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The Sugar Revolution

Remember the outline of the exam:
section a 40 multiple choice consists of
indigenous americans, slave revolts (DATES),
pirates, bucaneers,....e.t.c (all topics)
Section b: you choose two either topics to
write on CARIBBEAN ECONOMY AND SLAVERY
or MOVEMENT TOWARDS EMANCIPATION
(AMELIORATION, EMACIPATION ACT.....ETC)AND
resistance and revolts. [write 2 essays.] And
you also getting a question on haitian
revolution. mY Teacher mr.thompson said that
just use past paper quesions and pratice them
and u good to go. 90%!! right..? :P

The Sugar Revolution
Revolution means change. There was an economic revolution that occurred in the
17th Century. Some refer to it as the Sugar Revolution.During this period, several
basic changed took place.
(1) Sugar replaced tobacco as the chief export crop in the Caribbean
(2) The population changed from one that was mainly white to one that was
mainly black because of the introduction of African slaves.
(3) The size of land holdings changed.
n.b. The Sugar Revolution occurred the fastest in Barbados where it occurred in
about one decade (1640 to 1650). It happened at a slower pace in other islands.
Some other small islands had fast rates of change such as Nevis, Antigua, St Kitts
and Montserrat.
Although the Sugar Revolution took place at different times for different
countries, the approximate period when it began was between the mid 1600's and
the end of the 1600's.

CAUSES OF THE SUGAR REVOLUTION
(1) There was a fall in tobacco prices. Tobacco was previously the main cash crop of the
Indies because of sales to Europe. However in the early 160"s, new competitors emerged
selling tobacco mainly from Virginia and Venezuela. Because of this new competition,
there was less demand for tobacco, prices fell and many small farmers went out of
production.
(2) There was a rise in demand for sugar. Sugar was already being used for sweets and
baked goods, but it was demanded even more as a sweetener for coffee and tea which
were becoming popular in Europe.
(3) At the same time that tobacco was declining and sugar demand was increasing, the
Dutch who were losing a war against the Portuguese for possession of Brazil, ran away to
the eastern Caribbean islands and brought with them their expertise in large scale sugar
production.

SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CHANGES ACCOMPANYING THE
COMING OF THE SUGAR REVOLUTION
SOCIAL CHANGES:
(1) The introduction of a great number of African slaves changed the population structure
in the islands because there were then more blacks than whites. This also caused the
emergence of different social classes.
(2) Absenteeism was a new factor brought about by the sugar revolution. Absenteeism
refers to the sugar planters (plantation owners) living away f from the plantations in
Europe and hired an overseer to stay on the island and manage and take charge of the
plantation. The plantation owner would meanwhile live a comfortable life in Europe
where they prefered to stay so they could maintain their lifestyle and enjoy a climate that
was more comfortable to them.
ECONOMIC CHANGES
(1) The emergence of the large plantation and an almost complete dependence on sugar
and the adoption ofrestrictive navigation laws by the European mother countries.
(2) The sugar revolution led to a change from agricultural diversification (planting of a

variety of crops for sale) to monoculture ( a one crop economy).
POLITICAL CHANGES
There was more direct control by the European mother countries of the respective
colonies and this led to international rivalry and war.

Origins of Slavery

ORIGINS OF SLAVERY FROM 1490'S

Firstly Amerindians were used to assist European colonists. They were over
worked and ill treated through the encomienda system and hence their numbers
depleted. The genocide of these people caused the colonists to look for other
sources of labour.

*European indentured labourers were recruited and later they were kidnapped
from English ports and forced into indentureship contracts which lasted 5 years.
Afterwards they sourced labour from bringing white prisoners from England,
Scotland and Ireland to work in the Caribbean on the plantations but there was
still not enough labour to fulfill plantation needs.

*Spain graned Asiento to the Portuguese in 1515 to bring slaves from West
Africa. Thus began a 300 year trade in human cargo across the Atlantic.

ORIGINS OF AFRICAN SLAVERY

African slaves were used as early as the 12th century when Italians planted
sugarin Cyprus using African slaves provided by Arabs

*In the 14th century sugar production spread to Portugal and Spain using African
slaves provided by the Arabs.

