kg

© All Rights Reserved

2 views

kg

© All Rights Reserved

- Derivatives
- Nota Ulangkaji Matematik Tambahan silibus SPM Tingkatan 4 - Pembezaan (Kecerunan Lengkungan)
- Math Book
- Bridge Course
- KS-18 Sap Scripts
- Press de Riva Composite Res
- Xfuzzy3
- Contours&VectorFields
- Calculus_Cheat_Sheet_All.pdf
- THERE ARE INFINITELY MANY SMARANDACHE DERIVATIONS, INTEGRATIONS AND LUCKY NUMBERS
- 560_601_HW3
- Program-Handbook BSc Manec 2010-06-28
- Math 44
- Process Dynamics 1
- Basic Integration
- Lista 2 - MAT 241 - 2018-I
- 2013-lecture-005
- CBSEofficialsamplepaper3-X11-200708
- complex_analysis.pdf
- Chapter 1n

You are on page 1of 3

Consider the curve y 2 = x in the plane R2 ,

C = { (x, y) R2 | y 2 = x }.

This is not the graph of a function, and yet it is quite close to the graph of a

function.

Given any point on the graph, lets say the point (2, 4), we can always find open

intervals U containing 2 and V containing 4 and a smooth function f : U V

such that C (U V ) is the graph of f .

for any point on the graph, apart from the origin. If it is above the x-axis, the

function above works. If the

in is below the x-axis, replace

point we are interested

How can we tell that the origin is a point where we cannot define an implicit

function? Well away from the origin, the tangent line is not vertical but at the

origin the tangent line is vertical. In other words, if we consider

F : R2 R,

given by F (x, y) = y 2 x, so that C is the set of points where F is zero, then

DF (x, y) = (1, 2y).

The locus where we run into trouble, is where 2y = 0. Somewhat amazingly this

works in general:

Theorem 1 (Implicit Function Theorem). Let F : Rn+m Rm be a C 1 -function.

Suppose that

(~a, ~b) S = { (~x, ~y ) Rn+m | F (~x, ~y ) = ~0 }.

Assume that

det

Fi

yj

6= 0.

and a function f : U V such that S (U V ) is the graph of f , that is,

F (~x, ~y ) = ~0

if and only if

~y = f (~x).

where ~x U and ~y V .

Lets look at an example. Let

F : R3 R,

be the function

F (x1 , x2 , y) = x31 x2 x2 y 2 + y 5 + 1.

Let

S = { (x1 , x2 , y) R3 | F (x1 , x2 , y) = 0 }.

1

F

2

(1, 3, 1) = 3x1 x2

=9

x1

(1,3,1)

F

3

2

=0

(1, 3, 1) = (x1 y )

x2

(1,3,1)

F

= 11.

(1, 3, 1) = (2x2 y + 5y 4 )

y

(1,3,1)

So

DF (1, 3, 1) = (9, 0, 11).

Now what is important is that the last entry is non-zero (so that the 1 1 matrix

(1) is invertible). It follows that we may find open subsets (1, 3) U R2 and

1 V R and a C 1 function f : U V such that

F (x1 , x2 , f (x1 , x2 )) = 0.

It is not possible to write down an explicit formula for f , but we can calculate the

partial derivatives of f .

Define a function

G : U R,

by the rule

G(x1 , x2 ) = F (x1 , x2 , f (x1 , x2 )) = 0.

On the one hand,

G

=0

and

x1

On the other hand, by the chain rule,

G

= 0.

x2

F x1

F x2

F f

G

=

+

+

x1

x1 x1

x2 x1

x3 x1

Now

x1

=1

x1

x2

= 0.

x1

and

So

F

f

1

= x

.

F

x1

x

3

Similarly

F

f

2

= x

.

F

x2

x

3

So

F

(1, 3, 1)

f

9

1

(1, 3) = x

= ,

F

x1

11

x (1, 3, 1)

3

and

F

(1, 3, 1)

f

0

2

(1, 3) = x

=

= 0.

F

x2

11

x (1, 3, 1)

3

The directional derivative of f in the direction of the unit vector u

is

f (p + h

u) f (p)

Du f (p) = lim

.

h0

h

If u

= ei then,

f

(p),

Dei f (p) =

xi

the usual partial derivative.

Proposition 3. If f is differentiable at p then

Du f (p) = Df (p) u

.

Proof. Since A is open, we may find > 0 such that the parametrised line

r : (, ) A,

given by r(h) = f (p) + h

u is entirely contained in A. Consider the composition of

r and f ,

f r : R R.

Then

d(f r)

Du f (p) =

(0)

dh

= D(r(0)) Dr(0)

= Df (p) u

.

Du f (p) = f (p) u

.

Note that the directional derivative is largest when

f (p)

,

u

=

kf (p)k

so that the gradient always points in the direction of maximal change (and in

fact the magnitude of the gradient, gives the maximum change). Note also that

the directional derivative is zero if u

is orthogonal to the gradient and that the

directional derivative is smallest when

f (p)

u

=

.

kf (p)k

Proposition 4. If f (p) 6= 0 then the tangent hyperplane to the hypersurface

S = { q Rn | f (q) f (p) = 0 },

is the set of all points q which satisfy the equation

f (p)

pq = 0.

