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CHNG3802

Tutorial 7 Solutions

Feedback Control Systems
1. Consider the following heat exchanger. The flow rate of the process fluid (Fi)
is acting as a disturbance.

Process
Fluid

To
TI
Condensate
TC

Tset

Steam
(a) Draw a block diagram of the temperature feedback control loop.
d(s)

Tset(s)

ε(s)

C(s)

Gc

ym(s)

Gd

To(s)

m(s)
Gf

Gp

Gm

(b) Draw a simplified block diagram of the feedback control loop.
d(s)

Tset

ε(s)
Gc

C(s)

Gd

To
Gp

ε(s). C(s).(c) Develop the transfer function between the outlet temperature (To) and the Process flow (Fi). by combining equations 1 through 5. Tset (s ) = 0 Eliminate all the intermediate variables. (d) Develop the transfer function between the outlet temperature (To) and the set point (Tset). Then write down the overall closed-loop transfer function. Similar to part (c). The characteristic equation is the denominator of the closed-loop transfer functions: 1 + G p G f Gc Gm . m(s) and ym(s). its deviation variable is zero. if we let d(s) = 0 and combine equations 1 through 5. the closed loop transfer function between the set point and the outlet temperature results. The result is To (s ) = G p G f Gc [− Gm To (s )] + Gd d (s ) To (s ) Gd = d (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc G m # This is the closed-loop transfer function between the process flow and the outlet temperature. G p G f Gc To (s ) = Tset (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc G m # The overall closed loop transfer function can now be written as To (s ) = G p G f Gc 1 + G p G f Gc G m Tset (s ) + Gd d (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc Gm # (e) Write down the characteristic equation of the loop. To (s ) = Gd d (s ) + G p m(s ) …(1) y m (s ) = G mTo (s ) …(2) ε (s ) = Tset (s ) − y m (s ) C (s ) = Gc ε (s ) …(3) …(4) m(s ) = G f C (s ) …(5) Next we assume that the set point does not vary – that is.

the response oscillates continuously with constant amplitude (Fig. then eat  0 as t  ∞ . then eat  ∞ as t ∞ . Output Output Time Time Figure 1a Figure 1b. • If a < 0. Thus. and eatsin(βt+φ) decays to zero in an oscillating manner with decreasing amplitude (Fig.(f) Qualitatively explain what is observed if the poles of the transfer function are complex conjugates. sin(βt+φ) is a periodic. 1b). . Complex conjugate poles. such as p1 and p2. p1 = a + bi and p2 = a . Complex poles always appear in conjugate pairs. while the behavior of eat depends on the value of the real part a. oscillating function. Output Time Figure 1c.bi. 1a). then eat = 1 for all times. • If a = 0. 1c). and eatsin(βt+φ) grows to infinity in an oscillating manner (Fig. These roots give rise to terms such as eat sin(βt+φ). • If a > 0. and eatsin(βt+φ) = sin(βt+φ).

1 For stable closed-loop responses the root. Assume that Gm = Gf =1. − 2K c − 1 ≤ 0 0. S3 S2 S1 S0 10 2 2 − 10(K c − 5) 2 (Kc –5) 1 (Kc –5) 0 0 0 0 . must be negative i. we get s= − (1 + 2 K c ) =0 0. 2 (b) Firstly we write the characteristic equation of the system: 1 + Gc G f G p Gm = 0 1 + K c ⋅1⋅1⋅ 1 =0 10 s + 2 s 2 + s − 5 3 Rewriting this as the characteristic equation: 10 s 3 + 2s 2 + s + (K c − 5) = 0 Using the Routh-Hurwitz array as follows.e. In each case find the range of values of the proportional gain Kc that will produce stable closed-loop responses. in each case.1s + (1 + 2 K c ) = 0 Solving. Also identify the characteristic equation.2.1 Kc < − 1 is the range of values for Kc for which the system response is stable. (a) Firstly we write the characteristic equation of the system: 1 + Gc G f G p Gm = 0 1 + K c ⋅1⋅1⋅ 2 =0 0. Each of the following two systems is controlled with a proportional feedback controller.1s + 1 Rewriting the characteristic equation as 0. s.

find the closed-loop transfer function between the output C and setpoint R. Then. s 4 + 4 s 3 + 6 s 2 + 4s + (1 + K ) = 0 C .2 which gives the following range of stability 5 ≤ K c ≤ 5. therefore there is must be no sign change and so Kc − 5 ≥ 0 and 2 − 10(K c − 5) ≥0 2 Kc ≥ 5 and K c ≤ 5.2 3. For the control system below.All values in the first column must be positive for a stable closed-loop response. R + 1 (s + 1)3 K - 1 (s + 1) The closed-loop transfer function between C and R is: G p G f Gc C = = R 1 + G p G f Gc Gm K 1+ K 1 (s + 1)3 1 1 (s + 1) s + 1 3 So the closed-loop transfer function will be: C K (s + 1) K (s + 1) = = 4 4 3 R (s + 1) + K s + 4s + 6s 2 + 4 s + (1 + K ) Therefore the characteristic equation of the system will be.

. 16 − 4 K ≥0 5  K ≤4  K ≥ −1 and. therefore. 1+ K ≥ 0 At K = 4. which are s = ± j.(a) Determine the value of K above which the system is unstable. s 4 + 4s 3 + 6s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0 or. the system is on the verge of instability. (s 2 )( ) + 1 s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0 Therefore the poles of the system which are located on the imaginary axis are the roots of (s2 + 1). To find the amount of K which makes the system unstable. The other two poles are the roots of (s2 + 4s + 5). (b) Determine the value of K for which two of the roots are on the imaginary axis. which are s = -2 ± j. and determine the values of these imaginary roots and the remaining two roots. all the elements in the first column must be positive. the characteristic equation will be. At K = 4. use the Routh-Hurwitz array as follows: S4 S3 S2 S1 1 4 5 16 − 4 K 5 1+K S0 6 4 1+K 0 1+K 0 To have a stable system.