*In the 15th century some of the African slaves were shipped from Portugal and
Spain to work on Portuguese colonies of Madeira, Azores and the Canary Islands.

Most of the African slaves were being used by planters in the Americas in the
16th century.to produce sugar.By 1800, cattle ranches in Puerto Rico and Cuba
were turned into canefields with slaves working on them.

*In the U.S.(Southern U.S), starting in Louisiana, millions of Africans used slaves
on tobacco, cotton and rice fields.

Over a period of 300 years, 20 million Africans fell victim to the Atlantic slave trade.Not
all survived because half died in the Middle Passage.

By the 1700s. By the early 1500s. They ranged from a few hundred to a thousand acres depending on soil. Life on a typical slave plantation Sugar estates varied in size. Indeed social and religious justification for slavery often stated that the African societies were pagan and through enslavement could be brought to Christianity. Western European society by the middle of the 16th century was fully convinced of its own superiority over the people of the African continent. so that water could easily by carried to run mills which were used in processing sugar. Economic and social reasons for the enslavement of Africans The main economic reason for obtaining labout from the West African area was simply the fact that the capture of persons meant that they would be paid no wages. They were also brought to replace indigenous people who were enslaved but eventually died out. The largest parts of the estates were fields used for planting the cane. climate and physical geographical conditions.A comparison of the presence of African slaves in the Caribbean in the early 1500s and the 1700s. African slaves were introduced by the Spanish to the Caribbean in small numbers in the 1490s and early 1500s. They were initially part of Spanish exploration teams sailing to the Caribbean. woodlands. plantation economies had not yet developed as at this point European colonization was now beginning in the Caribbean. They were literally goods obtained for free. The mixture of industry and agriculture gave good reasons to set up a plantation by a river. Thus there were no overhead costs to be incurred in this regard. sold at a price and for a profit. Also advances in trading. work yards and living quarters for the plantation owners and their families and . Another reason for the rise in the numbers of African slaves in the Caribbean by the 1700s was the rise in the demand of sugar and the fall in the demand of tobacco which lead to an increase in the demand of labour which was needed for sugar cultivation but was not needed for tobacco cultivation. The rest of the estates were divided into sections used as pastures. the plantation economies (based in the Caribbean on sugar production) which depended on cheap labour had developed and more thousands more African slaves had to be brought in to work. By the 1500s a few slaves were brought to a few territories working to build settlements and plant crops for the Spanish. provision grounds. ship building and the gradual European penetration of West Africa had made slaving a profitable business.

A slave's working day began at 4 am. After a period of four weeks the holes in the hogshead were plugged and ready to export to Europe Other day to day activities taking place on the plantation The slaves on the plantation were classified according to the work they did. The artisans were the most valuable and fortunate because they were allowed to work for a planter on another plantation for pay. The most unfortunate were the unskilled slaves. Near to the work yard were cattle pens. At sunrise the slaves assembled for roll call. there was a rush to complete work that could not be done during crop time.Once the field was planted. making up the work yard were mills. Work like feeding the poultry and cleaning the cattle pens had to be done before sunrise. The fields were divided by narrow roads into smaller square plots of about 6 to 9 hectares in order to make it easier for the overseers to control the slave gangs. cotton.30 to attend to personal chores.other white staff of the plantation such as overseers and bookkeepers. The Raw sugar was shoveled from the cooling trough into hogsheads and carried away to the curing house. Also grown on some plantations but in a much smaller scale than sugar cane was tobacco. This task was even more difficult if old roots had to be removed first. This routine was broken on Sunday mornings when the slaves were allowed to go to the market to sell small animals and provision that they had nurtured in their small provision grounds. ginger and indigo. How was the sugar made? The cane juice was carried through lead covered troughs from the mill (where the cane was crushed and the cane juice collected) to storage cisterns at the furnace in the boiling house. The cane juice was taken from the cisterns and strained and stirred in a large copper container where it was heated and a little lime was added to remove impurities. The juice was then skimmed and thrown into a copper container that was heated hotter than the one before. the first and second gangs were busy weeding.The first gang of slaves had to open the soil to a depth of 15 centimeters.cocoa and coffee all grown for export. boiling houses. they were given a 2 hour break at 12. work continued until sunset after which another roll call was done and then the slaves were sent to their quarters until 4am the next day.There was also a trash house where the crushed stalks were put to dry before they were burnt in the furnace. They were also given holidays during Christmas week and a few days after crops were harvested.pimento. Cultivation and harvesting of crops The yearly cycle of cultivation began in spring with planting new cane. hoeing and replanting. curing houses as well as sheds for blacksmiths and carpenters. After the lunch break. Breakfast was given a little after 10am. Towards the end of March. poultry houses and a small hospital which was also used as a jail house for runaway slaves. A work yard was placed in the middle of the cane fielda. This was during the rainy season . timber .

