Thickness of Single Sheet Adjacent to Weld Longitudinal Loading .... 62
Chart V-4.2.1 (C) Fillet Welds Allowable Load Per Inch of Weld in Lap or Tee
Joints t = Thickness of Single Sheet Adj acent to Weld. Longitudinal Loading . . .. 62
Chart Y..4.2.1 (D) Fillet Welds Allowable Load Per Inch of Weld in Lap or Tee
Joints t = Thickness of Single Sheet Adjacent to Weld Transverse Loading ..... 68
Chart V..4.4 Spacing of Connectors in Compression Elements: Maximum Allowable
Spacing .................................................................. 64

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-7

Chart V-4.S.S (A) Bolted Connections Allowable Tension Stress on

Net Section. Washers Under Both Bolt Head and Nut Double Shear. . . . . . . . . .. 65
Chart V-4.S.S (B) Bolted Connections Allowable Tension Stress on

Net Section. Washers Under Both Bolt Head and Nut Shear Single ............ 65
Chart V-4.S.S (C) Bolted Corrections Allowable Tension Stress on Net Section

Without Washers Under Bolt and Nut, or With One Washer .................... 66
Table V-4.S (A) Allowable Loads in Kips for A307 Bolts .......................... 67
Table V-4.S (B) Allowable Loads in Kips for A325 Bolts Threading Excluded

from Shear Plane ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67


Table V-4-S (C) Allowable Loads in Kips for A325 Bolts. Threading Not Excluded

from Shear Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67


Table V-4.S (D) Allowable Loads in Kips for A354 Grade BD Bolts. Threading

Excluded from Shear Plane .................................................. 68


Table V-4.S (E) Allowable Loads in Kips for A354 Grade BD Bolts. Threading Not

Excl uded from Shear Plane ................................................. 68


Table V-4.S (F) Allowable Loads in Kips for A449 Bolts. Threading Excluded

from Shear Plane .......................................................... 68

Table V-4.S (G) Allowable Loads in Kips for A449 Bolts Threading Not Excluded

from Shear Plane ......................................................... 68


Table V-4.S (H) Allowable Loads in Kips for A490 Bolts. Threading Excluded

from Shear Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 69


Table V-4.S (I) Allowable Loads in Kips for A490 Bolts Threading Not Excluded

from Shear Plane ......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 69


ChartV-S.1.1 (A) Allowable Stud Column Buckling Stress .......................... 70
Chart V-S.1.1 (8) a-Factor For Channel Sections Braced on Both Sides
UtQ/ CT(,x =

0.1 to 0.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71

Chart V-S.1.1 (C) a-Factor For Channel Sections Braced on Both Sides
utQ/ CTex

0.5 to 8.0 ....................................................... " 72

Chart V-S.1.1 (D) a-Factor For Z-Shaped Sections Braced on Both Sides
UtQ/ U ex =

1.0 to 10.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73

Chart V-S.1.1 (E) Flexural Buckling Stress About Major or Minor Axis .............. 74
Chart V-S.1.1 (F) Inelastic Modulus of Elasticity, E (ksi) .......................... 75

GROUP B-TABLES OF SECTION PROPERTIES


General Notes ............................................................... 76
Table 1 Channel with Stiffened Flanges ........................................
Table 2 Channel with Unstiffened Flanges .......................................
Table 3 Z-Section with Stiffened Flanges .......................................
Table 4 Z-Section with Un stiffened Flanges .....................................
Table 5 Two Channels with Stiffened Flanges, Back-to-Back ......................
Table 6 Two Channels with Unstiffened Flanges, Back-to-Back ....................
Table 7 Equal Leg Angle with Stiffened Legs ...................................
Table 8 Equal Leg Angle with Unstiffened Legs .................................
Table 9 Hat Sections ........................................................
Table 10 One Flange Stiffener .................................................
Table 11 One 90 Corner ................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

77
78
79
80
81
82
83
83
84
85
85

V-8

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

GROUP A
CHARTS AND TABLES RELATED
TO PARTICULAR SPECIFICATION PROVISIONS

GENERAL NOTES
(a) The applicable section of the Specification is indicated in the title of
each chart or table. In addition, the appropriate equations from the
Specification are generally shown on each design aid.
(b) The definitions of the terms used in these charts and tables can be
found in the Specification, or in Part III, Section 2, Compression Member Design Procedures.
(c) The torsional-flexural buckling charts (3.6.1.2 and 3.7.2) are grouped
together by cross-section type for convenience; that is, series i refers
to singly-symmetric angle sections, series ii to singly-symmetric channel sections, and series iii to singly-symmetric hat sections.
(d) The torsional-flexural buckling design charts are based on a square
corner approximation for all section properties.
(e) In the titles and labels for the torsional-flexural buckling design charts,
"a" and "a" are used interchangeably.

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Lipped Channel
or
"c section

Hat Section

Double Channel I-Beam


with Stiffened Flanges

Multiple Stiffened Hat Section


I----W ------I

Box-Type Section

......---w--.......---w--.....-j

Inverted "U" Section

Multiple Stiffened
Inverted "U" Section

CHART V-2.3.1(A)
Effective Width Concept, Flexural Members

Box-Type Section
lipped Channel
or
"C" Section

Double Channel I-Beam


with Stiffened Flanges

CHART V -2.3.1 (8)


Effective Width Concept, Compression Members

V-9

C"
: 1I I ' ,
1

Ii; .

il-.l

~t

253 [1 -

o
60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

(E . 2.3.1-1)
q

CHART V-2.3.1.1 (A)


Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners
Effective Width for Load Determination for All Elements Except Flanges of Closed Square and Rectangular Tubes

20
40
Flat width ratio, wIt

55.31
(w/t)VJ

Onll~~~~tlD~~~~~~~tlll~~~~~~~ttU~~~~

10~~~~~~~~~=f~m~BH~~

20

Flanges are fully effective (b=w) up to (wit) lim = 171VT


For flanges with wit larger than (wit) lim

280

300

30~mmEili~fIT~f?~i?:jf8fr~rrm~jfff~EtRffiEfrllffiEfrnmimmffffiiffi$HmEmiffffi

~~~~~~~~~~

40~~~~~~+H~~~~~~~

--

p.

::T

0:

CD
~

CD

-<.
-a

::::

rt-

$XI

8.

(t)

"0

0..
U1

(t)

~
'"'i

o
0:

C1

(t)

::r'

rt-

o
....,

fr.
rt-

tz:j

00

.....
~

SJ:I

'"'i

(t)

0-

(t)

rt-

"0

(t)

U1

(t)

::r'

rt-

::r'

rt-

~.

(t)

rn

'"'i

ro
rn

0-

0..

$XI
~

rn

$XI

::r'

C1

~
.....

'.

::1

jj

=H
1
-+1

+t

28
30
32
34

26

20
24
22

18

16

8
10
12
14

Sl

.-+

Stress f
(k ')'

~.~

.. .

..

t+...

~1

49.4
45'1
.
43.3
41.8
40.3
391
37 '9

'-

4--

fT ,1.l1

...

r-----r~-. r

t-t-. ~,.-f ++-;'

:Ti

r+~_LL

,+

'

...

. - -

. ~ "-

'"

C"

p'

0:

CD
~

CD
!l

. .....

: ; : . :....: .
\1 ' " ,

~n l: :-'+

,_ . ".- + " T " r '

..

I ...

. : :. : : ::

::

-I .

-I-~ -t-:.~d~

..

:::

"'.1.

..

.. .. .

- , '.

t ;'+-~+-r:-H

~+-~ .

+.'

+ -........ . .. +

f~

q"'+-


... ~

~.

Ii"

H-~t~d.., . +.\.-t-, :' ~r::


t~
' h :-: ~ ~: : : .. : ..1...
tl ':. ~+. - . r+
:f' 1:6-: :/~
I-'

r';
~.
..........

.. ~.'
.- - .

I '~"""

1 t

' - . ... . .

-t- ... . ~. ~ . ..

. ~ . t

~- ....
+
.o.
+

+....

-"'
+ . . ; 30.:

--+--t.

2'4

-~T

T-r--- d

--+.

t .

.4 ...... -;

,"

.. 1-.

_-

+'-0-

+-.o. . ..

+ . . ...

~ - .
. , . .... ~. t . . . . +1+ . -. ......

... .o. -,-

-:-tt- .....

1\[

'

-t... 3~6 ..1-

-r--:=-:'T 1-r

, +--+-+-+-t -+ ---I--+- ~ rr+:l- - t--.----.-,


-t .......
.+.-+-..-<-+- ~~. -I-+:-H-_~~"
+-.,. -+--I-+----r ~~- +.-i--f--+-- t _ .. , . ,
+'H-~+ ~ l"""'"
~
+

ttE3fEttEEEmREmEEEtamm

+"I-H-i+++++-+"'H-i--+++++-+1'-++-++++-~+-f--+-++++-+-H-i~

t..
:~ .-t- ~ ;.: .;t.::rt~ :-~~--]-:t=E
_L~~.H:!-..f+~+ii'fg~fiEg8=fiiEJiiEgsiiiE3iifEsii
-.!
," '. ....,,-.. +----33
39

'-+--:--0-. +"-. .

+--r.......
----. . -if

~~
~~ ~ .oo

... ~-- ....

.. ;

.,..,.

:---:~ _ t~~-+r--+-+--++b ... - . . _..

. -

-h--r-+-+--

21. t::++++++

.... -...... -,-.r+ +. ~


~~t ~-~f ~+-H
t.-. -gj:0-t-.,~Ytt+-+jm.-t::n~,~~~+tt+ttwmmmmmmmttt

.....
f::~_~;:;~~~~; ~ .. :;~;~. ; ;; ~~
. ~~~ . ~~~::t :: --~

~~ :~ ~~
H-1~ , ~::;:;:::;::.: :l;: _~~ Z~~ ~
tl

.'.

"1'

~
.. ... .
I-~T: t.:.. t-+ . - j-t-.~::: ~ -.- ___++- -::-~ r+- ++ ~
. _.. __ ':~ :'= "~-O-"' 7
...... "
~ 1 : .. . . -~-

= :.'

-J.

h~~~f~~'~~~+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1 :~;:
: ~:...::::: ::i ~,....

-I:

J..' - ~
. . . . ~~t--"" " . . .
t-; ::::: j ~+ :::: 1:
...... :. ~ .. :~ :;.: +. - .

b1+--!1"' " !; , .. t. ! ..... ~.

-r-+...:.t;;:~ ::

::

-I.

....

I l'

I I

..

,-I I ' t ,

...

.f

00

60

-1+-

100

120

300

~aE~:mIT
~ lt~rn+-ffiaemffiaffiffffiarum

.....

h--H
+ ;-~ :t-tijj"j
H
. - f+i-H
t-r~

:t:tt-:!tr--1!+ t

t- ..... ...

:~-=t ~:..:t:=-~::-: ::1- :::::-...:.:


'.:r ~.::~ ;~r::~:=t-:;:~:- :- ~ ~+t!~H-: -:!"t-;

0 -+

- -:----~ .......J+.+. . . -r-+4--.J.~ . . ..1. ~+


,., . I., .t-~
+~t.
.'t t -f .,
-t-+ rf -:--r-+
-t. +

..... - ~ -t- .. -t--:-~-r- r

:f::

p-+ .,..

t- . .. .

..... ..... f .... : : : : : t::~ : ~ ::~


: ~: ~ :.::: : ::: t :.: : t : :::: ~:::::

,.~ .

, .. t-; .

. +.
.. .o. ... .. .. - + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-t ....

-+ .

80

- ... ;

140
160
180
200
220
260
280
240
CHART V-2.3.1.1(B)
Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners
Effective Width for Deflection Determination for All Elements Except .Flanges of Closed Square and Rectangular Tubes

40

Flat width ratio, wIt

20

4 .... ....

Et~_- "" ""1 i ; '


10 ~Jt~.L
. -IA-.l.l ...... ~ + t-~ . !! ....
.. . . +. . ....-, .,.,.. ~\ ......
..... '. ;
+~~~ ....
t

0:+r~ . :~ ~f~~f~~ :i ~: 1~!t~ ~1 ~q


~ ~~~~;-t- ~~~ ~~i~ii ~~~:~~jj T~t,(.Iri
J~:~~r i-'-I~ ~ ++-~ j--.-"-"' ' ' 'H - .. ----'-t+ ';''t Ei--+t';' +-b:ttP- t+H
+~~

i- t , .

'11

1'"

::-1:

J:+::t-:-:...::-.:-":- :-::: .~.


~ :: ff!" ~~:p : .'-:~:::: -.-:-::: :..:.~-: ;-::: :: t~ : :::t:-::t-: ~-:-:::.::~~--t-t:---=~-U:~~~.:.:
:. :1E~E
t . fEE:
::::r':E :~ ~---!..~~; ~ . ~=::::
!~: =~fl:::: i :~:::..:~::: ~:~-:::r-: !: :::~:'E
7~S f-+---:-~;"""""""f--t-H---rl+-'"
~~-=:~ EEt~'~;"'~ilf~ffEiiaEfiHEmBfEEErnEimffiiE~
p..,..ti+---.+
, .... .... ~ . +1- ..... _.- .. f - 1+"
;'" i----:---:--r.::~
.... t1 !---l-+-..t " .,. ~.
, . " +1 .. .. " ... , ... . . . ... . .....
..,+. ' + ' --' -t---+----+--t---+
. .
. :-:.:t +-:i.
!1- , . ~. +--t .....
~.. .
r 1 " ;'"
,
- ,
, .,
.+
~ . +- . ............ T -'--'- -.......; +-- r,---r-.;. .,-+--+-+-i-+- ++ .-r~ rt-+
. . --+-.t- :;t.t
30 ~~;I~~~ ~
~~"tI~~: ; ;~ ~ <; if ;;;~ ;;~~; ~~~~~~i~l~~~t:~ I ~ tiiGif~~~-I-++~'~- +'~+- 'T+ .~+ , .+ ~
221Vf.
fl~tt;tt;~ i ' P' : ~:li;t:'1 ...... ~::::: :- :: :::. ,~ . : :r :::r-::
Flanges are f~l1y effectIve up to (w/t)lim
l:~
.
.!~..::t::.
:t;
..
+:
:;.:
.
1
.
:~.
:
:11.
::::.:
:
:-:::::::.:
1.::
;
::
f
.
f:
~:
.~::;
For
flanges
WIth
wit
larger
than
(w/t)um
1- +- -t--+-r-+.'
, , '
,
If . ; t .. , . H .: . , r .. ..
o [ri+"
+t
t . . . . . . . .
.
b
[
]
2 H't- .....
t ,I . " ,
'rl"'j't
.~:., ... ' : + " ' :" ~t . . ; t : . . . ~t . . ; ~
_
= 326 1- 71.3
(Eq.2.3.1-3)
t:-: :::-;+ :~:: !! ::; ~!- !.t-~ !1- : :: .+::::: :::. :::::~ .:rl:;l ::: ~:.~~:; t . t:
t
"llTf
(/t)'\r7'f
t .... ~-t+t- ,"+ , . 1 .ti ll li ,
' f . ..... -t- .. . 1' , t .. ,...,: . .
".1.
W".1.

40

50

..

,. -t

:: ~ t
j ::::::~~
,,~ t t i ---t ' ~- -

f-+-+ n . ~1 -. .. ~-, . .. , "

ttl! .'":} ...

~!:-:7:~-:-:

11-"-+"'

T:t-i- l!:::--:--:

1 , -+ -t--

+-+++-+-++1 : I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I

- r~~h~t,+t.~
, .~.~~
tt~~~~m~t!t'titl~!I~I~:~lt~tltlt!I~I~I~ltItltltl~lljl~ltltltltl~II~I~1~ltltltl~!I~I~I~ltltltltl~1I~I

. -t- o..
,. ...1. ~+-j +-+'
-

~l-t, I'~

.j

- - - t - " j -t- -. .

:~ ; r-t.:-=: ~ .:..--rt---~
~
. 1 t
.-f"'I"--!

~'-=:It~

;;: : :::: :. T::::::: ::U.:.:tl~::':-l~:-:' -=+ t~ -r--t


12 1 ' I
.. :-..; ::
. . . . T+'.:. . :.=. ~ ~
~:.
'. . ~.
Ll--:-;
. :.+~=--. -- ~ , , '
.
' T+---1- T
........
.--.\ i-. . ~ ...+-+
.... ;~T r-+
t--1--:l.-i-.- : +-I
-::;:~::..: . -::-: t:X t~t-: =:H=: H':'~'"
~
~L~tt+
I ~":""-r+-+t h-++~
.' '.r
' ~-~
; A i t ~-+-t .,. ~+++ ~ - t-
t .. ,
r ::::~ f+- :-t-t tT~ H='::::C~+-,+.,t H m- +
15
:::::.
. ::~-:'::Ir ~ I--+-r t:-::;-; .. _Tr~+i
+- +1.
-1--'. _

-;.tt
' - ~r' ....... .. _ , .
~+
' I " ."

:.-=- =--:~:::.-:!!:~~. ~

~~.-~."-~ ~~. ~.
,. ',~t. ~'- . '.

:.:.:_~r~':: :':";"::-~I ~- -t :; i-r-:::.:.: tt:.~ _-.~:+++ I , ~- +tT+-t+++-

I _ . .+

,::::::~

......

'~ "S\

tJ:-::: ;.~t:_:t:::=t+~~t!:t~ttt+
r--jH_ -- .JI6r'wlr , ~f-T:j::H-+++++-t-i-H-i-+-H I I I III I ' 1 1 1 111 1 11 11 1 1 1111 1 1111 1 1 1 1111111 I 111111111 1

.r' r

; ::: ::-;: :: ::-:.:.+~


;:: +
ri_ti n , :-:-~
i :-:-~ -+ -, . t+'_tf:':',:' ~tf--T-:;
. -t~+-t . I . fe .
i+
-+-~ ++t
:..:-....:.::.;::- :::-::1t::- ::-:-7 ; ~ ; ..;
.- l~ ::-1 :rt:;:::::t+p-~ t.+:::::tt+
.'~"~ . ' .. l+.,! . ! -rl ~
. . -t 7t~-~i '-....--;--,...t-h ri--t;
?::::::: : :-::=: 1 : : ~~-;...it'''f~:itt; ft ::-:::~;.:.: + ::::=:;':-+--i---h -i--t- ,

,t .....

....

r,.. . .

'Hq

:: :: :: ::

... -

,.

~ ::~.:-:;~-:. ~--r

t i-T " t';' ~ .,., I-t


t ~ I" T '

+ I

~: ~l

'I . . t ..
:: ~: ~ 1-:":: : I:: t1:

! l-

:::- .
.. .... .....
.
- ' " t, ....

::; :: . . :-

"+'_"'I--'-"'-+-:~!+~ . , - ~t

..... _ ... .

, . . . . . .

' -

52'1

~2

1105
90'2
.
78.1
69.9
63.8
59.1

SECTION
For Deflection
0 t
. t'
e ermlna Ion

H-.. -'-~-j-.-~Fffu!m-;
-~t+-- t 1.-+";""
'--i--i-f++,
. .... - .........
t-t----+- T''''
' -++ ,
t+ .... t-. ~.,. t ... _ .L..:...~
NON TUBULAR ....
.
. .. r' t . - .;. -~ -",+
. -~ ~ .... ,. ... ~ . "tl_ "
.. . + . -!- .
"

d+ ~ d -t ,. .

-I , } " , t . ' I . ' ,

+1'

- 70 ~ OT!!RS 22~;:~ ~
~ ~ .. ~ :: ~~: :~;:;: ~);lf l~: -=~++-t-+-_+t-++++-H-++-+-++-++-'~J-W
+<'
tB-Th
.~
~h ~~J ~ t: :
- t-t-+~~r-:-:1 :; i ;-- :1~ i::: lg':=~t
I - - ' ~: t-:~
::-I~-'~-. gIt

80

,t

~~'

H~ . -t
90 ~

100

110

.+
++

f '

120 ~.
rt-l
~ +-';'t-i-+!,t'

~
~

::s

~
M-

8,

(0

"t:j

0..
00

3
(0

'"'i

s:

(1

(0

::r'

M-

o>-+)

o'
::s

M-

t:tj

00

t.O

'"'i

(0

r:::r

M(0

"t:j

(0

00

(0

::r'

M-

::r'

M-

r.J2

(0

0'
'"'i

r.J2

ro

r:::r

0..

::s

r.J2

::r'

(1

60

70

36'1

26

fl.

~~.~

~~

t,. :.

+-

-j-T--+-j-

tu,l--+

..-_.

~ -~ +~

++-r.~

.:.,

Io"l'"

....-+:i"r-~

lli.J..1"

~-

-.

~-L:"'"

~-+-

..

--+

tt~~+

t-+

~=+-i-

~~+-+-'~~+f

~'-+-+-~Trt

-+--t : ' ; - . '

~l--;-~~~ ~H-+

~::::::: ;: r '

-=.,=- : :

-j- -+-:rt~ll + ++-l':~ _: ....


--'I I" I+;,;I"~~~'~
LL~bo~~+- ~.,.~ ~+.
I

-T~

ttr't-!-r+

hr-;-+-E1-:--:P-r.

++

-1-

+ +-

:i-:~+t ~ +tt:'-t~.

t+I..t..1-~.,+-t-r-H--

, ~,
+-r

-j--

-+-

--++++1-=1=

+
T

~-r+

_' .

-++-

.1_

..

,---+--

+.

+-+=r,
:"fT1JW :+ -:~-t 9j~ .. :

--

tit

t--+,

.n+

'

LLL

till

_l-LJ

'-+-+-tf
.
t- ,~ +--++
rt+lp_ ht- +i.-- ~-fnff~+lr Tf~

tH

t++++-H-t-H

+-

-+-

-:-

h--:-j--i-+-~T~~f---:--.---.-.-+

+,+-

j +

.~

'---+-

+,

.,

T'

+~+. ~+

rtt

+r

I,

+1 \_;+4

0,

--r

tt--+

-+ +

:t~

---r-t

~ ..
+-

'-~-;'.~.+

r,

-,

..

,~+- -;--~:-.,,-,~

-.++

::::;: ...

....

-t-ti. !:~,'-;'::' =-++--+~':::,':~fF~~-

T~~t~:h

t T

~~~~j

-'-+-

~-t

+-h

-+-:-

t~~

+-1-.

,::

t-t+tT

+'1'

~.f .~.

1,\1--++--+ 1-+

H-

+++ -j
..-j ~\r+- l\++-+-~rt
~:L+j+\~J-+FM-+,

+~,

t~+"+"T+H') i-

-l

:,

: :

i-;-

+-,

..--l-

"~r:-

1=+:"1-+

+t

tt

t-t

;-+

i1~
t
'..,L

t~T++-++t~~i-t
,rt+-.+~+!-tt,Jt-+~,.+

'

__

-r--+1

++--r

20

:-:::-7

t-t!:t:t:: +t

:rf

'.

-l-t

40
60

80

:--+i

100

+-H-t-!-t-

120

140

+~:
r+-t- t ~
,

H+--t-t-

+,+

'T

It+-

160

1_

~
50.3
(w/t)"VI

(Eq. 2.3.1-2)

ttt--M

'
I I I I I I

. .L-+-'

r H-i +-t-++++H

-~~

t-

+-j-

, , ,+++++t+t-t+t-+-H-H-~tt:t::t-t;ttmtttt :rUill H4-!t-+-HtH++-H


't+t+++~-++ttm-tttt1nmtm ttttllH++i-rt+ "
180
280
220
240
260
300
200

"VI

253

fully effective (b=w) up to (wit) lim = 184/'VT.


For flanges with wit larger than (wit) Urn

CHART Y-2.3.1.1 (C)


Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners
Effective Width for Load Determination for Flanges of Closed Square and Rectangular Tubes

Flat width ratio, wIt

+-+

,-+++++mnHitUE11f:t+++++++++ -i-+-H++ :--+--t-+r-+-----r"

"

+--+-+--+:~ ~H-, f4H-+- -:--T-r~


Ee~E-tEL -+- ~ 1r++++-j--t+
++-+-+-+:~:t:l+t,"
~t -+ ' tt::trt .,;,
~ri+tt

~-t::t~-

'I

,-t

j +

l-

i-H

",,-

~.j

~+

-t-l-i..

+--1

,,;,!-.:+

+-

l.:r:
~,:_dt+-t--: .

~lt++lr:

-t-t.

tlt'-rtiti l ~l.
,_LL
ft +1+ I+H'-;-tt-ri+-t+~, +- j. +-( H +- 1-+, It

+tf-!--tlTl"rttiH-+ T~

:-

.'. ",'-++'"

+-

+-

t-

-+

r -"r .

1-+

'I:f rr

.~. h-T+~-+
-:-~.~, .~. "t s-1~:.' tt-t""11-~
:-. - 1: 1 h,'
.. 'F--;-+-+1----+-l-~-+jtt+t"
+-'--'t
I

21' !-. -+.:, ..,


-+ r ++-H,t-~+'+30" '-;."p-'~-:---+ H-l-+J-+-

++21'
r-+' T+
,24 rh

t-+~_1

r ~1i.+-+
1fF.
'1
1 g.
+ ~t , .

..

~-+t-+_+-t+-j++-+

r'~

"':"'Ll..:~:.:;~:-' ~+-",,:+-f.-+-.-

. ...l.l..

.~.

",~, -,.,+ . . . . . . -+ .+ -~.


t-,tt~+--... ++-+-,+t- :tt+

+-~
++

-+-

. I IT, t-T-4- ~7 ttl-'.


:p::r:P=::-:h~-:'
ti-

.... ;. .... +1
-r-'+ f-++
,t~l , d . , , ,
'tt ~-rf--+';'jt++ +[t-'
++:t+- ~+h=i
.:r::'+;.0.,,",,"
~r f-+-"t ~

?mf'~ ~ L+- h-+. -: +-H +


~-tttrt
tJitt:j~'
. .' . 1 - +
j -t-+~
H-H--+. f+ ~ '.1.+- .
++.+--)
" + Hh:U1
--+-+-t,-'~ ,-"
r
""j~+
1h
++-+,rt
~+P+-++t-+++-j---It-t-II-t--IIH-l+ill
d
--if- .+.+1 1 + ,++~. ~' , ; - t+-t
+ H+tt t-+-l-- 1+-Hr'+
t-t++
t
+-+-J::M-!+"::~T ~:: ;:: :-rf-:-:-.::+ :-+;- !~ 12 , -i-';'+ - 'i-.-H-i ' . , c - '. ,. -J-; '. ~-,+-+ , f-+-+-;~

-'ll-"--tfmf--t-r++

"

Ttt 13
t:i:'

t,t-i-+1_+-j-+ri-t--+-i-j+-+f--t--+-i-j-i-t--t--+E+=t

1, - tt-U-+H
'tl+l- -.+t+ ++- Ll_ IT

t-'tJ

+H:t:J
' -H-+-+-i:r:i

t-H ~ l-tlrtt- t :

r~::::~~;ht.-r F~. F-; ~-~~~ .~~.: :;-::-::~~


~~ ~~~ihi ~~~~~~-~
'H'tl~~ ~~.~
t ~,~ff-fihthl;r
t,t-::;:::.::: ~+r-;-:t-~" trrf-!-~ ,~,
n-r-r--;: tn :-:~:-:-.' +-+-+ ~.,

~-:lt:1-++

":f.~~"+-i--:-t:

:: :1.:::-: ~:~.
' , '+~, -

h,

+ ...

