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Trim and Stability

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Date: 10-12-2015

1030H)

Sched:

MWF

(0930H-

1. States that trim is the difference between the draught aft and the

draught forward

Trim is defined as the difference between the draft forward and the draft aft.

Draft is the depth of the hull below the water. See Figure 13. If the aft draft is

greater, the vessel is described as being trimmed by the stern, if the forward

draft is greater, she is trimmed by the bow. See below.

2.

States

that trim may be changed by moving masses already on board

forward or aft, or by adding or removing masses at a position

forward of or abaft at the centre of floatation.

A ship trims about the longitudinal centre of flotation (Lcf). This is the

geometric centre of the water plane at

any time. The water plane is the area

of the ship shape if it were cut off at

the water line. It obviously changes as

draught increases as the shape

becomes more rounded aft while

remaining more pointed at the bow. A

diagram will explain this better. The position of Lcf is crucial to the calculation

of the draught survey. The true mean draught is the draught at the Lcf and

not the draught amidships; unless, of course, Lcf is positioned at amidships.

The position of Lcf is crucial to the calculation of the draught survey.

The true mean draught is the

draught at the Lcf and not the

draught amidships; unless, of course,

Lcf is positioned at amidships.

Consider the following diagrams

3. Defines "center of flotation" as the point about which the ship trims,

and states that it is sometimes called the tipping center

hinge or pivot point about which the vessel moves longitudinally. Similar to

the fulcrum position of a lever.

4.

of the waterplane, which may be forward of or abaft amidships

The AFPP should not be confused with what is called the ships

Longitudinal Center of Floatation (LCF), which is also a point on the waterline

located at the geometric center of the current waterplane. For a ship of

typical hullform, the LCF would be located not too far from the ships

midsection. If the ship is longitudinally stable at some angle of trim, any shift

in weight fore or aft would cause the ship to pivot at the LCF to produce a

new angle of trim. But if the ships weight is increasing as well due to

flooding, then the LCF would rise relative to the old waterplane line as the

ship sank lower to establish a new waterplane as its displacement in the

flooded condition increased. However, if the floodwater is confined to several

compartments, and for relatively small angles of trim (<10 degrees) the ship

will appear to rotate about the AFPP which is located on the original waterline

of the vessel.

center of flotation for various drafts

Trimmed hydrostatics

Some ships are supplied with 'trimmed hydrostatics'. These normally

consist of several sets of hydrostatic data each one calculated for a particular

trim. They may be in 20 cm steps covering the range of trims over which the

vessel is expected to operate. Each set of hydrostatic data consists of

displacements tabulated against draught for a particular density. The

densities may be in increments of 0.005 from 1.000 to 1.025 and the

draughts in 5 cm steps. Such tables avoid the need for both the 1st and 2nd

trim corrections and also the density correction.

Trimmed hydrostatic tables need to be interpolated for draught,

density and trim in order to find the correct displacement. This interpolation

is fairly difficult and needs careful thought in order to achieve an accurate

result.

forward or aft of the center of flotation; or, for masses already on

board, as mass moved x the distance moved forward or aft

about the center of flotation necessary to change the trim of a ship

by 1 inch

The moment, taken about the centre of flotation which will change the trim by 1 in.

Expressed in foot-tons.

Assume that a known weight has been shifted longitudinally aboard your vessel a known

distance such that the trim changes only 1 inch or 1/12 of a foot. If the LCF is at midships half of

the trim will be forward and half the trim will be aft. The change in trim at each end will cause a

change in draft of I/2 of 1/12 of a foot or 1/24 of a foot at each end. The LCG will shift in the

direction of the known weight that is moved to a new point LCG'. I will represent the distance LCG

to LCG' as simply GG' in the following:

GG' = w d / displacement, Where: w is the know weight and d is the distance w is moved.

Tangent of the angle of trim = Tan A, Where A is the angle of trim in degrees

Vertically, Tan A = GG' / GML, Where GML is the longiitudinal GM of the vessel.

Horizontally, Tan A = 1/24 (LBP/2) = 1/12 LBP where LBP is the length between perpendiculars

BOTH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ANGLES, A, ARE EQUAL ! So we can set them equal to

each other as follows:

GG' / GML = 1/12 LBP

We can now use a similar technique for developing the Inclining Experiment Formula:

We substitute GML /12LBP for GG' in GG' = w d / displacement and get:

GML /12 LBP = w d / displacement, KEEP IN MIND the moment to trim 1 inch = wd!!!!!!!!

So if MT1 = wd in this case we get: GML /12 LBP = MT1 / displacement

Therefore: MT1 = GML (displacement) / 12 LBP

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