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Presents

Rural Society & Its


Development
For Lekhpal Exam 2015
(Rajaswa & Chakbandi)

1st Edition
As per according to New Syllabus

Written By :: Aniket Kamal


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INDEX

Sr. No.

Topic

Page No.

Rural Development

Components of Rural Development

Ministry of Rural Development

Schemes for Rural Employment

Agricultural Development Programmes

14

for Rural Areas


6

Infrastructure Development Programmes

17

Health Care Development

22

National Rural Health Mission

27

Finance Assistance Programmes for

30

Rural Areas
10

Programmes for Land Resource

33

Development
11

All Rural Development Programmes

35

Chart
12

National Institute of Rural Development

40

13

ROLE OF THE PANCHAYATI RAJ

42

INSTITUTIONS IN RURAL
DEVELOPMENT

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Rural Development
Introduction

Nearly 70 per cent of the countrys population lives in rural areas according
to the latest Census, and out Of the 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore live in
rural areas while 37.7 crore stay in urban areas.

The maximum number of people living in rural areas in a particular state is


15.5 crore in Uttar Pradesh.
Pradesh

But almost one third of the countrys population of more than 1.1 billion
continues to live below the poverty line, and a large proportion of poor people
live in rural areas. Poverty remains a chronic condition
condition for almost 30 per
cent of Indias rural population. The incidence of rural poverty has declined
somewhat over the past three decades as a result of rural to urban
migration.

On the map of poverty in India, the poorest areas are in parts of Rajasthan
Rajasthan,
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh
and West Bengal.

Rural Poverty in India

Below Poverty Line

Urban
31%

Rural
69%
Above Poverty Line

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Components of Rural Development

Rural Development is achieved through the various components, given below:


below:-

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Ministry of Rural Development


Minister of Rural Development - Ch. Birender Singh
Headquarters - Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi
The Ministry of Rural Development, a branch of the Government of India, is entrusted with the
task of accelerating the socio-economic
socio economic development of rural India. Its focus is on health,
education, drinking water, housing and roads.

Organization Structure of Ministry of Rural Development

Ministry of Rural
Development

Department of Rural
Development

Headed by a senior civil


servant designated as
the Secretary of the
Deportment

Department of Land
Resources

Headed by a senior civil


servant designated as
the Secretary of the
Deportment

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Departments
The ministry has two departments, Department of Rural Development and Department of Land
Resources, each headed by a senior civil servant designated as the Secretary of the Deportment
Deportment.
Mr Jugal Kishore Mahapatra - Secretary of the Ministry of Rural Development (A senior IAS
Officer from Odisha)
Mrs Anita Choudhry - Secretary land Resources

Department of Rural Development

This department related with the following Schemes/Programme ::


For
or rural roads development
Rural
ural employment and for rural housing
It handles the administration
The Minister of Rural Development is the Chairman of these three organisations and the
Secretary of the Ministry is the Vice Chairman. The Minister is currently Mr Chaudhary
Birender Singh, and the Secretary is Mr S.Vijay Kumar.

Autonomous Organization under


under Department of Rural
Development

Department of Rural
Development

(CAPART)
Council of Advancement
of Peoples Action and
Rural Technology

(NIRD)

(NRRDA)

National Institute of Rural


Development

National Rural Road


Development Agency

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Department of Land Resources


The Department of Land Resources run three national-level
national
programs

Programmes Under
Department of Land
Resources

(IWMP)
Integrated Watershed
Management Programme

(NLRMP)

(TDET)

National Land Record


Modernisation
Programme

Technology Development,
Extension & Training
Programme

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Schemes for Rural Employment

Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)


Launched-1976
The programme was launched by the Centre in March 1976 as a major instrument of the
government to alleviate poverty.
poverty

Objective
Its main feature was to enable selected families to cross the poverty line in a given time
timeframe by taking up self--employment in various
arious activities like agriculture, horticulture,
animal husbandry, weaving and handicrafts and services and business activ
activities.
The target group consisted of small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers and rural
artisans having annual income below Rs 11,000 defined as poverty line in the Eighth Plan.
Among the selected families, it is stipulated that at least 50 per cent of assisted families
should be from SCs and STs. Furthermore, 40 per cent of the coverage should be of women
beneficiaries.

Antyodaya Yojana:
Yoja
Scheme of Rajasthan
Launched-1977
This programme was initiated by the Government of Rajasthan on
on 2nd October, 1977 for special
assistance to persons living below the poverty line (BPL). It was later on picked up by the then Janata
government at the centre in 1978.
The Hindi word antyodaya is a combination of two wordsant
words ant meaning end or bottom level and
udaya meaning development.
Following the footsteps of the Government of Rajasthan, UP and Himachal governments also
launched it on
n the same lines in 1980.
Objective
The idea was to select five of the poorest families from each village every year and help
them in their economic betterment.
The development or welfare of a person standing at the end of the queue (lowest level),
that is, the poorest of the poor.
Under this scheme, assistance was given in the form of allotting land for cultivation,
monthly pension (Rs 30-40
30 40 per month), bank loan for purchasing bullocks, buffaloes, cows,
goats and pigs, basket making, carpentry tools, opening
opening a tailors shop, a tea shop, a
barbers shop or a grocers shop and manufacturing activities like niwar
niwar-making, soapmaking, etc.

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Food for Work Programme (FWP)


Launched-1977
This programme was introduced in 1977 by the then Janata government with the objective to
provide employment to the unemployed/underemployed village persons during the slack season.
Objective
Provide employment to the unemployed/underemployed village persons during the slack
season. The wages paid to the workers were in kind, i.e., food grains.
The works undertaken were flood protection, maintenance
maintenance of existing roads, construction
of new link roads, improvement of irrigation facilities, construction of school buildings,
medical and health centres and Panchayat
Panchayat Ghars (community halls) etc.

Training Rural Youths for Self-Employment


Self Employment (TRYSEM)
Launched-1979
As in other schemes of poverty alleviation, in this scheme also, youths belonging to SCs and STs and
ex-servicemen,
servicemen, who had passed ninth class, were given priority. One-third
third seats were reserved for
women. The beneficiaries of this scheme after completion of training were absorbed in the IRDP
scheme.
According to an estimate, up to 1995-96,
1995 96, about two lakh youths were being trained every year, of
whom about
bout 45 per cent became self-employed
self employed and 30 per cent got regular employment.
Objective
This scheme was launched in 1979 to provide technical skills (training) to rural youths (between
18-35
35 years) living below the poverty line, to enable them to seek employment in fields of
agriculture, industry, services and business activities.
activ

National Rural Employment Programme (NREP)


Launched- 1980
It was started in 1980 as a part of the Sixth Plan (1980-85)
(1980
Later on, this programme was merged with Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY).