::::#.:~~ r:_t!-~
~-: ::: : :
-:-+-+~
.---+-..-~-H

t::t+,.:.::::.

j.

;:;:::::: ; ; , . r - t

+-~r . +t-t-I'~t ~~. -t-~.

t+

0-++

I-

h-h-, ' I ~-t-j t

+-l-

; l --t-

t~

+- f-+ H

_ :~'::~::::-t:=r+.,-~: -+
:t:.
~: f::i~:::t i 6k~'
0-+-::::t 1-,'
... , . . -. ~-~-r-+~ -:-tlr~:t=
H t H- .. +~-l-- 1-:..,.
-tr . t
It-t= '
fI;-: ++ + H - ,
LL
... ~~.-.~-+.rt+tJ='t
4!......;1-1:l,.~. ~ ,'+:+-+ t-+--.....
-+.,,-"~+
H-H.
.~~~
--~- .-+t
'+.-i--;--l-L,'
-+
t+
: : :: :.~:-=.:~:~
t::t ~~+-+~.'
- +~'- r--'
~~. _ .. , ~:-~l1:
,;:.~
.:I:T
~ ++
~_ '
. " +.+ --- H~ ++--+
!""r
+ -+~
t-t
H-+
~=-~::::.:~
;.orr -1 ,.
.~....: ++~ ,-+~
.~+-,.:...+- 1: f-t.:;:
-;t - LL -t.-.-...
~ t"~'T'.t.;;i'" !"'!"+-r-r
~-+
'I,t
-.t.
-,rt+t
t-t-tII
,
, ,
J::.~
+, +. .;- ;+
t +. +
t t;
j
++-+-

m; :

-l-

-t

, -r~
:s.4t-:;
f:
t+d+t,

I~ ~

t=th.:tt~4::~T,
' -+ -~
!.;. P"1 " t
r-+-r-+ 4H+-+'
tT:;'~~
+--t ::-;::rr:::- t-

3 3 H - 3 6 t - 3 9 -t:-lftt~
[ ~r t-~tl'trjH:;-f-l4:i~r,t..-:+:+
i+r+m-t+t--l+--tffiHm+Etim=ml""""'f+E'*---t~'f-5+~+--+E~EEfn~]'ffit;g-;'~-l-h-4-l-~..::;:=.--;::.:tr-.--::=::L!~~1
+-'+Jt-
It
+i-1--d1tf
t
-~:;~r +dt:-+++
-+ +---:-'-++f-t-~~~
+,+
+-" --- ... +., r .++++ +It
1 -r-1
+ . ~ttt
H++-l+ + : - + - f-t-+-' .-.-H~H'" ,~'. ++~ +-t-) -+-t -t ,.
-++-fTTrHtrr t:ti 1--+--.+- .-l Lit--+l:: +-uu1J ++ ~~+~ t-rt
t11
30
'H~~r+-t.-1... i-;t+--+-r,
t+t.+, +-++- ~.-+-+--+~4. -+-++--tl-t-tt--+--J-.--H+-r--+
r++~+++--i--J--.-I-+--+-r++++-l--+t-+++-tn-tt-t:1:-tLt:t:4:-,-+-+~. I-:-~ -, tt1=++
-t++--+
Ii -;:
~ --+r f-t--+-:+-.t H-t ~
~+-L--I
LR=tlJ i
Ft H+--t:+ I. ~: t
-+u
'
Flanges of closed square and rectangular tubes are
!
+

+t

n-t-tt1-+
'
,j1t1 H- -HTrH .ttt

-j-

+-+-II

_!

rr+T~;~r;-:

+H t

ttL,
J ,t ~+h-F
ffi+-~ ~+
~ t
-t-+ ++ IT
--t + -+t

ijft

.++

t+-tf+_n~'

-t-H'-tt

-+!tr--;+~t;t

........

cr

9'

, t-

[+-++J.:.1:1:

E
ttt.It,

;;r

c:

-~

.ttl-~~. ~
~-t-. ~.

~g:~
1841 Vf

t
. t t.t I. f t +
t+t~ll~P++-+-

~~
OTHERS

3342

336
.
25
33 1'6

34.8

65.1
58.2
53.8
492

46.0
43.4
411

28
30

r-....
~~.

+ t-i. r~2--:tt
.. +-+ ,-i-i-H+
: . i!-+- r ~~-..--: +t
For load
:: ,...:.tt1:.j',
Determination
.. ! :...:::Lt - ,
:
;:::
::::
::
.H-~:- ~tr~192.0
~~ ..... ,. '!:-::-::.-~' +l-l--+:t
7 5 . 1 , :~~:: =...:-=-=- : ; -; .. -t-1-

TUBULAR
SECTION

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Stress, f
(ksi)

--+.nfl
. TI"f.,i

i
,
tj+-+
+-t,

:/

-... 50tmmfft #lHl+".Ji!'1

~.

==:
CD
g

80

90

100

110

o
::s

(':)

3.

(!)

'0

r:n

Q..

(!)

s:

(J

::T
(!)

I-t)

::s

o~

Q..

t.%j

00

.....
~

S,l~

(!)
~

r::r

(!)

r:n
'0

(!)

(!)

::T

::T

(!)

s::

r::r

!;?

Q..

::s

::T

(J

~
.....
[-.:l

.......

0'"

=r

is:

i"

-;
9-"

::::
(I)

10

20

30

40

50

60

90

100

.+~

I-++ti t-' +-f-

+-+-+.+-t-.-L/--t-H

."-i-+

.'

+-t--'

;::I

~ -t.

"+ri-

+"t-

-1-

~,

t-'.'

-t-

.. --+-+-.

"tt--+--+-+-.....
+, ~ +.-+
-+t... - ->--+---1- .

++

L+--t-+ - +-

'

l ' 711

.,

+-t-1

t-+-+-H~j

/---+-

H d+-+t

t
:-;

t=-I+

'. +
+....

"

-: '

,I

mOOmifiOOmmOOffi

t H-H H,~,-l+-l-l+j++-l4-Hf-++-f-++-!-++-!-++-!-++-!-++-l--W-l--W-+-++-+-+--I

'TTr':U:~m'
ttl- f-~-H-t++-t:ti

+- -t-~

-,-

'~p\\t~~HtESntttEtEtttttEjjtttttEtitttjj
33 t 36 +t 39 i-+ ~I-+++++-+-i-+++++-H-I+++-I-+-+-++++->-+-+-+-+-I
It

27
......
30

24i
.....

:-rM

m
21

18

Flanges of closed square and rectangular tubes


are fully effective up to (wit) lim = 237IV.
For flanges with wit larger than (wit) lim
b
326 [
649 ]
= 1_
.
(Eq.2.3.1-4)

+-t- -+-I-t-I-+-t- :

~~t--I--r--:--ti+-;-Ht

---.-l

;'~r"";

i--'-+-t

+-.--+

4t' +t++-+
t, ~, i',

[
-t,"
r-:----r-1

I I I I I I I I I f. 15

L.-._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

20

40

60

80

100

120

140
160
180
200
220
240
CHART V-2.3.1.1(D)
Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners
Effective Width for Deflection Determination for Flanges of Closed Square and Rectangular Tubes

Flat width ratio, wit

260

280

300

f:UtilliWtiJj
-t-'-

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~WI~~~~ttd~tt

::::::: :;:~H-.,;".., ~;.f~1i'~i'H-;-":


t
Vi.
(W./t)\jf
+~+-.+++: ::::::~;
:~:: ::::: :1:
::ft:: .~:r::: . -+:::
:::Ti:J:::1~}i-1t+;++t:ttr.H-tt~:[_tP(m[~j--H-tHUttm~
HHrH ..
'H:>+:rH+-H~- ;-+-:--:+;n:~mp-t , + t~tUttitittt+muUtun:o:rtl

-~ ++

..

-+-++-. +-~t.~. f-t-+-.


-",+.. -',-t-.,.-t,
t--+--+---+-

+... --+

.......... ---+--+---1>-

:.;...

-+-

P-

I I

r+~ ~'1-H- -H-+~

.;.+

++

t-++-t--++ Ii. I I I

41 , :::FF~

t4-t-t

-+

1--

I-!'

.. :. ::+-:: :-::tr:; +-i--. ~,' ~~ ~ ~.-::.~


-i---:----+----t-fi+--++ -;=+~-=: t-.- .. -~+

.-=.:..::..:::;::
rr .t!fF
''-,-,-:::
.~+~+,+ . -+- t::"t-

-,~ '-+-+.---+4~Ftt+-.l-+"t-). ~

"

~~~,
"t-

r:-~+

+-'

j-J.-:

i- ~..-+

t+i-+-- ~ -i-

t;IiiI

r+-l--+- ;

++
"'''++-''
'-+!+;,
~-+~Y---~~~+b~~~~+_--~~--~_+~~~M_--~~--~_H~~+4~~~H+

l~::
i :
.~d

:1+:: It::
H1. ...

rtt:;~l;; :t~t~

~+++I~;-:
r-::--vt"T

~'-~,

:"J.t.:;.~;.:
1t '-' ~t ~;T: :1

+,

+ +--t++--tj
I,

l-=-n

.f, '. ,'.'

t, +++--+-+--t-t-~-t...+I, '. ,
I

-t-~ ' t t t ~H+-t"'.I"'~'l I .. -:H '


:f.tHii
.~:tf1~r
t: + f'r.
~,t t'" +--I'Tt
. +'-+-1; t
~

t t - .

++-H+$-+

1:1~ri
+-

H+
-+.
+-t-++-_+-+-........

++-....

:rtt=t:=r
t-+++1-++-t

..

--+-+
Ht-+-++--i-.-t-

+'

rt'

~ t+~...-.-::t+-+-.~
--l.-+ l-+-H' 1-:-+++
-t-t +++_-1- + +
~+---+ - - + - - + - - + - .

11 ,-

. t~

J.-+-I-+-+-++++--i---l->-+-+-++--t---I++,

+ ,

+" .

4---+-

-'-+
i

HIDIg+

Oi'!"

m
0"'

rl-'

~
~
~

c-t-

3.

('0

m
'0

0-

('0

~
"1

0::

(1

('0

::r'

c-t-

o....,

0-

tz:j

00

~~

"1

('0

('0

c-t-

'0

('0

('0

::r'

c-t-

::r'

.
c-t-

('0

Ul

"1

0'

Ul

ro

0"'

0-

Ul

::r'

(1

V-14

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE V-2.3.1.2
Multiple-Stiffened Elements and Wide Stiffened Elements with Edge Stiffeners
Reduction Factor, a, for Computing Effective Area of Stiffener (Aet
a A lt )

= (3 -

For 60 < wit < 90, a


t
For 90 < wit, a= be/w

2b/w) - ;0

(1 - ~)

(Eq.2.3.1-7)

(Wit)

Flat Width Ratio, bit


wit

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

100

60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
100
110
120
130
140
150

1.00
0.95
0.91
0.86
0.81
0.76
0.71
0.66
0.61
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.39
0.33
0.28
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.13

1.00
0.96
0.92
0.88
0.83
0.79
0.74
0.69
0.64
0.59
0.54
0.49
0.44
0.39
0.33
0.28
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.18
0.17

1.00
0.97
0.93
0.89
0.85
0.81
0.77
0.72
0.68
0.63
0.58
0.53
0.49
0.44
0.38
0.33
0.30
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.20

1.00
0.97
0.94
0.91
0.87
0.83
0.79
0.75
0.71
0.67
0.63
0.58
0.53
0.49
0.44
0.39
0.35
0.32
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.23

1.00
0.98
0.95
0.92
0.89
0.86
0.82
0.79
0.75
0.71
g.67
.62
0.58
0.54
0.49
0.44
0.40
0.36
0.33
0.31
0.29
0.27

1.00
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.91
0.88
0.85
0.82
0.78
0.75
0.71
0.67
0.63
0.59
0.54
0.50
0..45
0.41
0.38
0.35
0.32
0.30

1.00
0.99
0.97
0.95
0.93
0.90
0.88
0.85
0.82
0.78
0.75
0.71
0.68
0.64
0.60
0.56
0.50
0.45
0.42
0.38
0.36
0.33

1.00
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.95
0.93
0.91
0.88
0.85
0.82
0.79
0.76
0.72
0.69
0.65
0.61
0.55
0.50
0.46
0.42
0.39
0.37

1.00
1.00
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.95
0.93
0.91
0.89
0.86
0.83
0.80
0.77
0.74
0.70
0.67
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.46
0.43
0.40

1.00
0.99
0.97
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.89
0.87
0.84
0.81
0.78
0.70
0.64
0.58
0.54
0.50
0.47

1.00
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.89
0.80
0.73
0.67
0.62
0.57
0.53

1.00
0.90
0.82
0.75
0.69
0.64
0.60

1.00
0.91
0.83
0.77
0.71
0.67

TABLE V-2.3.2.1 (A)


Stiffeners for Compression Elements: Minimum Moment of Inertia of Edge Stiffener, Lln/t4
I mln /t 4
1.83 vi (w/t)2 - 4,000/F)' but not less than 9.2 (Eq. 2.3.2-1)

Yield Point, Fy(ksi)

wit
9.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0

25

'"
'"
'"
11.0
17.9
23.4
28.4
39.5
49.8
69.4
88.5
107.3
126.0
144.6
163.1

30

33

'"
'9.2
"

'"
'"9.2

14.5
20.3
25.3
29.9
40.6
50.7
70.1
89.0
107.7
126.3
144.9
163.3

15.8
21.2
26.1
30.6
41.1
51.1
70.4
89.3
107.9
126.6
145.0
163.5

36

'"

'"
10.5
16.9
22.0
26.7
31.1
41.5
61.4
70.6
89.4
108.1
126.6
145.1
163.6

37

'"

'"
11.0
17.2
22.3
26.9
31.3
41.6
51.5
70.7
89.5
108.1
126.7
145.2
163.6

40

'"

9.2
12.1
17.9
22.9
27.4
31.7
41.9
51.8
70.9
89.7
108.3
126.8
145.3
163.7

42

'9.2
"
12.8
18.4
23.2
27.7
31.9
42.1
51.9
71.0
89.7
108.3
126.8
145.3
163.7

45

50

55

60

65

'9.2
"
13.6
18.9
23.7
28.1
32.3
42.4
52.1
71.1
89.9
108.4
126.9
145.4
163.8

9.2
9.2
14.6
19.7
24.3
28.6
32.7
42.7
52.4
71.3
90.0
108.6
127.0
145.5
163.9

9.2
9.6
15.4
20.3
24.8
29.0
33.1
43.0
52.6
71.5
90.2
108.7
127.1
145.6
164.0

9.2
10.6
16.1
20.8
25.2
29.4
33.4
43.2
52.8
71.7
90.3
108.8
127.2
145.6
164.0

9.2
11.3
16.6
21.2
26.5
29.6
33.7
43.4
53.0
71.8
90.4
108.9
127.3
145.7
164.1

TABLE V-2.3.2.1(B)
Stiffeners for Compression Elements: Minimum Depth of Simple Lip Edge Stiffeners, d mlnlt
dmlnlt
2.8"\Y (wit) 2 - 4,000/F)' but not less than 4.8 (Eq.2.3.2-2)

9.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0

'*"
'"
5.1
6.0
6.6
7.0
7.8
8.4
9.4
10.2
10.9

'"
'"
4.8

'"
'"
4.8

'"
'"
5.0

'"
'"
6.1

5.6
6.2
6.7
7.1
7.9
8.5
9.4
10.2
10.9

5.7
6.3
6.8
7.2
7.9
8.5
9.6
10.2
10.9

5.9
6.4
6.8
7.2
7.9
8.5
9.5
10.2
10.9

5.9
6.4
6.9
7.2
7.9
8.6
9.5
10.2
10.9

'"
4.8
5.3
6.0
6.5
6.9
7.2
8.0
8.5
9.5
10.2
10.9

4.8
5.4
6.0
6.6
6.9
7.3
8.0
8.6
9.5
10.3
10.9

'"
4.8
5.5
6.1
6.6
7.0
7.3
8.0
8.6
9.5
10.3
10.9

'"

4.8
6.6
6.2
6.6
7.0
7.3
8.0
8.6
9.5
10.3
10.9

The full allowable stress of 0.6 F)' may be employed without the addition of an edge stiffener.

4.8
4.9
6.7
6.2
6.7
7.0
7.4
8.0
8.6
9.5
10.3
10.9

4.8
5.0
5.8
6.3
6.7
7.1
7.4
8.0
8.6
9.6
10.3
10.9

4.8
5.1
6.8
6.3
6.7
7.1
7.4
8.0
8.6
9.5
10.3
10.9

0.5 -

1.0 -

1.5-

2.0 -:

5.0 4.03.0-

10.0-

15.0 -

20.0~

30.0-

w.(in.)

y
r.

ft

12

10001
500

L(in. 4 )

(Eq.2.3.2-3)

6.0-

10.09.0":
8.07.0-

t.(in.)

= 4.3 in.

= 40 in.\ w. = 6 in.

EXAMPLE: I.
SOLUTION: t,

0.5~
0.20.1-

2.01.0-:1

10"i3
5.0-

20-

0.5-

0.6

1.00.9
0.8
0.7

1.5 -

2.0-

3.0-

200
5.0100-:
_ - - - - - - - - 50 1---------:
.
4~-

t.

CHART V-2.3.2.2
Intermediate Stiffeners
Equivalent Thickness, t., of Elements
With Closely Spaced Intermediate
Stiffeners

0.02

0.05
0.04
0.03

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1.0

2.0
1.5

ct(in.)

CD

___ _

v'

=
=

EXAMPLE: C f 0.5 in., d


19.8 in.
SOLUTION: W f

1~

:,

5j

10-1--

50
40
30

faY (ks i)

fav

= /1,800 td x 4/100 C

0.5..J

1~

--5

~-

.
o 50
0.40
0.30
.

25

--f

404-1.0

t(in.)'

5
4

0.04

0.05

~t::::
8

10

0 20
---....
15
0.15
-------....
_......., 0.10

---....':::-..._-

20
15
-10

. )

din.
(

50

wf(in.)

(Eq.2.3.3-1)

= 10 in., t = 0.1 in., faY = 10 ksi

- - - - - -....... -~

wt

CHART V-2.3.3
Maximum Allowable Flat-Width Ratios
Maximum Flange Projection, Wu for
Unusually Wide Flanges

('1

::r'

("1-

~
~

::s

(=5'

("':I

(t)

r:n
'tj

Q..

:3(t)

>oj

0:

('1

(t)

::r'

("1-

o......

::s

Q..

tJ:j

00

<:0

S,:i

(t)
>oj

0'"

:3

(t)

("1-

'tj

(t)

r:n

(t)

("1-

::r'

(t)

00

s:::

0>
>oj

CD
00

0'"

::sQ..

00

::r'

V-16

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE V-3.1.1.1
Utilization of Cold Work of Forming
Corner Yield Point/Virgin Yield Point vs Rtt

R/t

Fu/Fy
1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8

1.459
1.416
1.381
1.351
1.326

1.623
1.570
1.527
1.490
1.459

1.771
1.707
1.655
1.611
1.574

1.902
1.827
1.767
1.715
1.672

2.017
1.931
1.861
1.803
1.753

2.116
2.019
1.940
1.874
1.818

2.198
2.090
2.002
1.930
1.867

2.264
2.145
2.049
1.970
1.902

2.314
2.184
2.081
1.995
1.922

2.347
2.208
2.097
2.005
1.927

2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8

1.303
1.283
1.265
1.249
1.234

1.431
1.406
1.384
1.364
1.346

1.541
1.511
1.485
1.462
1.440

1.633
1.599
1.569
1.542
1.517

1.709
1.671
1.636
1.605
1.577

1.769
1.726
1.688
1.653
1.622

1.814
1.766
1.724
1.686
1.652

1.843
1.792
1.746
1.705
1.668

1.859
1.804
1.755
1.711
1.671

1.861
1.802
1.750
1.704
1.662

3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8

1.220
1.208
1.196
1.185
1.174

1.329
1.314
1.299
1.286
1.274

1.420
1.402
1.385
1.369
1.354

1.494
1.473
1.453
1.435
1.418

1.551
1.527
1.505
1.485
1.466

1.593
1.567
1.542
1.520
1.499

1.621
1.592
1.565
1.541
1.518

1.634
1.603
1.575
1.548
1.524

1.635
1.602
1.572
1.544
1.518

1.624
1.589
1.557
1.528
1.500

4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8

1.165
1.155
1.147
1.138
1.131

1.262
1.251
1.240
1.230
1.221

1.340
1.327
1.315
1.303
1.292

1.402
1.387
1.373
1.360
1.347

1.448
1.431
1.415
1.400
1.386

1.479
1.460
1.443
1.427
1.411

1.496
1.476
1.457
1.439
1.422

1.501
1.479
1.459
1.440
1.422

1.493
1.470
1.449
1.429
1.410

1.475
1.451
1.428
1.407
1.387

5.0
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8

1.123
1.116
1.109
1.103
1.096

1.212
1.203
1.195
1.187
1.179

1.282
1.272
1.262
1.253
1.244

1.335
1.324
1.313
1.302
1.292

1.373
1.360
1.348
1.336
1.325

1.396
1.382
1.369
1.356
1.344

1.406
1.391
1.377
1.363
1.350

1.404
1.388
1.373
1.358
1.344

1.392
1.374
1.358
1.343
1.328

1.369
1.351
1.334
1.318
1.302

6.0
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0

1.090
1.085
1.079
1.074
1.068
1.063

1.172
1.165
1.158
1.152
1.146
1.140

1.236
1.228
1.220
1.212
1.205
1.198

1.283
1.273
1.264
1.256
1.248
1.240

1.314
1.304
1.294
1.285
1.275
1.267

1.332
1.321
1.310
1.299
1.289
1.280

1.337
1.325
1.313
1.302
1.291
1.281

1.330
1.318
1.305
1.293
1.282
1.271

1.314
1.300
1.287
1.275
1.263
1.251

1.287
1.273
1."260
1.247
1.235
1.223

;(

.2

as

:0

"t:J
CD

G)

c
C
'iii

-;;

..

rR

&L

i'

10

15

20

25

30

35

~I-

40

25

30

33

37

40

42

45

I IT

50

II

55

60

65 ksi

~~36

10

15

20

25

35

28.8
26.3
25.1
24.0
23.7
22.8
22.2
21.5
20.4
19.4
18.6
17.9

144/YF;

Flat width ratio, wIt

30

v;=;

12.7
11.6
11.0
10.6
10.4
10.0
9.8
9.4
9.0
8.5
8.2
7.9

63.31

I-

I--

40

Fe

45

50

55

60

[w/t- 63.31 ~] (0.60 FI -12.B) (Eq.3.2-4)


25 (1-2.531 v'F;)

SeCtions
- --,.!!.ther th
~ ana
.,...,. Ogles
I
,.;;
An I I
I
...
f'ooI-.. 9 e struts

0.60 FJ

For wIt ratio greater than 144/V"F; but not greater


than 25:*
Fe
B,OOOI (wIt):.!
(Eq.3.2-3)
For wIt ratio from 25 to 60:
(Eq.3.2-5)
For angle struts: Fe
B,OOOI (wIt):.!
For all other sections: Fe
19.B - 0.2B (wIt) (Eq.3.2-6)
*When the yield point of steel is less than 33 kSi,
then for wIt ratios between 63.31 v'F; and 25:

(Eq.3.2-1)

For wIt ratio greater than 63.3/YF; but not greater


than 144/v'"F,":*
Fe
FJ [0.767 - (2.64/10 a) (wIt) v'F;] (Eq: 3.2-2)

For wIt not greater than 63.3/v""F;:


F"
0.60 F)'

CHART V-3.2
Compression on UnstiHened Elements. Allowable Design Stress, Fe

25
30
33
36
37
40
42
45
50
55
60
65

(ksi)

F)'

limiting Values of wIt for Unstiffened


Compression Elements When Fe
O.60F)'

~
~
-l

o::s

(")

::!!

8.

CD

m
"0

a-

CD

:3

"'1

o
o
0:

CD

:T

o......

::s

rt:

a-

tzj

00

(.C

CD
"'1
~~

C7'

:3

CD

"0

CD

CD

:T

:T

rt:

CD

s::
rJl

11

rJl

(D'

C7'

a-

::s

rJl

:T

'xas

E
::;,
E

1i

~
0

:0
as

CD

...CD
a.

(t)

'iii

c:

( t)

(t)

LL'"
u)

'i)

00

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

10

1-

36

20

fJ~

30

40
50

60

80

v"~

70

CHART V-3.3(A)
Laterally Unbraced Beams
Maximum Allowable Compression Stress, F b , for I-Shaped Sections
Symmetrical About an Axis in the Plane of the Web or
Symmetrical Channel-Shaped Sections

25

30

33

42
40
37

45

50

55

-60

Fy 65ksi

90

Bending

For

For

Cb

1.00
1.10
1.23
1.38
1.55
1.75
1.97
2.22
2.30
2.30
2.30

Fb

EC b
,..2

= 0.6

<

Fy

1.8 ,..2 EC b

130

L~ ~:(.

Irc

L2 Sse

i=

150

(Eq.3.3-2)

(Eq.3.3-1)

111-

1-

11l1-

11-

111-

I-

1I-

140

8060
8740
9530
10480
11650
12470
13100
14160
14560
15880
17470
20960

Fy2
( L2 S:u )
5.4,..2 EC b ~

EC b

L2 SX('

120

1610
1750
1910
2100
2330
2500
2620
2830
2910
3180
3490
4190

<--<
dI,...

Fy

,..2

= 32
1.8

Fy
-

110

25

65
60
55
50
45
42
40
37
36
33
30

I-Sections and
Symmetrical Channels
0.36,..2EI Fy
1.8,..2E/F

limiting Value. of L2S:o:c/(d lyc)


Fy
(ksi)

0.36 ,..2 ECb

'100

0.6
0.8
1.0

OA

-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2

M/M2

Coefficient, C b

~
~

'"'l

::s

("'t-

(':)

8.

(t)

U1
'C

0..

:3
(t)

~
'"'l

s::

(1

(t)

:r'

("'t-

::s
o......

0..
~

tzj

co
00
o

'"'l

(t)

0-

:3

(t)

'C
("'t-

(t)

U1

(t)

:r'

("'t-

:r'

rt:

CIl
(t)

CIl

ro

0-

0..

::s

CIl

:r'

(1

00

::E

E
:::l
E
'xas

(ij

.Q

:sas

CD

E
o

0.

c
o
'iii
~

( I)

(I)

rn

U-

'iii

00

10

20

50

i
!

i I

80

90

For

100

F'If

".2

110

120

810
870
950
1050
1170
1250
1310
1420
1460
1590
1750
2100

130

4030
4370
4760
5240
5820
6240
6550
7080
7280
7940
8740
10480

-i--------.----

Ii: iii! II III i1 11111111 1'1i i!'! IIII Ii III i i Ill !iii i II I!iii' I ii II !

70

'i!

:::r'

0.-

::s

rn

60

k;;;

po;;

J[2s:V~

For

EC"

Fb

= 0.3

F.,

".2

<
-

L~ ~:.

yr.

L2 S"t'
----crr-

2.7".2 EC"

Ft

y~

L 2 S".

<-d-l- <

EC b

EC"

0.9

".2

3 Fy -

Fh -

_2

1.8

F.,
2

".2

EC b

(Ld I,."
S". )

0.9

150

(Eq.3.3-4)

(Eq.3.3-3)

140

+-.-+---'-->~----l

~
~

::s

M-

8.

(t)

'T::l

0.-

(t)

~
"1

0:

o
o

(t)

:::r'

M-

.......

::s

~:;:

0..

tz:j

00

"1

(t)

0-

(t)

M-

'T::l

m
(t)

(t)

:::r'

M-

:::r'

(t)

rn

"1

rn

cr

r. :

<D

+-

iii

.,..,

lliiM

N:

40

,...

. ~

I .

CHART V-3.3(B)
Laterally Unbraced Beams
Maximum Allowable Compression Stress, F , for
Point-Symmetrical Z-Shaped Sections "

30

- ~--4. +-+--'-

-r-+-~ t-::---1-+~+
-++----

~-+--+--:++4--+-+--+-+--< _~

~-+- .+---.

