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You are on page 1of 6

Tutorial 7 Solutions

1. Consider the following heat exchanger. The flow rate of the process fluid (Fi)

is acting as a disturbance.

Process

Fluid

To

TI

Condensate

TC

Tset

Steam

(a) Draw a block diagram of the temperature feedback control loop.

d(s)

Tset(s)

(s)

C(s)

Gc

ym(s)

Gd

To(s)

m(s)

Gf

Gp

Gm

d(s)

Tset

(s)

Gc

C(s)

Gd

To

Gp

(c) Develop the transfer function between the outlet temperature (To) and the

Process flow (Fi).

To (s ) = Gd d (s ) + G p m(s )

(1)

y m (s ) = G mTo (s )

(2)

(s ) = Tset (s ) y m (s )

C (s ) = Gc (s )

(3)

(4)

m(s ) = G f C (s )

(5)

Next we assume that the set point does not vary that is, its deviation

variable is zero;

Tset (s ) = 0

Eliminate all the intermediate variables, (s), C(s), m(s) and ym(s), by

combining equations 1 through 5. The result is

To (s ) = G p G f Gc [ Gm To (s )] + Gd d (s )

To (s )

Gd

=

d (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc G m

This is the closed-loop transfer function between the process flow and the

outlet temperature.

(d) Develop the transfer function between the outlet temperature (To) and the

set point (Tset). Then write down the overall closed-loop transfer

function.

Similar to part (c), if we let d(s) = 0 and combine equations 1 through 5, the

closed loop transfer function between the set point and the outlet temperature

results;

G p G f Gc

To (s )

=

Tset (s ) 1 + G p G f Gc G m

To (s ) =

G p G f Gc

1 + G p G f Gc G m

Tset (s ) +

Gd

d (s )

1 + G p G f Gc Gm

The characteristic equation is the denominator of the closed-loop transfer

functions:

1 + G p G f Gc Gm

(f) Qualitatively explain what is observed if the poles of the transfer function

are complex conjugates.

Complex conjugate poles, such as p1 and p2. Complex poles always appear in

conjugate pairs, p1 = a + bi and p2 = a - bi. These roots give rise to terms

such as eat sin(t+). sin(t+) is a periodic, oscillating function, while the

behavior of eat depends on the value of the real part a. Thus,

an oscillating manner (Fig. 1a).

oscillating manner with decreasing amplitude (Fig. 1b).

response oscillates continuously with constant amplitude (Fig. 1c).

Output

Output

Time

Time

Figure 1a

Figure 1b.

Output

Time

Figure 1c.

controller. In each case find the range of values of the proportional gain Kc

that will produce stable closed-loop responses. Also identify the characteristic

equation, in each case. Assume that Gm = Gf =1.

(a) Firstly we write the characteristic equation of the system:

1 + Gc G f G p Gm = 0

1 + K c 11

2

=0

0.1s + 1

0.1s + (1 + 2 K c ) = 0

Solving, we get

s=

(1 + 2 K c )

=0

0. 1

2K c 1

0

0.1

Kc <

1

is the range of values for Kc for which the system response is stable.

2

1 + Gc G f G p Gm = 0

1 + K c 11

1

=0

10 s + 2 s 2 + s 5

3

10 s 3 + 2s 2 + s + (K c 5) = 0

Using the Routh-Hurwitz array as follows,

S3

S2

S1

S0

10

2

2 10(K c 5)

2

(Kc 5)

1

(Kc 5)

0

0

0

0

All values in the first column must be positive for a stable closed-loop response;

therefore there is must be no sign change and so

Kc 5 0

and

2 10(K c 5)

0

2

Kc 5

and

K c 5.2

5 K c 5.2

3. For the control system below, find the closed-loop transfer function between

the output C and setpoint R. Then,

R +

1

(s + 1)3

1

(s + 1)

The closed-loop transfer function between C and R is:

G p G f Gc

C

=

=

R 1 + G p G f Gc Gm

K

1+ K

(s + 1)3

1

1

(s + 1) s + 1

3

C

K (s + 1)

K (s + 1)

=

= 4

4

3

R (s + 1) + K s + 4s + 6s 2 + 4 s + (1 + K )

Therefore the characteristic equation of the system will be;

s 4 + 4 s 3 + 6 s 2 + 4s + (1 + K ) = 0

To find the amount of K which makes the system unstable, use the Routh-Hurwitz

array as follows:

S4

S3

S2

S1

1

4

5

16 4 K

5

1+K

S0

6

4

1+K

0

1+K

0

To have a stable system, all the elements in the first column must be positive,

therefore,

16 4 K

0

5

K 4

K 1

and,

1+ K 0

(b) Determine the value of K for which two of the roots are on the imaginary

axis, and determine the values of these imaginary roots and the

remaining two roots.

At K = 4, the characteristic equation will be,

s 4 + 4s 3 + 6s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0

or,

(s

)(

+ 1 s 2 + 4s + 5 = 0

Therefore the poles of the system which are located on the imaginary axis are the

roots of (s2 + 1), which are s = j.

The other two poles are the roots of (s2 + 4s + 5), which are s = -2 j.

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