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CHNG3802

Tutorial 7 Solutions

Feedback Control Systems


1. Consider the following heat exchanger. The flow rate of the process fluid (Fi)
is acting as a disturbance.

Process
Fluid

To
TI
Condensate
TC

Tset

Steam
(a) Draw a block diagram of the temperature feedback control loop.
d(s)

Tset(s)

(s)

C(s)

Gc

ym(s)

Gd

To(s)

m(s)
Gf

Gp

Gm

(b) Draw a simplified block diagram of the feedback control loop.


d(s)

Tset

(s)
Gc

C(s)

Gd

To
Gp

(c) Develop the transfer function between the outlet temperature (To) and the
Process flow (Fi).
To (s ) = Gd d (s ) + G p m(s )

(1)

y m (s ) = G mTo (s )

(2)

(s ) = Tset (s ) y m (s )
C (s ) = Gc (s )

(3)
(4)

m(s ) = G f C (s )

(5)

Next we assume that the set point does not vary that is, its deviation
variable is zero;
Tset (s ) = 0
Eliminate all the intermediate variables, (s), C(s), m(s) and ym(s), by
combining equations 1 through 5. The result is
To (s ) = G p G f Gc [ Gm To (s )] + Gd d (s )
To (s )
Gd
=
d (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc G m

This is the closed-loop transfer function between the process flow and the
outlet temperature.

(d) Develop the transfer function between the outlet temperature (To) and the
set point (Tset). Then write down the overall closed-loop transfer
function.
Similar to part (c), if we let d(s) = 0 and combine equations 1 through 5, the
closed loop transfer function between the set point and the outlet temperature
results;

G p G f Gc
To (s )
=
Tset (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc G m

The overall closed loop transfer function can now be written as


To (s ) =

G p G f Gc
1 + G p G f Gc G m

Tset (s ) +

Gd
d (s )
1 + G p G f Gc Gm

(e) Write down the characteristic equation of the loop.


The characteristic equation is the denominator of the closed-loop transfer
functions:
1 + G p G f Gc Gm

(f) Qualitatively explain what is observed if the poles of the transfer function
are complex conjugates.
Complex conjugate poles, such as p1 and p2. Complex poles always appear in
conjugate pairs, p1 = a + bi and p2 = a - bi. These roots give rise to terms
such as eat sin(t+). sin(t+) is a periodic, oscillating function, while the
behavior of eat depends on the value of the real part a. Thus,

If a > 0, then eat  as t , and eatsin(t+) grows to infinity in


an oscillating manner (Fig. 1a).

If a < 0, then eat  0 as t  , and eatsin(t+) decays to zero in an


oscillating manner with decreasing amplitude (Fig. 1b).

If a = 0, then eat = 1 for all times, and eatsin(t+) = sin(t+), the


response oscillates continuously with constant amplitude (Fig. 1c).

Output
Output

Time

Time

Figure 1a

Figure 1b.

Output

Time

Figure 1c.

2. Each of the following two systems is controlled with a proportional feedback


controller. In each case find the range of values of the proportional gain Kc
that will produce stable closed-loop responses. Also identify the characteristic
equation, in each case. Assume that Gm = Gf =1.
(a) Firstly we write the characteristic equation of the system:
1 + Gc G f G p Gm = 0

1 + K c 11

2
=0
0.1s + 1

Rewriting the characteristic equation as


0.1s + (1 + 2 K c ) = 0
Solving, we get
s=

(1 + 2 K c )
=0
0. 1

For stable closed-loop responses the root, s, must be negative i.e.


2K c 1
0
0.1
Kc <

1
is the range of values for Kc for which the system response is stable.
2

(b) Firstly we write the characteristic equation of the system:


1 + Gc G f G p Gm = 0
1 + K c 11

1
=0
10 s + 2 s 2 + s 5
3

Rewriting this as the characteristic equation:


10 s 3 + 2s 2 + s + (K c 5) = 0
Using the Routh-Hurwitz array as follows,
S3
S2
S1
S0

10
2
2 10(K c 5)
2
(Kc 5)

1
(Kc 5)
0
0

0
0

All values in the first column must be positive for a stable closed-loop response;
therefore there is must be no sign change and so
Kc 5 0

and

2 10(K c 5)
0
2

Kc 5

and

K c 5.2

which gives the following range of stability


5 K c 5.2

3. For the control system below, find the closed-loop transfer function between
the output C and setpoint R. Then,
R +

1
(s + 1)3

1
(s + 1)
The closed-loop transfer function between C and R is:

G p G f Gc
C
=
=
R 1 + G p G f Gc Gm

K
1+ K

(s + 1)3
1

1
(s + 1) s + 1
3

So the closed-loop transfer function will be:

C
K (s + 1)
K (s + 1)
=
= 4
4
3
R (s + 1) + K s + 4s + 6s 2 + 4 s + (1 + K )
Therefore the characteristic equation of the system will be;
s 4 + 4 s 3 + 6 s 2 + 4s + (1 + K ) = 0

(a) Determine the value of K above which the system is unstable.


To find the amount of K which makes the system unstable, use the Routh-Hurwitz
array as follows:
S4
S3
S2
S1

1
4
5
16 4 K
5
1+K

S0

6
4
1+K
0

1+K
0

To have a stable system, all the elements in the first column must be positive,
therefore,
16 4 K
0
5

K 4

K 1

and,
1+ K 0

At K = 4, the system is on the verge of instability.

(b) Determine the value of K for which two of the roots are on the imaginary
axis, and determine the values of these imaginary roots and the
remaining two roots.
At K = 4, the characteristic equation will be,

s 4 + 4s 3 + 6s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0
or,

(s

)(

+ 1 s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0

Therefore the poles of the system which are located on the imaginary axis are the
roots of (s2 + 1), which are s = j.
The other two poles are the roots of (s2 + 4s + 5), which are s = -2 j.