Topic covers various aspects on basic physics

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Topic covers various aspects on basic physics

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Bridge Course Program for SSLC Students who want to take up Science in I PUC in 2012

MATHEMATICAL TOOLS

A good knowledge and applications of

fundamentals of mathematics ( which are

used

d iin physics

h i )),

helps in understanding the physical

phenomena and their applications.

p

pp

Equations

one off the

h form

f

2

ax + bx + c = 0

Where a, b,

Wh

b and

d c are reall numbers

b andd a 0

To solve a quadratic equation -- factorise.

x 5x + 6 = 0

2

( x 3)( x 2 ) = 0

x 3 = 0 or x 2 = 0

x=3

x=2

ax + bx

b +c =0

2

b b 2 4ac

x=

2a

equation

1x

+ 6x + 3 = 0

6 36 12

(1 (3) =

b6 b6 2 4ac

x=

2

2a(1) )

24 = 4 6 = 2 6

6 36 12 6 24 6 2 6

=

=

x=

2

2

2

2 3 6

2

2 in common

= 3 6

3 6

3 + 6

R t

Roots

x + x5 = 0

( x + 3)( x 2) = 0

2

1 2

s = ut + at

2

1 2

50 = 20t + gt

2

Binomial Theorem

X

1

(1 + x) = 1 + nx +

x +

x + .......

2!

3!

n

-2

x +

x + .....

(1+x) = 1 + (2) x +

2!

3!

6 2 24 3

= 1 2x + x

x + .....

2!

3!

=

2 x

( x << 1))

2

gR

h

g =

= g 1 +

2

2 h

R

R 1 +

R

2h

2h

g ' = g (1 )

R

<<1

R

Introduction To Logarithms

complex arithmetic calculations.

calculations

Transform multiplicative processes

into additive ones.

Multiply

2,234,459,912 and 3,456,234,459.

Without a calculator !

What is a logarithm ?

Definition of Logarithm

Suppose b>0 and b1,

there is a number p

such that:

log b n = p

If and only if

b =n

p

The first,

f

and perhaps the

most

os important

po a sstep,

ep, in

understanding logarithms is

to realize that they always

relate back to exponential

equations.

Example 1:

3

Solution:

log2 8 = 3

We read this as: the log base 2 of 8 is

equal to 3

3.

1. loge mn = loge m + loge n

2. loge (m/n)= loge m - logen

3 lloge mn = n log

3.

l em

y Natural Logarithm.

g

Logarithm

g

off a number

to the base e (e = 2.7182) is called natural

logarithm.

y Common Logarithm. Logarithm of a

number to the base 10 is called common

logarithm. In all practical calculations, we

always use common logarithm.

y

Common logarithm

Natural logarithms can be converted into

common logarithms

l

i h as follows:

f ll

y log

ge N = 2.3026 logg10 N

2.303 log10 N

p

Example

Work done during an isothermal process is

V2

W = RT log e

V1

V2

V2

W = 2.3026 RT log10 2.0303 RT log10

V1

V1

Trigonometry

means Triangle and Measurement

Oppositte side

Adjacent side

Adjacent sid

de

O

Opposite

it side

id

There are 3 kinds of trigonometric

ratios we will learn

learn.

sine ratio

cosine ratio

tangent ratio

Sin =

Opposite side

hypotenuses

Ratio.

Cos =

Adjacent Side

hypotenuses

t =

tan

Opposite Side

Adjacent Side

opposite side

sin =

hypotenuse

adjace

djacentt sside

de

cos =

hypotenuse

Make Sure

that the

triangle is

right-angled

opposite side

tan =

adjacent

dj

t side

id

Vikasana Bridge Cource 2012

Hypotenues

OppositeSide

= cosec (i.e.

(i e cosecant of )

.

Hypotenues

AdjacentSide

AdjacentSide

O

OppositeSide

it Sid

= sec (i.e.

(i e secant of )

113

222

1

2

Angle

0O

30O

45O

60O

90O

120O

180O

trig-ratio

sin

cos

tan

(i)

(iii) tan (90O+) = cot

1

cos 120O = cos (90O + 30O) = sin 30O = 2

3

2

sin (A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

cos (A+B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

tan A + tan B

tan (A+B) =

1 tan A tan B

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