~~~I~!~L~~~

t:::--r-:--

3OE~:+iE~~iEi=-===

40

~~J~tjJmrb~YtJ t dtE' I:: :

V-20

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

30

"iii

For hit :$ 237

Fy=65ksi
25

u.

55

ur

(I)

.c:

(I)

Q)
C)
Q)

~\

33
M

Q)

:0
ca
~

(Eq. 3.4 1)

(Eq. 3.4 2)

37

15

>
ca

.2

F = 15,600ky
v
(h/t):I
kv 5.34

45
42

Q)

-.

50

20

<U

<U

(hit)

For hit> 237" ky/F7 :

(I)

y :

F = 65.7 Vkv F y < 0 40 F

60

V kv/F

36

25

10

(ij

E
E
:l

"~
~

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

hIt
CHART V-3.4.1(1)

Shear Stresses In Unrelnforced Webs


Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on the Gross Area of a flat Unreinforced Web

V-21

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
TABLE V-3.4.1 (1)
Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

Fy = 25 ksi

a/h
hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

I
10.00

10.00
9.72
8.91
8.22
7.64
7.13
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

10.00
10.00
9.92
8.92
8.11
7.44
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

10.00
10.00
9.59
8.63
7.85
7.19
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

10.00
10.00
9.36
8.42
7.66
7.02
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

10.00
10.00
9.19
8.27
7.52
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

10.00
10.00
8.93
8.03
7.30
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

10.00
9.88
8.78
7.90
7.18
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

10.00
9.49
8.43
7.59
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

Fy

10.00
9.73
9.19
8.27
7.52
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

10.00
9.50
8.91
8.39
7.92
7.13
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

10.00
9.75
9.06
8.45
7.92
7.46
7.04
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

9.62
8.88
8.24
7.69
7.21
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

10.00
9.13
8.37
7.72
7.17
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

10.00
9.36
8.51
7.80
7.20
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

TABLE V-3.4.1 (2)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

30 ksi

a/h

hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00
11.39
10.25
9.32
8.54
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

12.00
10.86
9.78
8.89
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

12.00
12.00
11.82
10.50
9.45
8.59
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

12.00
12.00
11.53
10.25
9.23
8.39
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

12.00
12.00
11.33
10.07
9.06
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

12.00
12.00
11.00
9.78
8.80
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

12.00
12.00
10.82
9.62
8.65
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

12.00
11.88
10.39
9.24
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

I
12.00
12.00
11.33
10.66
10.07
9.06
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

12.00
11.15
10.41
9.76
9.19
8.68
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

12.00
11.57
10.68
9.92
9.26
8.68
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

11.49
10.54
9.73
9.03
8.43
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

12.00
11.71
10.65
9.76
9.01
8.37
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

12.00
11.00
10.00
9.16
8.46
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

TABLE V-3.4.1 (3)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

Fy = 33 ksi

a/h
hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

13.20

13.20

13.20

13.20

13.20

13.20

13.20

I
13.20

12.82
11.53
10.49
9.61
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

13.20
11.95
10.75
9.78
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

13.20
13.20
12.82
11.39
10.25
9.32
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

13.20
13.20
12.39
11.02
9.92
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

13.20
13.20
12.10
10.75
9.68
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

13.20
13.20
11.88
10.56
9.50
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

13.20
13.18
11.54
10.25
9.23
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

13.20
12.97
11.35
10.09
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

13.20
12.46
10.90
9.69
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

13.20
12.67
11.88
11.18
10.56
9.50
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

13.20
12.60
11.70
10.92
10.24
9.63
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

13.20
12.14
11.21
10.41
9.71
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

12.05
11.05
10.20
9.47
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

13.20
12.28
11.17
10.24
9.45
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

13~20

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-22

TABLE V-3.4.1 (4)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

Fy = 36 ksi

a/h

hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

14.40

14.40

14.40

14.40

14.40

14.40

I
14.40

14!40
14.26
12.83
11.66
10.69
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

14.40
13.39
12.05
10.95
10.04
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

14.40
14.40
14.04
12.48
11.23
10.21
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

14.40
14.40
13.39
11.90
10.71
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

14.40
14.40
12.95
11.51
10.36
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

14.40
14.40
12.63
11.23
10.11
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

14.40
14.18
12.41
11.03
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

14.40
13.77
12.05
10.71
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

14.40
13.54
11.85
10.53
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

14.40
13.01
11.39
10.12
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

14.40
14.18
13.23
12.41
11.68
11.03
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

14.40
14.26
13.16
12.22
11.40
10.69
10.06
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

14.40
13.83
12.68
11.70
10.87
10.14
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

13.85
12.59
11.54
10.65
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

TABLE V-3.4.1 (5)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

F y =37ksi

a/h

hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

14.80

14.80

14.80

14.80

14.80

14.80

I
14.80

14!80
14.45
13.01
11.82
10.84
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

14!80
13.57
12.21
11.10
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

14.80
14.80
14.23
12.65
11.39
10.35
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

14.80
14.80
13.57
12.06
10.86
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

14.80
14.80
13.12
11.67
10.50
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

14.80
14.64
12.81
11.39
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

14.80
14.38
12.58
11.18
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

14.80
13.96
12.22
10.86
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

14.80
13.73
12.01
10.68
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

14.80
13.19
11.54
10.26
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

14.80
14.38
13.42
12.58
11.84
11.18
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

14.80
14.45
13.34
12.39
11.56
10.84
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

14.02
12.85
11.87
11.02
10.28
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

14.80
14.04
12.76
11.70
10.80
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

TABLE V-3.4.1 (6)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

Fy = 40 ksi

a/h
hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00
15.03
13.52
12.29
11.27
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

16.00
16.00
15.87
14.11
12.70
11.54
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

16.00
16.00
14.80
13.15
11.84
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

16.00
16.00
14.11
12.54
11.29
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

16.00
15.60
13.65
12.13

16.00
15.22
13.32
11.84
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

16.00
14.95
13.08
11.63
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

16.00
14.52
12.70
11.29
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

16.00
14.28
12.49
11.10
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

16.00
13.72
12.00
10.29
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

I
16.00
16.00
14.95
13.95
13.08
12.31
11.63
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

16.00
15.03
13.87
12.88
12.02
11.27
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

14.58
13.37
12.34
11.46
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

16.00
14.60
'13.27.
12.17
11.23
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

V-23

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE V-3.4.1 (7)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

F y =42ksi

a/h

hIt

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

16.80

16.80

16.80

16.80

16.80

16.80

16.80

16.80
16.27
14.46
13.01
11.83
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

16.80
15.16
13.48
12.13
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

16.80
16.80
16.53
14.46
12.85
11.51
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

16.80
16.80
15.98
13.98
12.43
10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

16.80
16.80
15.60
13.65
12.13
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

16.80
16.80
15.32
13.40
11.91
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

16.80
16.80
14.87
13.02
11.52
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

16.80
16.80
14.63
12.80
11.14
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

16.80
16.80
14.55
12.73
10.21
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

I
16.80
16.80
16.49
15.32
14.29
13.40
12.61
11.91
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

16.80
15.40
14.21
13.20
12.32
11.48
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

16.80
16.62
14.96
13.60
12.47
11.39
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

16.43
14.94
13.70
12.64
11.74
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

16.80
15.40
13.86
12.60
11.48
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

TABLE V-3.4.1 (8)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

Fy =45ksi

a/h

hIt

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

18.00

18.00

18.00

18.00

18.00

18.00

18.00
17.93
15.94
14.34
13.04
11.48
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

18.00
18.00
17.94
15.70
13.95
12.56
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

18.00
18.00
17.11
14.97
13.30
11.51
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

18.00
18.00
16.54
14.47
12.87
10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

18.00
18.00
16.14
14.13
12.56
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

18.00
18.00
15.85
13.87
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

18.00
17.96
15.40
13.47
11.52
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

18.00
17.67
15.14
13.25
11.14
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

18.00
16.97
14.55
12.73
10.29
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

I
18.00
18.00
17.07
15.85
14.80
13.87
13.06
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

18.00
17.39
15.94
14.71
13.66
12.75
11.48
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

17.01
15.46
14.18
13.09
11.86
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

18.00
17.20
15.48
14.08
12.90
11.39
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

I
18.00
16.84
14.97
13.47
12.04
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

TABLE V-3.4.1 (9)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fy , on a Flat Web

Fy = 50ksi

a/h

hIt

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00
18.33
16.80
15.51
14.40
13.06
11.48
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

20.00
19.92
17.93
16.30
14.94
13.75
11.86
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

20.00
18.90
16.80
15.12
13.66
11.48
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

20.00
17.75
15.78
14.20
12.04
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

20.00
20.00
18.91
16.54
14.71
12.66
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.67
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

20.00
20.00
18.03
15.78
14.02
11.51
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

20.00
20.00
17.44
15.26
13.29
10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

20.00
19.85
17.02
14.89
12.66
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

20.00
19.50
16.71
14.62
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

20.00
18.93
16.23
14.20
11.52
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

20.00
18.62
15.96
13.97
11.14
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

20.00
17.89
15.34
13.02
10.29
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

300

20.00
19.50
18.00
16.71
15.60
14.62
13.69
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

20.00
18.14
16.32
14.84
13.37
11.39
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

V-24

Fy

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
TABLE V-3.4.1 (10)
Shear Stresses In Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fv, on a Flat Web

= 55 ksi

a/h
hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

22.00

22.00

22.00

22.00

22.00

22!00
21.40
19.02
17.12
15.56
13.37
11.39
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

22.00
19.82
17.62
15.86
13.66
11.48
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

22.00
22.00
21.27
18.61
16.55
14.57
12.04
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

22.00
22.00
19.83
17.35
15.42
12.66
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

22.00
22.00
18.91
16.55
14.21
11.51
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

22.00
21.34
18.29
16.00
13.29
10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

22.00
20.82
17.85
15.62
12.66
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

22.00
20.45
17.53
15.34
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

22.00
19.86
17.02
14.58
11.52
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

22.00
19.53
16.74
14.10
11.14
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

22.00
18.77
16.09
13.02
10.29
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

Fy

I
22.00
22.00
20.45
18.87
17.53
16.36
15.34
13.69
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

21.15
19.22
17.62
16.27
14.99
13.06
11.48
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

22.00
20.90
18.81
17.10
15.67
13.75
11.86
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

TABLE V-3.4.1 (11 )


Shear Stresses In Reinforced and Unreinforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fv , on a Flat Web

= 65 ksi

a/h
hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

26.00

26.00

26.00

26.00

26.00

26.00

26.00
25.56
22.72
20.44
18.59
16.14
13.75
11.86
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

26.00
23.26
20.68
18.61
15.91
13.37
11.39
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

26.00
24.63
21.55
19.15
16.52
13.66
11.48
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

26.00
23.13
20.24
17.99
14.57
12.04
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

26.00
26.00
25.15
21.56
18.86
15.63
12.66
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

26.00
26.00
23.98
20.56
17.99
14.21
11.51
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

26.00
26.00
23.19
19.88
16.82
13.29
10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

26.00
26.00
22.64
19.40
16.03
12.66
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

26.00
26.00
22.23
19.05
15.45
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

26.00
25.91
21.59
18.50
14.58
11.52
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

26.00
25.48
21.23
18.20
14.10
11.14
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

26.00
24.48
20.40
17.00
13.02
10.29
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

Fy

I
26.00
26.00
24.25
22.23
20.52
19.05
17.58
15.45
13.69
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

25.54
22.99
20.90
19.16
17.38
14.99
13.06
11.48
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

TABLE V-3.4.1 (12)


Shear Stresses in Reinforced and Unrelnforced Webs
Maximum Allowable Average Shear Stress, Fv , on a Flat Web

60 ksi

a/h
hit

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

Over
3.0

40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
300

24.00

24.00

24.00

24.00

24.00

24.00

24.00

I
24.00

24.00
23.66
20.70
18.40
16.52
13.66
11.48
9.78
8.43
7.34
6.45
5.72
5.10
4.13
3.41
2.87
2.44
2.11
1.84

24!00
22.22
19.44
17.28
14.57
12.04
10.12
8.62
7.43
6.48
5.69
5.04
4.50
3.64
3.01
2.53
2.16
1.86
1.62

20.71
18.12
15.63
12.66
10.47
8.79
7.49
6.46
5.63
4.95
4.38
3.91
3.17
2.62
2.20
1.87
1.62
1.41

24.00
24.00
23.04
19.75
17.28
14.21
11.51
9.52
8.00
6.81
5.87
5.12
4.50
3.98
3.55
2.88
2.38
2.00
1.70
1.47
1.28

24.00
24.00
22.28
19.10
16.71
13.29
10.77
8.90
7.48
6.37
5.49
4.79
4.21
3.73
3.32
2.69
2.22
1.87
1.59
1.37
1.20

24.00
24.00
21.75
18.64
16.03
12.66
10.26
8.48
7.12
6.07
5.23
4.56
4.01
3.55
3.17
2.56
2.12
1.78
1.52
1.31
1.14

24.00
24.00
21.36
18.31
15.45
12.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40
3.86
3.42
3.05
2.47
2.04
1.72
1.46
1.26
1.10

24.00
24.00
20.74
17.78
14.58
11.52
9.33
7.71
6.48
5.52
4.76
4.15
3.64
3.23
2.88
2.33
1.93
1.62
1.38
1.19
1.04

24.00
24.00
20.40
17.49
14.10
11.14
9.02
7.46
6.27
5.34
4.60
4.01
3.52
3.12
2.79
2.26
1.86
1.57
1.33
1.15
1.00

24.00
23.52
19.60
16.80
13.02
10.29
8.33
6.89
5.79
4.93
4.25
3.70
3.25
2.88
2.57
2.08
1.72
1.45
1.23
1.06
0.93

24.00
23.30
21.36
19.71
18.30
17.08
15.45
13.69
13.21
9.89
8.17
6.87
5.85
5.05
4.40

24.00
22.09
20.08
18.40
16.99
14.99
13.06
11.48
10.17
9.07
7.34
6.07
5.10
4.35
3.75
3.26

21.83
19.64
17.86
16.14
13.75
11.86
10.33
9.08
8.04
7.17
5.81
4.80
4.03
3.44
2.96
2.58

24.00
22.35
19.87
17.88
15.91
13.37
11.39
9.82
8.56
7.52
6.66
5.94
4.81
3.98
3.34
2.85
2.46
2.14

24~00

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
--------------------------

(Eq. 3.5.1-1) P allow

t 2 kC aC 4 C IJ [179 - 0.33 (hit)] [1

J N= 5in

12

+ 0.01 (Nit)]

12
j-N= Sin

1/

3in
II
IV V-- 1 in

10
hIt 20

I I

II

10
hIt 50

1/ IV
Ij

///

JII

/V

VI'
VVI'
//V

1/

//

;:Vl'

/~
//~

/V
1',/

/ ' /V

/:/'V"

V:~V

~ ~ ......

/~ ~
~~ ~

k:::::::::: V

-I::::=: ::::::~

~ ;;:::::::;0-

.12

.08

.04

/VV

V/v

1in

1/ VV

//V

JI IV

V V/
/VV
//

- 3in

.04

.24

.20

.16

.08

.16

.12

.20

.24

12

12

10

1/

--

hit 100

I~
1/

1/ /V
1/ I

-N =5in

10
hit 200

3in
1 in

/r-N= 5in

/1'--- 3in

VV
VVV
V VV
V

VI'
/V
V /V

// /
/'V/

VV/

r-r- - - - - r- -

-- - --1- - -

/.V V

/V' . /

/~ ..".V

/? .-:.,V"

~~ ;::::

.....

~~ ,/'

.04

.08

- - c--

.12

+-

-I-

--

--

r- ~

-- ------t---

+-t--t -

.16

---

-r-.

//

/V '/

--

I/: rV

-~-

...... y

1--

i -

~-

--T~

r---

1 in

/vv

/1/ /

/~

.20

i--

.-

-- -

[.../

..".~ ~ ......
i,...-: ~v

1-- 1-

~ ~~
-~~

.24

.04

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members


having a yield point of33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(U). For Fy other than 33 ksi, multiply
Pall ow by the factors in the table.

42
45
50
55
60
36 37 40
65
25 30 33
0.82 0.94 1.00 1.06 1.08 1.13 1.16 1.20 1.26 1.30 1.33 1.34

CHART V-3.5.1(1)
Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends
Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam is Less Than 1.5h, Stiffened Flanges, (J = 90

V-27

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
2

(Eq. 3.5.1-2) P allow = t kC 3 C4 CO [117 - 0.15 (hit)] [1

10

+ 0.01 (Nit)] *

10

Jr-N= Sin
.1/

hIt 20

:::::

hIt 50

1 in

L'rL /

V/.V
/:V"""

/1/'/

1/ / /

v.: ....-::v

./~ ~ ......

~~ V
~~;;..-

........ ~ ~v

k::: :::::: ;:::..r---

.04

.08

1 in

//V
//. /
/V/

/V V
/./V

3in

~//

./

N= Sin

/
//

3in

/. VV
V vV
vv/

.....-::t:::::: t::::: r---

.12

.16

.20

.04

.24

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

8
-

--f--

--~~

t-N= 5in

/./

hIt 100 --;--1-- -- --

3in

/V

V/.V
VV

t-N= Sin

6
hIt 200

1 in

V ~V

/v:?'

[....- ~ ~

1--

I-

i,...-:: ::;:::;

I....::::: I!O::::P'"

.04

k ::::::~

:::::::v
.08

-- --

--

--1---~

.12

.16

....... ~ .......

---- -- --

.....-~,.....

f-- ---

.20

3in

././

. / . / /"

/ / ./

V ~

-r--

f--f--

~-

1--1-

'---I--

--

~-

.04

.24

f..-::::

rI-:::::: ~:::::: 1---

--~I--

1 in

"""

t:;::.:;::.v

-----

~-

....-:VV
/ / ....... """

vv/
VV

v
:;;,:v
...

.08

f--

--

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members


having a yield point of 33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(1l). For Fy other than 33 ksi, multiply
p.llow by the factors in the table.

25

30

33

36

37

40

42

45

50

55

60

65

~:..-..---+---

0.82 0.94 1.00 1.06 1.08 1.13 1.16 1.20 1.26 1.30 1.33 1.34

CHART V-3.5.1(2)
Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends
Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam Is Less Than 1.5h, Unstiffened Flanges, 8 = 90
*When Nit> 60, the factor [1

+ 0.01 (Nit)] may be increased to [0.71 + 0.015

(Nit)].

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-28

(Eq.3.5.1-3)
20

1-1-- -

Pallow ==

t 2 kC 1 C2 Ce [291- 0.40(h/t)] [1

+ O.007(N/t)]*

20
-- -

,....N= 5in
I
II f - - 3in
I
III f - - - 1 in
I I
III

18
hIt 20

16

18

-N= 5in

hIt 50

I
)-

II
II 'I
Jfl
III
II 'I

16

/'

IJ I

I
I J
'III
II
III

14

en
c.

:i:
.~

12

'III
I
}II
IV

10

f-I- I--- - ---1-- f- f- f- -

'"0
(1)

.~

(ij

10

f-f-l---

~ -f-

- ~- -

- - - -- -

fJ

4
-

~v

IA~
~v:-

V... V
Vt;l

F-

- I-

-1---

17~
~~

t- " -

.08

--

- -- - "-

.12

rl

VrJ
I)V)
r/
".IV

- - --

-- ---t---

.04

-[1. tt'1/
r/

-- ~-~~
~

V
f'l

IIV
rlV

IV

a.

I..o~~

II 'J
:1
II rl
ill

VI
/V

I--f- +- -t-

II 'J

II I
rJI

rl

'jll

I
'III

II
~

JII
II 'J
'IV

'JII

c:::

E
:::l
E

II )

c:::

1in

I 'I
J!I
)"

12

111

en

tsctI

14

3in

~jIIIII

.16

.20

.24

I&~

t2

.12

.08

.04

.16

.20

.24

18

16
hIt 200
N= 5in

14

II

I--- 3in

II 'J

1in

rl

12

'j

10

1/'1
'I
I 'I
II

vrl

IV
8

jV
'jV

17

1/7
1/1/
A/
'A/
V'I

I/V
"'V

A/V
/I:!V

A)::""

I/.~
~~

~~I'i"

-II!!!~

.04

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members


having a yield point of 33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(1l). For Fy other than 33 ksi, mUltiply
Pallow by the factors in the table.

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)

CHART V-3.5.1(3)
Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable Reactions or Concentrated Loads Distance from the Edp of . . .rlng to
the End of aeam Is Equal to 1.5h or Greater, Stiffened or Unstlffened Flanges,8 = scr
When Nit> 60, the factor [1 + 0.007 (Nit)] may be increased to [0.75 + 0.011 (NIt)].

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(Eq.3.5.1-4) P allow

t kC aC4C e [132 - 0.31 (hit)] [1


2

10

V-29

+ 0.01 (Nit)]

10

-N= Sin

1/

/V,
//v

h/~20

3in

h/tSO

/v

1 in

//

/ //
// /
//

v~

/r/

/~

./

1/;/ ./

~V./

.///

./~

l/ /' /'

~~ .....

...-:::~ ./

.....-:::.--: ;...;

.... ~ ;:;.::::.....

..... 1::::::=

.16

.20

.24

.04

~;...'I/

.12

~ 1in

//

//V

.08

3in

/"v" V'

.04

-N= Sin

p:

~t'i,;"
~~ [.....0''''

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

8
V

"""N= Sin

/V

Vi/V

hit 100

VV/

6
h/t2oo

1 in

r/V
VI':

3in

l,/I-N= Sin
~~

/"./

....... :/' ~

./V /'
V /.V

/~~

........ :;....-t;:::.-

~t::::-: ~

.08

::::-::~

k:::~F"

...... :::::; E::::;-.04

1 in

l....-: ~:/'

~ ~V'

~ 3in

~Io-":"""

.12

.16

.20

.04

.24

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members


having a yield point of 33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(1l). For Fy other than 33 ksi, multiply
Pallow by the factors in the table.

25 30 33 36 37 40 42
45
50
55
60
65
0.82 0.94 1.00 1.06 1.08 1.13 1.16 1.20 1.26 1.30 1.33 1.34

CHART V-3.5.1(4)
Web Crippling of Single Web Shape Allowable End Reaction. of Beam. or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends
Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam I. Le.. Than 1.5h, StIff.,ed and UnatltfMed Flang.., 8 = 90

V-30

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(Eq.3.5.1-5) P allow
24

1
1
I
1--

-I-

24

1
I
1

22

t 2 kC 1 C2 C O [417 - 1.22 (hit)] [1

III

3in

rl

hIt 20

20

T
I

1
I

1
I

-N= 5in
22

+ 0.0013 (Nit)]

hIt 50

1--1--

I)

II

I/J

20

I,

III

rJ

18

II)
r/)

a.

16

r/)

c:

J
III

14

tsas

...

Q)

I
III

12

rl

I,

14

I
III
12

J
III

c:
Q)

E
::J
E

10

III
I,

10

h
VI

""

I.

If,
'fl

rJ

J.

VI

'{J

VI

"

rl

IIJ

III

II

"

VI

.~

~
~

II.

VI

rl

"0

1/

16

I,
III

.~

"
"

II

~I

:2'

3in

rl

I
18

N= 5in

VI

Ii.
17

t:I

[hi

12

[hi

1,&
I~

liP

""

J.,..100'"

I""

L"

.08

.04

.12

.24

.20

.16

18
l/)~

rl
1-""-1--- hIt

100

.20

.24

I
I

N=
16

.16

.12

.08

.04

h
'I

hit 200

- f - t----

II

14

'j

J
'I
IV

12

II,
'I

r-r-f--

!/,
Ij

10
f--t-- -f--

--~

t-- -

-- _. -

-f--

--

[I,

~-

8
~ ~ ~

II
rJ

-~

t.- --

AI

I-'--t--+-

I/.:

VA
'

V~

.... ~

.04

y/

.08

~ tl~

:
,

~~T

. j--

,-t--

~-

--f-

-1

~-t--

1/

-++-r '-t

.+~L.

--' hI--

-f-L+-

i/
1,/

[;7

I-

.20

--+-+-t-

>--

1/

~---

. t- 1+.16

r-- - 1--

. -t-

+-H t+~ -++'


.12

I--

--

t t-I-

~~.l

-~
--t-t.-- f-- - t.-- I~- t- ~- -tTl t;L
-+ H-l-t- 1-- 1-

5i n-1 in

t--t---

[I

N=

.24

V-

l/

'1

V
.....1-

.04

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)


Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members
having a yield point of 33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(1l). For Fy other than 33 ksi, multiply
Pallow by the factors in the table.

25 30 33
36 37 40
42
45
50
55
60
65
0.80 0.93 1.00 1.07 1.09 1.16 1.20 1.25 1.34 1.42 1.49 1.55

CHART V-3.S.1(S)
Web Crippling of Single Web Shapes. Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge of Bearing to
the End of Beam is Equal to 1.Sh or Greater, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges, 8 = 90

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

16

V-31

16
~N=

f-N= 5in

5in

I
14

I I

hit 20

t/)

1/1/
I I

10

I1I1

13co
~

"0

c:

E
::l
E

Q)

.~

)'

II

,1/

1/

/1/ ,
,

17

il

)'

AI

V,
VII V
/1:7 r7
~17 "7

,/

I/V 1/

1')/
~I/
~I/

~//

I./V' V'

/~ V

~~v
~~r;.-

~ 1"".... """

...dieV

L...I-==p

~~fo"

.08

.04

.12

.16

.24

.20

.12

.08

.04

18

.20

.16

.24

18

) N= 5in

II

J~N= 5in

II

16

hit 100

3in

I I
J I
1/ I

14

1 in

J J

1I1I
III

III
10

1'1
III

hit 200

14

I I
1/

II

II

II:

1/ vV

v)

...r/ /
/

II
)

II

I
if

'I

1r7 7
fl

I
V

1/

.IV 1,/
/VI/

.... ~[/

1......:t7 V
Ld 17'P'

l/.~~

~~ r;.-

....