Objective
To provide profitable employment opportunities to the rural poor.
poor
This is redesigned programme of FWP, planned for creating additional employment
opportunities in the rural areas with the help of surplus food grains.
This programme was especially for those rural people who largely depended on wage
employment but had no source of income during lean agricultural period.
PRIs were actively involved in this programme.

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Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas


Areas (DWCRA)
Launched-1982
Development of women and children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) was launched as a sub scheme of
IRDP during the year 1982 in 50 districts.
It subsequently extended to cover all the districts in the country by 1994-95.
1994

Objective
To provide suitable opportunities of self-employment
self employment to the women belonging to the rural
families who are living below the poverty line.
Development of women & children in rural areas. DWCRA with exclusive focus on economic
empowerment of women provides all these inputs by considering women as critical to
development.
The programme seeks to improve the access of rural women to health, education, safe drinking
water, sanitation, nutrition etc; thereby bringing about an enhancement in the quality of general
well being of women & children.
DWCRA was introduced for ensuring that the benefits of IRDP reach to women directly.
Enhancement in the quality of general well being of women & children.

Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)


Launched- 1983
Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme was Launched by Centre Government in 1983 to
provide the Employment.
This scheme was later on merged into JRY along with NREP.
Objective
For providing employment to landless farmers and laborers
lab
Special schemes were formulated by some states such as Maharashtra and Gujarat to
provide increasing employment opportunities to rural people, especially landless people.
Maharashtra started the Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS) for the unemployed in
rural areas.
The Gujarat governments scheme provided for unskilled jobs to the unemployed workers
on different projects.

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana


Launched-1989
This programme came into existence in April 1989 with the merger of the NREP and the RLEGP.
Objective
For providing employment to rural unemployed.
unemployed
Under this scheme, it was expected to provide at least one member of each poor family
(BPL family) an employment
mployment for 50 to 100 days in a year at a work near his/her residence.
About 30 per cent of the jobs under this programme were reserved for women.
The scheme was implemented
mented through Village Panchayats.

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Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana


Launched-1999
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) is an initiative launched by the Government of
India to provide sustainable income to poor people living in rural areas of the country.
The scheme was launched on April 1,1999
1
Objective
to eliminate rural poverty and unemployment
unemploymen and promoting self-employment
employment
The SGSY aims at providing self--employment to villagers through the establishment of self-help
groups.
Activity clusters are established based on the aptitude and skill of the people which are nurtured
to their maximum potential.
Funds are provided by NGOs, banks and financial institutions.

Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana


Launched-2001
The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana was a scheme launched by the Government of India to
attain the objective of providing gainful employment for the rural poor.
From 1 April 1999, EAS became an allocation-based
allocation
scheme.
The programme was implemented through the Panchayati
Panchaya Raj institutions.

Objective
To provide employment to the unemployed/underemployed village persons during the
slack season.
The scheme has special provisions for women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and
parents of children withdrawn from hazardous occupations.
While preference if given to families below the poverty line, people who live above the
poverty line too are eligible under this scheme.
scheme
Food
ood grains are, however, provided free of cost by the Central government, but the cost of
transportation
portation should be borne by the states.

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005


Launched- 2006
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 was later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act" (or, MGNREGA)
Objective- It aims to ensure livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of
wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do
unskilled manual work.
It is one of the important scheme being implemented
implemented by government to achieve inclusive growth.
MGNREGA is to be implemented mainly by gram panchayats ). The involvement of
contractors is banned. Labour

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In this scheme, employment to women is also provided.

National Livelihood Mission


Launched- 2009-10
Objective- To reduce poverty among rural BPL by promoting diversified and gainful self
selfemployment and wage employment opportunities which would lead to an appreciable increase in
income on sustainable basis

Antyodaya Yojana:
Yoja
Scheme of Rajasthan
Launched-1977
This programme was initiated by the Government of Rajasthan on
on 2nd October, 1977 for special
assistance to persons living below the poverty line (BPL). It was later on picked up by the then Janata
government at the centre in 1978.
The Hindi word antyodaya is a combination of two wordsant
words ant meaning end or bottom level and
udaya meaning development.
Following the footsteps of the Government of Rajasthan, UP and Himachal governments also
launched it on the same lines in 1980.
Objective
The idea was to select five of the poorest families from each village every year and help
them in their economic betterment.
The development or welfare of a person standing at the end of the queue (lowest level),
that is, the poorest of the poor.
Under this scheme, assistance was given in the form of allotting land for cultivation,
monthly pension (Rs 30-40
30 40 per month), bank loan for purchasing bullocks, buffaloes, cows,
goats and pigs, basket making, carpentry tools, opening a tailors shop, a tea shop, a
barbers shop or a grocers shop and manufacturing activities like niwar
niwar-making, soapmaking, etc.

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Agricultural Development Programmes for Rural Areas


Integrated Plant Nutrient Management: Soil Health Card
Launched-2015

Objectives
Under the scheme the government plans to issue Soil card to farmers which will carry
crop-wise
wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers required for the individual farms
to help farmers to improve productivity through judicious use of inputs.
All soil sampless are be tested in various soil testing labs across the country.
Thereafter the experts will analyse the strength and weaknesses (micro
(micro-nutrients
deficiency) of the soil and suggest measures to deal with it.
The result and suggestion will be displayed in the cards.
The Government plans to issue the cards to 14 crore

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna(PKVY)


Launched-2015

Objectives
Organic farming will be promoted by using traditional resources and the organic products
will be linked with the market

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)


Launched-2015
Objectives
To increase agricultural production and productivity by increasing availability of water and
its efficient use.
To provide flexibility and autonomy to the States in the process of planning and executing
programmes for ensuring water to every farm.

Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP)


Launched-1960
This programme was popularly known as a "package programme".
This name was given because of the collective and simultaneous application of all practices of
improved seeds, irrigation, fertilizer, plant protection, implements, credit, etc.
Objectives

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(i) to achieve rapid increase in the level of agriculture


agriculture production through a concentration of
financial, technical, extension and administrative resources;
(ii) to achieve a self-generating
generating breakthrough in productivity and to raise the production potential
by stimulating the human and physical process of change; and
(iii) to demonstrate the most effective ways of increasing production and thus, to provide lessons
for extending such intensified agricultural production programmes
program es to other areas.

Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP-1964)


(IAAP 1964)
Launched-1964
Implementation of IAAP was accepted by Agricultural Production Board and came into operation
in March 1964.
Objectives
This programme also followed the package approaches of use of improved methods.
The uses of interrelated factors of physical, social and institutional were also followed in a
strategic combination mainly to produce an impact on agricultural production.

High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP-1966)


(HYVP
Launched-1966
HYVP is launched in 1966, which helped the country in attaining self-sufficiency
sufficiency in food.

Objectives
Self-sufficiency in food.
The technological development did not remain confined to the introduction of high
yielding crop varieties alone.
These were combined with the application of high analysis and balanced fertilizer,
irrigation, plant protection, improved implements etc, which made a 'green revolution'
possible in the country.

Institutional Village Linkage Programme (IVLP)


Launched-1995-96
IVLP is an innovative program developed by the ICAR to help scientists to have direct interaction
with the farming community so that appropriate technologies are developed for farmers.
Objectives
1. To introduce technological intervention with emphasis on stability and sustainability along with
productivity of small
all production systems.

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2. To introduce and integrate the appropriate technologies to sustain technological interventions


and their integration to maintain productivity and profitability taking environmental issues into
consideration in a comparatively well
wel defined production system

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Infrastructure Development Programmes


Community Development Programme (CDP)
Launched-1952
The first major development programme launched in India was Community Development
Programme in 1952.

This programme was formulated to provide an administrative framework through which the
government might reach to the district, tehsil / taluka and village level.
Objectives
Over-all
all development of rural areas with people's participation.
All the districts of the country were divided into Development Blocks and a Block
Development Officer (BDO) was made in charge of each block
Top authority was Community Development Organization and a Community
Development Research Center was created with best
best academic brains of the country at
that time.

Rural Electrification Corporation


Launched-1969
Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC) is a leading public Infrastructure Finance
Company in Indias power sector.
The company finances and promotes rural electrification projects across India
India.
Objectives
Electrification in rural areas

Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme(ARWSP)


Launched-1972-73
The Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) was introduced in 1972

Objectives
For providing drinking water in villages
The entire programme was given a Mission approach with the launch of the Technology
Mission on Drinking Water and Related Water Management in 1986.
Later in 1999 Department of Drinking Water Supply was formed to give more emphasis on
Rural Water Supply programme.
40 litres per capita per day (lpcd) for humans to meet the following requirements

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Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana


Launched-2000
PMGY was launched in 2000 in all States and Union Territories (UTs) in order to achieve the objective of
sustainable human development at the village level.
Both financial and physical monitoring of the programme is being carried out by the Planning Commission.

Objectives
To fulfil basic
sic requirements in rural areas.
ocusing on village level development in five critical areas, i.e., Primary Health, Primary Education,
Housing, Rural Roads and Drinking Water and Nutrition with the overall objectiveof improving
the quality of life of peoplee in rural areas.
Rural electrification was added as an additional component .

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)


Launched-2000
This Centrally Sponsored Scheme was introduced in 2000 by the then Prime Minister Of India
Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Shri Prabhjot Singh.
It is under the authority of the Ministry of Rural Development and was begun on 25 December 2000.
It is fully funded by the central government.
Objectives
To line all villages with pakka road.
The goal was to provide roads to all villages
(1) with a population of 1000 persons and above by 2003,
(2) with a population of 500 persons and above by 2007,
(3) in hill states, tribal and desert area villages with a population of 500 persons and above by
2003, and
(4) in hill states, tribal and desert area villages with a population of 250 persons and above by
2007

Bharat Nirman Program


Launched-2005
Bharat Nirman is an Indian business plan for creating and augmenting basic rural infrastructure.
It comprises projects on irrigation roads (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana), housing ((Indira Awaas
Yojana),
), water supply (National Rural Drinking Water Programme), electrification [Rajiv Gandhi Grameen
Vidyutikaran Yojana] and telecommunication connectivity.
connecti
Objectives
Development of Rural Infrastructure including six components : irrigation, Water supply, Housing,
Road, Telephone and Electricity.
The objectives of the plan are as followings.
It aims at providing safe drinking water to all the under developed areas in India by 2012.
It also aims to develop housing facilities for the poor. Initially the scheme targeted 60 lakh
additional houses to be constructed for the poor within the year 2009, but now the plan

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has been extended to 2014 and the targeted


targeted house to be constructed has been increased
to 1.2 crore.
The plan also includes to cover 40% of the rural area with telecommunication facilities by
the year 2014 and provide broadband coverage to all the 2.5 lakh Panchayats by the year
2012.
The plans suggests to construct all weather roads by the year 2012 in order to connect all
the villages of India having a minimum population of 500 ( 250 in case of hilly or tribal
areas).
The plan aims to provide electricity to every village by the year 2012.
The plan
lan aims to provide an additional one crore hectare of irrigational land by the year
2012

Indira Awaas Yojana


Launched-1999
Indira Awaas Yojana is a social welfare flagship programme,
programme created by the Indian Government,
to provide housing for the rural poor in India.
This scheme was launched by Rajiv Gandhi,the
,the Prime Minister of India at that time.It is one of
the major flagship programs of the Rural Development Ministry to construct houses for BPL
population in the villages.
started in 1985 as part of the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Indira
Awaas Yojana (IAY) was subsumed in Jawahar rojgar Yojana(JRY)
(JRY) in 1989 and has been operating as
an independent scheme since 1996an independent scheme since 1996
Objectives
The broad purpose of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to some of the weakest
sections of society for
or them to upgrade or construct a house of respectable quality for
their personal living.
The vision of the government is to replace all temporary (kutchcha)
(
) houses from Indian
villages by 2017into
into pucca/semi-pucca
pucca/semi
by members of SC/STs, freed bonded labourers and
also non-SC/ST
SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line by extending them grant
grant-in-aid.
under the scheme, financial assistance worth Rs.70,000/Rs.70,000/ in plain areas and Rs.75,000/- in
difficult areas (high land area) is
i provided for construction of houses.

National Livelihood Mission


Launched-2009-10
Objectives To reduce poverty among rural BPL by promoting diversified and gainful self-employment
self employment and
wage employment opportunities which would lead to an appreciable increase in income on
sustainable basis.

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Pradhanmantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)


Launched-2010
PMGY was launched in 2000 -2001
2001 in all States and Union Territories (UTs) in order to achieve
the objective of sustainable human development at the village level.
Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001-02.
2001
For 2002-03 as well as 2003-04,
04, the allocation of ACA for PMGY was Rs. 2,800 crore.
Both financial and physical monitoring of the programme is being carried out
out by the Planning
Commission.

Objectives Integrated development of scheduled castes dominated villages in the country.


