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1.Define knee voltage of a diode.

2. Draw VI characteristics of PN junction diode.
3. Although zener diode is operated in the reverse breakdown,region, but it does not burn. Why?
4. Differentiate between static and dynamic resistance of a diode.
5. Differentiate between avalanche and zener breakdown.
6. Draw the VI characteristics of an ideal diode.
7. Draw the circuits of CB, CE and CC configurations using npn transistor.
8. What do you understand by Operating point?
9. Why do we choose the Q point at the center of the load line?
10. Name the two techniques used in the stability of the q point .explain.?
11. List out the different types of biasing.
12. What do you meant by thermal runway?
13. Why transistor is called as a current controlled device?
14. Define current amplification factor?
15. When does a transistor act as a switch?
16. What is biasing?
17. What is d.c load line?
18. Explain about the various regions in a transistor?
19. Explain about the characteristics of a transistor?
20. What is an amplifier?
21. What is a Darlington pair?
22. Define Common Mode Rejection Ratio.
23. What is meant by Differential Amplifier?
24. What do you mean by balanced and unbalanced output?
25. Give few applications of differential amplifier
26.What is the necessity of heat sink?
27. Compare the features of the three transistor configurations.
28. Compare the features of the three transistor configurations.
29. Why is base made thin and lightly doped?
30. Explain why an ordinary transistor is called bipolar.
31. Why is collector region is greater than emitter region?
32. Draw the basic structure of an N channel junction field effect transistor.
33. Why is FET known as a unipolar device?
34. What are the advantages and disadvantages of JFET over BJT?
35. What is a channel?
36. Distinguish between JFET and MOSFET.
37. What is an effect of cascading?
38. What are all the factors affecting the bandwidth of the RC Coupled amplifier?
39. Explain bypass capacitor?
40. What is meant by coupling capacitor?
41. Why does amplifier gain reduce?
42. Explain the different regions in frequency response?
43. State the types of distortions in amplifier?
44.What is cross over distortion? How it can be eliminated?

45.Define noise?
46. Draw the symbol of JFET and MOSFET.
47.What are the two modes of MOSFET?
48.Define pinch-off voltage
49.What is feed back and what are feed back amplifiers?
50.What is meant by positive and negative feedback?
51.What are the advantages and disadvantages of negative feed back?
52. Differentiate between voltage and current feedback in amplifiers?
53.What is the type of feedback used in an op- amp Schmitt trigger?
54.Give the expression for the frequency of oscillations in an op-amp sine wave oscillator?
55.What are the conditions for sustained oscillations or or what is Barkhausen criterion?
56.What is Oscillator circuit?
57.What are the classifications of Oscillators?
58.What are the types of feedback oscillators?
59.Define Piezo-electric effect?
60.Draw the equivalent circuit of crystal oscillator?
61. How does an oscillator differ from an amplifier?
62. What is class AB operation?
63.What is crossover distortion? How it can be eliminated?
64.What is meant by Harmonic distortion?
65.What is the drawback of class B amplifier? How is this minimized?


1. Why NAND & NOR gates are called universal gates?
2. Realize the EX OR gates using minimum number of NAND gates.
3. Give the truth table for EX-NOR and realize using NAND gates?
4. Compare TTL logic family with CMOS family?
5. Which logic family is fastest and which has low power dissipation?
6. What are the different methods to obtain minimal expression?
7. What is a Min term and Max term
8. State the difference between SOP and POS.
9. What is meant by canonical representation?
10. What is K-map? Why is it used?
11. What is a multiplexer?
12. What is a de-multiplexer?
13. What are the applications of multiplexer and de-multiplexer?
14. Derive the Boolean expression for multiplexer and de-multiplexer.
15. How do you realize a given function using multiplexer
16. In a 2n to 1 multiplexer how many selection lines are there?
17. How to get higher order multiplexers?
18. Implement an 8:1 mux using 4:1 mux?
19. What is a comparator?
20. What are the applications of comparator?
21. Derive the Boolean expressions of one bit comparator and two bit comparators.
22. How do you realize a higher magnitude comparator using lower bit comparator?
23. Design a 2 bit comparator using a single Logic gates?
24. Design an 8 bit comparator using a two numbers of IC 7485?
25. What are the applications of decoder?
26. What is the difference between decoder & encoder?
27. For n- 2n decoder how many i/p lines & how many o/p lines?
28. Using 3:8 decoder and associated logic, implement a full adder
29. Implement a full subtractor using IC 74138?
30. What is the difference between decoder and de-mux?
31. What are the different types of LEDs?
32. What are the applications of LEDs?
33. What is a priority encoder?
34. What is the role of an encoder in communication?
35. What is the advantage of using an encoder?
36. What is the difference between Flip-Flop & latch?
37. Give examples for synchronous & asynchronous inputs?
38. What are the applications of different Flip-Flops?
39. What is the advantage of Edge triggering over level triggering?
40. What is the relation between propagation delay & clock frequency of flip-flop?
41. What is race around in flip-flop & how to overcome it?
42. Convert the J K Flip-Flop into D flip-flop and T flip-flop

43. List the functions of asynchronous inputs?

44. What is the necessity for sequence generation?
45. What are PISO, SIPO, and SISO with respect to shift register?
46. Differentiate between serial data & parallel data
47. What is the significance of Mode control bit?
48. What is a ring counter?
49. What is a Johnson counter?
50. How many Flip-flops are present in IC 7495?
51. What is an asynchronous counter?
52. How is it different from a synchronous counter?
53. Realize asynchronous counter using T flip-flop
54. What are synchronous counters?
55. What are the advantages of synchronous counters?
56. What is an excitation table?
57. Write the excitation table for D, T FF
58. Design mod-5 synchronous counter using T FF
59. What is a presettable counter?
60. What are the applications of presettable counters?
61. Explain the working of IC 74193
62. Write the circuit for preset value of 0100 and N=5 (up counter)
63. What is a decade counter?
64. What do you mean by a ripple counter?
65. Explain the design of Modulo-N counter (N _ 9) using IC 7490