_L...I 1Ii!!~

.12

1 in

IJ.V V

'/ /

.08

il

'I

[7

.IV l/

3in

1711 J

JV /

~.1

II

"

il 1I

10

I
/ I

II If

1// /

f--

II

I
II I

12

./V J
)

I J II

12

16

1/

.04

1 in

111I
J
/
I

'.I /

II

I--

71

~'/ /

~
~

IiI
12

10

V Vl/
.11/ ,/

A,/

3in

I I

)' If

'---

IV

hit 50

II

II V J
JI If
1/

t/)

II

t - - 1 in

1/1/
) J II
1I1/
J J 1I

.5
c:

/ /

14

V II
J I

12

c.

3in

.16

.20

.24

~~ V
~ ~r---

.04

.08

.12

.20

.16

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members


having a yield point of 33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(1l). For Fy other than 33 ksi, multiply
Pallow by the factors in the table.

25

30

33

36

37

40

42

45

50

55

60

65

0.76 0.91 1.00 1.09 1.12 1.21 1.27 1.36 LSI 1.67 1.82 1.97

CHART V-3.5.1(6)
Web Crippling of Double Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of Beams and Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Ends
Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam Is Less Than 1.5h, Stiffened and Unstiffened Flanges

V-32

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

22

r-r:'- --~# 1 --+-f-f--t Lt


.--t! -4-

20

+ - - l-' 1-

- -!-! _+

16;

~++_
-r-- ~-+--i-<-~-~

~ :

T-

-+---+ - ---i---~ -;
: -r- ' 1---1-

c---4-~ ~- .

--V--l

+-'

1 in

/:1/ 11 I
III

t --t

121

--r

I'll

ttt~ ~~f-m--+---+-

f-I I

IT
.

---:

10

'

/
'/1/ I
II

12

-,--

1:

14

'

8~+I--+-~--+-r-t-+-: -

III 'I I

r-

1/

----r-

-+--f-t- +-+---+ . r-

v, '/j

I
I

.04

ri-

.08

II :
-r--t
i--r

.1 2

.16

-L

-I

+-

--t-r--

f-r--

--f-

f-I-

II

II I
I
11/, '/ I

/ 'I
'1'/1/
eli J

'hrrv

L&i;iii:~

I
t --

.-

-r

t-' -l~ ,..-+

I
I

+4- -t-+--itr+
J
-H-l-

- --1- .

~.

~-i- - -i '

--+

f- -

1-- -

-- ' -

- t -

.l-

c .-

~- . -.-

i-

+-H- :+-

10

. _

3in

II

2in

1 in

III I
1/

I
I
I / / /

--Jti +---

_.

III

II

'

- ~-t- -

4in

+- I---fj 1/4-

-+--1-

! '
'---j-T

r-+- - -' -

I
'J
I
II I

-+- ~~=r+-

-L+--:

-T+ ~

J~+= -t~-

'-N= 5in

hIt 200

.24

I
I
' I

T-

.20

.16

.12

.08

.04

,-

---

-+---i1--l----:-t_

12

'-r-

~'/

,- -t+L

--

/'/.
/iV

~~

-r
.

I/,rl II
/, I

I- - ,-

e---=r_-;-

14

[J,

~~v

f-

16

II'/. I

.....

18

'

II

.24

20

1 in

/
I - I-I-~
1/ I / /
1/ I
Ii j
1/ 'I I /

22

I
I I I
I
1

"I

1- - - - ~
.20

-t--l-

,+ -i

/1 / I

~ -t-

~+-_--'--:----+1-+--+-+---+-1H-+--+-+---1

2in

r- 11-1--/-

;--1='
--~~ 1----,

_LL
i

--l-- -

/Vj,

I 1
~~
I J.&~~

1--

3in

11
I

f- r-

1-- -

_L -

r-+-----

4in

/I

-++!-

-. - f- f--

/, I t +--+-+-t-t-+-+~-I

/.'/ /

--' +-+- ~t-

it=r

H- t+-

-+- - f-

++c--r-

I
-r- l ~L
II
---!-~ - - - r-- [
~---+---+-+-+t--+-+-t-t-l-1-+---+
! -t-Hl,--lLrvrl /
:
6 f- -, f~-8-t---+ll-'I,~'--'II-1Ft-++ ---t-t-+--+-t-i

~-

----r

-~

10

- ~ rTtI-+_--+---f---'+---l-! -+----It-f-/hjfl--,I-A------If--i----+---t------\

f-

I
I

--l-----!--+-

-t--f

I .It! I _ ~

"

-t-fJ~l~V- -~ltr :t!~t-- :=H--T .Tj- ~~ +. I/Jf Ill -i-

14

-+-, 4--1-i

16

1-:

-t-+-

18

_. - -jl-N= 5in

hIt 50

-- -

--

-1

~+1 -I-l
--:--

/
II
I

/ I
I

J I

/'1 1/ ' '-fr

i+1'1 +-

I I

-~-tr - =t~tr- t / I 1 _ --j,r


-.1-0-=
--+-+i- r t- j + '-At, 1;/ --- I-f8
rl
- - '-r, t_+= --r--.- f; Zi ~_ --.- C-f-+ ~1 =Et-~ 7ljj ~~
I
I
-+
- r- tl
1- ~ r - -+---l~rtI
rJ:
~ -t - ~ - +- -H-ifZ ~f- j - f- --i - - - -H,J'/Y
--+--i- +
t++--'-t~~ ~ -T
-i=
1
T-

} I

m-

- +-4-

-- , - - f -

~ .-1-

'+1--

-1 _

---

-~ - T

-i -

~ ;..- ~-

.; - +-----+--

l-_.l

-r--~ -I I
~ ~ - ~-t-+- I
11& ~
,- 1

~~ /

.04

0'/. ~v

.08

.12

-+ -r-

-+-

.~

.16

.24

.20

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)


Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members
having a yield point of33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with
corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and
Chart V-3.5.1(1l). For Fy other than 33 ksi, multiply
p.Uow by the factors in the table.

25

30

33

36

37

40

42

45

50

55

60

65

0.76 0.91 1.00


_
1.09 1.12_
1.21 1.27 _
1.36 1.51 _
1.67 1.82 1.97
J

L . . . - - - . . . . . . I ._

CHART V-3.S.1(7)
Web Crippling of Double Web Shapes. Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge
of Bearing to the End of Beam Is Equal to 1.Sh or Greater, Stiffened and Unstlffened Flanges

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

24

24

I
I
I
I
22
f - - 1-'--- h/t2O
I
I

20

'I

en

a.

II

20

IlL

II

1 in

1 in

18

lL

III L

I
III

16

en

14

o
~
as

12

c:

I
I I

10

/ /

111

II

1 1/ '/

10

I I
1

:::l

12

I
/ /
1/

E
.~

I I
I I I

I II I

"0

c:

14

II

~
Q)

1/

-,-f!l-

16

:.2
.~

l-

I- I-N=5 in

3 in

I
1'1 I

18

I
hit SO

-I-- r-- -

-3in

c--t --+f-+-

22

1/

--1 I

-1-- r-- -

-N : 5in

- H

V-33

V.

1/
/
1'1

1/

,III
6

/1

1/1

..

1/,

I
/
1/

/VI:.
Vv.

v.~

~[;"

:,-::&F'

k;::1':

00

IIIII~""

.04

22

20
- I-- -I--

.08

12

.16

.24

.20

~;;.o

.04

22

I I
I
I
I
hit 100

II
Ij

- I-- -

hit 200
f--

t-N : 5in
1
II
-3in

18

f--1in
16

L III

II

Ij

14

I-

16

I
I

I
20

~3in

18

14

I L

II

Ij

I IV

12

i/ /
10

II

12
-I-- ~-- -

++ ~- -- I-

10

1/

1111.

..
V

.......

.04

1/,

11

lLlL

1/

'f

'/.

NI/

1/
V

I'

~
~

.12

- -I-~ t "-Vh - ,- -

rL

~t2
~t:'"

...... """l!Ili

~~

.08

11

1j

I'

-1in

IJ

II

//,

II.

'1

rJ

1/1
'I
III
'I
11/,
/
'J

I I

1/1

.24

.20

.16

I-

N==5in

II

.12

.08

.16

.20

.24

.04

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness, t (in.)

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members having a yield point of 33 ksi with all inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and Chart V-3.5.1(1l).

CHART V-3.5.1(8)
Web Crippling of Double Web Shapes. Allowable End Reactions of Beams or Concentrated Loads on Cantilever Enda
Distance from the Edge of Bearing to the End of Beam la Less Than 1.5h, Stiffened and Unatlffened Flanges

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-34

40

40

I
-T

N=Sin

36

hIt 20

I
Ij

-3in

I
1/

I I
'I
I ,

28

II I

24

I I

I
I

/ I

I
II I

V IV
24

I V I
'I

I
1/

1/ I

20

II

I 1/

If

I II

-lin

-lin

I
I

~3in

32

28

J
If

20

hIt SO

i/

32

N=Sin

36

If /

16

/ /

c.
:i:

c::
en
c::

//
J/ v
/
V

tsco
~

00

"0

/.

,/

...... :;..- ./
.;::::~'"

V/'"
.............

_:::::::i:: ~-

.04

// 1
//

VI/
II
V

12

II I

1//

//

/1

16

/
12

en

':::::E::--

.08

.12

00

.24

.20

.16

.12

.08

.04

.16

.24

.20

c::
Q)

E
::J

36

36

N=Sin

.~

:;E

I
32
hIt 100

II

I I
I

28

~3in

24

I I

I I

II

1/ I

JI/
/

24

J J

I I
I

20

I
If

I /

II

II

I
/

1/ /

IJ
I

I
/

12

v 1/

//1/

VI""V

1 in

1/

1/

1/ I

16

II

II I

12

I -3in
J I

t--1 in

//
16

28

/ I

20

hIt 200

-N=Sin

II I
I ,
1/ II

32

V//
/V/

/V /
VV/

V/V

VV . . . .

./

~V . . . .

~~"/'

1II!I!!C:::::;....o

00

.04

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

.... =::::i

-= .....

.04

.08

.12

.16

.20

.24

Sheet Thickness. t (in.)

Chart applies to cold-formed steel flexural members having a yield point of 33 ksi with all "inside corner radii
equal to or less than sheet thickness. For beams with corner radii up to 6t and for deck with corner radii up to
7t, N up to 210t and N up to 3.5h, see Spec. Sec. 3.5.1 and Chart V-3.5.1(1l).

CHART Y-3.5.1(9)
Web Crippling of Double Web Shapes. Allowable Reactions and Concentrated Loads. Distance from the Edge
of Bearing to the End of Beam Is Equal to 1.Sh or Greater, Stiffened and Unstlffened Flanges

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
1.00"

I I I I I I I
i'oo..

.9 5

I, I I I

CB = 0.7 + 0.3 (8/90)

I""'-

I I I I

I"~IIITTIII

I""'-

'"

q:,

(Eq. 3.5.1-21) ,-+'--+-

i"""oo~

I I

0= Degrees

45

i'oo..

f--~
f-~

:"'0

1'0

() .90

o
o

'"

co

u..

'E
.8 5
Q)

.....

"'"

'"

en

r--.
1' ...

........

~ .80

....
..... 1000.

r""olo...
r""o

.75
..c ..

90

80

85

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

O(Degrees)

CHART V-3.5.1 (10)


Adjustment Factor Co for Charts V-3.5.1 (1 thru 5)

EC

I-t-

HH-

(Eq.3.5.1-11)
= (1.06 - 0.06R/t) ~ 1.0
C, = (1.15 - 0.15R/t) ~ 1.0 but not less than 0.50 (Eq.3.5.1-13)
2

+-++-++-+-

1.0

):'0"

0.9

"& .

qCt:

10,",

1.08,~ 0,.
"0 I'>t;
08 9"l

"-

0.8

~/~~

~o-

0 .....

'/~~
IS'C\

(3
"-

"-

~,ot78

0.....

.!
c:
.2
<1>

/://t 0"8v.

.-(\

~~.

0.7

_0",;t

ij\

()

0.6

0.5

R/t

CHART V-3.5.1(11)
Web Crippling of Beams
Correction Factors for Corner RadII up to 7t, aeams Having Single Unrelnforced Webs

V-35

V-37

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

40

For Q

= 1,t;::: .09in. and KL/r <C

Limiting Values
of KL/r
OF,
KL/r

62
58
54
50
46
42
38
34
30
26
22
18
14
10
6

(KL/r)2 ]
2(C c )2
F,

35

Fa1 = - - - - - - - - - - - - 5

3 (KL/r)

3+ 8 (C c )

30

'r;;

(KL/r)3
8(C c )3

(Eq.3.6.1-6)

~
LL.

ur
(I)

25

( I)

c:
0

'r;;
(I)

...a.
Q)

20

0
0

Q)

j5

co

15

.2

10

20

40

60

80

100

Slenderness ratio, KLI r


CHART V-3.6.1.1(B)

120

140

96.9
100.2
103.8
107.9
112.5
117.7
123.8
130.9
139.3
149.7
162.7
179.9
203.9
241.3
311.5

::

~.

::::

:::

:: :.' :: : .'::

: : : .:
Len

160

..... -

140

-~~~-...-..-

- .. - - -

:-~

120

. - + - - - - + - -....

........ ........ .

'-:~ ~--~- ~:-- ~~:

-.=;-=--::-::::::.
-:- :-::
100
80

60

40

20

0.1

0.2

era

0.4

en

't:I
("t-

en
m
en

::r'

("t-

::r'

en

~
f/l

f/l

~
0;-

0-

::s

f/l

0.0

0.3

o::s

("t-

~.

't:I

m
en

0-

S
en

0::

(")

en

::r'

("t-

o.....

o::s

("t-

e:

tz:.j

00

~CA:l

0-

M-

(")

::r'

en

:::t:t::::!lI

CHART V-3.6.1.2(A)i
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
Buckling Mode for Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

Critical length, Lcr(in.)

"

0.050
Tt::tt::::
0.040

~~

r,

s~

~
CA:l
00

0.060' ,

-:i::

0.070

0.080

4+=P

0.10

*-~::

~Nju:Jt:,:TTnl:n '~r:ft;;rllit~~~

, / ~7

i>0
,/ ~

~--f,--+-t., t .-. ~ . -t .~-~.t::::;""~~f~2lE~~jitI~m+!

i>~.

:-= .. -...-. 'I~""

flex~ral .mode

If effective length, 'KL, of member is longer than


:::~+- n .:~.;.
is. critical; if effective length is shorter f~~
man Len torsional-flexural mode is critical.t:"~h-:'+':J+'--

:f;~~;l::~~:i~~~~;~~~~~~,-l-i-:.-.,
:::::-:F:::~::-=-:F::-:i::.:::-t-:-:::::==-F,:,~"";;,,,"-~'F::h~~-:-~TitTT~

h' NNW: :\mrrrntF:;;:'::~

::.' :::

::::::

\:. :N: 1 :\,.' : :.\: :\ : ::\. \: 1\: .~' :t'\'


::::::

I,i:~::::':=::::::~c~~::~ \

::.

:::

::

1\:

: :.

CHART V-3.6.1.2(B)i
Cx/i2 for Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric),
With and Without Lips

x 10

cia

0.2

0.3
3

.
00

0.1

0.00.0

2 X 10

0.1

0.2

e/'a

0.3

TORSIONAL-FLEXURAL BUCKLING
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)

0.70 0 .0

0.3

0.2
Cia

0.4

rl-

o>-t)

o~

t.%j
0-

0.1

++:

+--t-t-tt-

0.3

++--+ .... .+-

it
ia.+

~
~

p:l
rl-

~.

('D

'C

en

0-

3
('D

o
0:

(1

:-<..1-+.

00

r+ t

:u:;::::

~~

::r
('D

t-+rt-

0.4

('D

0-

rl('D

'C

en
('D

::r
rl::r
('D

rl-

~.

Ul
('D

Ul

ro

0-

0-

Ul
p:l

::r
p:l

(1

t:t+-t+~~

eta

0.2

CHART V-3.7.2(A)i
W-Factor for Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric),
With and Without Lips
0.85F~H

5 X 10

7 X 10 3

10'

CHART V-3.6.1.2(C)i
(i/1)2 for Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric),
With and Without Lips

eT/a:.!

-J

I 9~

CTto

0.80 ~:;s~**~

0.4

0.4

4 X 103

CHART V-3.6.1.2(D)i
C T /i 2 for Equal Angles (Singly-Symmetric),
With and Without Lips

0.1

II 61illll i 11111111111111 ! i 1I11I11 ! 1I11111 ! ! i II iii. 1i ! Iii i : III! : ! i I1111111111 iii II

5 X 10 0.0

:~:~.llilw.lli!llli!I!li!!I!lli!!!lilii!!llllilllllllilllI

7 X 10 4

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-40

"I:t

it

ci

(t)
. ~

ci

I. .

..
"

1: : ;::::; ;': it d) j

1+

:::;::::1 !illi _i:lt ll - t . ~


-t t t .\ I
It
.-+ I ; t. It fI +t rt
. ., . ...
r Ir 1'-+-.
t t:+ ~ + -I t . t-l

t-+

:.::.:; :;i."t "


; ::;.
li~ I": ttl

. .. ... ,.:

. . . . . ,T

I"""

I t

::::::;:; ; ';':! it,


.. .. .. ... .1; .. I ! t
~

:::::
::: ::;:::
:::: ;;::::'
: ::: :: ;11I
I

Ij

rlli!

ill t
I

ro

fHll++++++-+++
.

' i~Ot

r r

tit

i!'

iI

tl1 til r t i IV'lo, l


l t I :! t t + ; : q ! t
t

~ l'l+!tl l )'-it l t l

It

[1
I

l 1
[t

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-41

,-+-j+-+--'1 ...