PMGY initially had five components viz., primary health, primary education, rural
shelter, rural drinking water and nutrition.
The PMGY envisages allocation of Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the States
and UTs for selected basic minimum services in order to focus on certain priority areas.

Twenty Point Program


Launched-1975
This has been a major programme of rural development encompassing various aspects of rural
people. This programme is associated with former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Gandhi, who introduced it
in July 1975 for reducing poverty and economic exploitation and for the uplift of weaker sections
of society. She gave the slogan Garibi Hatao during parliamentary elections.
Objectives - Poverty eradication and and raising the standard of living
The important goals of this programme were:
1. Welfare of the rural masses.
2. Increase in rural employment.
3. Minimum
nimum wages to landless labourers.
4. Uplift of the SC and ST people.
5. Growth of housing facilities.
6. New programmes of family planning.
7. Extension of primary health facilities.
8. Making primary education more effective.
9. Welfare of women and children.

Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)


o

o
o
o

Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) is an Indian government program that attempts to help slum
dwellers gain appropriate housing and address the processes by which slums are created
and reproduced.
It was introduced by the Indian government's Ministry of Housing and urban poverty
Alleviation.
The programme is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme,, and will run from 2013 to 2022.
This scheme aims to make India slum-free
free by 2022 by providing people with shelter or

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housing, free of cost.


It began with a pilot project, before launching in mission mode.
o
The government earmarked Rs. 32,230 crore for implementation during India's 12th Five
Year Plan.
o One million beneficiaries are proposed to be covered under Rajiv Awas Yojana
Objectives mprove and provide housing, basic civic infrastructure, and social amenities in intervened slums
To enable reforms by addressing some of the causes leading to the creation of slums
To facilitate a supportive environment for the expansion of institutional credit
credit linkages for the urban poor
To institutionalize mechanisms for the prevention of slums, including the creation of affordable housing stock
To strengthen institutional and human resource capacities at the municipal, city, and state levels through
rehensive capacity building and the strengthening of resource networks
o

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Health Care Development


The health care infrastructure in rural areas has been developed as a three tier system
system.

Community Health Centre (CHC)


Most peripherall contact point between Primary Health Care System & Community manned
with one MPW(F)/ANM & one MPW(M)Community manned with one MPW(F)/ANM & one
MPW(M)

Primary Health Centre (PHC)


A Referral Unit for 6 Sub Centres 4-6
4 6 bedded manned with a Medical Officer Incharge and 14
subordinate paramedical staff Community manned with one MPW(F)/ANM & one MPW(M)

Sub Centre (SC)


Most peripheral contact point between Primary Health Care System & Community manned
with one MPW(F)/ANM & one MPW(M)
Community manned with one MPW(F)/ANM & one MPW(M)

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Universal Immunization Programme


Launched-2005
Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of
India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is
currently one of the key areas under National Rural Health Mission(NRHM) since 2005.
Objectives The program consists of vaccination for seven diseasestuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping
cough), tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles and Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B was added to the UIP
in 2007.
Thus, UIP has 7 vaccine preventable diseases in the program.
On 2014 it was announced that four vaccines will be added to the program, namely
rotavirus, rubella and Japanese encephalitis, as well as the injectable polio vaccine.

Integrated Child Development Services


Launched-2005
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is an India government welfare programme which
provides food, preschool education, and primary healthcare to children under 6 years of age and
their mothers.
These services are provided from Anganwadi centres established mainly in rural areas and staffed
with frontline workers.
In addition to fighting malnutrition and ill health, the programme is also intended to combat gender
inequality by providing girls the same resources as boys.
Objectives The predefined objectives of ICDS are:
To raise the health and nutritional level of poor Indian children below 6 years of age.
To create a base for proper mental, physical and social development of children in India.
To reduce instances of mortality, malnutrition
malnutrition and school dropouts among Indian
children.

Accredited Social Health Activist


Launched-2005
Accredited social health activists (ASHAs) are community health workers instituted by
the government of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) as part of the National
Rural Health Mission (NRHM).

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Objectives

ASHAs are local women trained to act as health educators and promoters in their
communities.
Their tasks include motivating women to give birth in hospitals, bringing children to
immunization clinics, encouraging family planning (e.g., surgical sterilization), treating
basic illness and injury with first aid, keeping demographic records, and improving
village sanitation
ASHAs are also meant to serve as a key communication
communication mechanism between the
healthcare system and rural populations

Balwadi Nutrition Programme


Launched-1970
This program was started in 1970 under the Department of Social Welfare, Government of India.
Four national level organizations including the Indian
Indian Council of Child Welfare are given grants to
implement this program.
Balwadis are being phased out because of the implementation of the Integrated Child Development
Services programme.
Objectives

Balwadi Nutrition Programme is a healthcare and education programme launched by


the Government of India to provide food supplements at Balwadis to children of the age
group 36
6 years in rural areas.
The food supplement provides 300 calories of energy and 10 grams of protein per child per
day.

Janani Suraksha Yojana


Launched-2005
Janani Suraksha Yojana is an Indian Government scheme proposed by the Government of India. It
was launched on 12 April 2005 by the Prime Minister of India.
Objectives

It aim to decrease the neo-natal


neo
and maternal deaths happening in the country by
promoting institutional delivery of babies.
This is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Rural Health Mission
It is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme it integrates cash
cash assistance with delivery and
post-delivery care.
The success of the scheme would be determined by the increase in institutional delivery
among the poor families

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Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram


Launched-2011
The Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) was launched on 1st June, 2011. This scheme
supplements the cash assistance given to a pregnant woman under Janani Suraksha Yojana and is
aimed at mitigating the burden of out of pocket expenses incurred by pregnant women and sick
newborns.
Objectives

The initiative entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions the
following: Absolutely free and no expense delivery, including caesarean section.
Free drugs and consumables Free diet up to 3 days during normal deliver
delivery and up to 7 days
for C-section
section Free diagnostics Free blood wherever required. Free transport from home to
institution, between facilities in case of a referral and drop back home.
Similar entitlements have been put in place for all sick newborns accessin
accessing public health
institutions for treatment till 30 days after birth.

Home Based New Born Care (HBNC)


Launched-2011
Home Based New Born Care (HBNC) is a new scheme of Ministry of Health Government of India,
launched to incentivize ASHA for providing Home Based Newborn Care.
Objectives

ASHA will make visits to all newborns according to specified schedule up to 42 days of life.
The proposed incentive is Rs. 50 per home visit of around one hour duration.
The role of ASHA would be: recording of weight of the newborn in MCP card ensuring BCG
, 1st dose of OPV and DPT vaccination both the mother and the newborn are safe till 42
days of the delivery, and registration of birth has been done

Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakam


LaunchedThe Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) has launched Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya

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Karyakam (RKSK) to address the health problems of adolescents in a comprehensive manner.