sugar manufacture and labour on the plantations (c) Clerks and bookkeepers. The following are drawings showing the layout of a slave plantation. pregnant women and youths.These were slaves who worked in the Great House for the master and his family. many picked up reading and counting because of being around while white children were being educated. During the 5 months of crop time the working hours lengthened from a 16 and a half working day to an eighteen and a half working day. * First Gang -The young and strong. maids. seamstresses. . They did the lighter work such as weeding and harrowing. * free blacks who were former slaves who were able to buy their own freedom. They had access to white society. There were also stock room clers and slave supervisors in this group.Slaves worked in fields under the supervisionof slave supervisors/ drivers. Him and his family lived in great wealth and luxury in the Great house which was the most comfortable and decorated building on the plantation.They also had significantly easier work than the field slaves. These slaves were employed as cooks.Most plantations used a shift system which alternated between cutting cane and working in the factory. footmen. butlers. coachmen. responsible for the hardest work such as holing. The field slaves were divided into 3 gangs. These were usually poorer whites. (c) Field or Preadial slaves. This period was called 'dead time'.he was the person who managed the estate and made decisions about crops.master of the plantation.when much work could not be done on the crops. laundrywomen.  Seocnd gang made up of the sick.This group was made up of 2 sets of people * the free coloureds who were offspring of blacks and whites (mulattoes) who were automatically born free because they were mixed with white. (b) Overseer . cutting and planting. (b) House or Domestic slaves . Division of roles on a slave plantation  Division of roles on a slave plantation The Whites (a) Planter or his attorney. The Blacks (a) Free coloured. Factory work was dangerous and hot since the cane had to be fed into the boilers by hand. Many slaves suffered terrible burns while working in the boiling house.

They usually died very quickly.Semi skilled slaves such as midwives. They would be paid with provisions or favours for their services by other slaves who needed them. Some slaves were hired out to other plantations to do field and factory work. Field slaves could become more important amongst other slaves by becoming obeahmen.Artisans or skilled slaves such as blacksmiths.Thirty million people were estimated to have been lost as a result of the slave trade. masons etc. medicine men or herbalists. (2) Seond in value . HOW COULD SLAVES IMPROVE THEIR POSITION? Female field slaves could become house slaves by getting involved with slave masters and forming relationships. The Value of Slaves (1) Most Value . domestic slaves and unskilled hired out slaves could become artisans by training as an apprentice under an artisan and learning the skills. Hired Slaves. watchmen. Field slaves.Field slaves. Female domestic slaves could become a domestic slave with little work and privileges also by getting involved with slave masters and forming relationships. nurses nd craftsmen (3) Least valuable . carpenters. More than were lost to tribal war and internal struggles in West Africa . These slaves were very unfortunate as they had no permanent homes and had to sleep chained together wherever they worked. These were often loaned out to other plantations and worked for pay sometimes. They had more freedom of movement than all other slaves.children and very old who did the light weeding and cared for the animals.population . Artisans were also hired slaves but they were skilled and hence more fortunate. Amongst the field slaves there were those who were more important among the slaves themselves such as obeah men or myalmen and medicine men or herbalists.De. The Impact of the Slave Trade on West Africa Impact of the Slave Trade on West Africa 1. *Third gang .