fT

+-f

+T

~
~

\I

~~~

00

r-

(j)

LO

.q-

~ ci ci ci
I

ex:

ct)1-C\I

+++

'+-r-+~

,...

.1-.

~ t-:i" 1~.~
+ ~ ..-+-+++

--+-+* .......

+~

-+--<-+~ --.-~t~++'

(jt

I (jn tl:

t--

-t

tt: +-t
tI

tl-t

0.6

+-

h--

0.4

0.2

~+-

0.0

0.1

0.2

cia

CHART V-3.7.2(B)i
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
G1-Factor for Equal Angles (Single-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

0.3

0.4

200

160

80

40

0.00.2

0.4

0.6

lila

CHART V-3.6.1.2(A)ii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
Buckling Mode for Channels (Singly-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

Critical length, Lcr(in.}

120

0.8

1.0

1.2

:::;$

rt-

~.

(tI

Ul
'C

0..

3
(tI

"1

s:

(j

(tI

::r'

rt-

o....,

:::;$

ort:

t.%j
0..

00

"1

(tI

0'"

(tI

rt-

Ul
(tI
'C

(tI

::r'

rt-

::r'

rt-

~.

(tI

rn

"1

rn

(D

~
0'"

0..

:::;$

rn

::r'

(j

~
1'>:)

V-43

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

6.0 X 10 4

5.5 X 10 4
0.10
0.15
0.20
5.0 X 10 4

0.0

4.5 X 10 4

4.0 X 10 4

U~

~.

3.5 x 10 4

~
t
~

3.0 X 10 4 .
00

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

E/a

CHART V-3.6.1.2(B)ii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
Cx/i2 for Channels (Singly-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

1.0

1.2

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-44

28 X 10 3

Ii

Ii

lJ~c

24 X 10 3

n
20 X 103

16 X 103

(I'

;0.-"

12 X 103

!"~

1\.~

1",- 0

o-l\:O

o .~
o .'0
.~

8 X 103

p;'2~
0.25
0.30
0.35
I I I I

;i_
-

0.40
-

4 X 10 3

.~~

iiii...

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

oiii

1.2

6/a
CHART V-3.6.1.2(C)1i
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
crto (l/t)2 for Channels (Singly-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-45

"-t--j:- I __

t-

1::.

15 X 103

--:~ -:::-t~~

--

...... : ...

+.--, -

. .:. .- ,-T~~2'_=~:~:L::
T -

.--

::~?:::~.;

._.

.----.;::

. ::.:=.
13 X 103

11

103

9 X 103

- :-.~ ~~ !; ~.-.~-~ =-:. ~::~~.:-~~~~;


-f-+.::t~:i ': ~:~-

--

.... - .. ...

.:r. ..:-.. :-:-= ... :-:= :-.-~

:t.t:f :/ ::t ::-/ : ~.;:-~ :. :/:

:.::~ ~~:: .:

::: :::::: ::::

1:1++ ~ f :: r. ;-: ~ ::: : ::::::: . ~: : - ::::::

t. ,..::T.:~ =~,:::: ~,::,:::: : :


~"';1 '--rr : 7'+ ~~;c-::: - ~":..

::.::
.::.::.::::: ::::

+::=-=.' -::::-.:.:.: r-=-: ::.

1 X 103
0.5

10 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

6/a

CHART V-3.6.1.2(D)i1
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
CJi2 for Channels (Singly-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

1.0

1.2

V-46

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

::I

I!

c~

- :e

.2 ca
g,~

._:=a
.-~ Co
U
W
_::I

..

ca . . .S:!

,,!IDo::
.,..--

CD

cD l! '" E
11 cw;~c E
~
I
~ 0
~
I...
>.:= tn
I-It
>a:
-tn CC ~ .. ~
::z::: '0=
__ .tn

(')

ft: o ca .!!

~D.

CD

I i
tn'!
-(,)

.
.

.2

:.o

u.

u:.

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-47

1.4Ea3~ilif~Er~~?+~_~~~~!+~~~~El~~_~~~~~~~~EL~3L~~~~~F~F+~ELEL~~~;~i,~YEEEa333j1!t:tEEB33:l1::E:5~~==:===~E:==~~::::~=3

__

H-~nH~~~+-~~~++~~+~~+T-+~++~-~+r~+++~_~~~ ~~~W+++~~~~~~-+~-+~_~._~_~~~_~-~_~,~~~

~
~,

--

~~+~'++~~-~~++~-~~~-++~++~HH~++++~H1~~

v.

t
~
H-~-++++~+~0H~++++~~H444++++~~~++~~~~~

cIa

~~44~HH~++++-~~~+++~~~++~~~~~~_ ~-~

H+~+~H+~H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+~~~~~~

"

',,:--:-::::
+~"_~,~+, ~f~-<-+-I-

,+_

::

+-~++-+~+-+-+~~ - 4 _~-~

~~

t--+-+- ,

-I

Ii

nJ

H+~+H4+N++iO.3bM+++i++H4++"H+++i++rH-~H++H~rH~+~+H

10.40
0.2 0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

b/s

CHART V-3.7.2(A)ii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
W-Factor for Channels (Singly-Symmetric), With and Without Lips

1.0

1.2

V-48

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

I",

'"

1.0

I~

::::i

50

10
". 1 1

""

j 'U;

- :!

Ot~

.51~..
12
=
iii :su ....U;:

N'~.e
...: ;~
fill M 5

C\I

ci

>.!=
t~

Ie.

ci

1
>-

en
~
'&

c% 0=c .. c
u_- ~

fi -

C\I

ci

t-A.

Zc
en.c

-u"
...

-...
0

ci

c5
.,.".

-"
0

II.

I ...

CJ

co

ci

>C

t)

.. .

0'

II
a:

co

ci

..-

soo

400

0.5

1.0
CHART V-3.6.1.2(A)iii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
Buckling Mode for Hat Sections (Singly-Symmetric)

300
200
100
Critical length, Lcr (in.)

biB:

2.0

2.5

~
~

o
!:$

("'t-

(";)

3.

(t)

'0

r:n

0..

3
(t)

o
0:

('")

(t)

::r'

("'t-

o......

o
!:$

("'t-

&.

t:'j

00

(t)
~

0"

(t)

'0
("'t-

(t)

r:n

(t)

::r'

("'t-

::r'

M:

(t)

UJ

UJ

(i)

0"

!:$
0..

UJ

::r'

('")

V-50

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

~IC
a
"'~

lJ

7~

22 x 10"

-'.,
18 x 10"

1.
I

'.1

14 x 10"

10 x 10"

6x 10"

):e
2 x 10"

0.0

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

:( A

)}

).~ :::

2.4

2.8

3.2

3.6

4.0

fila

CHART V-3.6.1.2(B)iii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
C,/i 2 for Hat Sections (Singly-Symmetric)

i ! j I

It!!

!I ! II !!!I ! I !!

IIIC/a=nd

I!

=,!o.d

i I ! ! ! ! ! !

:c/a

103 LI. L,!.112.J

(alt)I~illmlml~IWIIIIIIIIIIIHm

0.4
0.8

'~:~OOIIIIIII_

1.3

0.00.0

4x 103

1:0

0.8
-++t-t+
0.9

:tt::t:t+

8 x 103 ltE:t0.7

0.6

II

:O.!

12xwIMI.OOlllllli(

<T,.

1.0

fmf

10311111111111~111 ~111111,mn
0.9

16 X 10

20 x

. 0.8

W.~IIIII NIIIIIIIIIII!!

O.~

24x10" i:I~IIIIIIIIIW9

28

1.2

_C'.........

.J

~!c

1.6

! ~

6/a

2.0

2.4

tB;:

CHART V-3.6.1.2(C)iii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
at. (1/1)2 for Hat Sections (Singly-SYmMetric)

h<?'Ii

2.8

NOTE: Use lower curves and left ordinate for all small fila
and for large 6/a if Era is below 0.4. Use upper
curves and right ordinate for large bla if Ela is
above 0.4.

3.2

3.6

103

103

ttl

ttl

0'"

I~
ttl
:3

U1

ttl

::r'

::r'

~.

ttl

crn

..,0>

rn

(0

0'"

::1
0..

rn

~
~

::r'

C1

1 X 10 3

2 X 10

~
01
.-

o
::1

(";)

3.

ttl

"C

U1

0..

ttl

:3

~
..,

0::

(J

ttl

::r'

o.......

::1

rt:

Itz:j
0..

00

.c:o

(a/t)2 I~~

3 X 10 3

CTto

4x10 3

4.0 0 .0

V-52

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

7 X 104

- -<

a
6 X 10 4

TI
5 X 104

'

..

4 X 104

10 4

:1 -

b.~
0'"

0.7
n

:j,.5

II
0.0 0.0

0.5

,..
2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

b/a

CHART V-3.6.1.2(D)iiI
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
C T JI2 for Hat Sections (Singly-Symmetric)

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-53

1.0

0.8

0.4

0.2

0.0

2.0

1.0

6/a

CHART Y-3.6.1.2(E)1ii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(S" Part III, Section 2 for application)
FFactor for Hat Sections (Singly-Symmetric)

4.0.

0.5

1.0

1.5

'"2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

0.0

H-

~. ~

";

f-+

+
t

0.4

1.5'

cIa
1.4

1.6

2.0

1.4

'\9

1.5

'\ .'2.

1.6

2.4

1.5

0.0

2.8

0.6

0.5

0.2

,~

,.

f;;:)~

~
f;;:).

f;;:)~

0.4

cl a

t-'

0.3

-u'0-i1::t::

0.8

0.2

..

iiIII-

0.5
0.4

0.9
. 0.8
-4-0.7
'0.6

b/a

CHART V-3.7.2(A)iii
Torsional-Flexural Buckling
(See Part III, Section 2 for application)
W-Factor for Hat Sections (Singly-Symmetric)

1.2

.t+

'\~

\.~

3.2

,~

-+

b/a

1.3

V'

1.0

1.2

f;;:)~

t\.CO

't:
,.

1.1

().

1.1

1.3
1.2

0.9

+-t

1.0

++1m~

.,

~/.i;~~
" 7
~ 7 .$

0.8

0.8

+--+-+

~+~
~~

1.0
0.8

h:

-++--+

0.9 ~~ .

1.0

1.1

W.+++

+.

. ,12

r.

+-

1.3

1.4

3.6

-1
JII-r-c

4.0

o::I

M-

~.

('t)

W.
"C

0..

('t)

~
..;

s:

(1

('t)

::r'

M-

o......

::I

~.

t:z:j
0..

00

~CJ:)

0'"
('t)
..;

('t)

M-

W.
~
"C

::r'

M-

::r'

s::
rn

;"
rn
~
..;

0'"

0..

::I

~
rn

::r'

(1

01

V-55

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

ii

;If !1;
1+1-+

~l:

, '+. -,
It'

,,'

-r-E="

,....;

l..c
,
.........
,

-,,-,,+-,-,..-,,-,,-I N

10

1m

,:0

.............

-U
'i:

_CD

-o

c E

,2 E

->-

d: ,..

D)

IlL

~'N

.....:.

10
:+

""" ,C! ex
:r:
c

5 C/)

c':= :i2 a. -a,

.- Q. >-

<I

:::"Ucac
m;::, .-

NmO~
,..: (ij-N (I)
....
c
C"') ;::, C
0

>< 0 :;
> Q).u
U Q)
a:'tQ)C/)
1

I- l""d

10

ci

<C 'ii C/) xc .. ca

0.2=
x
(1)_ ...

Il

...... 0

o ca -

'0

I- A. ...

~u

'"ci

I~ca

C/)

-LL.

I ..

c5

1'0
'+

:VU

ioi"

tJ.

~~

~~+jU~j;~t~~lIH~~t

l~ru

9'~

~O

~O
c."U
.(\' \
v

...
;

co
ci
'; "

..

V-56

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
(This Table has been reproduced from the Manual of Steel Construction, Eighth Edition by permission of the
American Institute of Steel Construction.)

Klb
rb

Fie
(ksi)

K1b
rb

Fie
(ksi)

K1b
rb

F'e
(ksi)

Klb
rb

Fie
(ksi)

K1b
rb

Fie
(ksi)

Klb
rb

Fie
(ksi)

21
22
23
24
25

338.62
308.54
282.29
259.26
238".93

51
52
53
54
55

57.41
55.23
53.16
51.21
49.37

81
82
83
84
85

22.76
22.21
21.68
21.16
20.67

111
112
113
114
115

12.12
11.90
11.69
11.49
11.29

141
142
143
144
145

7.51
7.41
7.30
7.20
7.10

171
172
173
174
175

5.11
5.05
4.99
4.93
4.88

26
27
28
29
30

220.90
204.84
190.47
177.56
165.92

56
57
58
59
60

47.62
45.96
44.39
42.90
41.48

86
87
88
89
90

20.19
19.73
19.28
18.85
18.44

116
117
118
119
120

11.10
10.91
10.72
10.55
10.37

146
147
148
149
150

7.01
6.91
6.82
6.73
6.64

176
177
178
179
180

4.82
4.77
4.71
4.66
4.61

31
32
33
34
35

155.39
145.83
137.13
129.18
121.90

61
62
63
64
65

40.13
38.85
37.62
36.46
35.34

91
92
93
94
95

18.03
17.64
17.27
16.90
16.55

121
122
123
124
125

10.20
10.03
9.87
9.71
9.56

151
152
153
154
155

6.55
6.46
6.38
6.30
6.22

181
182
183
184
185

4.56
4.51
4.46
4.41
4.36

36
37
38
39
40

115.22
109.08
103.42
98.18
93.33

66
67
68
69
70

34.28
33.27
32.29
31.37
30.48

96
97
98
99
100

16.20
15.87
15.55
15.24
14.93

126
127
128
129
130

9.41
9.26
9.11
8.97
8.84

156
157
158
159
160

6.14
6.06
5.98
5.91
5.83

186
187
188
189
190

4.32
4.27
4.23
4.18
4.14

41
42
43
44
45

88.83
84.65
80.76
77.13
73.74

71
72
73
74
75

29.62
28.81
28.02
27.27
26.55

101
102
103
104
105

14.64
14.35
14.08
13.81
13.54

131
132
133
134
135

8.70
8.57
8.44
8.32
8.19

161
162
163
164
165

5.76
5.69
5.62
5.55
5.49

191
192
193
194
195

4.09
4.05
4.01
3.97
3.93

46
47
48
49
50

70.57
67.60
64.81
62.20
59.73

76
77
78
79
80

25.85
25.19
24.54
23.93
23.33

106
107
108
109
110

13.29
13.04
12.80
12.57
12.34

136
137
138
139
140

8.07
7.96
7.84
7.73
7.62

166
167
lJ>8
169
170

5.42
5.35
5.29
5.23
5.17

196
197
198
199
200

3.89
3.85
3.81
3.77
3.73

TABLE V-3.7(B)
Combined Axial and Bending Stresses, Values of F' e
12 r2 E

Cy

.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

f-

f-

f-

f-

f-

f-

f-

.-

1
IA

65
60
55
50
45
42
37
36
33
30
25

Fy

1\,

f---t-

_..i_

1
1

1
1

1
1

24

I
I

27.41
28.53
29.80
31.25
32.94
34.10
36.53
36.83
38.47
40.35
44.20

.\

'\

1\

=C

--

1\

1\

\
\

1\

1\

.1.

.1

1\

1\
\

1\
\

.1

1\

.\

1\
\

\
\

(J\- -\ oS>
0 -~(J\

\Ol

I\.
1\

\
\

.1

1\

-~

1\

1\

1\

1\
\

\
\

..il
,\

,\

1\

1\
\

1\

\1\
\
\
\
1\
\1..
1\
\
1..
\,
\

\'

\
\

1\

1\

l.

~-

1\

1\
\

c\~

1\

,
i\

,
1\

28

32
wIt

1 I I 1

36

40

I 1

= 1 for w /t greater than 221/VF;

[(w/t)VF; - 190]/15.5 for


w /t greater than 190/VF;
but not greater than 221/VF;

= 3 -

1 1 I

~\

~~ ~~<6

1\

\1\
\
1\
\\
\

~-~ ~

.1.1..

\\
\
\

1\

I\.

L1..

= 3 for wit less than or equal to 190/VF;

1\

1\
\

1\

,
, ,

\1\

~rv

\\

, , ,
, ,,
,
, ,

1\

1\

,,

1\

=C
=
C
-

1\
\

Ol\O

\~\
.1 ~.\

1
1

1\

, \~J

\
\

' \\ a>-

\~

\
\
1\ "1\\

221/VFY

1\
\

1\

1\

44

1 I

(Eq.3.9-3)

(Eq.3.9-2)

(Eq.3.9.1)

1.

CHART V-3.9 (A)


Cy Factor for Stiffened Compression Elements Without Intermediate Stiffeners

20

I
I

23.57
24.53
25.62
26.87
28.32
29.32
31.24
31.67
33.08
34.69
38.00

190/VFY

1\ 1\

1\

-+-

-,+

1- -ri-

~;i-T
'_.+.-+- : !! ,

f---+--~.:-~

f---+- ....-+-

-1:+- ~- -t-c-t~

wit Limits

--~

--~-

+.

48

--

CD

c:-+-

o::s

c:-+-

::n

~.

CD

U2
"d

Q..

:3
CD

(1

CD

::r'

o>-t)

o
::s

Q..

t:'j

00

....c:o

~(X)

CD

cr'

:3

CD

c:-+-

"d

U2

CD

::r'

c:-+-

::r'

=a

CD

s::
U2

U2

co

~
cr'

Q..

::s

U2

::r'

00

Cl

V-59

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

(0

~
I
Q)

~
~
~

0
LO

~
...........

Col

II
0

en
c:

Q)

0
'o:t

E
Q)
W
c:
0

'eenn

CV~

-Q)

~~

""

rg> ~~~ :;;


~ V~
tI

In
...
_Q.

~j/8i~Jta

CJ)

0
M

c.;

:>0
.... "0

a: ~

c(~
l:
._
0en
c:

:::::)

...
.0..

-0

C\I

ca

u.

>-

I)
~

~Iu.
>-

V-60

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

Fu

75

For ~a <

ff. :

140
For -vFu

<

85ksi

70

P
75

da

0.88 t da Fu (Eq.4.2.1-2)
240

<~ :

0.112 [ 1

]
+ d 960t
~
a

For da > ~240


~
t
V .l'u

65

0
0

t da Fu

(Eq.4.2.1-3)

0.56 t da Fu (Eq.4.2.1-4)

70
60
I-t--M-+++++-t-H-+-t

65

55

60

50

55

53

~I~ 45H+H+H+~5~249
45

40
I-t--M-+--t+++-Ht-t-++

42

35

30

25

20

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

da
t

CHART V-4.2.1 (A)

Maximum Allowable Shear Stress P/(t x d.), on Each Arc Spot Weld
Between Sheet or Sheets and Supporting Member

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
TABLE V-4.2.1.(4)(10)(11)
ARC SPOT WELDS-Average Diameter (d.) of Arc Spot Weld at
Mid Thickness of t
ARC SEAM WELDS-Average Width (d.> of Seam Weld

da
31s

V2

5/e

3/4

~e

Single
Sheet

.060
.048
.036
.030
.024
.018
.015

.315
.327
.339
.345
.351
.357
.360

.440
.452
.464
.470
.476
.482
.485

.565
.577
.589
.595
.601
.607
.610

.690
.702
.714
.720
.726
.732
.735

.815
.827
.839
.845
.851
.857
.860

.940
.952
.964
.970
.976
.982
.985

da = dot

Double
Sheet

.120
.096
.072
.060
.048
.036
.030

.135
.183
.231
.255
.279
.303
.315

.260
.308
.356
.380
.404
.428
.440

.385
.433
.481
.505
.529
.553
.565

.510
.558
.606
.630
.654
.678
.690

.635
.683
.731
.755
.779
.803
.815

.760
.808
.856
.880
.904
.928
.940

da = d-2t

TABLE V-4.2.1(12)
ARC SEAM WELDS-Effective width of Arc Seam Weld at fused surfaces, de.

Single
Sheet

Double
Sheet

de = 0.7d - 1.5t, in. but.:;;: .55d


%

112

5fe

~8

.172
.190
.026

.260
.275

.344

.412

.481

.550

.060
.048
.036
.030
.024
.018
.015

.206

.275

.344

.412

.481

.550

.120
.096
.072
.060
.048
.036
.030

.082
.118
.154
.172
.206
.206
.206

.170
.206
.242
.260
.275
.275
.275

.257
.293
.329
.344

.345
.381
.412

.432
.468
.481

.520
.550

.344

.412

.481

ARC SPOT WELDS-Effective Diameter of Fused Area, d.


Minimum Allowable 3/e In.

~
Single
Sheet

Double
Sheet

.060
.048
.036
.030
.024
.018
.015

.120
.096
.072
.060
.048
.036
.030

de = 0.7d - 1.5t, in. but.:;;: .55d


3/4

7/e

.412

.481

.550

.412

.481

.550

.381
.412

.432
.468
.481

.520
.550

I
.412

I
.481

.550

.550

V-61

V-62

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3,1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

5.0

4.0

.048

.060

.075

.105

.135

Max Length
of Weld
L~ 25t

1 3/16

1 1/2

1 7/8

25/8

33/8

S'3'1..S\

:0-

m
~
.c
(.)

0.01

0.4 (1

3.0

(Eq.4.2.1-13)

....SO ~10

0.4 (t-0.01) Fu

1 in., P

ForL

.f
....

~ ) tLFu

ru~-,::J,Oii

6Q..

ca

Q)

SO

:.J

ena.

2.0

42

g
a..

1.0

.040

.050

.080

.070

.060

.090
t (in)

.100

.120

.110

.130

.140

CHART V-4.2.1 (8)


Fillet Welds. Allowable Load Per Inch of Weld in Lap or Tee Joints
t = Thickness of Single Sheet Adjacent to Weld. Longitudinal Loading

5.0 ~--I-++-U-!l-

gt

t
Max Length
of Weld
L ~ 25t

~.

4.0

.c

.048

.060

.075

.105

.135

13/16

1 1/2

1 7/8

25/8

33/8

(Eq. 4.2.1-14)

0.3tLFu

3.0 ~ For L
,~

it
.t:I.,

:~

(ij

1 in., P

nrltt1i tItUrl~
t-~

cis~S\

ru ~riQ

0.3t Fu

,J

:: ! 1 - ;+ it -

t- T

70
60
......,

i:

a..

1:

~;:-t-j-l ~;

50
42

tr;L~:~~~

1.0 i+~+-d~

I-"

""I-f'

~ . +~-r' +~-'- +~;:LL:i

1--'--,-,

o ..

ti_tt'
-t-t-+
~+-I+++

.040

.050

~rtrtr:

.060

.070

.080

.090
t (in)

.100

.110

.120

CHART V-4.2.1 (C)


Fillet Welds Allowable Load Per Inch of Weld in Lap or Tee Joints
t Thickness of Single Sheet Adjacent to Weld. Longitudinal Loading

.130

.140

V-63

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

5.0

P
4.0

=s
~
.c
0

(Eq.4.2.1-15)

0.4 tLFu

ForL

1 in., P

~~S\
r u .::;.~.......,.

O.4t Fu

!"'r

SO L 10
3.0

SO
.....,.

.E
(ij

50

Cl)

c::

::i

(;;

a.

42

2.0

g
a.

1.0

.040

.050

.060

.070

.080

.090
t (in)

.100

.110

.120

CHART V-4.2.1 (D)


Fillet Welds. Allowable Load Per Inch of Weld in Lap or Tee Joints
t = Thickness of Single Sheet Adjacent to Weld. Transverse Loading

.130

.140

V-64

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

20
S

~~ ~L

= 200t/yT

_lifo/-

...::

(~

1'-

15

-c

ur

12-7

0;

.J'\

0
as
a.
tJ)

c:

I-~

~~
'"
~ ~ 2~
t-

Q)

::0

as
~

~Cl,~

10

.2

~ ,I. i~

i.I'

.,

3!~
~-6
'l'

30-

v'

27

-0.05

0.10

0.15
Sheet thickness, t(in.)

0.20

0.25

CHART V-4.4
Spacing of Connectors in Compression Elements
Maximum Allowable Spacing

V-65

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

1.0
P'"l~

0.2
r ::::~
I

0.3_

0.8

O.A
.J..or"'!"

O.~

""I"

O~

0.6

Jo"'r

0:1

:J

u..

A'"O~

u:

"~

:.A'

~'''''''

0.4

./~

-\..

0.2

F t = (1.0 - 0.9r

+ 3rd/s)

0.50 Fu

:$

0.50 Fu . , (Eq.4.5.5-1)
r

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

dis
CHART V-4.5.5(A)
Bolted Connections. Allowable Tension Stress on Net Section
Washers Under Both Bolt Head and Nut. Double Shear

1.0
-

11_ I

r::::: 0.1I

...,..0.3

0.8

O.A

..

oj..
00.../f

ioo"'I"

0.6
:J

u..

LO

-.:t

0:1

- --

:;"..-r

"""'<0
OL"

;r

.!~~.:/

0.4

,.

.A'

f":1~,..

0.2
~,..

F t = (1.0 - 0.9r + 3rd/s) 0.45 Fu


0.05

0.10

0.15

:$

0.45Fu (Eq. 4.5.5-2) ::


0.20

0.25

s
CHART V-4.5.5(B)
Bolted Connections. Allowable Tension Stress on Net Section
Washers Under Both Bolt Head and Nut. Single Shear

0.30

V-66

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
1.0

--

0.9
0.2

0.8
-f-- f-- --

0.3

f-

0.7

0.6

~~

-I",... ~t-

0.'S I

u:

~.,.

0.4

t-~

-1

.....

.... ,","

:....

....

L..oiii'"

~
CO

t...... .....
t...... .....

0.2

J;...'

II,;

l.,.oo

',II"

10""
L."..ol"""

L."..o"'"

L..oolii'"
~~

I...oo~

L..oo"'"
/.;0

ji/"
/.;0
I"

17

--"

i.o'

l.,.oo
~

--"

I,.;'

L..... .,...

l.,.oo
~

I.;'

I,.;'

1..;"""
~

--,,"""

/.;0

10"'"

i"'"

I;
..... 1""

i..o"

"""

"""

!,,;"'"
j,..oo' .....

io""
l.,.oo

J,...I'

"""

(1.0 - r

"'"

.... 1""

100""

/.;0

~,.

.,

~.,.

....

I".'"

100""

,'"

';

~'ii"

/.;0
L.........

1..;"'"

..... io""

I--"

100""

L..oolo"'"

~
t...;

.... 10""

-'
\~t....o'

~.,...

I.;'

.... 10"'"

t......

1.;"'"

v
0.1

t......"'"

L..oo"'"

l..oo'''''

L..oo~

~~jo"""'j

L..o"'"

".,."

L..oolo""

, -~

l.ooo .....

.... ,..,.

ioo"
I..... ~

~Io""

L..oolo"'"

..... 10""

L....olo"'"

J.,.o

0.3

:.,...~

~I""

~~

-~I-"
1".001-"

,~~

~,..,.

1,..001-"

L....ol"""

~~
~,..,.

L" .....

I".oi"'"
~

--~

l..oo'

~-

I".ojiiil'

,.,.

10""

10""

I-

.... "'" ~".

~,...

t-~

L....olo""

.... ,..,.

.... ~

I".oio""

;;O;jiI""

.... 1'

....

~,....

..A'"

I".o~

"
I".ooio""

1,..001-"

1".0 .....

t-~

1",0110-'' ' '

ob~~

1".0"'"

......... "'"

,...1-"

.... 10-'

, ,

t-""

-"",'

1--

~~~

~~

--~

.... ~

.... 1-"

"",,,,,,

- ....

L".."'"

"""'~

~""'"

,,....

1,..00 ........
I",...~ ....

I,..oor-i"""

~,....

~
1".01-"

~ 0.5

~~--

f-'T"i
+-'o.A "",,"'"
-fr-f

""'.....
-~,....

"",,"'"

-~~

:J

U.
LO

--

, 1, 1

............

_....

100""
~

Ft

"

ll-r-T

+ 2.5rd/s) 0.45 Fu :::; 0.45 Fu


, T
,

I
, , I

l.,.oo

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

(Eq.4.5.5-3)
, I I

"",
""""
0.25

1-1-1f-f--f--

0.30

dIs

CHART V-4.5.5 (C)


Bolted Connections Allowable Tension on Net Section Stress
Without Washers Under Both Bolt and Nut, or With One Washer

NOTES ON USE OF TABLES V-4.5{A) THROUGH (I)

These tables combine design aids based on Specification Section 4.5.6, Bearing Stress in Bolted
Connections, and Section 4.5.7, Shear Stress on Bolts.
Allowable bearing values are based on Fu = 50 ksi. For specified minimum ultimate tensile
strengths of steel of the connected part other than 50 ksi, mUltiply the allowable bearing values
in the tables by Fj50.

Fp

= 1.50 x Fu applies for the following condition:


Washers under both bolt head and nut, 0.024
of double shear connection.

Fp

t < 0/16, F)Fy

1.15, inside sheet

1.35 x Fu applies for the following three conditions:


Washers under both bolt head and nut, 0.024 ~ t < 0/16, F)Fy < 1.15, inside sheet
of double shear connection.
Washers under both bolt head and nut, O. 024 ~ t < 0/16, single shear and outside
sheet of double shear connection.
Without washers under both bolt head and nut or with only one washer, 0.036
~ t < 0/16, F)Fy ~ 1.15, inside sheet of double shear connection.

Fp = 1.00 x Fu applies for the following condition:


Without washers under both bolt head and nut or with only one washer, 0.036
~ t < 3/16 , F iF y ~ 1.15, single shear and outside sheet of double shear
connection.

V-67

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification
BOLTED CONNECTIONS

TABLE V-4.5(A) Allowable Loads, in Kips for A307 Bolts (Shear

10ksi)

BEARING VALUE (kips)


Bolt
Dia.
(in.)

Area
(in. 2)

Single
Shear
(kips)

Double
Shear
(kips)

Y4

0.0491

0.49

0.98

0.1104

1.10

2.21

III

0.1963

1.96

3.93

0.3068

3.07

6.14

0/4

0.4418

4.42

8.84

7h

0.6013

6.01

12.03

0.7854

7.85

15.71

THICKNESS (in.)

(kJb
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x

0.024
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45
0.90
0.81
0.60
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.58
1.42
1.05
1.80
1.62
1.20

0.030
0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.41
1.26
0.94
1.69
1.52
1.12
1.97
1.77
1.31
2.25
2.02
1.50

0.036
0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.02
1.82
1.35
2.36
2.13
1.58
2.70
2.43
1.80

0.048

0.060

0.075

0.105

0.135

0.164

0.194

0.224

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.80
1.62
1.20
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.70
2.43
1.80
3.15
2.84
2.10
3.60
3.24
2.40

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.38
3.04
2.25
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.50
4.05
3.00

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.52
3.16
2.34
4.22
3.80
2.81
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.62
5.06
3.75

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.91
5.32
3.94
6.89
6.20
4.59
7.88
7.09
5.25

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53
5.06
4.55
3.38
6.33
5.70
4.22
7.59
6.83
5.06
8.86
7.97
5.91
10.12
9.11
6.75

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08
6.15
5.54
4.10
7.69
6.92
5.12
9.22
8.30
6.15
10.76
9.69
7.18
12.30
11.07
8.20

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64
7.28
6.55
4.85
9.09
8.18
6.06
10.91
9.82
7.28
12.73
11.46
8.49
14.55
13.10
9.70

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20
8.40
7.56
5.60
10.50
9.45
7.00
12.60
11.34
8.40
14.70
13.23
9.80
16.80
15.12
11.20

TABLE V-4.5(B) Allowable Loads In Kips for A325 Bolts. Threading Excluded from Shear Plane

1/4

0.0491

1.47

2.94

0/8

0.1104

3.31

6.62

lh

0.1963

5.89

11.78

0/8

0.3068

9.20

18.41

0/4

0.4418

13.25

26.51

7h

0.6013

18.04

36.08

0.7854

23.56

47.12

1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45
0.90
0.81
0.60
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.58
1.42
1.05
1.80
1.62
1.20

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.41
1.26
0.94
1.69
1.52
1.12
1.97
1.77
1.31
2.25
2.02
1.50

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.02
1.82
1.35
2.36
2.13
1.58
2.70
2.43
1.80

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.80
1.62
1.20
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.70
2.43
1.80
3.15
2.84
2.10
3.60
3.24
2.40

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.38
3.04
2.25
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.50
4.05
3.00

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.52
3.16
2.34
4.22
3.80
2.81
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.62
5.06
3.75

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.91
5.32
3.94
6.89
6.20
4.59
7.88
7.09
5.25

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53
5.06
4.55
3.38
6.33
5.70
4.22
7.59
6.83
5.06
8.86
7.97
5.91
10.12
9.11
6.75

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08
6.15
5.54
4.10
7.69
6.92
5.12
9.22
8.30
6.15
10.76
9.69
7.18
12.30
11.07
8.20

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64
7.28
6.55
4.85
9.09
8.18
6.06
10.91
9.82
7.28
12.73
11.46
8.49
14.55
13.10
9.70

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20
8.40
7.56
5.60
10.50
9.45
7.00
12.60
11.34
8.40
14.70
13.23
9.80
16.80
15.12
11.20

TABLE V-4.5(C) Allowable Loads In Kips for A325 Bolts. Threading Not Excluded from Shear Plane
Y4

0.0491

1.03

2.06

0.1104

2.32

4.64

lh

0.1963

4.12

8.24

0.3068

6.44

12.88

0/4

0.4418

9.28

18.56

7h

0.6013

12.63

25.25

0.7854

16.49

32.99

1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45
0.90
0.81
0.60
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.58
1.42
1.05
1.80
1.62
1.20

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.41
1.26
0.94
1.69
1.52
1.12
1.97
1.77
1.31
2.25
2.02
1.50

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.02
1.82
1.35
2.36
2.13
1.58
2.70
2.43
1.80

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.80
1.62
1.20
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.70
2.43
1.80
3.15
2.84
2.10
3.60
3.24
2.40

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.38
3.04
2.25
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.50
4.05
3.00

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.52
3.16
2.34
4.22
3.80
2.81
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.62
5.06
3.75

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.91
5.32
3.94
6.89
6.20
4.59
7.88
7.09
5.25

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53
5.06
4.55
3.38
6.33
5.70
4.22
7.59
6.83
5.06
8.86
7.97
5.91
10.12
9.11
6.75

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08
6.15
5.54
4.10
7.69
6.92
5.12
9.22
8.30
6.15
10.76
9.69
7.18
12.30
11.07
8.20

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64
7.28
6.55
4.85
9.09
8.18
6.06
10.91
9.82
7.28
12.73
11.46
8.49
14.55
13.10
9.70

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20
8.40
7.56
5.60
10.50
9.45
7.00
12.60
11.34
8.40
14.70
13.23
9.80
16.80
15.12
11.20

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-68

BOLTED CONNECTIONS
TABLE V-4.5(D) Allowable Loads, in Kips for A354 Grade BD Bolts. Threading Excluded from Shear Plane
BEARING VALUE (kips)
Area
(in. 2)

Single
Shear
(kips)

Double
Shear
(kips)

V4

0.0491

1.96

3.93

0/8

0.1104

4.42

8.83

Bolt
Dia.
(in.)

THICKNESS (in.)