RKSK has been introduced under the National Rural Health Mission.
Objectives

RKSK is based on the fact that Adolescence is the most important stage of the life cycle for
health interventions Adolescents aged 10 to 19 years constitute about one
one-fifth of Indias
population and young people (aged 10-24
10
years) about one-third off the population.
The large and increasing share of adolescents and youth in Indias population can translate
into a demographic dividend only if policies and programmes focus on the health and
wellbeing of this 243 million strong, yet very vulnerable adolescent
adolescent population.

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National Rural Health Mission


Introduction of National Rural Health Mission

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is an initiative undertaken by the government of
India to address the health needs of underserved rural areas.
Launched in April 2005 by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the NRHM was initially
tasked with addressing the health needs of 18 states that had been identified as having
weak public health indicators.
The Union Cabinet headed by Dr.Anbumani Ramadoss vide
vide its decision dated 1 May 2013,
has approved the launch of National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as a Sub
Sub-mission of an
overarching National Health Mission (NHM), with National Rural Health mission (NRHM)
being the other Sub-mission
mission of National Health Mission.
Mi

Mission Under the NRHM, the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States as well as North Eastern
States, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh have been given special focus.
The thrust of the mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned,
decentralized health delivery system with inter-sectoral
inter sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure
simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health such as water, sanitation,
education, nutrition, social and gender equality.
Institutional integration within the fragmented health sector was expected to provide a
focus on outcomes, measured against Indian Public Health Standards for all health facilities.

Implementation of National Rural Health Mission


As per the 12th Plan document of the Planning Commission, the flagship programme of
NRHM will be strengthened under the umbrella of National Health Mission.
The focus on covering rural areas and rural population will continue along with up scaling of
NRHM to include non-communicable
communicable diseases
diseases and expanding health coverage to urban
areas. Accordingly, the Union Cabinet, in May 2013, has approved the launch of National
Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as a sub-mission
sub mission of an overarching National Health Mission
(NHM), with National Rural Health Mission
Missio (NRHM) being the other sub--mission of the
National Health Mission

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Some of the major initiatives under National Health Mission (NHM) are as follows:

Accredited Social Health Activists


Community Health volunteers called Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) have been engaged
under the mission for establishing a link between the community and the health system. ASHA is the
first port of call for any health related demands of deprived sections of the population, especially
women and children,
ldren, who find it difficult to access health services in rural areas. ASHA Programme is
expanding across States and has particularly been successful in bringing people back to Public Health
System and has increased the utilization of outpatient services, diagnostic facilities, institutional
deliveries and inpatient care.
Rogi Kalyan Samiti (Patient Welfare Committee) / Hospital Management Society
The Rogi Kalyan Samiti (Patient Welfare Committee) / Hospital Management Society is a
management structure that
at acts as a group of trustees for the hospitals to manage the affairs of the
hospital. Financial assistance is provided to these Committees through untied fund to undertake
activities for patient welfare.
Untied Grants to Sub Centres
Untied Grants to Sub-Centers
Centers have been used to fund grass-root
grass root improvements in health care. Some
examples include:

Improved efficacy of Auxiliary Nurse Midwifes (ANMs) in the field that can now undertake
better antenatal care and other health care services.

Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNC) have used untied grants to
increase their involvement in their local communities to address the needs of poor
households and children.

Health care contractors


NRHM has provided health care contractors to underserved
underserved areas, and has been involved in training
to expand the skill set of doctors at strategically located facilities identified by the states. Similarly,
due importance is given to capacity building of nursing staff and auxiliary workers such as ANMs.
NHM also supports co-location
location of AYUSH services in Health facilities such as PHCs, CHCs and District
Hospitals.
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)
JSY aims to reduce maternal mortality among pregnant women by encouraging them to deliver in
government health facilities.
lities. Under the scheme cash assistance is provided to eligible pregnant
women for giving birth in a government health facility. Large scale demand side financing under the
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has brought poor households to public sector health ffacilities on a scale
never witnessed before.
National Mobile Medical Units (NMMUs)
Many un-served
served areas have been covered through National Mobile Medical Units (NMMUs).
National Ambulance Services

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Free ambulance services are provided in every nook and corner of the country connected with a toll
free number and reaches within 30 minutes of the call.
Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK)
As part of recent initiatives and further moving in the direction of universal healthcare, Janani Shishu
Suraksha Karyakarm
aryakarm (JSSK) was introduced to provide free to and fro transport, free drugs, free
diagnostic, free blood, free diet to pregnant women who come for delivery in public health
institutions and sick infants up to one year.
Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK)
A Child Health Screening and Early Intervention Services has been launched in February 2013 to
screen diseases specific to childhood, developmental delays, disabilities, birth defects and
deficiencies. The initiative will cover about 27 crore children
chil
between 018
18 years of age and also
provide free treatment including surgery for health problems diagnosed under this initiative.
Mother and Child Health Wings (MCH Wings)
With a focus to reduce maternal and child mortality, dedicated Mother and Child Health Wings with
100/50/30 bed capacity have been sanctioned in high case load district hospitals and CHCs which
would create additional beds for mothers and children.
Free Drugs and Free Diagnostic Service
A new initiative is launched under the National
National Health Mission to provide Free Drugs Service and
Free Diagnostic Service with a motive to lower the out of pocket expenditure on health.
District Hospital and Knowledge Center (DHKC)
As a new initiative District Hospitals are being strengthened to
t provide Multi-specialty
specialty health care
including dialysis care, intensive cardiac care, cancer treatment, mental illness, emergency medical
and trauma care etc. These hospitals would act as the knowledge support for clinical care in facilities
below it through a tele-medicine
medicine center located in the district headquarters and also developed as
centers for training of paramedics and nurses.
National Iron+ Initiative
The National Iron+ Initiative is an attempt to look at Iron Deficiency Anaemia in which benefici
beneficiaries
will receive iron and folic acid supplementation irrespective of their Iron/Hb status. This initiative will
bring together existing programmes (IFA supplementation for: pregnant and lactating women and;
children in the age group of 660
60 months) and introduce
i
new age groups.

