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Question 1: Read 'Exploring gas tanks' (Page 43-44 of "Justice) and

explain your thought on the Ford Corporation's cost-benefit basis decision


making. Do you agree with the decision-making? Why or why not?
First of all, I would say that I do not agree with the decision-making of Ford Pinto
because it is not ethical. This is because the use of cost-benefit analysis are
determining if the flaw in Ford Pinto automobiles is worth the financial risk in
comparison to the value of human life is unconscionable and indefensible. In
additional, the because of the cost-benefit analysis Ford made a costly decision not
only in terms of money but also human life which are mainly on pain and suffering
of victims and their families and also to the own reputation. This statement
prepared by Ford was not cost-efficient to add an $11 per car cost in order to correct
the flaws. The benefits derived from spending this amount of money were estimated
to be $49.5 million. This estimate assumed that each death which could be avoided
would be worth $200,000 and each major burn injury that could be avoided would
be worth $67,000. When the unit cost was spread out over the number of cars and
light trucks which would affected by the design change at cost of $11 per vehicle,
the cost was calculated to be $137.5 million which are much greater than the $49.5
million benefit. This Ford Motor Companys choices made during development to
compromises safety for efficiency and profit maximization. If Ford had the right
business ethical and moral integrity to put consumer safety first, instead of profit
and competition, then there would have been no loss of life or financial suffering.
Question 2: Read the story of Hurricane Charley in 1. DOING THE RIGHT
THING' (Page3-10 of "Justice"). Which of Thomas Sowell or Charlie Crist do
you agree with? Why?
Personally, I agree with Charlie Crist. Price gouging when people getting in trouble is
not acceptable. Even though there are some economists argued that: In medieval
times, philosophers and theologians believed that the exchange of goods should be
governed by a "just price," determined by tradition or the intrinsic value of things.
But in market societies, the economists observed, prices are set by supply and
demand. There is no such thing as a "just price." It is still not acceptable. And as
Charlie Crist said: This is not the normal free market situation where willing buyers
freely elect to enter into the marketplace and meet willing sellers, where a price is
agreed upon based on supply and demand. In an emergency, buyers under duress
have no freedom. Their purchases of necessities like safe lodging are forced. First,
markets promote the welfare of society as a whole by providing incentives for
people to work hard supplying the goods that other people want. Second, markets
respect individual freedom; rather than impose a certain value on goods and
services, markets let people choose for themselves what value to place on the
things they exchange. Greed is a vice, a bad way of human being. In times of
trouble, a good society pulls together rather than press for maximum advantage.
We can take Japan in 2011 as a good example in this situation. Most of supermarket
sharply decreased the prices, the owner of vending machine opened their vending

machines and free distribution of drinking water for relief workers, emergency
workers and lovers willingness to participate in disaster aid. In my point of view, the
important thing is: It is not about price, it is about the ethical.

Question 5: In the tsunami disaster on March 11th 2011 in Japan, there


found not a few number of dedicating and co-operating actions and
leadership, which was admired by global societies. What are specifically
admired may be summarized by some words describing the disaster sites
and situations, such as, no-riot, no-community-wide-panic, active cooperation within community, etc.
a. Why have global societies admired the actions of the people at
disaster sites?
In my point of view, there are many reasons that make global societies
admired Japanese people such as: Ethical, feature of Japanese society, skill
and spirit of Japanese people, behavior of Japanese people in disaster, etc.
b. What has made those actions of people admired by global societies
possible?
A day after getting trouble in a serious situation, there are many long line of
people queuing to get food and drinks. After the horrific disaster may have
taken away relatives or homes, their money, they would be insecure, tired
and hungry as common sense. But in the line of people queuing quietly that,
absolutely not seen a word grumbling, no one intends to insert rows and
solicit additional rations were found, each patiently waiting his or her turn
and take only part of food and drinking water. In severe shortages of food and
water, all of stores also have no intention of profiteering. They do not
increase the price. In damaged stores, goods shed sprawling but absolutely
no foul thief, on the contrary, many customers helped rearrange the
furniture, and put money when purchase something at the counter which
does not have any one. Some vending machine, all of drinks are free. People
help each other to coexist
c. Imagine and describe ethical thoughts underlying those actions of
people.