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# D/C

Date: 10-12-2015

## Capt. Rito M. Niere

1030H)

Sched:

MWF

(0930H-

1. States that trim is the difference between the draught aft and the
draught forward
Trim is defined as the difference between the draft forward and the draft aft.
Draft is the depth of the hull below the water. See Figure 13. If the aft draft is
greater, the vessel is described as being trimmed by the stern, if the forward
draft is greater, she is trimmed by the bow. See below.

2.

States
that trim may be changed by moving masses already on board
forward or aft, or by adding or removing masses at a position
forward of or abaft at the centre of floatation.
A ship trims about the longitudinal centre of flotation (Lcf). This is the
geometric centre of the water plane at
any time. The water plane is the area
of the ship shape if it were cut off at
the water line. It obviously changes as
draught increases as the shape
becomes more rounded aft while
remaining more pointed at the bow. A
diagram will explain this better. The position of Lcf is crucial to the calculation
of the draught survey. The true mean draught is the draught at the Lcf and
not the draught amidships; unless, of course, Lcf is positioned at amidships.
The position of Lcf is crucial to the calculation of the draught survey.
The true mean draught is the
draught at the Lcf and not the
draught amidships; unless, of course,
Lcf is positioned at amidships.
Consider the following diagrams

3. Defines "center of flotation" as the point about which the ship trims,
and states that it is sometimes called the tipping center

## Tipping center or Longitudinal Centre of Flotation can be described as a

hinge or pivot point about which the vessel moves longitudinally. Similar to
the fulcrum position of a lever.
4.

## States that the center of flotation is situated at the center of area

of the waterplane, which may be forward of or abaft amidships
The AFPP should not be confused with what is called the ships
Longitudinal Center of Floatation (LCF), which is also a point on the waterline
located at the geometric center of the current waterplane. For a ship of
typical hullform, the LCF would be located not too far from the ships
midsection. If the ship is longitudinally stable at some angle of trim, any shift
in weight fore or aft would cause the ship to pivot at the LCF to produce a
new angle of trim. But if the ships weight is increasing as well due to
flooding, then the LCF would rise relative to the old waterplane line as the
ship sank lower to establish a new waterplane as its displacement in the
flooded condition increased. However, if the floodwater is confined to several
compartments, and for relatively small angles of trim (<10 degrees) the ship
will appear to rotate about the AFPP which is located on the original waterline
of the vessel.

## 5. Demonstrate the use of hydrostatic data to find the position of the

center of flotation for various drafts
Trimmed hydrostatics
Some ships are supplied with 'trimmed hydrostatics'. These normally
consist of several sets of hydrostatic data each one calculated for a particular
trim. They may be in 20 cm steps covering the range of trims over which the
vessel is expected to operate. Each set of hydrostatic data consists of
displacements tabulated against draught for a particular density. The
densities may be in increments of 0.005 from 1.000 to 1.025 and the
draughts in 5 cm steps. Such tables avoid the need for both the 1st and 2nd
trim corrections and also the density correction.
Trimmed hydrostatic tables need to be interpolated for draught,
density and trim in order to find the correct displacement. This interpolation
is fairly difficult and needs careful thought in order to achieve an accurate
result.

## 6. Defines a trimming moment as mass added or removed x its distance

forward or aft of the center of flotation; or, for masses already on
board, as mass moved x the distance moved forward or aft

## 7. Defines the moment to change trim by 1 inch (MT1) as the moment

about the center of flotation necessary to change the trim of a ship
by 1 inch
The moment, taken about the centre of flotation which will change the trim by 1 in.
Expressed in foot-tons.
Assume that a known weight has been shifted longitudinally aboard your vessel a known
distance such that the trim changes only 1 inch or 1/12 of a foot. If the LCF is at midships half of
the trim will be forward and half the trim will be aft. The change in trim at each end will cause a
change in draft of I/2 of 1/12 of a foot or 1/24 of a foot at each end. The LCG will shift in the
direction of the known weight that is moved to a new point LCG'. I will represent the distance LCG
to LCG' as simply GG' in the following:
GG' = w d / displacement, Where: w is the know weight and d is the distance w is moved.
Tangent of the angle of trim = Tan A, Where A is the angle of trim in degrees
Vertically, Tan A = GG' / GML, Where GML is the longiitudinal GM of the vessel.
Horizontally, Tan A = 1/24 (LBP/2) = 1/12 LBP where LBP is the length between perpendiculars
BOTH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ANGLES, A, ARE EQUAL ! So we can set them equal to
each other as follows:
GG' / GML = 1/12 LBP

## Solving for GG' we get GG" = GML /12LBP

We can now use a similar technique for developing the Inclining Experiment Formula:
We substitute GML /12LBP for GG' in GG' = w d / displacement and get:
GML /12 LBP = w d / displacement, KEEP IN MIND the moment to trim 1 inch = wd!!!!!!!!
So if MT1 = wd in this case we get: GML /12 LBP = MT1 / displacement
Therefore: MT1 = GML (displacement) / 12 LBP