- DerivativesUploaded byCCSMATH
- Nota Ulangkaji Matematik Tambahan silibus SPM Tingkatan 4 - Pembezaan (Kecerunan Lengkungan)Uploaded byMyHomeTuition.com
- Math BookUploaded byKoushik Sasmal
- Bridge CourseUploaded byDavidMaighl
- KS-18 Sap ScriptsUploaded byవంశీ యు
- Press de Riva Composite ResUploaded byabdounou
- Xfuzzy3Uploaded byJulio Cesar Kira
- Contours&VectorFieldsUploaded byrollsroycemr
- Calculus_Cheat_Sheet_All.pdfUploaded byArchit Bagla
- THERE ARE INFINITELY MANY SMARANDACHE DERIVATIONS, INTEGRATIONS AND LUCKY NUMBERSUploaded byMia Amalia
- 560_601_HW3Uploaded byAlwan Fauzi
- Program-Handbook BSc Manec 2010-06-28Uploaded byasim_iet
- Math 44Uploaded bySyedsAreKing
- Process Dynamics 1Uploaded byBenePicar
- Basic IntegrationUploaded byflickishdesire
- Lista 2 - MAT 241 - 2018-IUploaded byWeber Mardegan Sardenberg
- 2013-lecture-005Uploaded byeouahiau
- CBSEofficialsamplepaper3-X11-200708Uploaded byPratyush Vaibhav
- complex_analysis.pdfUploaded bySayantan
- Chapter 1nUploaded byNuraddeen Magaji
- assignment21_0Uploaded byMike16K
- maxminUploaded byafaflotfi_155696459
- GM_Week_5Uploaded byL Alcosaba
- i Will Derive LyricsUploaded bychelialaw6490
- 2.1 - 2.2 calc newUploaded bySaher Saher
- MATH 180 UIC Fall 2017Uploaded byQuan Shousio
- GATE 2011 SyllabusUploaded bysmart_thinker
- Limits AssignmentsUploaded byChris McLean
- mod06Uploaded byWolf's Rain
- Functions (1.1)Uploaded byteachopensource

- MIT 18.022 8Uploaded bynislam57
- CORDIS Project 55901 EnUploaded bynislam57
- Allen KnutsonUploaded bynislam57
- A Survey of Harmonic AnalysisUploaded bynislam57
- Platonic Solids Practice SheetUploaded bynislam57
- Tao Nonlinear Dispersive PDEsUploaded bynislam57
- Merged DocumentUploaded bynislam57
- example0 (3)Uploaded bynislam57
- eynjyedjnUploaded bynislam57
- uykgygUploaded bynislam57
- TorusUploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 5Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 2Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 19Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 18Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 17Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 16Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 15Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 14Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 12Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 11Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 10Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 9Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 7Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022222222Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022 2222222222222222Uploaded bynislam57
- MIT 18.022Uploaded bynislam57

- OpenTX-LUAReferenceGuideUploaded byMav87th
- Ch7.pdfUploaded by王大洋
- Simplifying Trig ExpressionsUploaded bytutorciecleteam
- parkir otomatisUploaded byRizki Zacky Setiawan
- EMW Techniques3_2BUploaded byjustdream
- LL1200 General SpecsUploaded byElkin Díaz
- 0863414893 Intelligent ConAUploaded bySteven Voltage Humena
- How Euler Did It 29 Infinitely Many PrimesUploaded byfmaak77
- Change Screen ModificationsUploaded bySudha Kumari
- Computer Science Set 2Uploaded bynita23arora2321
- Big-O notationUploaded byJC Asido
- Function AnalysisUploaded byWanAtikatulAsma
- Plausibility MeasuresUploaded bydequanzhou
- Constructing a Normal Curve.xlsUploaded byrose mary
- Snow 3g SpecUploaded byRamesh Srinivasan
- 2nd Grading - Exponential and LogarithmicUploaded bymarcorhonel_eusebio
- QP_LSC-Q3023_Courier-Delivery-Executive.pdfUploaded byAbhishek Thakur
- flot-apiUploaded byCharles Cai
- Etika-EUploaded byDoronShadmi
- Darve_cme102_matlabUploaded byougueway
- 134478255-Axisvm-Com-5-1Uploaded byStefan
- Simulink StarterUploaded byyuvionfire
- crtique the reasoning of othersUploaded byapi-291818268
- FundPureNotes.pdfUploaded byRui Sousa
- ReadmeUploaded byVenkat Raj
- Approaches to AlgebraUploaded byHaydee Hernández
- IPUploaded bycarumu01
- CUploaded bySourav Kumar Giri
- Manual NefclassUploaded byPaula Blanco
- 02_The Operation of Fuzzy SetUploaded byMoh Shohib Habibi