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Finance Assistance Programmes for Rural Areas

Credit Authorization Scheme (CAS)


Launched-1965
The Credit Authorisation Scheme (CAS) for bank advances was introduced by the Reserve
Bank of India in 1965.
Objective
Under this scheme, all commercial banks had to obtain prior approval / authorization of the
RBI before granting a loan of Rs. 1 crore or more to a single borrower.
borrower
The banks first scrutinise the proposals of the borrowers and then send them to the Reserve
Bank for approval.
The Reserve Bank goes through the proposal and if found suitable, then it may authorise the
concerned bank to sanction the loans asked for.
The CAS is being reviewed by the Reserve Bank from time to time and is progressively
liberalised.

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National Fund for Rural Development (NFRD)


Launched-1984
The National Fund for Rural Development (NFRD) was set up in 1984 to mobilise funds from
individuals, corporate and non -corporate
corporate bodies for undertaking rural development activities.

Objective
To grant 100% tax rebate to donors and also to provide financial assistance for rural
development projects.
The accruals to the Fund were to be utilized for implementing projects in the field of
rural development.
All categories of tax-payers
tax
and non-tax
tax payers willing to join the effort in bringing
about improvements to rural life were made eligible to make contribution in the name
of NFRD.

Agriculture and Rural Debt Relief Scheme (ARDRS)


Launched-1990
Objective -To
To exempt bank loans upto Rs. 10,000 of rural artisans and weavers

Supply of Improved Toolkits to Rural Artisans


Launched-1992
Launched in July 1992, as a sub-scheme
sub scheme of IRDP in selected districts, this scheme has
since been extended to all the districts of the country.
Objective
Under the scheme, a variety of crafts persons, except weavers, tailors, needle workers
and beedi workers, are supplied with a kit of improved hand tools within a financial
ceiling of Rs.2000, of which the artisans have to pay 10 per cent and the remaining 90
per cent is a subsidy from the Government of India.
The supply of power driven tools, subject
subject to a ceiling of Rs.4500, is also permitted
under this scheme.
Beyond this, any additional finance required by the artisans can be provided through
loans under IRDP.
The rural artisans are trained under TRYSEM for which an age relaxation has been
provided to them.

District Rural Development Agency (DRDA)


Launched-1993

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DRDA has traditionally been the principal organ at the district level to oversee the
implementation of anti -poverty
poverty programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development. This
agency was created originally to implement the Integrated Rural Development Programme
(IRDP)
Objective -To
To provide financial assistance
assistance for rural development
The
he task of DRDA has been to identify the needs of the rural population and reach the
appropriate schemes where they are needed.
DRDA is not only a body to disburse the funds for the schemes but also provide
appropriate Managerial and Technical support.
The governing body of DRDA includes Members of Parliament (MPs), Members of
Legislative Assemblies (MLAs), District
District level officials of Development Departments,
Bankers, NGO's and representatives of weaker sections of the society

Mahila Samridhi Yojana


Launched-1993
The Mahila Samridhi Yojana (MSY) was launched on 2nd October, 1993 with the objective
of empowering
owering the rural women through building thrift habit, self
Objective -To
To encourage the rural women to deposit
deposit in Post Office Saving Account
With the objective of providing economic security to the rural women and to
encourage, the saving habit among them
Under this plan, the rural women of 18 years of above age can open their saving
account in the rural post office of their own area with a minimum Rs. 4 or its
multiplier. On the amount not withdrawn for 1 year, 25% of the deposited amount is
given to the depositor by the government in the form of encouragement amount.
Such accounts opened under the scheme account opened under the scheme account
opened under the scheme are provided 25% bonus with a maximum of Rs. 300 every
year.

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Programmes for Land Resource Development


Department of Land Resources is responsible for the Schemes/Programmes related to the Land
Resource Development.

Land Resource Development Programmes

Integrated Watershed Management


Programme

National Land Record


Modernisation Programme

(IWMP)

(NLRMP)

Technology Development,
Extension & Training
Programme (TDET)

National Land Record Modernisation Programme


(NLRMP)
Launched- 2008

Objective of NLRMP
The main objective of the NLRMP is to develop a modern, comprehensive and transparent land
records management system in the country with the aim to implement the conclusive land
land-titling
system with title guarantee, which will be based on four basic principles, i.e.,
(i) a single
ngle window to handle land records (including the maintenance and updating of
textual records, maps, survey and settlement operations and registration of immovable
property)
(ii) the mirror principle, which refers to the fact that cadastral records mirror the ground
reality
(iii) the curtain principle which indicates that the record of tle is a true depic on of the
ownership status, mutation is automated and automatic following registration and the
reference to past records is not necessary
(iv) title insurance, which guarantees the title for its correctness and indemnifies the title
holder against loss arising on account of any defect therein.
Major Components of the NLRMP Programme
1. computerization of all land records including mutations.
2. digitization
n of maps and integration of textual and spatial data.
3. survey/re-survey
survey and updation of all survey and settlement records including creation of

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original cadastral records wherever necessary.


4. computerization of registration and its integration with the land records maintenance
system
5. development of core Geospatial Information System (GIS) and capacity building.
Activities under NLRMP Project
Scanning, digitization, updation of mussavies/ cadastral maps
Geo-linking of RoR data with updated digitized maps
Scanning of old Revenue documentsfor virtual record room
Survey/Resurvey using ETS
DGPS Survey
Satellite data processing

Integrated Watershed Management Programme


(IWMP)
Launched- 2009-10

Why IWMP is Important


Around 60% of cultivated area across India is rain-fed.
rain fed. Besides, these areas are also blighted by
poverty, water scarcity, low productivity, malnutrition and prone to severe land degradation. The
watershed development programme has been adopted as
as a tool to address problems of the rain
rain-fed
or degraded areas in the country.
Expected Benefits of IWMP:
The benefits include increase in availability of surface water & groundwater, changes in cropping
pattern from one to two crops annually, increase in
in fodder availability and increase in milk yield,
increase in agriculture
Key Points of IWMP:
Launched in 2009-10
10 by the integration of various area development programmes of the
Department of Land Resources, including the Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP), the
Desert Development Programme (DDP) and the Integrated Wastelands Development
Programme (IWDP).
asset-less people
9% of the project cost is earmarked for development of livelihoods for asset
10% of the project cost is for productivity enhancement and development of micro
microenterprises for small & marginal farmers.
An average size of project under the IWMP is about 5,000 ha which is cluster of micro
microwatersheds.
A portion of institution &capacity building (5% of the total project cost) has been provided to
set up institutional mechanism at State, District, Project and Village levels and to build
capacities of stakeholders.
It also entails involvement of primary stakeholders in the form of grassroots community
organisations.

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All Rural Development Programmes Chart

Year
1952

Scheme/Programme

Objective

Community Development Programme (CDP)

Overall development of rural


areas and peoples participation.

