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PHYSICS

VIKASANA - VIGNANA PATHADEDEGE NIMMA NADIGE


Bridge Course Program for SSLC Students who want to take up Science in I PUC in 2012

MATHEMATICAL TOOLS

Mathematics is the TOOL of Physics.


A good knowledge and applications of
fundamentals of mathematics ( which are
used
d iin physics
h i )),
helps in understanding the physical
phenomena and their applications.
p
pp

Equations

A quadratic equation is an equation equivalent to


one off the
h form
f
2

ax + bx + c = 0

Where a, b,
Wh
b and
d c are reall numbers
b andd a 0
To solve a quadratic equation -- factorise.
x 5x + 6 = 0
2

( x 3)( x 2 ) = 0
x 3 = 0 or x 2 = 0

x=3

x=2

ax + bx
b +c =0
2

b b 2 4ac
x=
2a

This formula can be used to solve any quadratic


equation
1x

+ 6x + 3 = 0

6 36 12
(1 (3) =
b6 b6 2 4ac
x=
2
2a(1) )

24 = 4 6 = 2 6

6 36 12 6 24 6 2 6
=
=
x=
2
2
2

2 3 6
2

2 in common

= 3 6

3 6

3 + 6

R t
Roots

x + x5 = 0
( x + 3)( x 2) = 0
2

1 2
s = ut + at
2
1 2
50 = 20t + gt
2

Binomial Theorem

X
1

n(n 1)) 2 n(n 2)) 3


(1 + x) = 1 + nx +
x +
x + .......
2!
3!
n

(2)(2 1) 2 (2)(2 1)(2 2) 3


-2
x +
x + .....
(1+x) = 1 + (2) x +
2!

3!

6 2 24 3
= 1 2x + x
x + .....
2!
3!
=

2 x

( x << 1))

2
gR
h

g =
= g 1 +
2
2 h
R
R 1 +
R
2h
2h
g ' = g (1 )
R

<<1
R

Introduction To Logarithms

Logarithms developed to simplify


complex arithmetic calculations.
calculations
Transform multiplicative processes
into additive ones.

Multiply
2,234,459,912 and 3,456,234,459.
Without a calculator !

lot easier to add these two numbers.

What is a logarithm ?

Definition of Logarithm
Suppose b>0 and b1,
there is a number p
such that:

log b n = p
If and only if

b =n
p

The first,
f
and perhaps the
most
os important
po a sstep,
ep, in
understanding logarithms is
to realize that they always
relate back to exponential
equations.

Example 1:

Write 2 = 8 in logarithmic form.


3

Solution:

log2 8 = 3
We read this as: the log base 2 of 8 is
equal to 3
3.

Standard Formulae of logarithms


1. loge mn = loge m + loge n
2. loge (m/n)= loge m - logen
3 lloge mn = n log
3.
l em

Two Systems of Logarithms


y Natural Logarithm.
g
Logarithm
g
off a number
to the base e (e = 2.7182) is called natural
logarithm.
y Common Logarithm. Logarithm of a
number to the base 10 is called common
logarithm. In all practical calculations, we
always use common logarithm.
y

Conversion of Natural logarithm to


Common logarithm
Natural logarithms can be converted into
common logarithms
l
i h as follows:
f ll
y log
ge N = 2.3026 logg10 N
2.303 log10 N

p
Example
Work done during an isothermal process is
V2
W = RT log e
V1

This can be written as


V2
V2
W = 2.3026 RT log10 2.0303 RT log10
V1
V1

Introduction Trigonometric Ratios


Trigonometry
means Triangle and Measurement

Vikasana Bridge Cource 2012

Oppositte side

Adjacent side

Adjacent sid
de

O
Opposite
it side
id

Three Types Trigonometric Ratios


There are 3 kinds of trigonometric
ratios we will learn
learn.
sine ratio
cosine ratio
tangent ratio

Definition of Sine Ratio.

Sin =

Opposite side
hypotenuses

Definition of Cosine Ratio


Ratio.

Cos =

Adjacent Side
hypotenuses

Definition of Tangent Ratio.

t =
tan

Opposite Side
Adjacent Side

opposite side
sin =
hypotenuse
adjace
djacentt sside
de
cos =
hypotenuse

Make Sure
that the
triangle is
right-angled

opposite side
tan =
adjacent
dj
t side
id
Vikasana Bridge Cource 2012

Hypotenues
OppositeSide

= cosec (i.e.
(i e cosecant of )
.

Hypotenues
AdjacentSide

AdjacentSide
O
OppositeSide
it Sid

= sec (i.e.
(i e secant of )

= cot (i.e. cotanent of )

113
222

1
2

Angle

0O

30O

45O

60O

90O

120O

180O

trig-ratio

sin

cos

tan

(i)

sin (90O+) = cos

(ii) cos (90O+) = sin


(iii) tan (90O+) = cot

1
cos 120O = cos (90O + 30O) = sin 30O = 2

sin 120O = sin (90O + 30O) = cos 30O =

3
2

Some important Trigonometric Formulae


sin (A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
cos (A+B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan A + tan B
tan (A+B) =
1 tan A tan B