F"

(ksi)
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00

x
x
x
x
x
x

50
50
50
50
50
50

0.024

0.030

0.036

0.048

0.060

0.075

0.105

0.135

0.164

0.194

0.224

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41

1.97
1. 77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20

TABLE V-4.5(E) Allowable Loads, in Kips for A354 Grade BD Bolts. Threading Not Excluded from Shear Plane
V4

0.0491

1.01

2.01

0.1104

2.65

5.30

1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00

x
x
x
x
x
x

50
50
50
50
50
50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41

1.97
1. 77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20

TABLE V-4.5(F) Allowable Loads, in Kips for A449 Bolts. Threading Excluded from Shear Plane
Y4

0.0491

1.47

2.94

0.1104

3.31

6.62

Y4

0.0491

0.88

1.77

0/8

0.1104

1.99

3.97

1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00

x
x
x
x
x
x

50
50
50
50
50
50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08

TABLE V-4.5(G) Allowable Loads, in Kips for A449 Bolts. Threading Not Excluded from Shear Plane
1.50
1.35
1.00
1.50
1.35
1.00

x
x
x
x
x
x

50
50
50
50
50
50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64

NOTES ON USE OF TABLES V-4.5(A) THROUGH (I)

These tables combine design aids based on Specification Section 4.5.6, Bearing Stress in Bolted
Connections, and Section 4.5.7, Shear Stress on Bolts.
Allowable bearing values are based on Fu = 50 ksi. For specified minimum ultimate tensile
strengths of steel of the connected part other than 50 ksi, multiply the allowable bearing values
in the tables by FJ50.
Fp

= 1.50 x Fu applies for the following condition:


Washers under both bolt head and nut, 0.024
of double shear connection.

t <

31H} ,

FjFy
.

1.15, inside sheet

Fp =r 1.35 x Fu applies for the following three conditions:


Washers under both bolt head and nut, 0.024 ~ t < 3/16, FjFy < 1.15, inside sheet
of double shear connection.
Washers under both bolt head and nut, 0.024 ~ t < 3/16, single shear and outside
sheet of double shear connection.
Without washers under both bolt head and nut or with only one washer, 0.036
~ t < 3/16, FjFy ~ 1.15, inside sheet of double shear connection.
Fp

= 1.00 x Fu applies for the following condition:


Without washers under both bolt head and nut or with only one washer, 0.036
~ t < 3/16, FjFy ~ 1.15, single shear and outside sheet of double shear
connection.

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-69

BOLTED CONNECTIONS

TABLE V-4.5(H) Allowable Loads, in Kips for A490 Bolts. Threading Excluded from Shear Plane
BEARING VALUE (kips)
Area
(in. 2)

Single
Shear
(kips)

Double
Shear
(kips)

114

0.0491

1.96

3.93

0.1104

4.92

8.83

V2

0.1963

1. 73

3.47

o/s

0.3068

12.27

24.54

0.4418

17.67

35.34

VB

0.6013

24.05

48.10

0.7854

31.42

62.83

Bolt
Dia.
(in.)

THICKNESS (in.)

(k~b

0.024

0.030

0.036

0.048

0.060

0.075

0.105

0.135

0.164

0.194

0.224

1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50
1.50 x 50
1.35 x 50
1.00 x 50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45
0.90
0.81
0.60
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.58
1.42
1.05
1.80
1.62
1.20

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.41
1.26
0.94
1.69
1.52
1.12
1.97
1. 77
1.31
2.25
2.02
1.50

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.02
1.82
1.35
2.36
2.13
1.58
2.70
2.43
1.80

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.80
1.62
1.20
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.70
2.43
1.80
3.15
2.84
2.10
3.60
3.24
2.40

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.38
3.04
2.25
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.50
4.05
3.00

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.52
3.16
2.34
4.22
3.80
2.81
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.62
5.06
3.75

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.91
5.32
3.94
6.89
6.20
4.59
7.88
7.09
5.25

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53
5.06
4.55
3.38
6.33
5.70
4.22
7.59
6.83
5.06
8.86
7.97
5.91
10.12
9.11
6.75

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08
6.15
5.54
4.10
7.69
6.92
5.12
9.22
8.30
6.15
10.76
9.69
7.18
12.30
11.07
8.20

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64
7.28
6.55
4.85
9.09
8.18
6.06
10.91
9.82
7.28
12.73
11.46
8.49
14.55
13.10
9.70

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20
8.40
7.56
5.60
10.50
9.45
7.00
12.60
11.34
8.40
14.70
13.23
9.80
16.80
15.12
11.20

TABLE V-4.5(1) Allowable Loads in Kips for A490 Bolts. Threading Not Excluded from Shear Plane

V4

0.0491

1.37

2.74

0.1104

3.09

6.18

V2

0.1963

5.50

10.99

o/s

0.0368

8.59

17.18

0.4418

12.37

24.74

VB

0.6013

16.84

33.67

0.7854

21.99

43.98

1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x
1.50 x
1.35 x
1.00 x

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.45
0.40
0.30
0.68
0.61
0.45
0.90
0.81
0.60
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.58
1.42
1.05
1.80
1.62
1.20

0.56
0.51
0.38
0.84
0.76
0.56
1.12
1.01
0.75
1.41
1.26
0.94
1.69
1.52
1.12
1.97
1.77
1.31
2.25
2.02
1.50

0.68
0.61
0.45
1.01
0.91
0.68
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.02
1.82
1.35
2.36
2.13
1.58
2.70
2.43
1.80

0.90
0.81
0.60
1.35
1.22
0.90
1.80
1.62
1.20
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.70
2.43
1.80
3.15
2.84
2.10
3.60
3.24
2.40

1.12
1.01
0.75
1.69
1.52
1.12
2.25
2.02
1.50
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.38
3.04
2.25
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.50
4.05
3.00

1.41
1.26
0.94
2.11
1.90
1.41
2.81
2.53
1.88
3.52
3.16
2.34
4.22
3.80
2.81
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.62
5.06
3.75

1.97
1.77
1.31
2.95
2.66
1.97
3.94
3.54
2.62
4.92
4.43
3.28
5.91
5.32
3.94
6.89
6.20
4.59
7.88
7.09
5.25

2.53
2.28
1.69
3.80
3.42
2.53
5.06
4.55
3.38
6.33
5.70
4.22
7.59
6.83
5.06
8.86
7.97
5.91
10.12
9.11
6.75

3.08
2.77
2.05
4.61
4.15
3.08
6.15
5.54
4.10
7.69
6.92
5.12
9.22
8.30
6.15
10.76
9.69
7.18
12.30
11.07
8.20

3.64
3.27
2.42
5.46
4.91
3.64
7.28
6.55
4.85
9.09
8.18
6.06
10.91
9.82
7.28
12.73
11.46
8.49
14.55
13.10
9.70

4.20
3.78
2.80
6.30
5.67
4.20
8.40
7.56
5.60
10.50
9.45
7.00
12.60
11.34
8.40
14.70
13.23
9.80
16.80
15.12
11.20

LL

.x~

'c;;

r-

~
r-

~
~

o
o

10

20

40

If

If

10

O'eR::;

O'eR>

20

30

40

0.5QFy, then: Fa3 = 0.522

50

O'eR

0.522QFy

70

O'er'

ksi

80

(Eq.5.1.1-2)

(Eq.5.1.1-1)

90

100

25

30

36TItH33

37
a:I

42

45

120

130

140

150

160

::s

c-+-

II)

::n
o

8.

(l)

00
'C

Q..

(l)

'"l

s:

(i

(l)

::r-

c-+-

>-+>

::s

rt:

Q..

trj

00

I-'

~~

'"l

(l)

r:::r

(l)

c-+-

'C

(l)

00

::rc-+::r(l)

(l)

CIJ

'"l

50

55

o::r

r:::r

::sQ..

II)

:+
CIJ

co
CIJ

60

::r-

(i

II)

110

= 65ksi

QFy

CHART V-S.1.1 (A)


Allowable Stud Column Buckling Stress

60

(QF )2
7 67 ~

I I 1 1.LL l I I I I I I I I 1 ,I I I I I 1 . 1 [1 iiTI I I I I [ I I I I I I I ITII Ll i I I 11 11 1

0.5QFn then: Faa

I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I

~
o
~

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

a Factor (where 0" CR =

0.2

0.1

00

0" ex

a)

0.3

0.5

0.4

II

II

I
1
I

0.8 ~l-4-lt-l-4.4-

ci ttttttt+",++-1-++-++-+j"j"i-l-C")-+ff-++++_-4~1-1-+1--L-L-L-4r--+-+I.t)-+I!,.-1r--1_-+-1<oI---Hl#-t
II
a
a
0
o
o 1+-l-+-1~

H--1H--1H--1H--1H-f

f-

11--+--+--+-1-++

I--+\-l-H--+\I-

Q II~ ++-++++++II-+++++++-4J+++++++l+-+i-+-+-+-+-+-+-I+--I-+--i-+--l'~
l-+--l-+--l-l-l

~-++~b

b++-++++++II-+++++++-4J+++++~I'~-+-+-+-+44IH4-+--i~-+--l-+--l-HH
I

1\

0.7HH~~~~~HH~~++~~HH~~~~~HH#4~~++~~t~
~~~~~++-++-++-++-~++++++++++++++~++44~rt4-+-+~rt4/~~~

~~~~~++-++-++-++-~++++++~++++~~++4444~-+-+~-+-+O/-

:
-

0.6HH~++~~~+++r~~+++*~HH~++~~44++~~~++~'J

~'~~~~~~~~++++++++*+++++~++++~~444,H4~4ff~~t

c/ a = 0 ++++++H-H--~f-+-If++++++-I-++++--I-+++-+II-+-1+-+I+-I'
1
11

I-+-++-++-++-+--p\l-

0.4 /4Ir,!--+f-~f*-~+-+-+-+-++-#+-++++-:+++-+-}-+++,;!-+++.~-Il-+--+--I." ; -

0.3 1-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+++++--l'IId--++--IJ~d--+++-+ff'~++++++++l+--+-+-+--#-+-+-+-I--+-+'
~

~- -

~~~~~~+-+-+-+-~~~+-+-~~~+-+-~~~~~'

+-+-I-+-+---H-+-

II

~!

~ ~41 i

_
-J t

,I t lJ

+t

'1 f-- L ~
0.2tttttttt~ttttttttttttttftttttlL+,~,~~~~~~~~~~++~44~~~
f-

~...

f-

~~~~~~~+-+-~++++++~_++~+~~~'++-+~~~~~_~!~L ~~~:

1--+-1--+-1--+-1--+-+--+-~+-+-+-+-+--I-+-+-+-+-+-+-JIf-+-+-+-+++ +++-+If---+- ~

~~ ';f-: :

-r

II

++

_11 ..

--i+----.--

,:4-::

H-i--+-i--+-i--+-~t-+-t-+-+-+-+-+-++-++++++++++++++++++++++++--"-+-+-+---j--~-+

0.2

0.6

1.0

1.4

b/a

1.8

CHART V-S.1.1 (B)


a Factor For Channel Sections Braced on Both Sides
O"ta
0" ex

=0.1toO.6

.-'-~-

2.2

>---+-

V-71

V-72

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

a Factor (]' CA = (]'ex a )


04
'1

o.

05

,
1

0.8

0.7

06
I~

'I

0.9

I~

II

ci ~-+--l-+--l-+--ll~
'H-H-Hl-H-H-Hl'IH-HlH-H-t--lJIH-+++++++++-WI1~Y+++--fl-+-I

~ II 'J-l--I-+--lf.--.t-..j~I-+-I-+--l-t-I-l
~1-+--1-+--+-I-+-+-M-+-+-H-~lJ++-++-+++++++-l.IJ'++++-t#t-++-tI1
Q ~++++~I'~4444~4444~-~~~~YHHH~HHHrHr~rr~~rHH

b -l--l---l---+-I--l---t-+.-H--W.-H++--l:'1l---t
J--+-:lL!H-t~-+-l+-lf--+-lH-f-+H-~H-H-+-I-H-+--+iH

IJ

~.

0.8~~I,~~~~~~~~~~~44~~++++++++++~++~Tr~~H
HI14-+I\\!- co ~
" ~
q, ~ 0
t- ~~-+-t+++-t-t-+-t <t) I-J
~ JH.-+++-I-~l
H
1--&41-++-+ C j
I- ~.'I-~ ~.~ I- , ...: I
I- C
V~++~~~++~~+++~~+''IJ~~I/C++++~44~44-M~~~++~~
r.
1\
II
II

c,

.,..._l-

Oij

1-f--

tH

o. 7 u!-l-I-!--t-4ll++++-t-M-++-++++~-HI+-+++~+-+-+++++-+-1H-tI-++
1++++-T1
Ht- ~J ~
I'

1\ I J

11

1\

It

K
1

"

II

11

I' I'

U
, "
III

0.3~~~~I'~~~~~~'~I~&+++~~++++++~444444~~~~~~HH~
~~~~~HHHHH~~ I 1~~-+--l~~-+--l-+--l~HHH-H-~~H-~rrH-rrH-~
~~~~HHHHHH~0.4~~~~~~~I-+-I-+-I-+-~~+-+-~~+-+-~+-+-N
II

II

I!

0.2~f--~~~~~~II~++++++++~~~++++~~~d444~~~~~~~~HH~~
I'

II

II

'I

II

II

II

II

0.2

0.6

1.0

1.4
1.8
b/a
CHART V-5.1.1 (C)
a Factor For Channel Sections Braced on Both Sides
(]'ta =
(]' ex

2.2

0.5 to 8.0

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

a Factor (where (T CR =

05

04

06

(F ex

a)

07

08

09

1\

fl
1\

1.4
II
I'

0)

(:)
f1

1.2

I' (3)

'0

II 'I

'I'
"" II
<::>.~

:)c:ifi

po

'0

1.0

I'

"I'

I'

tY

11

II
II~

II?

1\.'0

ch

111

0.8

I"~

I'

~O

1\1

1""-

0.6
~

fl

I'

1\

0.4

I/'

~~

~=1.0

~
~

(Fex ~

f-

f\

(F

....
0.2

r;

....

r;

~
~

l../I
l.;

I""

"...
"...

i'"

0.2

T"'"

..."'"
I""

0.4

0.6

b/a

0.8

1.0

CHART V-S.1.1 (0)


a Factor For Z-Shaped Sections Braced on Both Sides

(FlO
(F ex

= 1.0 to 10.0

1.2

V-73

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

V-74

120
I

~l

II

I TT II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I LU

l\

110

7T

O"ex

O"ey

(L/rx ) 2

100
\

90

7T

, ksi

-~
-f-~
-f-

(Eq.5.1.1-9)

-~

H-

f-

(L/ry)

, ksi

(Eq.5.1.1-10)

~
~

-~

~
~
~
~

l\

80

00

70

".

;.
bID
r....

60

)(

bID

50
40

'-I

30

10....

....

iI;;

....

20

10

o
o

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

Ur
CHART V-S.1.1 (E)
Flexural Buckling Stress About Major or Minor Axis

170

180

190

200

V-76

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

GROUPB
TABLES OF SECTION PROPERTIES
GENERAL NOTES

(a) The specific sections listed in these tables are not necessarily stock sections. They are
included primarily as a guide in the design of cold-formed steel structural members.
(b) The effective section modulus values are calculated as the ratio of effective moment of
inertia at the indicated stress level and the distance to the extreme fiber. In calculating
the maximum moment capacity of these sections, additional checks such as the provisions of Sections 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4.2, and the information on laterally unbraced compression flanges in Part III must also be taken into account where applicable.
(c) For those section properties which vary with stress level, the values are given for two
basic stresses, F=20 ksi and 30 ksi. It is generally valid to determine the section properties for intermediate stress levels by linear interpolation between the tabulated
values. Extrapolation to determine the properties at stress levels beyond those tabulated may be sufficiently accurate for design purposes but must be performed with
caution.
(d) As a general rule, tabulated section properties are shown to three significant figures,
while dimensions are given to three decimal places. However, in some cases space
limitations made it impractical to adhere strictly to this guideline.
(e) The weight of these sections is calculated based on steel as weighing 40.8 lb. per sq. ft.
per in. thickness.
(f)

The effective strength of these sections is calculated without an increase for cold
forming.

(g) Where they apply, the algebraic formulae presented in Part III, Section 2, Subroutine
I, formed the basis of the calculations for these tables.

(h) The effective section moduli in bending about the y-y axis have not been tabulated.
When the web acts as a compression flange the section modulus should be calculated on
the basis of its effective width as provided in Section 2.3 of the Design Specification.
When the web acts as a tension flange the section modulus of the full section is effective.
(i)

For all the sections listed in this table the moment of inertia, Ix, of the full section may
be used in deflection calculations without appreciable error.

(j) Where the form factor Q is shown as 0.0 the allowable wit-ratio has been exceeded. See
limitations of Section 2.3.3 (a) of the Specification applicable to element stiffened by
simple lip.
(k) The properties of this Table apply only when the channels are adequately joined
together. See Section 4.3 of Design Specification.
(1)

The allowable bending moments shown in this Table apply only when the sections are
adequately braced laterally.

(m) Where the vertical legs of the angles are in compression, Mmax is based on the values of
Fe (see 3.2 of Design Specification) indicated; where the vertical legs of the angles are
in tension, Mmax is based on Fb (tension) since the compression stress is always less
than Fe for the sections listed.
(n) Section modulus entries with an asterisk are controlled by web bending and are equal
to the effective moment of inertia for stress divided by the distance from the effective
neutral axis to the top fiber of the flat portion of the web. In order to find the allowable
bending moment the user should multiply the tabulated section modulus by the allowable stress computed in accordance with Section 3.4.2 of the Specification.

CHANNEL
WITH
STIFFENED FLANGES

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50

0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50

0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50

0.70
0.53
0.53
0.41

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

3.25

3.00

2.75

2.50

2.00

2.00

2.00

1.75

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.5

3.0

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075

0.82
0.82
0.82
0.60

0.88
0.88
0.70
0.60

0.93
0.81
0.70
0.60

1.00
0.84
0.70
0.61

1.01
0.90
0.72

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32

3/16
3/16

3.50

1.01
0.90

10.0

.135
.105

In.

3.50

In.

12.0

In.

In.

In.

Size

6.10
4.79
3.41
2.70

1.79
1.41
1.00
0.795

1.02
0.767
0.628
0.499

0.678
0.512
0.418
0.332

2.52
1.79
1.45
1.13

0.742
0.528
0.426
0.332

0.678
0.512
0.418
0.332

2.00
1.62
1.22
0.979
0.795

1.14
0.926
0.698
0.559
0.437

1.14
0.926
0.698
0.559
0.454

3.64
2.88
2.08
1.64
1.32

1.07
0.847
0.613
0.483
0.389

---

2.75
2.22
1.66
1.33
1.08

1.38
1.11
0.832
0.665
0.520

1.38
1.11
0.832
0.665
0.539

3.87
3.06
2.21
1.74
1.40

4.68
3.76
2.80
2.23
1.80

1.14
0.900
0.651
0.513
0.413

1.87
1.50
1.12
0.891
0.697

2.86
2.28
1.71
1.28
8.57
6.84
5.12
4.01

0.678
0.512
0.418
0.332

1.14
0.926
0.698
0.559
0.454

1.38
1.11
0.832
0.665
0.539

1.87
1.50
1.12
0.891
0.722

2.86
2.28
1.71
1.34

3.79
3.01
2.19
1.74

13.30
10.60
7.66
6.10

3.79
3.01
2.17
1.70*

4.84
3.78
2.76
2.20

19.40
15.10
11.00
8.79

4.84
3.78
2.67
2.09*

6.03
4.68
3.40
2.71

7.30
5.70
4.11

27.20
21.10
15.30
12.20

36.50
28.50
20.50

9.38
7.31

In. 3

1.17
1.21
1.21
1.22

1.37
1.38
1.41
1.42
1.43

1.56
1.57
1.60
1.61
1.62

1.92
1.93
1.96
1.97
1.98

2.33
2.35
2.37
2.39

2.72
2.74
2.76
2.77

3.11
3.12
3.15
3.15

3.49
3.50
3.53
3.53

3.87
3.89
3.91

4.56
4.57

In.

Axis xx
Sx
rx

6.03
4.68
3.35*
2.51*

7.30
5.70
3.96*

56.30
43.80

4.32
3.42
2.47
1.95
1.57

1.87
1.50
1.12
0.891
0.722

2.86
2.28
1.71
1.34

3.79
3.01
2.19
1.72

4.84
3.78
2.76
2.20*

6.03
4.68
3.39
2.64*

7.30
5.70
4.16*

9.38
7.68*

1.27
1.00
0.726
0.573
0.461

5.35
4.22
3.09
2.40

6.83
5.28
3.79
3.01

2.01
1.55
1.12
0.885

1.57
1.24
0.909
0.705

7.58
5.84
4.18
3.32

8.28
6.41
4.57

9.20
7.13

9.38
7.31

In.4

In. 3

In. 3

Lb.

Ix

2.23
1.72
1.23
0.976

2.44
1.89
1.34

2.71
2.10

In. 2

Area

Beam
Strength
Wgt. Effective Sx
per F=20 F= 30
ksi
Foot ksi

0.906
0.921
0.941
0.909
0.714
0.728
0.733
0.721
0.727
0.725
0.74
0.745
0.734
0.74
0.729
0.743
0.749
0.739
0.745
0.654
0.651
0.658
0.644

0.764
0.621
0.478
0.333
0.478
0.393
0.283
0.212
0.173
0.464
0.382
0.275
0.206
0.169
0.456
0.375
0.271
0.203
0.166
0.299
0.202
0.167
0.120

1.29
1.05
0.805
0.583
0.648
0.533
0.389
0.298
0.244
0.598
0.492
0.361
0.277
0.226
0.568
0.468
0.344
0.264
0.216
0.318
0.224
0.185
0.138

1.08
1.07
1.08
1.06

1.13
0.844
0.600
0.458
0.996
1.01
0.999
0.986

1.17
1.16
1.15
1.14

1.34
0.987
0.689
0.530

0.940
0.761
0.517
0.393

1.25
1.25
1.23

1.22
1.21

In.

1.53
1.16
0.792

1.56
1.18

Axis y-y
Sy
ry
In.

~
x

0.689
0.644
0.644
0.607

0.753
0.753
0.729
0.699
0.699

0.712
0.712
0.689
0.660
0.660

0.644
0.643
0.622
0.594
0.594

0.808
0.808
0.814
0.752

0.859
0.859
0.815
0.786

0.909
0.875
0.851
0.822

0.965
0.921
0.888
0.862

1.020
0.918
0.926
0.877

1.09
1.11
1.04
1.00
1.01

1.05
1.07
1.01
0.972
0.979

0.987
1.00
0.949
0.915
0.921

1.23
1.24
1.23
1.15

1.32
1.34
1.25
1.22

1.41
1.38
1.32
1.29

1.51
1.46
1.39
1.36

1.58
1.55
1.47

1.49
1.46

0.912
0.883
1.010
0.975
0.932

In.

In.

m
In.4

.00273
.000989
.000512
.000255

.00650
.00311
.00115
.000579
.000299

.00691
.00331
.00122
.000615
.000317

.00773
.00369
.00136
.000687
.000354

.00956
.00456
.00170
.000846

.01090
.00518
.00188
.000954

.01220
.00571
.00209
.00106

.01350
.00631
.00230
.00117

.01480
.00693
.00252

2.10
2.04
2.05
2.05

0.835
0.486
0.406
0.272

2.13
2.05
2.07
2.01

2.36
2.39
2.36
2.32
2.33

2.39
2.40
2.35
2.35
2.36
1.79
1.50
1.01
0.717
0.592

0.890
0.818
0.731
0.652

0.853
0.783
0.697
0.605

0.820
0.753
0.655

0.751
0.686

-1.97
-2.00
-2.01
-1.87

-1.65
-1.52
-1.54
-1.46

-1.78
-1.81
-1.73
-1.67
-1.69

-1.70
-1.73
-1.66
-1.60
-1.61

1.00
0.959
0.909
0.857

1.00
1.00
0.923
0.870
0.794

1.00
1.00
0.969
0.915
0.866
1.00
1.00
0.954
0.901

1.00
0.969
0.883
0.828
0.754

0.972
0.902
0.809
0.753
0.683

0.922
0.855
0.774
0.688

1.00
1.00
0.932
0.875
0.824

1.00
0.957
0.860
0.800
0.749

0.976
0.908
0.819
0.761

0.875
0.810
0.721
0.626

0.834
0.768
0.666
0.574

0.799
0.735
0.618
0.530

0.767
0.707
0.577

0.700
0.642

F =20 F=30
ksi
ksi

Column
Factor

TABLE 1

-2.11 0.931
-2.14 0.862
-2.03 ,0.770
-1.97 0.707

-2.25
-2.20
-2.14
-2.08

-2.40
-2.33
-2.24
-2.20

-2.52
-2.48
-2.37

-2.33
-2.29

In.

xo

2.58 -1.56
2.61 -1.59
2.60 -1.53
2.57 -1.48
2.58 -1.49

3.19
3.22
3.25
3.16

3.58
3.62
3.57
3.54

3.98
3.97
3.95
3.92

4.40
4.36
4.34
4.31

4.79
4.77
4.73

5.27
5.26

In.

2.41
2.45
2.42
2.39
2.40

2.89
2.90
2.83
2.86
2.86

3.48
3.49
3.41
3.46

3.99
3.99
3.95
3.98

4.51
4.56
4.48
4.51

5.03
5.10
5.03
5.06

5.59
5.64
5.58

6.78
6.84

In.

ro

SHEAR
CENTER ~

----11-{ 1

. - c-t

1- 1

2.52
2.53
2.48
2.49
2.49

2.31
1.93
1.31
0.943
0.777

3.61
3.01
2.06
1.51
1.25

10.3
8.44
6.43
4.26

18.8
15.3
9.94
7.47

31.9
23.6
16.3
12.4

52.2
37.8
25.7
19.6

78.5
59.1
39.3

117.
88.6

In. 6

Cw

'

.01640
.00770

Properties of Full Section

1.78
1.44
1.00
0.772

2.36
1.79
1.29
0.997

3.07
2.30
1.63
1.27

3.82
2.93
2.03

4.04
3.09

In.4

Iy

Effective section for beam strength about the x-x axis where wit of
compression flange exceeds 38.2 for F=20 ksi and 31.2 for F=30 ksi
See notes (a)-(i) and (n)

TABLE 1

::r'

~
-.J
-.J

::s

~
c-t-

(":)

::::

8.

ttl

"d

W.

0.-

ttl

:3

~
>-::

5:

l.l

ttl

::r'

c-t-

o....,

:::l

~.

0.-

tz:l

00

~~

cr'
ttl
>-::

:3

ttl

c-t-

"d

ttl

W.

ttl

::r'

c-t-

::r'

c-t-

ttl

rn

>-::
C

0>

~
rn

cr'

0.-

:::l

~
rn

l.l

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

2.00

1.50

1.50

1.25

1.125

1.125

1.125

8.

7.

6.

5.

4.

3.

2.

In.

B
In.

D
In.

Size

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

0.403
0.299
0.241
0.195

0.508
0.374
0.301
0.243

0.613
0.449
0.361
0.291

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

0.744
0.543
0.436
0.351

1.15
0.901
0.655
0.526
0.423

1.28
1.01
0.730
0.586

1.37
1.02
0.821
0.661

1.73
1.27
1.02
0.825

2.08
1.53
1.23
0.988

2.53
1.85
1.48
1.19

3.91
3.06
2.23
1.79
1.44

4.37
3.42
2.48
1.99

5.28
4.14
2.99
2.40

Lb.

