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Importance of Chemistry in

Technology
Objectives:
Chemistry is understanding substances and atoms. Everything is made of atoms!!! If it wasn't
forchemistry, we couldn't make fire, plastic, everything we have today. Chemistry deals withpractically
everything (from basic food to complex machinery). From industries to agriculture,chemistry is a
foundation to be built. Although most people don't look deeper into it, Chemistryis all around us
especially in this age.

First Law of Thermodynamics
The branch of chemistry, which deals with energy changes during various physical processes
andchemical reactions, is called chemical energetic.All chemical reactions are normally accompanied by
energy changes. These energy changes takeplace because energy is needed to break chemical bonds, and
energy is released when new bondsare formed. In the process of chemical reaction, rearrangement of
atoms in reactants takes place,to give products.Sometimes, the energy changes associated with the
chemical reactions are more significant thanthe products of the reaction. Most common examples in
which energy is given out is combustionof fuels petrol, coal, wood etc. Energy changes accompanying
chemical reactions can be in theform of heat, light, mechanical energy, electricity, etc. Therefore, the
study of energy changesduring chemical reactions is of great importance in our everyday life. It finds a
large number of applications not only in chemistry but also in other branches of science, engineering
andtechnology.

Electrochemistry galvanic cells
A large number of metals, sodium hydroxide, chlorine, fluorine and many other chemicals areproduced
by electrochemical methods. The reactions carried out electrochemically can be energyefficient and less
polluting. The transmission of sensory signals through cells to brain and viceversa and communication
between cells are known to have electrochemical origin.A galvanic cell is an electrochemical cell that
converts the chemical energy of a spontaneousredox reaction into electrical energy. In this device the
gibbs energy of the spontaneous redoxreaction is converted into electrical energy which may be used for
running a motor or otherelectrical gadgets like heater, fan, geyser, etc.Daniel cell is also a type of
galvanic cell. The redox reaction of a Daniel cell is:

Zn(s)+ Cu2+(aq) →Zn2+(aq) + cu (s)This cell converts the chemical energy liberated during the redox
reaction to electrical energyand has an electrical potential equal to 1.1 V when concentration of Zn2+and
Cu2+ions is unity.If an external opposite potential is applied and increased slowly, the reaction continues
to takeplace till the opposing voltage reaches the value 1.1 v.The redox reaction of the cell is a
combination of two half reactions whose addition gives theoverall cell reaction:i. Cu2+ -2e→ Cu (s)
(reduction half reaction)ii.Zn (s) → Zn2++ 2e-(oxidation half reaction)These reactions occur in two
different portions of the daniell cell. The reduction half reactionoccurs on the copper electrode while the
oxidation half reaction occurs on the inc electrode.These two portions of the cell are also called halfcells or redox couples. The copper electrodemay be called the reduction half cell and the zinc electrode ,
the oxidation cell.

Applications on Positive Ions Cations
Ions are the most important to life. Sodium, potassium and calcium ions are useful in the
livingorganism’s cells, especially in cell membranes. The other applications of ions are that they are
used as smoke detectors and used in ion engines which are unconventional technologies. Production of
Nitric AcidNitric acid is a strong acid and occurs naturally in a combined state as nitrate salt. As with
otherindustrial inorganic acids, nitric acid is hardly of importance in itself but rather as a
keyintermediate in the production of industrial goods.The history of modern nitric acid production really
begins in 1901when W.Ostwald establishedthe ammonia oxidation conditions necessary for high
nitrogen oxide yields. The first plants usingOstwald process were started up in the first decade of the
20th century. Since then manyimprovements have been made by various workers.Milestones include use
of larger ammonia combustion units employing flat platinum-rhodiumgauzes instead of Ostwald's rolled
up platinum gauze strip and the recovery of the heat of reaction for steam raising or electricity
generation. The development of strong, affordable,corrosion resistant stainless steel materials of
construction made feasible the absorption of nitrogen oxides in water under pressure, thereby reducing
the size and cost of absorption equipment, while the progress in turbo-machinery technology led to
adoption of the more energyefficient dual pressure process.From the 1920 onwards, advances in the
synthesis of ammonia from hydrogen and atmosphericnitrogen by the Haber-Bosch process have given
the Ostwald route to nitric acid an additionalboost by lowering its feedstock costs. Nowadays practically
all nitric acid is produced by thisprocess

Uses Nitric Acid
Although basic chemistry of the nitric acid process has not changed in the last hundred years,today’s
highly efficient, compact and environment friendly plants have been developed by aprocess comparable
with the advances made in automobile technology in the same period

Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is a form of non conventional sources of energy. Renewable energy sourcesare those
which can be continuously obtained. It is not like fossil fuels which is rather rapidlydepleting due to
high usage. Renewable energy sources are also nature friendly, they do notpollute the ecosystem. So
they are environmental friendly.

Introduction to form of renewable energy
Some sources of form of renewable energy are
1. Solar energy
2. Wind energy
3. Rain
4. Tidal energy
5. Geothermal energy
6. Hydrothermal energy

Solar Energy as Form of Renewable Energy
Solar power is an important energy sources of the earth. All the living power directly orindirectly derive
the energy from the solar system that is from the sun. Solar power iscontinuous in some part of the
world except for the nights. That means the sunlight is continuous in all part of the year. The solar
energy can be converted into electric energy andheat energy. Most of the fossil fuels are spend in the
developing countries for heating purpose.By using solar energy the pollution can be controlled and the
fossil fuel can be saved to otheruseful thing.Technology is need to use the solar power to convert into
fuel and to be stored. New types of Batteries are to be invented for storing large amount of energy.