Decline in Farming industry. hanged and burnt in public.Laws were passed in the colonies to prevent enslaved Africans from having rights.Slaves were chained together. whipped and beaten for minor offences.000  2. Traditional West African crafts such as brass working.  English West Indies Period French West Indies Before 1650 (before sugar) Total numbers in French and English WI 23.000 1700-1800 1. The Siete Partidas was a set of 13 th Century Laws meant for Spain at the time that were adjusted and applied to the Spanish Caribbean colonies. . cotton weaving and iron making were alos lost due to the capture of craftsmen and because the Europeans provided cheaper iron and crafts. .Fear and insecurity caused by the slave trade led to a decline in farming. Forms of Slave Control  Forms of slave control  Physical control .These laws gave slaves rights to enter te Catholic church. The following table shows the number of Africans that came to the Caribbean as slaves over 3 centuries. It was also cncerned with preserving the Catholic religion and preventing inter marriage.000 150.4million 1800-abolition 400. They were also mutilated.itself.4 millon 1 million2. Laws such as the Code Noir of the French Caribbean and the Siete Partidas of the Spanish Caribbean colonies.000 1650-1700 250.  *Legal Control .000 250.

The enslaves population was divided into different groups and deliberate efforts were made to keep them apart. Some slaves were appointed as headmen and drivers to keep a check on others. they could not move around freely and they were unable to . Laws such as the Code Noir of the French Caribbean and the Siete Partidas of the Spanish Caribbean colonies. The Siete Partidas was a set of 13 th Century Laws meant for Spain at the time that were adjusted and applied to the Spanish Caribbean colonies. *Economic Control** . Forms of Slave Control  Forms of slave control  Physical control . Slaves after years of slavery came to believe the racism and accepted white cultural values. coloured. hanged and burnt in public. Back culture. This was done to strip them of an identity so they would be easier to control.Slaves were chained together. they could not move around freely and they were unable to gather in groups.Slaves were prevented from mixing with each other and other groups in society. whipped and beaten for minor offences. *Social Control .Slaves were seen as property and were not supposed to own property of their own. Psychological and ideological . It was also cncerned with preserving the Catholic religion and preventing inter marriage. Some degrading terms used by whites to degrade blacks were buckra. red leg and nigger.Laws were passed in the colonies to prevent enslaved Africans from having rights. The planters also made sure that they did not buy slaves only from one tribe since this would have made it easier for them to communicate with one another and plan revolts.  Divide and rule. music and art were frowned upon and insulted. They were also mutilated.It was for this reason that laws were passed to ban drumming and dancing by Africans in the Caribbean.*Social Control . religion. *Cultural Control .These laws gave slaves rights to enter te Catholic church. so the whites sometimes prevented them from owning provision land and domestic animals which they would use to reate a side income in the Sunday market.Slavs were not allowed to practise their African cultural forms. Blacks began to accept white social divisions and some began to dislike each other.  *Legal Control .Slaves were prevented from mixing with each other and other groups in society.Whites believed that African societies were barbaric and that blacks were inferior beings.

Back culture. Harsh treatment by slave masters 3. clothing. This was done to strip them of an identity so they would be easier to control. especially those related to the supply of food. *Economic Control** . red leg and nigger. religion.Slavs were not allowed to practise their African cultural forms.The enslaves population was divided into different groups and deliberate efforts were made to keep them apart. Psychological and ideological . Some degrading terms used by whites to degrade blacks were buckra.gather in groups. The desire for freedom 2.Slaves were seen as property and were not supposed to own property of their own. The planters also made sure that they did not buy slaves only from one tribe since this would have made it easier for them to communicate with one another and plan revolts. The presence of many slaves on a plantation from tribes in Africa known for being fierce. 5. housing and medical care.It was for this reason that laws were passed to ban drumming and dancing by Africans in the Caribbean.  Divide and rule. coloured. 4.Whites believed that African societies were barbaric and that blacks were inferior beings. Slave dislike of a particular scheme proposed by their master such as separating hem from their families. Some slaves were appointed as headmen and drivers to keep a check on others. Blacks began to accept white social divisions and some began to dislike each other. *Cultural Control . Slaves being denied some basic rights and privileges. music and art were frowned upon and insulted. . Resistance of slavery by the enslaved Africans RESISTANCE OF SLAVERY BY THE ENSLAVED AFRICANS Causes of Slave resistance 1. Slaves after years of slavery came to believe the racism and accepted white cultural values.This made it easier for slaves to come together to organise rebellions. so the whites sometimes prevented them from owning provision land and domestic animals which they would use to reate a side income in the Sunday market.