1960-61

Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP

To provide loan for seeds and


fertilizers to farmers

1964-65

Intensive Agriculture Area programme (IAAP)

To develop special harvest in


agriculture area.

1965

Credit Authorization Scheme (CAS)

Involved qualitative credit control


of reserve bank of India

1966-67

Green Revolution

To Increase productivity.
Confined to wheat production

1969

Rural Electrification Corporation

To provide electricity in rural


areas

1972

Scheme of Discriminatory Interest Rate

To provide loan to the weaker


sections of society at a
concessional interest rate of 4%

1972-73

Accelerated Rural water Supply Programme


(ARWSP)

1973

Drought Prone Area Programme:

Providing drinking water in


villages
Protection from drought by
achieving environment balance
and by developing ground water

1973

Crash Scheme for Rural Employment CSRE

1973-74

Marginal Farmer and Agriculture Labour Agency


(MFALA)

1974-75

Small Farmer Development Scheme SFDS

For rural employment


Technical & financial assistance
to marginal farmers
Technical & financial assistance
to small farmers

1975

Command Area Development Programme:


(CADP)

1975

Twenty Point Programme (TPP)

Better utilization of irrigational


capacities
Poverty eradication and an
overall objective of raising the
level living

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1977

National Institution of Rural Development

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Training, investigation and


advisory for rural development

1977-78

Desert Development Programme: (DDP)

To control the desert expansion


by maintaining environment
balance

1977-78

Food For Work Programme

1977-78

Antyodaya Yojna: Scheme of Rajasthan

providing food grains to labour

providing economic assistance to


poorest families

1979

1980

Training Rural Youth for Self Employment

educational and vocational

TRYSEM

training

Integrated Rural Development Programme :IRDP

(launched on October 2, 1980)


overall development of rural poor

1980

National Rural Development programme NREP

employment for rural man force

1982

Development of Women & Children in Rural

Sustainable opportunities of self

Areas (DWCRA)

employment to the women


belonging to the rural families
who are living below the poverty
line.

1983

Rural Landless Employment Guarantee


Programme (RLEGP)

1983-84

Agriculture Service Centres FASCs

employment to landless farmers


and labourers
use of improved instruments of
agriculture

1984

National Fund for Rural Development

To grant 100% tax rebate


to donors and also to provide
financial assistance for rural
development projects

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1985

Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme

1986

Council of Advancement of Peoples Action &

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Crop Insurance
Assistance to rural people

Rural Technology (CAPART)


1986

Self Employment Programme

for the Poor SEPUP Self


employment through credit and
subsidy

1986

National Drinking Water Mission

For rural drinking water renamed


and upgraded to Rajiv Gandhi
National Drinking Water Mission
in 1991.

1988

Service Area Account Rural Credit

1990

Agriculture & Rural Debt Relief Scheme: ARDRS

Exempt Bank loans up to Rs.


10000 for rural artisans and
weavers

1990

1993

Scheme of Housing and Shelter Upgradation

Providing employment by shelter

(SHASU)

Upgradation

Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)

(Launched on October, 2)
Employment of at least 100 days
in a year in villages

1993

District Rural Development Agency DRDA

Financial assistance to rural


people by district level authority

1993

Mahila Samridhi Yojna

(October 2, 1993) Encourage


rural women to deposit in Post
office schemes

1995

Mid day Meal Scheme:

Nutrition to students in primary


schools to improve enrolment,
retention and attendance

1995

National Social Assistance programme

1996

Group Life Insurance Scheme for Rural Areas

Assist BPL people.


Insurance in rural area for low
premium

1997-78

Ganga Kalyan Yojna

Provide financial assistance to


farmers for exploring ground
water resources

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1999

Swaran Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna

Self employment in rural areas

1999

Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna

2000

Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna

Basic needs of rural people

2000

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna

Connect all villages with nearest

Village infrastructure

pukka road.
2001

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna

Employment and food security to


rural people

2003

Universal health Insurance Scheme

Health insurance for Rural people

2004

National Food for Work programme

Supplementary wage as food


grains for work

2005

Janani Suraksha Yojna

Providing care to pregnant


women

2005

National Rural Health Mission

Accessible, affordable,
accountable, quality health
services to the poorest of the
poor on remotest areas of the
country.

2005

Rajeev Gandhi Grameen Vidyut Karan Yojna

Extending electrification of all


villages and habitations and
ensuring electricity to every
household.

2006

National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme


NREGS

100 days wage employment for


development works in rural
areas.

2007

Aam Aadmi Bima Yojna

Insurance cover to the head of


the family of rural landless
households in the country.

2009

Rajiv Awas Yojna

2009-10

National Livelihood Mission

2015

Integrated Plant Nutrient Management: Soil


Health Card

To make India slum free in 5


years
To reduce poverty among rural BPL
by promoting diversified and gainful
self-employment
employment and wage
employment
recommendations of nutrients and
fertilisers required for the individual
farms to help farmers to improve

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2015

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna(PKVY)

2015

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)

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productivity through judicious use of


inputs
Organic farming will be promoted by
using traditional resour
resources and the
organic products will be linked with
the market.
To increase agricultural production
and productivity by increasing
availability of water and its efficient
use.

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National Institute of Rural Development

National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD)) is an Indian institute for research in rural
development, located in Rajendra nagar near Hyderabad

Its mission is to develop a committed cadre of rural development professionals trained to


deal with the challenges in rural areas.

NIRD offers one year PGDRDM course.

It is an autonomous organization under Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Rural


Development, Government of India

The institute was first named National Institute of Community


Community Development (NICD) upon its
foundation in 1964, with merger two as Central Institute of Study and Research in
Community Development at Mussoorie, (now in Uttarakhand) and Trainers Training Institute at
Rajpur
The Vision
The Institutes vision focuses
cuses on the policies and programmes that benefit the rural poor,
democratic decentralization process, the operational efficiency of rural development and
panchayati raj functionaries including elected representatives of PRIs, promoting transfer of
technology and environmental awareness

The Mission
The mission of the NIRD is to examine and analyze the factors contributing to the improvement of
economic and social well-being
being of people in rural areas on a sustainable basis with focus on the
rural poor and the other disadvantaged groups.
groups

ObjectivesThe objectives of the NIRD are as under:


a) Organize training programmes, conferences, seminars and Workshops for senior level
development managers, elected Representatives, bankers, NGOs and others.
b) Undertake, aid, promote and coordinate research on its own and through other agencies.
Greater emphasis is laid on the application aspects.
c) Study various aspects of the Panchayati Raj Institutions, local level governance across the
states;
d) Analyze and propose
ose solutions to problems in planning and implementation of the
programmes for rural development.
e) Disseminate information through periodicals, reports and other publications.
f) Provide consultancy services to both national and international organizations as well as
Ministries of Govt. of India and Departments of State Governments.

