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You are on page 1of 4

Blackboard 1. A parametrised differentiable curve in Rn is a differentiable

function ~r : I Rn , where I is an open interval in R.

Remark 2. Any open interval I is one of four different forms: (a, b); (, b);

(a, ); (, ) = R, where a and b are real numbers.

Blackboard 3. The velocity vector at time t of a parametrised differentiable

curve ~r : I Rn is the derivative:

~v (t) = ~r0 (t) = D~r(t).

If ~v is differentiable, then the acceleration vector at time t is the derivative of

the velocity vector:

~a(t) = ~v 0 (t) = ~r00 (t).

Example 4. Let

~r : R R3 ,

be given by

~r(t) = (a cos t, a sin t, bt).

This traces out a helix. The velocity vector is

~v (t) = (a sin t, a cos t, b).

The acceleration vector is

~a(t) = (a cos t, a sin t, 0).

The speed, that is the magnitude of the velocity vector,

k~v (t)k = (a2 + b2 )1/2 ,

is constant. Nevertheless the acceleration vector is not zero, as we are travelling on

a curve and not a straight line.

Blackboard 5. Let ~r(t) be the position of a planet orbiting a sun. Keplers second

law: the area swept by ~r per unit of time is constant.

GM

Blackboard 6. Newtons law of gravity: ~a = |r(t)|

r.

3~

Blackboard 8. Proof of Keplers second law, from Newtons law of gravity.

d

(~r ~v ) = ~r0 ~v + ~r ~v 0

dt

= ~v ~v + ~r (

GM

~r)

|r(t)|3

= 0.

Hence ~r(t) ~v (t) = ~c is a constant, proving the second law. It also follows that ~r

is always on the plane orthogonal to ~c.

Note that Keplers second law holds for any gravitational law for which ~a is

proportional to ~v .

1

of points

a = t0 < t1 < < tn = b,

for some n 1. The mesh of P is

m(P) = max{ |ti+1 ti | | 0 i n 1 }.

i

be a partition. We think of

l(P) =

n1

X

i=0

The curve ~r has length L if given any > 0, there is a > 0 such that for every

partition P whose mesh size is less than , we have

kL l(P)k < .

There are interesting examples of curves that dont have a length.

Start with interval [0, 1] in the plane. The length is 1. Now adjust this curve,

by adding in a triangular hump in the middle, so that we get four line segments of

length 1/3. This is a curve of length 4/3.

Now add a hump to each of the four line segments of length 1/3. The length

of the resulting curve is (4/3)2 . If we keep doing this, then we get more and more

complicated curves, whose length at stage n is (4/3)n . This process converges to a

very pointed curve whose length is infinite (in fact this curve is a fractal).

However:

Proposition 11. If ~r : I Rn is a C 1 -function, then the curve ~r([a, b]) has a

length

Z b

L=

k~r0 (t)k dt.

a

Remark 12. The fractal curve above is continuous but it is nowhere differentiable

(the curve has too many sharp points).

In general the exact formula for the arclength is only of theoretical interest.

However there are some contrived examples where we can calculately the arclength

precisely.

Example 13. Let

~r : R R2 ,

be the parametrised differentiable curve given by

~r(t) = a cos t + a sin t

.

Then

~r0 (t) = a sin t + a cos t

,

and so

k~r0 (t)k = a.

Hence the length of the curve ~r([0, 2]) is

Z 2

L=

a dt = 2a,

0

Example 14. Let

~r : R R3 ,

be the parametrised differentiable curve given by

+ btk,

Then

+ bk,

and so

k~r0 (t)k =

a2 + b2 .

Z 2

L=

(a2 + b2 )1/2 dt = 2(a2 + b2 )1/2 .

0

~r : R R2 ,

be the parametrised differentiable curve given by

~r(t) = a cos t + b sin t

.

Then

~r0 (t) = a sin t + b cos t

,

and so

k~r0 (t)k = (a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t)1/2

Hence the length of the curve ~r([0, 2]) is

Z 2

L=

(a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t)1/2 dt,

0

the length of an ellipse, with major and minor axes of length a and b.

Blackboard 16. We say a parametrised differentiable curve ~r : I Rn is regular if ~r0 (t) 6= 0 (the speed is never zero).

Blackboard 17. Let ~r : I Rn be a regular parametrised differentiable curve,

which is of class C 1 . Given a I, define the arclength parameter s(t), by the

formula

Z t

s(t) =

k~r0 ( )k d

a

Z

d t 0

k~r ( )k d

s0 (t) =

dt a

= k~r0 (t)k,

which is the speed at time t. Since s0 (t) is nowhere zero, we can write t as a function

of s, that is we can write down the inverse function, t(s), which will be C 1 .

+ bkt,

we have

Z

s(t) =

k~r0 ( )k d =

p

1/2

a2 + b2 t.

Therefore

t(s) =

s

.

+ b2

a2

In this case

~r(s) = a cos

s

a2 + b2

+ a sin

s

a2 + b2

+ bk

s

a2 + b2

.

In fact, one can always parametrise a regular curve by its arclength and in this

case the derivative is a unit vector:

Blackboard 19. Let ~r : I Rn be a parametrised differentiable curve parametrised

by the arclength. Then

d~r

T~ (s) =

,

ds

is the unit tangent vector.

To see that this is really a unit vector note that

d~r

d~r ds

=

dt

ds dt

ds

= T~ (s) ,

dt

by the chain rule. So

d~

r

~r0

dt

T~ = ds

= 0

k~r k

dt

so that the unit tangent vector is the unit vector which points in the direction of

the velocity.

Example 20. Let ~r(t) = (a cos t, a sin t) be the standard parametrisation of the

circle of radius a. Then

s

s = ta

so that

t= .

a

So

s

s

~r(s) = (a cos

, a sin

),

a

a

and

s

s

T~ (s) = ( sin

, cos

).

a

a

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