In. 2

1.55
1.22
0.880
0.706

per
Foot

Wgt.

0.241
0.188
0.154
0.126

0.636
0.487
0.397
0.322

1.29
0.973
0.7.90
0.640

2.40
1.80
1.46
1.18

5.33
4.24
3.15
2.55
2.05

7.84
6.22
4.60
3.72

13.1
10.3
7.60
6.13

Ix
In.4

0.241
0.188
0.154
0.126

0.424
0.324
0.265
0.215

0.643
0.486
0.395
0.320

0.960
0.719
0.583
0.471

1.78
1.41
1.05
0.849
0.685

0.773
0.792
0.798
0.804

1.12
1.14
1.15
1.15

1.45
1.47
1.48
1.48

1.80
1.82
1.83
1.83

2.15
2.17
2.19
2.20
2.21

.0497
.0379
.0310
.0253

.0573
.0432
.0353
.0287

.0623
.0467
.0382
.0310

.0894
.0667
.0543
.0441

.197
.158
.117
.0951
.0770

2.47
.204
2.49
.164
2.51 . .121
2.52
.0983

2.24
1.78
1.32
1.06

.485
.386
.283
.229

Iy
In. 4

2.90
2.91
2.94
2.95

rx
In.

3.27
2.58
1.90
1.53

Sx
In. 3

Axis x-x

CHANNEL
WITH UNSTIFFENED FLANGES

Area

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

In.

See notes (a)-(f), (i), and (n)

TABLE 2

.0645
.0480
.0389
.0315

.0688
.0508
.0412
.0334

.0713
.0525
.0426
.0345

.0900
.0661
.0535
.0432

.166
.132
.0962
.0777
.0627

.168
.133
.0975
.0788

.302
.238
.173
.140

Sy
In.3

Axis y-y

.351
.356
.358
.360

.336
.340
.342
.344

.319
.323
.325
.327

.347
.350
.353
.355

.414
.419
.423
.425
.427

.399
.404
.407
.410

.559
.563
.567
.569

ry
In.

.355
.335
.329
.324

.292
.275
.269
.264

.251
.235
229
.225

.256
.241
.235
.230

.310
.298
.283
.277
.272

.284
.272
.257
.251

.393
.381
.366
.360

In.

.450
.438
.440
.441

.398
.390
.392
.393

.356
.351
.353
.355

.00148
.000561
.000290
.000149

.00187
.000701
.000362
.000186

.00225
.000842
.000434
.000223

.00273
.00102
.000524
.000269

.00698
.00331
.00123
.000632
.000325

.447
.451
.447
.449
.451
.376
.372
.374
.376

.00780
.00370
.00137
.000704

.00944
.00447
.00165
.00084:8

In.4

.416
.421
.418
.420

.596
.600
.597
.599

In.

Properties of Full Section

'f

0.0322
0.0249
0.0207
0.0170

0.0861
0.0658
0.0543
0.0445

0.172
0.131
0.108
0.088

0.395
0.297
0.244
0.199

1.25
1.01
0.755
0.616
0.501

1.81
1.46
1.09
0.885

5.52
4.43
3.26
2.65

In. 6

Cw

1.17
1.19
1.20
1.21

1.60
1.62
1.63
1.64

2.27
2.30
2.31
2.31

3.00
3.04
3.04
3.05

3.61
3.62
3.65
3.66
3.66

4.61
4.62
4.65
4.66

4.84
4.86
4.89
4.89

In.

-.555
-.549
-.553
-.555

-.580
-.575
-.579
-.582

-.689
-.696
-.692
-.696
-.698

-.633
-.640
-.638
-.641

-.922
-.929
-.925
-.929

In.

xo

1.13
1.14
1.15
1.15

-.753
-.735
-.738
-.741

1.33 ;-.637
1.35 -.627
1.35 -.631
1.36 -.634

1.58
1.60
1.61
1.62

1.92
1.94
1.95
1.96

2.30
2.32
2.34
2.35
2.35

2.58
2.60
2.62
2.63

3.09
3.11
3.13
3.14

In.

ro

~[I
~

SHEAR
CENTER

tBI

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.1
16.2
13.8

19.8
19.6
16.4
14.1.
11.9

19.8
19.6
16.4
14.1

19.1
17.2
13.1
11.2

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

29.8
24.9
21.3
15.0

30.0
27.6
21.8
15.9
11.9

30.0
27.6
21.8
15.9

26.8
23.2
13.4
11.2

1.000
0.956
0.869
0.761

1.000
0.956
0.831
0.0

1.000
0.870
0.0
0.0

0.942
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.967
0.864
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.904
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.833
0.0
0.0
0.0

1.000
0.882
0.775
0.634

1.000
0.848
0.705
0.0

0.954
0.751
0.0
0.0

0.864
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.893
0.750
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.826
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.718
0.0
0.0
0.0

Column
Allowable
Factor
Beam
Stress Fe
Q
F=20 F=30 F=20 F=30
ksi
ksi
ksi
ksi

TABLE 2

c+

o::!

c+

(';)

8.

(t)

'0

r:n

Q..

(t)

~
'"1

0:

oo

(t)

::r'

o~

o
::!

c+

t%j

co
00
o

......

'"1

(t)

0'"

(t)

c+

'0

(t)

r:n

(t)

~
c+
~

(t)

s::
m

'"1

r0m

0'"

Q..

::!

00

-:J

In.

.135
.105
.135
.105
.075
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.105
.075
.060
.048

In.

3.50

3.50

3.25

3.00

2.75

2.50

2.00

2.00

2.00

1.75

In.

12.0

10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

8.5

8.0

Size

.,

1.01
0.90
1.01
0.90
0.72
1.00
0.84
0.70
0.61
0.93
0.81
0.70
0.60
0.88
0.88
0.70
0.60
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.60
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.53
0.53
0,41

In.

Effective Sx

In. 3
9.38
7.68*
7.30
5.70
3.96*
6.03
4.68
3.35*
2.51*
4.84
3.78
2.67
2.09
3.79
3.01
2.17
1.70*
2.86
2.28
1.71
1.28
1.87
1.50
1.12
0.891
0.697
1.38
1.11
0.832
0.665
0.520
1.14
0.926
0.698
0.559
0.437
0.678
0.512
0.418
0.332

In. 3
9.38
7.31*
7.30
5.70
4.16*
6.03
4.68
3.39
2.64
4.84
3.78
2.76
2.20
3.79
3.01
2.19
1.72
2.86
2.28
1.71
1.34
1.87
1.50
1.12
0.891
0.722
1.38
1.11
0.832
0.665
0.539
1.14
0.926
0.698
0.559
0,454
0.678
0.512
0.418
0.332

Lb.
9.20
7.13
8.28
6.41
4.57
7.58
5.84
4.18
3.32
6.83
5.28
3.79
3.01
6.10
4.79
3.41
2.70
5.35
4.22
3.09
2.40
4.32
3,42
2.47
1.95
1.57
3.87
3.06
2.21
1.74
1.40
3.64
2.88
2.08
1.64
1.32
2.52
1.79
1.45
1.13

In. 2
2.71
2.10
2.44
1.89
1.34
2.23
1.72
1.23
0.976
2.01
1.55
1.12
0.885
1.79
1.41
1.00
0.795
1.57
1.24
0.909
0.705
1.27
1.00
0.726
0.573
0.461
1.14
0.90
0.651
0.513
0.413
1.07
0.847
0.613
0.483
0.389
0.742
0.528
0.426
0.332

In.

3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/16
3 / 32
3/32
3/32

F=20 F=30
ksi
ksi

per
Foot

Wgt.
Area

R
In. 3
9.38
7.31
7.30
5.70
4.11
6.03
4.68
3,40
2.71
4.84
3.78
2.76
2.20
3.79
8.01
2.19
1.74
2.86
2.28
1.71
1.34
1.87
1.50
1.12
0.891
0.722
1.38
1.11
0.832
0.665
0.539
1.14
0.926
0.698
0.559
0,454
0.678
0.512
0,418
0.332

56.30
43.80
36.50
28.50
20.50
27.20
21.10
15.30
12.20
19.40
15.10
11.00
8.79
13.30
10.60
7.66
6.10
8.57
6.84
5.12
4.01
4.68
3.76
2.80
2.23
1.80
2.75
2.22
1.66
1.33
1.08
2.00
1.62
1.22
0.979
0.795
1.02
0.767
0.628
0.499
13.10
10.10
10.90
8.35
5.84
8.50
6,42
4.56
3.57
6.36
4.87
3.50
2.73
4.64
3.73
2.61
2.08
3.23
2.61
1.98
1.46
1.68
1.37
0.998
0.771
0.629
1.31
1.07
0.786
0.610
0.497
1.13
0.923
0.680
0.529
0.432
0.610
0.437
0.360
0.274

Sx

In. 4

Ix

Axis x-x

In. 4

Ixy

~
In.4
5.97
4.54
5.97
4.54
3.11
4.87
3.59
2.52
1.94
3.78
2.85
2.08
1.55
2.90
2.36
1.61
1.23
2.16
1.76
1.35
0.95
1.07
0.884
0.637
0.480
0.393
1.07
0.884
0.637
0.480
0.393
1.07
0.884
0.637
0,480
0.393
0.618
0.418
0.346
0.251

4.56
4.57
3.87
3.89
3.91
3,49
3.50
3.53
3.53
3.11
3.12
8.15
3.15
2.72
2.74
2.76
2.77
2.33
2.35
2.37
2.39
1.92
1.93
1.96
1.97
1.98
1.56
1.57
1.60
1.61
1.62
1.37
1.38
1.41
1.42
1.43
1.17
1.21
1.21
1.22

Iy

In.

rx

1.74
1.32
1.74
1.32
0.898
1.53
1.12
0.783
0.603
1.29
0.965
0.685
0.522
1.08
0.873
0.592
0,451
0.886
0.718
0.549
0.384
0.554
0.454
0.325
0.244
0.199
0.554
0.454
0.325
0.244
0.199
0.554
0.454
0.325
0.244
0.199
0.364
0.244
0.201
0.145

In. 3

Sy

Axis y-y

1.49
1.47
1.57
1.55
1.52
1.48
1,45
1.43
1.41
1.37
1.35
1.35
1.32
1.27
1.29
1.27
1.24
1.17
1.19
1.22
1.16
0.917
0.938
0.937
0.915
0.924
0.970
0.991
0.990
0.967
0.976
1.00
1.02
1.02
0.997
1.01
0.913
0.890
0.900
0.868

In.

ry

1.01
0.999
1.01
1.01
0.996
0.946
0.931
0.927
0.918
0.868
0.861
0.862
0.851
0.794
0.805
0.796
0.785
0.717
0.728
0.746
0.718
0.568
0.579
0.583
0.573
0.577
0.556
0.567
0.570
0.561
0.565
0.542
0.552
0.556
0.546
0.551
0.487
0.480
0.485
0.472

In.

r m1n

X2-~

Axis

0
_(}

13.8
13.6
17.7
17.4
16.9
18.7
18.2
17.8
17.4
19.6
19.2
18.9
18.5
20.9
21.1
20.4
19.9
22.6
22.9
23.2
21.8
21.5
21.8
21.4
20.7
20.9
28.7
29.0
28.4
27.6
27.7
33.8
34.1
33.4
32.4
32.5
35.9
34.1
34.3
32.8

Deg.

90

'I-

x,

Beam Strength Properties of Full Section

Z-SECTION
WITH STIFFENED FLANGES
Effective section for beam strength about the x-x axis where w /t of
compression flange exceeds 38.2 for F
20 ksi and 31.2 for F
30 ksi.

See notes (a)-(f), and (i)

TABLE 3

'.
0.01640
0.00770
0.01480
0.00693
0.00252
0.01350
0.00631
0.00230
0.00117
0.01220
0.00571
0.00209
0.00106
0.01090
0.00518
0.00188
0.000954
0.00956
0.00456
0.00170
0.000846
0.00773
0.00369
0.00136
0.000687
0.000354
0.00691
0.00331
0.00122
0.000615
0.000317
0.00650
0.00311
0.00115
0.000579
0.000299
0.00273
0.000989
0.000512
0.000255

In. 4

~
~B-

-H

--'-1

162.
123.
108.0
82.2
54.8
71.6
52.5
35.7
27.5
43.7
32.8
22.7
17.3
25.6
20.8
13.7
10,4
13.9
11.4
8.53
5.87
4.90
4.06
2.80
2.09
1.72
3.00
2.50
1.72
1.27
1.05
2.24
1.87
1.28
0.947
0.780
0.990
0.617
0.514
0.362

In. 6

C...

111

t=~-!

0.751
0.686
0.820
0.753
0.655
0.853
0.783
0.697
0.605
0.890
0.818
0.781
0.652
0.931
0.862
0.770
0.707
0.976
0.908
0.819
0.761
1.00
0.957
0.860
0.800
0.749
1.00
1.00
0.932
0.875
0.824
1.00
1.00
0.969
0.915
0.866
1.00
1.00
0.954
0.901

0.972
0.902
0.809
0.753
0.683
1.00
0.969
0.883
0.828
0.754
1.00
1.00
0.923
0.870
0.794
1.00
0.959
0.909
0.857

0.700
0.642
0.767
0.707
0.577
0.799
0.735
0.618
0.530
0.834
0.768
0.666
0.574
0.875
0.810
0.721
0.626
0.922
0.855
0.774
0.688

F=20 F=30
ksi
ksi

Column
Factor

TABLE 3

.,

rJl

~
(.C

-.::J

o::s

~
M-

8.

(t)

"C

0..

3
(t)

"1

s:

I'D
('l

::r'

M-

::s
o....,

0.~

t:rj

00

(.C

"1
~~

I'D

0'"

I'D

M-

"C

I'D

I'D

::r'

M-

::r'

I'D

8"'
"1

rJl

ro

0'"

0..

::s

rJl

::r'

('l
~

In.

2.00

1.50

1.50

1.25

1.125

1.125

1.125

In.

8.

7.

6.

5.

4.

3.

2.

Size

.105
.075
.060
0.48

.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

.105
.075
.060
.048

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048

.135
.105
.075
.060

.135
.105
.075
.060

In.

3/16
3/82
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/32

3/32

3/16
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

In.

0.403
0.299
0.241
0.195

0.508
0.374
0.301
0.243

0.613
0.449
0.361
0.291

0.744
0.543
0.436
0.351

1.15
0.901
0.655
0.526
0.423

1.28
1.01
0.730
0.586

1.55
1.22
0.880
0.706

In. 2

Area

1.370
1.020
0.821
0.661

1.730
1.270
1.020
0.825

2.080
1.530
1.230
0.988

2.530
1.850
1.480
1.190

3.910
3.060
2.230
1.790
1.440

4.370
3.420
2.480
1.990

5.280
4.140
2.990
2.400

Lb.

Weight
per
Foot

0.115
0.0855
0.0699
0.0569

0.176
0.130
0.106
0.086

0.237
0.174
0.142
0.115

0.370
0.272
0.221
0.179

0.816
0.651
0.476
0.385
0.311

0.955
0.761
0.556
0.450

1.99
1.58
1.15
0.925

In. 4

Ixy

0.241
0.188
0.154
0.126

0.636
0.487
0.397
0.322

1.29
0.973
0.790
0.640

2.40
1.80
1.46
1.18

5.33
4.24
3.15
2.55
2.05

7.84
6.22
4.60
3.72

13.1
10.3
7.60
6.13

In. 4

Ix

Z-SECTION
WITH
UNSTIFFENED FLANGES

See notes (a), (c)-(f), and (j)

TABLE 4

0.241
0.188
0.154
0.126

0.424
0.324
0.265
0.215

0.643
0.486
0.395
0.320

0.960
0.719
0.583
0.471

1.78
1.41
1.05
0.849
0.685

2.24
1.78
1.32
1.06

3.27
2.58
1.90
1.53

In. 3

Sx

Axis x-x

0.773
0.792
0.798
0.804

1.12
1.14
1.15
1.15

1.45
1.47
1.48
1.48

1.80
1.82
1.83
1.83

2.15
2.17
2.19
2.20
2.21

2.47
2.49
2.51
2.52

2.90
2.91
2.94
2.95

In.

rx

.0864
.0643
.0525
.0427

.0864
.0643
.0525
.0427

.0864
.0643
.0525
.0427

.120
.0891
.0726
.0590

.265
.212
.156
.127
.103

.265
.212
.156
.127

.650
.517
.378
.306

In.4

Iy

.0806
.0591
.0480
.0388

.0806
.0591
.0480
.0388

.0806
.0591
.0480
.0388

.100
.0735
.0595
.04'81

.185
.147
.107
.0864
.0697

.185
.147
.107
.0864

.336
.266
.193
.155

In. 3

Sy

Axis y-y

.463
.464
.466
.469

.413
.415
.417
.420

.376
.378
.381
.383

.402
.405
.408
.410

.480
.485
.489
.491
.493

.454
.459
.463
.465

.647
.652
.655
.658

In.

ry

.249
.262
.264
.266

.263
.271
.273
.275

.260
.267
.269
.271

.288
.294
.296
.298

.345
.349
.355
.357
.359

.337
.342
.347
.349

.467
.472
.477
.479

In.

r m11l

X 2-X2

Axis

Properties of Full Section

x,

28.1
27.1
27.0
27.0

16.3
15.8
15.8
15.8

10.8
10.5
10.5
10.5

9.01
8.83
8.85
8.87

8.92
8.95
8.82
8.84
8.85

7.08
7.11
7.02
7.04

8.87
8.90
8.80
8.82

Deg.

90- ()

0.00148
0.000561
0.000290
0.000149

0.00187
0.000701
0.000362
0.000186

0.00225
0.000842
0.000434
0.000223

0.00273
0.00102
0.000524
0.000269

0.00698
0.00331
0.00123
0.000632
0.000325

0.00780
0.00370
0.00137
0.000704

0.00944
0.00447
0.00165
0.000848

In. 4

0.0467
0.0359
0.0298
0.0245

0.123
0.0936
0.0771
0.0632

0.240
0.181
0.149
0.122

0.543
0.407
0.333
0.272

1.720
1.390
1.030
0.842
0.685

2.430
1.960
1.460
1.190

7.560
6.060
4.460
3.620

In. 6

Cw

Column Factor

30.0
27.6
21.8
15.9
11.9

19.8
19.6
16.4
14.1
11.9

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

29.8
24.9
21.3
15.0

30.0
27.6
21.8
15.9

19.8
19.6
16.4
14.1

19.8
18.1
16.2
13.8

26.8
23.2
13.4
11.2

19.1
17.2
13.1
11.2

1.000
0.956
0.869
0.761

1.000
0.956
0.831
0.0

1.000
0.870
0.0
0.0

0.942
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.967
0.864
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.904
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.833
0.0
0.0
0.0

1.000
0.882
0.775
0.634

1.000
0.848
0.705
0.0

0.954
0.751
0.0
0.0

0.864
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.893
0.750
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.826
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.718
0.0
0.0
0.0

F = 20 F=30 F = 20 F = 30
ksi
ksi
ksi
ksi

Allowable Beam
Stress Fe

~:!------l

j -r
t=BI

TABLE 4

~
c

::s

M-

r':l
~

3.

ro

"0

r.n

0..

ro

'"'i

o
5:

C1

ro

::r'

M-

::s

o
o
-..

;:i:

t%j
0..

00

eo

I-'

-~

':1

r:::r
ro

ro

M-

"0

ro

r.n

ro

::r'

M-

::r'

;:i:

:;;

ro

Ul

8"
'"'i

Ul

ro

r:::r

0..

::s

Ul

::r'

C1

00

In.
7.0

7.0

6.5

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

3.5

In.
12.0

10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.5

3.0

Size

In.
.135
.105
.135
105
.075
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.105
.075
.060
.048

In.
1.01
0.90
1.01
0.90
0.72
1.00
0.84
0.70
0.61
0.93
0.81
0.70
0.60
0.88
0.88
0.70
0.60
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.60
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.53
0.53
0.41

In.
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

Wgt.
per
Foot
Lb.
18.40
14.30
16.60
12.80
9.14
15.20
11.70
8.35
6.64
13.70
10.60
7.59
6.02
12.20
9.59
6.82
5.40
10.70
8.43
6.18
4.79
8.65
6.83
4.93
3.90
3.14
7.73
6.12
4.42
3.48
2.81
7.27
5.76
4.17
3.28
2.65
5.05
3.59
2.90
2.26

Area

In. 2
5.41
4.19
4.87
3.77
2.69
4.46
3.43
2.46
1.95
4.02
3.11
2.23
1.77
3.59
2.82
2.01
1.59
3.15
2.48
1.82
1.41
2.54
2.01
1.45
1.15
0.922
2.27
1.80
1.30
1.03
0.826
2.14
1.69
1.23
0.966
0.778
1.48
1.06
0.853
0.665

Beam Strength
Effective
Axis x-x
S",
S,.
F=20 F=30 F=20
I",
S",
ksi
ksi
& 30 ksi
In. 3
In. 3
In.
In. 3
In.3
18.80
18.80
18.80
113.
3.59
14.60
15.40* 2.70
14.60
87.7
14.60
14.60
14.60
3.59
73.0
11.40
11.40
2.70
57.0
11.40
8.32*
7.93* 1.83
41.1
8.21
12.10
12.10
54.3
12.10
3.17
9.37
9.37
2.31
42.2
9.37
6.78
6.70
1.60
30.6
6.79
5.28*
5.03* 1.22
24.4
5.41
9.69
9.69
2.68
38.7
9.69
7.56
1.99
30.2
7.56
7.56
22.1
5.52
5.35
1.40
5.52
4.18* 1.06
4.39*
17.6
4.40
2.25
7.58
26.5
7.58
7.58
21.1
6.03
6.03
1.80
6.03
15.3
4.38
4.35
1.21
4.38
12.2
3.44
3.40
0.919
3.48
5.72
17.1
5.72
1.86
5.72
4.56
13.7
4.56
4.56
1.49
3.42
10.2
3.42
1.13
3.42
2.67
8.02
2.57
0.785
2.67
3.75
9.37
3.75
1.18
3.75
3.01
0.949
7.52
3.01
3.01
2.24
2.24
2.24
5.59
0.670
4.45
1.78
1.78
1.78
0.500
3.61
1.44
1.44
0.406
1.39
5.50
2.75
2.75
1.17
2.75
4.44
2.22
0.949
2.22
2.22
3.33
1.66
1.66
0.670
1.66
0.500
2.66
1.33
1.33
1.33
2.16
0.406
1.08
1.08
1.04
4.01
2.29
2.29
2.29
1.17
3.24
1.85
1.85
1.85
0.948
2.44
1.40
1.40
0.670
1.40
1.96
1.12
1.12
1.12
0.500
1.59
0.909
0.909
0.875 0.406
2.03
1.36
0.766
1.36
1.36
1.02
0.506
1.53
1.02
1.02
1.26
0.837 0.414
0.837
0.837
0.997 0.665
0.665
0.665 0.297

Effective section for beam strength about the x-x axis where w /t of
compression flange exceeds 38.2 for F
20 ksi and 31.2 for F
30 ksi.

TWO CHANNELS
WITH STIFFENED FLANGES BACK-TO-BACK

See notes (a)-(f), (k), and (n)

TABLE 5

"y

In. 3
3.59
2.70
3.59
2.70
1.83
3.17
2.31
1.60
1.22
2.68
1.99
1.40
1.06
2.25
1.80
1.21
0.919
1.86
1.49
1.13
0.785
1.18
0.949
0.670
0.500
0.406
1.17
0.949
0.670
0.500
0.406
1.17
0.948
0.670
0.500
0.406
0.766
0.506
0.414
0.297

In.4
12.60
9.45
12.60
9.45
6.40
10.30
7.51
5.19
3.98
8.03
5.97
4.20
3.19
6.20
4.96
3.33
2.53
4.64
3.72
2.81
1.96
2.35
1.90
1.34
0.999
0.812
2.35
1.90
1.340
0.999
0.812
2.35
1.90
1.34
0.999
0.812
1.34
0.885
0.724
0.520

S,.

I,.

1.52
1.50
1.61
1.58
1.54
1.52
1.48
1.45
1.43
1.41
1.39
1.37
1.34
1.32
1.33
1.29
1.26
1.21
1.22
1.24
1.18
0.961
0.972
0.961
0.934
0.939
1.02
1.03
1.01
0.987
0.992
1.05
1.06
1.05
1.02
1.02
0.950
0.916
0.921
0.885

In.

r,.

0.0328
0.015400
0.02960
0.01390
0.00504
0.02710
0.01260
0.00461
0.00234
0.02440
0.01140
0.00418
0.00212
0.02180
0.01040
0.00376
0.00191
0.01910
0.00911
0.00341
0.00169
0.01550
0.00738
0.00272
0.00137
0.000708
0.01380
0.00661
0.00244
0.00123
0.000634
0.01300
0.00623
0.00230
0.00116
0.000598
0.00545
0.00198
0.00102
0.000511

In.4

Properties of Full Section


Axis y-y

In.
4.56
4.57
3.87
3.89
3.91
3.49
3.50
3.53
3.53
3.11
3.12
3.15
3.15
2.72
2.74
2.76
2.77
2.33
2.35
2.37
2.39
1.92
1.93
1.96
1.97
1.98
1.56
1.57
1.60
1.61
1.62
1.37
1.38
1.41
1.42
1.43
1.17
1.21
1.21
1.22

r"

I~~~

L' , '

503.
375.
353 .
263.
171.
237.
170.
113.
86.1
147.
108.
73.
54.9
87.6
70.5
45.0
33.7
48.7
39.4
29.2
19.5
17.4
14.2
9.49
6.94
5.66
11.3
9.28
6.20
4.51
3.68
8.82
7.23
4.82
3.49
2.85
3.92
2.35
1.94
1.33

In. 6

Cw

F=20
ksi
0.751
0.686
0.820
0.753
0.655
0.853
0.783
0.697
0.605
0.800
0.818
0.731
0.652
0.931
0.862
0.770
0.707
0.976
0.908
0.819
0.761
1.00
0.957
0.860
0.800
0.749
1.00
1.00
0.932
0.875
0.824
1.00
1.00
0.969
0.915
0.866
1.00
1.00
0.954
0.901

In.
2.86
2.88
2.79
2.82
2.85
2.57
2.60
2.63
2.65
2.35
2.38
2.40
2.42
2.14
2.14
2.18
2.20
1.92
1.93
1.93
1.97
1.53
1.54
1.56
1.58
1.58
1.48
1.48
1.51
1.53
1.53
1.44
1.45
1.48
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.28
1.29
1.31

r,.