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Structure and OrganizationThe NIRD policy is determined by a forty-seven


forty
member General Council.
The Union Minister of Rural Development is the President of the General Counci
Council. The management
and administration of the Institute is vested in a fourteen member Executive Council, with the
Honble Union 5 Minister for Rural Development as its Chairman. The Director General is the Chief
Executive Officer and is responsible for the management of the Institute. He is assisted by a Deputy
Director General, Financial Advisor, Registrar and Director (Administration) and a multi disciplinary
Faculty. The Academic Committee and Research Advisory Committee, under the Chairmanship of the
Director
ector General, facilitate planning of its training, research and consultancy activities.

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ROLE OF THE PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS IN RURAL


DEVELOPMENT
Panchayati Raj Department is an important department of Uttar Pradesh related to the rural
development. The main objective of this department is to strengthen the Panchayati Raj System in
the state according to the 73rd amendment of Indian constitution. So that panchayats can realize
the dream of rural administration and rural development with complete
omplete coordination and
transparency. For this purpose the department has provided a Citizen Charter.
For the sake of public Convenience
onvenience and knowledge, this charter has been divided into 7 subjects:
subjects:

Financial aid to Gram Panchayats.


Rural Cleanliness Programmes.
Responsibilities of the PanchayatsPanchayats (Transparency in work, rural administration &
development).
Responsibilities of public towards Panchayat.
Decentralization Programme.
Control over the Gram Panchayats
Arrangement of Panchayat Help-line.
Help

Citizen Charter is a continuous process which will change periodically according to the feelings,
recommendations, experiences and reactions of the public.

FINANCIAL AID TO THE GRAM PANCHAYATS


Gram Panchayats are given financial aids on the recommendations of State Finance Commission.
The main objectives of the financial aid given to these Panchayats are:
Drinking water supply, cleaning and maintenance facilities.
Maintenance of public lamp posts, roads, drainage system, cleanliness programmes, primary
schools and maintenance of other public assets.
Construction of Panchayat Bhawans for meeting halls and for the residence of secretary of
Gram Panchayat.
Construction of Gramin Kisan Bazaar and Livestock Markets.
Construction of underground water drainage system for the objective of environmental
cleanliness.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF PANCHAYATS
Gram Panchayats are given financial aids on the recommendations of State Finance Commission.
The main objectives of the financial aid given to these Panchayats are:

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Following are the responsibilities of Panchayats:


Periodic meeting of Gram Sabha in order to communicate the functioning
of Panchayats.
Monthly meeting of Gram Panchayat to communicate the related information to the elected
members.
Monthly meetings of Samities for the completion of predetermined functions with the
coordination of 6 samities.
Increase in the income of Gram Panchayat through the collection of taxes and fees
prescribed by the act of legislature.
For transparency in work a notice board on the
the wall of public premises will be displayed
showing all the details of usage of the funds.
Rural cleanliness through environmental cleanliness and stopping usage of open toilets.
Control over Government Ration Depot.
To plan and pass different welfare programmes
programmes with the coordination of public upto the
amount of Rs. 50000.
The Gram Pradhan should inspect all the assets of Gram Samaj at least once in a quarter.

CONTROL OVER GRAM PANCHAYAT:


To stop the misuse of funds at Gram Panchayat level, there is a law of investigation against
Pradhans, Deputy Pradhans and the members.
The complaint along with affidavit and relevant proofs can be given to the district
magistrate.
The investigation of the complaint will be done by the district level officers only.
A Charted Accountant will be appointed for the completion of the accounts of Gram
Panchayat.
The audit of Gram Panchayats will be done by the Chief Accountant.
Gram Sabha can restigate the Pradhan by passing a no confidence resolution if there is any
grave charge against the Pradhan.

Planned and Other Schemes of the Department (in UP)


The Panchayati Raj Department is encouraging the aforesaid schemes practically on a wide scale.
The analytical study of some of the aforesaid schemes is as follows:

I.E.C. Programme:-The
The main objective of this programme is to provide information,
education and communication to the village inhabitants about the cleanliness programmes
run by central government. Under this programme necessary funds are given to the villa
village
inhabitants for promoting and encouraging cleanliness in rural areas.

Community Toilet Complex :: Community toilets are built and maintained by Gram
Panchayats only where there is a market, fair or there is no land available for families to
built toilets.
Schools and Anganwadi Cleanliness:Cleanliness: In order to encourage cleanliness in rural areas,
primary schools have been considered as the basic unit. To motivate students for adopting

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clean habits a sum of Rs. 20,000/20,000/ is given for building school toilets and
d Rs. 5000/
5000/- is given
to Anganwadis.
Repair & Maintenance of Handpumps:- Since April, 2002, Gram Panchayats have been given
the responsibility of maintaining the hand pumps. Keeping in view the priorities of
government a campaign was run by the Gram Panchayats and 140407 hand pumps have
been repaired out of 1722371 since January, 2009.
Dr. Ambedkar Gram Vikas Yojna:Yojna: This campaign emphasized the construction of C.C. roads
and drains. Under this campaign 1438 Gram Sabhas have been covered during the ffirst stage
in year 2007-08
08 and 2008-09.
2008 09. Under this campaign the amount suctioned is Rs. 1984.08
crore, out of which a sum of Rs. 855.84 crore has been spent till 4th February, 2009 and work
of 681 Dr. Ambedkar Gram Sabhas has been completed.
Construction and Maintenance of Farmer Market & Livestock Market:- Under this scheme
those farmer markets and livestock markets have been selected which are organized on the
land of Panchayat.
Construction of Underground drainage system in rural areas:- The department started this
campaign in 2006-07.
07. Under this campaign the cost of per km. underground drains is 1.654
lakh.

Role of the Panchayati Raj Institutions in Rural Development

Department should collect data which help in estimating the number of toilets needed in
rural areas.
It should further be estimated as to how much construction is possible in one year.
The reviews of the number of constructed toilets and allotted amount shall be done more
frequently.
PP model can be adopted for better utilization
Thee development programmes shall be carried out throughout the year in a phased &
planned manner.
Involvement of local professionals or NGOs can be done to ensure better outputs. Thus, we
can say that due to the negligence of system the rural areas remain under
under developed. The
government in spite of providing huge amount of funds remains unsuccessful in fostering the
growth of rural India. There is a need to keep a strict watch over the utilization of funds by
Gram Panchayats.

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