 Slaves would pretend to play up to the master's opinion of them as child-like or foolish as a way of deflecting aggression and hence get away from punishment which they would be subject to if they acted openly aggressive. skylarking or wasting time in the field when overseers were not looking.destruction of plantation vehicles. They tended to be smug.Non violent or indidvidual actions against enslavement. machineries and 'accidental' fires. . The mountainous terrain of most West Indian islands provided ideal areas for slaves to hide out and even set up maroon settlements if they escaped from plantation The following pictures show slaves being cruelly treated which makes it understandable why there was resistance by slaves. The character of the white population.  Domestic female slaves were sometimes able to poison their slave owners. 9. they were as follows.insurrectionary resistance.6. Emergence of a leader amongst the slaves who had respect of the other slaves.Some slaves would steal from the plantations in order to improve their standard of living but mostly to reduce the economic success of their masters. This caused great resentment amongst the slaves. The fact that on many plantations.  Sabotage. managers and even overseers who would treat slaves harsher because the owner was absent.This is a sense of hopelessness that new slaves experiences as a result of being separated from their homes and families. arrogant.  Apathy . 7. There were different types of non. Apathy could result in slaves being unwilling to work. 11.  Stealing. Geography of the island.  Refusal to work either individually or in groups. 10. For example slaves would continue to lie in hospital long after they had recovered. slaves outnumbered the white settlers.  Malingering. Women especially would exaggerate menstrual difficulties and they would also breast feed their children for as long as possible to keep from doing hard work.  Faking Illnesses or deliberately prolonging a real illness after recovery. Owner absenteeism and the control of plantations by attorneys. Types of slave resistance (1) Non-Insurrectionary resistance/ Passive resistance . In some islands slaves kept on practicing African religion and this served as a bond amongst slaves. 8. cruel and inefficient in taking care of the slaves.

They also tied their heads in ways that were symbolic to slaves alone and in doing so were able to carry messages. for example Nanny of the Jamaican Maroons was a notable military leader.During the Sunday markets.  Concubinage. enslaved women spread information on planned revolts and other uprisings . Their imitation of the white women was intended to show that they were on equal footing with these women. Impact of resistance by enslaves women on the Emancipation process  Female slaves played a significant role in cultural resistance.Some slave women would use their sexuality and their bodies to get into sexual relations with the planters/ slave masters so that they would be able to improve their daily condition by getting such benefits as better meals.Mothers would pass on African traditions to their children although the slave masters forbade it. for example through dress. This was especially prevalent in the french islands.  Acting as communicators between slaves on different plantations who were planning rebellions (especially at the Sunday Market where slaves from different plantations would meet).  Enslaved women also used dress as a form of resistance.  Prolonging the breast feeding and weaning periods of their babies  Poisoning masters (especially those women who were cooks)  Infanticide.  Running away and joining Maroon settlements. Methods of Resistance by enslaved women included. for example. They would also use their concubine status to undermine the role of the planter's wife and increase their own status. better accommodation and better opportunities for their mixed race children who were always born free. The drum was used to transmit messages to other enslaved people on other plantations.  Cultural resistance.  Some enslaved women emerged as leaders in the resistance movement. a few slave mothers would kill their babies as soon as they were born so that they would not live to become slaves  Some slave women would kill the white babies and toddlers that they would have to take care of.  Enslaved women played a significant role in undermining the entire system of slavery by acting as communicators.