8
.
I,.
F=30
ksi
In. 4
0.700 44.30
0.642 34.90
0.767 37.90
0.707 29.90
0.577 21.80
0.799 29.40
0.735 23.20
0.618 17.00
0.530 13.70
0.834 22.30
0.768 17.60
0.666 12.90
0.574 10.40
0.875 16.40
0.810 13.00
9.51
0.721
7.68
0.626
0.922 11.60
9.20
0.855
6.78
0.774
5.48
0.688
5.98
0.972
4.76
0.902
3.53
0.809
2.86
0.753
2.31
0.683
4.97
1.000
3.97
0.969
2.96
0.883
2.40
0.828
1.94
0.754
4.46
1.000
3.57
1.000
2.67
0.923
2.16
0.870
0.794
1.75
2.31
1.000
1.74
0.959
1.41
0.909
1.14
0.857

Column Factor

_1

f]E'

TABLE 5

~
00

::s

c-t-

::n

8.

CD

'd

r:n

0..

3
CD

"1

o
Q:

CD

::r'

c-t-

........

rt:
::s

tz:j
0..

00

~CJ:)

CD
"1

C1'

c-t(D

'd

r:n
(D

(D

::r'

c-t-

::r'

rt:

(D

C
rn

"1

rn

~
C1'
;-

0..

::s

rn

::r'

-.

.105
.075
.060
.048

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

0.805
0.598
0.483
0.389

2.74
2.03
1.64
1.32

3.45
2.54
2.05
1.65

1.02
0.748
0.603
0.485

2.25

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

2.

.105
.075
.060
.048

2.25

3.

4.17
3.05
2.46
1.98

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

.105
.075
.060
.048

2.25

4.

5.06
3.69
2.97
2.38

7.81
6.13
4.46
3.58
2.87

1.23
0.898
0.723
0.581

1.49
1.09
0.873
0.701

3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

5.

.105
.075
.060
.048

3.00

6.

8.73
6.84
4.97
3.99

2.57
2.01
1.46
1.17

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

.135
.105
.075
.060

2.50

3.00

7.

10.60
8.27
5.99
4.80

3.11
2.43
1.76
1.41

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

.135
.105
.075
.060

2.30
1.80
1.31
1.05
0.845

4.00

8.

Lb.

In. 2

In.

In.

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32

In.

In.

Weight
per
Foot

R
Area

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048

Size

0.481
0.375
0.308
0.251

1.27
0.973
0.794
0.645

2.57
1.95
1.58
1.28

4.80
3.59
2.91
2.35

10.7
8.48
6.30
5.09
4.11

15.7
12.4
9.21
7.44

26.1
20.7
15.2
12.3

In.4

Ix

0.481
0.375
0.308
0.251

0.849
0.649
0.529
0.430

1.29
0.973
0.790
0.640

1.92
1.44
1.17
0.942

3.56
2.83
2.10
1.70
1.37

4.48
3.55
2.63
2.12

6.54
5.17
3.80
3.06

In. 3

Sx

Axis x-x

2 CHANNELS
WITH UNSTIFFENED FLANGES BACK-TO-BACK

See notes (a), (c) - (f), (j), and (k)

TABLE 6

0.616
0.477
0.339
0.271

2.47
2.49
2.51
2.52

0.773
0.792
0.798
0.804

0.201
0.143
0.114
0.0912

0.201
0.143
0.114
0'(}913

0.202
0.143
0.114
0.0914

1.45
1.47
1.48
1.48
1.12
1.14
1.15
1.15

0.276
0.196
0.157
0.125

1.80
1.82
1.83
1.83

0.615
0.476
0.339
0.271
0.216

1.45
1.12
0.802
0.641

2.90
2.91
2.94
2.95

2.15
2.17
2.19
2.20
2.21

In.4

I:J

In.

r",

.490
.487
.482
.481

0.411
0.318
0.226
0.181

0.178
0.127
0.101
0.0811

0.179
0.127
0.102
0.0812

0.179
0.127
0.102
0.0812

0.221
0.157
0.125
0.100

.499
.489
.486
.484

.445
.437
.435
.434

.406
.399
.398
.397

.431
.425
.424
.423

.517
.514
.508
.507
.506

.683
.680
.675
.674

0.725
0.562
0.401
0.320

0.410
0.317
0.226
0.180
0.144

In.

r,.

In. 3

S,.

Axis y-y

Properties of Full Section

0.00296
0.00112
0.000579
0.000299

0.00373
0.00140
0.000723
0.000373

0.155
0.119
0.0988
0.0814

0.362
0.275
0.227
0.186

0.655
0.495
0.408
0.334

1.440
1.080
0.886
0.723

0.00547
0.00204
0.00105
0.000538
0.00450
0.00168
0.000867
0.000446

4.550
3.690
2.750
2.240
1.820

6.230
5.050
3.750
3.060

20.100
16.100
11.900
9.640

In. 6

C ....

0.01400
0.00662
0.00246
0.00126
0.000649

0.01560
0.00740
0.00274
0.00141

0.01890
0.00894
0.00330
0.00170

In.4

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.9
17.2
15.1

19.8
18.1
16.2
13.8

19.8
19.6
16.4
14.1
11.9

19.8
19.6
16.4
14.1

19.1
17.2
13.1
11.2

F=20
ksi

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

30.0
26.4
23.2
19.1

29.8
24.9
21.3
15.0

30.0
27.6
21.8
15.9
11.9

30.0
27.6
21.8
15.9

26.8
23.2
13.4
11.2

F=30
ksi

Allowable
Beam Stress Fe

,BI
L.

II fI
r-~I

1.000
0.882
0.775
0.634

1.000
0.848
0.705
0.0

0.954
0.751
0.0
0.0

0.864
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.893
0.750
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.826
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.718
0.0
0.0
0.0

F=30
ksi

e
~

1.000
0.956
0.869
0.761

1.000
0.956
0.831
0.0

1.000
0.870
0.0
0.0

0.942
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.967
0.864
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.904
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.833
0.0
0.0
0.0

F=20
ksi

Column Factor

TABLE 6

o::s

rt-

8.

('t)

'C

a..
r:n

('t)

~
"1

0:

oo

('t)

:T

rt-

o>-+:.

rt
o
::s

a..

t.%j

00

~~

"1

('t)

r::r

('t)

rt-

'C

('t)

r:n

('t)

:T

rt-

:T

rt

('t)

~
l'/l

"1

l'/l

(;)

r::r

;3

a..

::s

l'/l

:T

I:\:)

00

"

4.0
3.0

2.5

2.0

4.0
3.0

2.5

2.0

.135
.135
.105
.135
.105
.135
.105
.075
.060

In.

1.10
0.93
0.81
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.60
0.50

In.

In.

4.0
3.0

2.5

2.0

In.

4.0
3.0

2.6

2.0

Size

.135
.135
.105
.135
.105
.135
.105
.075
.060

In.

3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

In.

Lb.

Wgt.
per
Foot

1.05
3.56
0.777 2.64
0.608 2.07
0.642 2.18
0.503 1.71
0.507 1.72
0.398 1.35
0.290 0.987
0.233 0.793

In. 2

Area

1.28
0.962
0.735
0.797
0.632
0.662
0.527
0.360
0.280

In.2
4.34
3.27
2.50
2.71
2.15
2.25
1.79
1.23
0.951

Lb.
2.59
1.08
0.828
0.612
0.500
0.324
0.268
0.184
0.141

I
In. 4

1.690
0.700
0.554
0.399
0.316
0.199
0.159
0.117
0.0947

In.4

.577
.321
.252
.220
.174
.139
.110
.0799
.0644

In. 3

S
In.

x=y
In.

r Y1

---'------

0.998 1.62
1.27
0.949 0.748 1.21
0.954 0.751 1.21
0.788 0.623 1.00
0.793 0.626 1.01
0.626 0.498 0.800
0.631 0.501 0.806
0.635 0.498 0.807
0.637 0.500 0.810

In.

Axis x-x and Axis y-y

1.42
1.06
1.06
0.876
0.889
0.700
0.713
0.714
0.710

r
In.
1.29
0.999
0!964
0.847
0.843
0.725
0.721
0.659
0.631

x=y
In.
1.92
1.46
1.43
1.22
1.23
1.01
1.01
0.972
0.950

In.

In.

ro

t y,

Axisy

In:'

1"2

In. 4

J]

.790
.585
.589
.482
.486
.380
.384
.394
.396

In.

r"2

2.67
1.96
1.99
1.61
1.64
1.26
1.29
1.33
1.34

In.

y.

In.

ro

-1.21
-0.857
-0.888
-0.680
-0.711
-0.504
-0.535
-0.597
-0.613

In.

2.80
2.12
2.07
1.77
1.80
1.49
1.53
1.43
1.37

Xo

,~--"

n,y

1.1700
0.3780
0.2050
0.1730
0.1450
0.1090
0.0918
0.0259
0.0125

In.6

C..

L
x

.00776
.00584
.00270
.00484
.00232
.00402
.00194
.000676
.000336

2.17 .653
.00636
.266
1.59
.00472
1.62 .211
.00223
.00390
1.31 .149
1.33 .119
.00185
1.02 .0730
.00308
1.04 .0586
.00146
.000544 1.08 .0450
.000280 1.09 .0365

In. 4

y,
--j~-

Properties of Full Section

r Y1

tt

Properties of Full Section

.982
.560
.417
.386
.312
.269
.218
.141
.105

S
In.3

Axis x-x and Axis y-y

EQUAL LEG ANGLE


WITH UNSTIFFENED LEGS

3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32

In.

Area

Wgt.
per
Foot

EQUAL LEG ANGLE


WITH STIFFENED LEGS

See notes (a). (c) - (g). (1). and (m)

TABLE 8

B
In.

D
In.

Size

See notes (a), (c)-(g), and (1)

TABLE 7

In.4

IY
.987
.749
.733
.625
.635
.526
.535
.502
.485

In.

r Y2

y.

7.03
4.93
3.17
3.80
2.57
2.65
1.88
1.05
0.721

Tension
In.kip

11.40
6.35
4.99
4.36
3.44
2.75
2.17
1.58
1.28

Tension
In.kip

.l.: F

sion
In.kip

17.30
9.62
7.56
6.61
5.21
4.16
3.29
2.40
1.93

sion
In.kip

.l.: 'F
Ten- Ten-

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

.544
.777
.608
.871
.747
.964
.867
.661
.427

.359
.661
.401
.776
.603
.892
.772
.447
.282

F=20 F=30
ksi ksi

Column
Factor

TABLE 8

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

F=20 F =30
ksi
ksi

Column Factor

F - 30ksi
Mmax
Comp.. Compo

12.2 7.03
19.8 6.36
12.6 3.17
23.3 5.13
18.1 3.14
26.8 3.71
23.2 2.54
13.4 1.07
11.2 0.721

ksi

Fe

XO

In.
-1.94
-1.50
-1.42
-1.26
-1.28
-1.12
-1.14
-1.01
-0.94

Beam Strength
F -20 ksi
Mmax
Compo Compo

12.2
15.4
12.6
17.2
14.8
19.1
17.2
13.1
11.2

ksi

Fe

In.

3.11
2.33
2.33
1.93
1.95
1.56
1.58
1.56
1.55

~L
~B~

1.240
0.540
0.394
0.311
0.255
0.183
0.151
0.0907
0.0658

t-

,~-"

B~

Tf
~a

TABLE 7

(1

rn

~
00
rJ:I

::s

c+

("':)

5;

("':)

('D

Q..

('D

~
'"!

0:

(1

('D

::r'

c+

o....,

o
::s

p..

tz:j

00

'"!
~rJ:I

('D

0"

('D

c+

('D

W.

('D

::r'

c+

::r'

('D

rn

'"!
~

rn

(0

0"

::s
p..

rn

::r'

4.00

2.00

1.00

3.00

1.60

0.'15

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.6
:
. 1.&

; 1.5

t _.

.105
.075
.075
.060
.060
.048

.105
.075
.075
.060
.060
.048

.185
.105
.105
.075
.075
.060
.048

.185
.105
.105
.075
.075
.060
.048

.185
.106
.106
.075
.075
.060
.048

.186
.105
.106
.075
.075
.060

.136
.105
.105
.075
.075

In.

-.

1.50

8.0

3.00

8.0

6.00

4.0

4.50

8.00

6.0

8.0

6.00

6.0

4.00

9.00

6.0

2.00

4.00

8.0

4.0

8.00

8.0

4.0

5.00

10.00

10.0

12.00

15.00

10.0

8.0

In.

In.

10.0

Size

1.34
0.915
0.915
0.750
0.750
0.618

1.67
1.34
1.34
0.915
0.915
0.750
0.618

1.67
1.34
1.84
0.915
0.915
0.750
0.618

1.67
1.34
1.34
0.915
0.915
0.760
0.660

1.67
1.34
1.84
0.98
0.98
0.84

1.67
1.34
1.84
1.05
1.05

In.

3/16
3/32
8/32
3/82
3/32
3/32

8/16
8/16
3/16
3/32
8/32
3/32
3/82

3/16
8/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
8/32
3/82

S/16
8/16
8/16
8/82
3/32
3/32
8/32

3/16
3/16
3/16
8/32
3/32
3/32

8/16
3/16
8/16
3/32
3/32

In.

5.47 1.34
3/16
4.68 0.915 3/32
3.18 0.915 8/82
2.88 0.750 3/32
2.13 0.750 3/32
1.89 _~618 ~/32

6.47
5.68
3.68
:U8
2.88
2.14

7.57
6.97
5.47
4.68
3.18
2.88
2.64

9.07
8.47
6.47
5.68
8.68
S.88
S.14

12.10
11.60
8.47
7.68
4.68
4.40
4.22

16.10
14.50
10.50
9.81
6.81
6.66

18.10
17.50
12.50
11.90
6.95

In.

Bo

2.80
1.86
1.48
1.13
0.979
__0.749

3.52
2.37
1.86
1.44
1.23
0.953

5.90
4.41
3.87
2.63
2.25
1.74
1.36

7.51
6.66
4.94
3.39
2.88
2.25
1.77

10.7
8.16
7.09
4.92
4.16
8.28
2.60

13.9
10.7
9.23
6.49
5.47
4.33

17.1
13.2
11.4
8.05
6.78

Lb.

0.389
0.229
0.187
0.150
0.0991
0.0794

0.595
0.353
0.321
0.233
0.178
0.142

1.52
1.05
0.992
0.603
0.504
0.399
0.297

2.34
1.63
1.55
0.954
0.863
0.643
0.483

4.34
3.01
2.95
1.80
1.70
1.29
0.976

6.72
4.70
4.63
2.92
2.84
2.14*

9.49
6.68
6.60
4.27
4.19*

In.3

Sx

0.389
0.229
0.187
0.150
0.0991
0.0794

0.595
0.347
0.321
0.233
0.178
0.142

1.52
1.05
0.992
0.602
0.504
0.399
0.297

2.33
1.60
1.55
0.934
0.863
0.643
0.481

4.23
2.93
2.88
1.75
1.70
1.26
0.955

6.53
4.55
4.51
2.84
2.78*
2.09*

9.20
6.47
6.42
4.15*
4.09*

In.3

Sx

0.389
0.229
0.187
0.150
0.0991
0.0794

0.595
0.364
0.321
0.240
0.178
0.142

1.52
1.09
0.992
0.617
0.504
0.408
0.302

2.41
1.68
1.59
0.976
0.879
0.652
0.489

4.51
3.21
3.03
1.92
1.72
1.35
1.04

7.19
5.18
4.89
3.29
2.96
2.27

10.40
7.86
7.43
4.93
4.43

In.3

Sx

0.303
0.198
0.147
0.112
0.0855
0.0656

0.670
0.432
0.328
0.249
0.193
0.147

2.47
1.80
1.53
1.01
0.784
0.599
0.459

5.42
8.96
3.39
2.23
1.75
1.34
1.03

16.4
11.5
10.4
6.69
5.47
4.24
3.30

34.2
23.6
22.5
14.0
12.6
9.64

59.8
41.3
89.9
25.1
23.6

In.4

Ix

Ix

ksr

0.303
0.198
0.147
0.112
0.0855
0.0656

0.670
0.432
0.328
0.249
0.193
0.147

2.47
1.80
1.53
1.01
0.784
0.599
0.459

5.42
8.92
3.39
2.21
1.75
1.34
1.03

15.7
10.8
10.2
6.23
5.47
4.22
3.18

32.1
22.1
21.3
13.2
12.4
9.26

55.9
38.6
37.7
23.6
22.6

In.4

0.303
0.198
0.147
0.112
0.0855
0.0656

0.670
0.432
0.328
0.249
0.193
0.147

2.47
1.80
1.53
1.01
0.784
0.599
0.459

5.42
3.96
3.39
2.23
1.75
1.34
1.03

16.4
12.1
10.4
6.91
5.47
4.24
3.32

36.3
26.8
23.3
15.8
12.6
9.82

67.5
50.2
43.6
30.2
24.1

In.4

Ix

S!~:~n

ksi20

~Ok;?

bi20 F bi30
F

Tension..n:

Tension

Tension
F

r.

. ~.
or

.""l

Foot

J:"1-1~.

Compo

..r"'l. .
:,;,-~.

Comp.
:"l.. r
.~

For Deflection
Calculations

Wper
gt.

Comp.

For Beam Strength


Calculations

HAT SECTIONS
Effective section for beam strength about the x-x axis where wit of
compression flange exceeds 38.2 for F
20 ksi and 31.2 for F
30 ksi

See notes (a) - (g), (j) and (n)

TABLE 9

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.923
0.0

0.995
0.944
1.000
0.875
0.896
0.0
0.0

0.881
0.757
0.846
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.734
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

--

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

o.e

1.00
0.978
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.996
0.905
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.928

1.00
0.972
1.00
0.934
0.940
0.854
0.0

0.960
0.878
0.963
0.786
0.826
0.0
0.0

0.795
0.S74
0.769
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.824
0.548
0.435
0.333
0.288
0.220

1.03
0.698
0.548
0.423
0.363
0.280

1.74
1.30
1.14
0.773
0.660
0.513
0.400

2.21
1.66
1.45
0.998
0.848
0.663
0.520

3.15
2.40
2.08
1.45
1.22
0.964
0.764

4.10
3.13
2.71
1.91
1.61
1.27

5.04
3.87
3.34
2.37
1.99

In. I

0.606
0.601
0.582
0.581
0.545
0.546

0.805
0.787
0.774
0.768
0.728
0.725

1.19
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.09
1.08
1.07

1.57
1.54
1.53
1.49
1.44
1.42
1.41

2.28
2.24
2.24
2.18
2.12
2.10
2.08

2.98
2.93
2.93
2.88
2.80
2.78

3.66
3.60
3.61
3.57
3.47

In.

rx

1.54
1.39
0.831
0.780
0.484
0.442

1.90
1.77
1.01
0.973
0.565
0.532

2.18
2.09
1.52
1.41
0.793
0.759
0.738

2.76
2.69
1.91
1.83
0.996
0.972
0.956

3.97
3.92
2.74
2.69
1.43
1.42
1.41

5.21
5.17
3.60
3.57
1.89
1.88

6.46
6.42
4.47
4.45
2.35

In.

r..,

Full (solid) Section

30 Area

0.651
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

ksi

0.0
0.0
0.0

20 F

ksi

1.00
0.948
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.991

Column
Factor

For Column Strength

0.715
0.454
0.189
0.141
0.0633
0.0455

1.15
0.772
0.306
0.237
0.0975
0.0743

2.19
1.63
0.956
0.659
0.261
0.205
0.165

3.72
2.84
1.64
1.18
0.457
0.870
0.303

8.24
6.42
3.71
2.73
1.07
0.881
0.722

14.8
11.6
6.72
4.95
1.98
1.67

1.96
1.06
0.301
0.202
0.0674
0.0430

3.71
2.19
0.583
0.400
0.116
0.0795

8.28
5.69
2.62
1.54
0.415
0.296
0.218

16.9
12.0
5.31
3.35
0.841
0.626
0.476

49.7
36.8
15.7
10.5
2.51
1..94
1.53

111.0
83.6
35.2
24.3
5.74
4.51

210.
160.
66.8
46.9
11.0

In.4

In. 3

xm
y

I..,

23.3
18.3
10.7
7.85
3.17

bd4

---""I

i
~

0.722
0.636
0.791
0.750
0.863
0.827

0.873
0.776
0.978
0.931
1.080
1.040

1.37
1.29
1.46
1.33
1.55
1.50
1.45

1.69
1.59
1.81
1.68
1.97
1.91
1.86

2.29
2.18
2.51
2.36
2.79
2.73
2.69

2.88
2.77
3.19
3.06
3.62
3.57

3.46
3.35
3.86
3.76
4.46

In.

.00308
.00103
.000816
.000399
.000345
.000169

.00380
.00131
.00103
.000507
.000435
.000215

.0105
.00476
.00419
.00145
.00124
.000615
.000307

.0134
.00612
.00534
.00187
.00159
.000795
.000400

.0192
.00882
.00766
.00271
.00229
.00116
.000587

.0249
.0115
.00997
.00358
.00301
.00153

.0306
.0142
.0123
.00444
.00374

In.4

0.259
0.167
0.0552
0.0337
0.0196
0.0118

0.966
0.735
0.164
0.115
0.0508
0.0297

5.03
3.78
1.68
1.06
0.350
0.220
0.153

20.6
16.4
6.24
4.57
1.08
0.781
0.604

167.
133.
48.2
36.4
7.23
5.79
4.69

728.
572.
211.
157.
30.9
25.0

2250.
1750.
659.
483.
95.9

In.6

C,..

it
.

~d~

1'-

2.47
2.24
1.49
1.54
1.01
1.15

3.08
2.85
2.06
2.10
1.62
1.76

3.73
3.69
3.12
3.15
2.64
2.79
2.88

4.86
4.79
4.22
4.17
3.77
3.86
3.91

7.03
6.92
6.28
6.12
5.84
5.86
5.86

9.13
9.00
8.24
8.06
7.80
7.80

11.20
11.10
10.20
9.99
9.74

In.

I,

-1.65
-1.64
-1.70
-1.75
-1.55
-1.69

-2.53
-2.57
-2.57
-2.66
-2.53
-2.68
-2.76

-3.42
-3.40
-3.54
-3.53
-3.62
-3.70
-3.73

-5.02
-4.92
-5.30
-5.16
-5.58
-5.59
-5.58

-S.51
-6.37
-6.94
-6.78
-7.44
-7.42

-7.95
-7.79
-8.54
-8.38
-9.27

In.

Xo

4t

2.04 -1.19
1.96 -1.24
1.55 -1.17
1.58 -1.25
1.20 -0.953
1.31 -1.10

2.64
2.54
2.12
2.15
1.80
1.91

3.55
3.52
3.20
3.22
2.87
2.98
3.05

4.66
4.60
4.31
4.25
4.02
4.08
4.10

6.79
6.68
6.37
6.22
6.14
6.14
6.12

8.85
8.71
8.35
8.18
8.17
8.14

10.90
10.70
10.30
10.10
10.20

In.

ro

. "
.
AddItIOnal PropertIes of Full (unreduced) SectIOns

r~~x

t 1 d'~'
x~-.-+-- ~

S,.

n=~=bx

,....f--d--f:..~+-~'

x---.-~
LI

TABLE 9

::s

::s

~
M-

3.

(t)

'0

r:n

Q..

S
(t)

'"'$

s:

(1

M-

.....
::r(t)

rt:
::s

Q..

tzj

00

'"'$
SA)

(t)

r::r

(t)

M-

'0

rt:
::rM::r(t)
r:n
(t)

(t)

~
rJl

'"'$

rJl

ro

~
r::r

Q..

rJl

(1

::r-

00

V-85

Charts and Tables for use with the September 3, 1980 Edition of the Cold-Formed Specification

TABLE 10

TABLE 10

l
x

rr

Thickness

~B~
/-'-::======l
II
II
J
II

ONE FLANGE STIFFENER


(Which Includes One 90 Corner)
PROPERTIES AND DIMENSIONS

Stock Width of Blank Taken at t/3 Distance From Inner Surface. U


DIMENSIONS
Area

Radius

Depth

Max.
Flange

In.

In.

In.

t
2

PROPERTIES
Axis x-x

Blank
Width

Axis y-y

Ix

In.

In.4

In.

Iy
In. 4

In.

In.

In.

.135
.135
.135
.135
.135
.135
.135

.145
.132
.118
.105
.0915
.0780
.0645

3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16

1.0
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4

3.55
3.00
2.61
2.36
2.23
2.16
2.16

1.04
0.943
0.843
0.743
0.643
0.543
0.443

.0125
.00916
.00643
.00430
.00269
.00153
.00076

.474
.425
.377
.329
.281
.235
.190

.000796
.000759
.000719
.000674
.000621
.000556
.000474

.100
.104
.108
.113
.120
.129
.142

.105
.105
.105
.105
.105
.105

.103
.0929
.0824
.0719
.0614
.0509

3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16

.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4

3.81
3.00
2.41
2.04
1.85
1.77

0.957
0.857
0.757
0.657
0.557
0.457

.00735
.00518
.00348
.00219
.00126
.00064

.420
.372
.324
.276
.229
.184

.000475
.000453
.000428
.000398
.000362
.000314

.0850
.0886
.0932
.0992
.107
.118

.075
.075
.075
.075
.075
.075

.0703
.0628
.0553
.0478
.0403
.0328

3/32
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/32

.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4

6.30
4.56
3.24
2.27
1.64
1.31

0.918
0.818
0.718
0.618
0.518
0.418

.00493
.00348
.00234
.00148
.00086
.00044

.435
.385
.336
.287
.238
.189

.000081
.000076
.000072
.000067
.000062
.000055

.0475
.0487
.0502
.0522
.0549
.0589

.060
.060
.060
.060
.060

.0504
.0444
.0384
.0324
.0264

3/32
3/32
3/32
3/32
3/32

.8
.7
.6
.5
.4

6.82
4.70
3.12
2.02
1.35

0.825
0.725
0.625
0.525
0.425

.00283
.00191
.00121
.00071
.00036

.384
.334
.285
.236
.187

.000048
.000045
.000043
.000040
.000036

.0400
.0414
.0432
.0456
.0492

.048
.048
.048
.048

.0357
.0309
.0261
.0213

3/32
3/32
3/32
3/32

.7
.6
.5
.4

7.08
4.59
2.81
1.65

0.731
0.631
0.531
0.431

.00155
.00099
.00058
.00030

.332
.283
.234
.185

.000030
.000028
.000026
.000024

.0344
.0360
.0382
.0414

TABLE 11

TABLE 11
y

'~'
-II

ONE 90 CORNER
PROPERTIES AND DIMENSIONS

Stock Width of Blank Taken at t/3 Distance From Inner Surface.


DIMENSIONS

PROPERTIES
Area

Blank
Width

In.

In. 2

In-

.156
.137
.0829
.0734
.0658
.0464

.0541
.0396
.0155
.0117
.00888
.00452

.365
.349
.186
.179
.172
.117

Thickness

Radius
Inside

Moment of
Inertia

Centroid
Coordinates

x=y

In.

In.

Ix = If
In. 4

.135
.105
.075
.060
.048
.036

3/16
3/16
3/32
3/32
3/32
1116

.000389
.000241
.0000301
.0000193
.0000128
.00000313

~M

American Iron and Steel Institute


1000 16th Street. N W
Washington, DC 20036