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Question (1)
Write all the balance equations for each reaction and any observations.
Qualitative analysis is often use to analyses the substance in which they
are identified or classified on the basis of their chemical and physical properties
such as chemical reactivity, appearance of compound, solubility, molecular
weight, melting point, radioactive properties (emission and absorption) , mass
spectra and nuclear half-life. While, quantitative analysis is more often use to
analyses the amount or concentration of an analyte may be determined and
expressed as a numerical value in appropriate units. In this experiment we are
conducting the qualitative analyses which is separate into two part of
experiments. In the first part we were more focused on the known compound
while in the second part, we more focused into predicting the ions that present in
the unknown compound.
For part A, the result above shows that solid iron (III) chloride (Fe
white in colour and has crystal shape, lead (II) nitrate, Pb(N
colour and in crystal powder while calcium carbonate, CaC

03 2

Cl3 ) is

is yellow in

is white in colour

and in crystal powder shape.




(s) +

03 2

H 2 O (l)


Fe (aq) +

H 2 O (l)


3 Cl

(aq) + 2NO3- (aq)

When dissolved in water, iron(III) chloride undergoes hydrolysis and gives off
heat in an exothermic reaction
For the solubility of water, only calcium carbonate is not soluble in water. This is
because, to be soluble in water there must be the presence of C

O2 calcium

carbonate will react with water that is saturated with carbon dioxide to form the
soluble calcium bicarbonate.
CaCO3 + C

O2 +

H 2 O Ca(HC O3 2

This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rocks, forming caverns, and
leads to hard water in many regions. An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the
hexahydrate, ikaite, CaCO36H2O. Ikaite is stable only below 6 C.

For the solubility test of nitric acid, HN

had been gather shows that iron (III) chloride (Fe

O 3 the observation that

Cl3 ) in nitric acid form


Cl3 (s) + HNO (aq) Fe(NO ) (aq) + 3HCl(aq)

3 2

iron (III) chloride (Fe

Cl3 ) react with nitric acid and form ferric chloride. That is

why there is bubbles formed. The precaution are we must make sure all
compound are handle properly. Do not over fill the boiling tube.
Reaction with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Only calcium carbonate for a
white precipitation.
CaCO3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) +Na2CO3(aq)
U have to stir until a precipitate form.
Reaction with ammonia (NH3), carbon carbonate and iron (III) chloride form
white precipitate.
FeCl3(s) + 2NH3 (aq) Fe(NH3)2 (aq) + 3NaCl (aq)
CaCO3 (s) + 2NH3 (aq) Ca(NH3)2 (aq) + CO (aq) + O2 (g)
There are some error on doing the experiment. Some of it are the step on
doing the experiment are suppose to bring result but it turns out the result show
Part B
Identify the cations and anions for the unknown compounds.
Cation identification test.
Compound D is cation positive because bright green colour change to red
colour is indicate that it has C2H4. It is cation positive. Compound E is cation
positive. The solution turned blue litmus paper to red and red litmus paper
unchanged. Anions are contributed by acids, therefore, they are called as acid
radicals this is due to the acidity properties. The solution also change from yellow
to dark brown. Thus, the cation is known as ferric ion (Fe3+). For compound F,
the solution produce a white precipitate. Its an anion positive. The presence of
NO3- indicates that it has anion positive. For compound G, its oxidise during the
reaction for 2 hours and formed white precipitate. Its has SO4 2- that is anion
There are some precaution step that must be taken to obtain the correct
result for this experiment. Firstly we used the micro centrifuge tubes throughout
this procedure. The tubes can hold either 1.5 or 2.0 mL (listed on the tube). If

the volume of your solution exceeds that of the tube, separate the solution into
two tubes and treat each one according to the flowchart so that the solution does
not fell into the table. Besides, precipitation after the addition of a precipitating
agent, it is important to mix the solution thoroughly by shaking or by stirring with
a clean glass stir rod. Be sure not to add more of a precipitating agent than
indicated in the procedure as this may cause unintended reaction that can affect
our experiment. Nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are corrosive
and can cause severe injury. Never cover the opening of a test tube with your
finger when mixing chemicals, and we should wear gloves for the experiment we
conducted. Lastly, it is also necessary to know the correct way to make the test
for the litmus paper. The correct method for finding the changes on the litmus
paper of a solution involves stirring the solution with a clean glass rod and then
touching the tip of the rod to a piece of litmus paper. Do not place the litmus
paper directly in the solution.

The experiment show us how we identified each of the compound react
with other solution. The effect on other substance. We could identified the
specific ion on the cation and anion identification test. In quantitative analysis we
classify features while qualitative analysis is a complete, detailed description.



Bogdan, R.C. and Taylor, S.J., (1975)Introduction to qualitative research methods: A

phenomenological approach to the social sciences, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of

New Methods, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Lange (1999). Handbook of Chemistry (15th ed.). CRC net Base production.