Interestingly. The politician who became the best known leader of the Abolition movement was William Wilberforce. The first revolt on a sugar colony happened in 1656. at first he rejected a suggestion made in parliament in Britain in 1814 to free enslaved Africans illegally brought to British territories. They also began the struggle for the abolition of the slave trade.  Religious humanitarians such as members of a Protestant religion called the Quakers tried to educate the British about the wrongs involved in slavery and the slave trade. Reasons for the abolition of the slave trade  REASONS FOR THE ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE Supporters of Abolition or Abolitionists  Religious Humanitarian Abolitionists  Secular Supporters who were mostly Parliamentarians.. Even politicians who became well known Abolitionists at first did not support Abolition. The main insurrectionary form of resisitance was slave revolt.There were more revolts as time went on with each century having more revolts than the last. on the French island of Guadeloupe. Sir .violent actions against enslavement carried out by groups. The campaign to end the enslavement of Africans had to proceed in stages because it was a well established practice and it was central to economic activity in the Caribbean colonies. The Secular Supporters of Abolition achieved definite goals by causing Parliamentary Agitation against slavery and the slave trade. Click this link for more information about Abolition of the slave trade click here The campaign by the Abolitionists.(2) Insurrectionary resistance or active resistance. This was because as time went on there were more Creole slaves (slaves born in the Caribbean) than African slaves which made communication easier and also saw that any ancient African rivalries amongst different tribes did not get in the way of organising revolts.

Henry Thorton. Sharp also went to court to free a slave called James Somerset who had escaped from an American slave master who was living in England. This decision made it illegal to take a slave against his will back to the slave colonies. parliamentarians began to debate the godliness of the slave trade. The society also produced and handed out pamphlets to the public highlighting the evils of slavery and cases of cruelty against slaves. the English court under Judge Mansfield decided that there was no legal definition of slavery in England. This first step was pushed by a man named Granville Sharp. so a slave could walk away from slavery by refusing to go back. it was not their main intention to attract the attention of the public.Edward James Elliot. . Zachary Macaulay and James .By 1792. the Quakers pushed for the establishment of a commission of the House of Commons to be set up to take evidence of the slave trade. Their main focus was to persuade the rich British people (or aristocrats). STEP 2 In 1775. Strong's former master saw him and tried to capture him and put him on a ship to be sold in Jamaica. Thomas Clarkson. He first became involved in the slavery issue when he nursed an abandoned slave named Strong who had been attacked and nearly killed by his master. Sharp was able to get Strong freed and went to court to get the English law on slavery made clearer. Members of the Society were William Wilberforce. Sommerset was also re captured and put on a ship set for Jamaica but Sharp was once again able to free the slave before the ship sailed due to another court trial. a junior clerk in the Ordinance Office. This was because Britain was the main slave owning nation by the 18th century. back to health. Although the Society distributed their pamphlets to the public. In 1787. 500 petition were sent into Parliament. the Quakers formed The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade. with town leaders organising meeting and getting petitions against slavery signed.Thomas Buxton was also hesitant (while other abolitionists were in a hurry to end slavery) and did not rush abolition because he believed that slavery would eventually decline on its own. Because of Sharp's anti slavery trials. STEP 1 The first step in the campaign for abolition was to abolish slavery in English parliament. Charles Grant. The Mansfield judgement helped boost public opinion against slavery. Granville Sharp. This society set up branches in Britain's large towns. the Members of Parliament (MP's) and others who held important offices. This commission did a report and in 1776 after the report was submitted. In 1772.

Stephen. Men such as William Wilberforce and the then Prime Minister Pitt were instrumental in having the Abolition Act passed and therefore was the main factor that accounted for the success of the Anti-slavery movement. One could be fined 100 pounds if he was found engaging in such trade and the ship involved could be seized. the end of trading of slaves or their transportation to any other place). Question and answer. This support was important because Parliamentary acts were necessary to effect change. William Pitt secured an order forbidding the importation of slaves into Trinidad and some areas of Guyana. In 1827. In 1804. the battle for Emancipationwas still to be fought. the 1807 Abolition Act put a legal end to slave trading. (1) What factors accounted for the success of the British Anti slavery movement? The main factor was the extreme support for this movement from British Parliament. This act of Abolition was passed in March 1807 and came into action from 1st January. The Abolition Act did not result in a complete end of the slave trade. OUTCOME The Act of Abolition meant the end of the slave trade (i. the new Prime Minister Charles James Fox moved a resolution for the total abolition of the Slave Trade. Profits were too large and tempting. After Pitt's death in January 1806. the British Prime Minister at the time. he got the Abolition bill passed in one section of Parliament but it was overruled and thrown out in another section. In 1805. To this extent. a person who still engaged in slave trading could be killed. Additional laws had to be passed to end it altogether. . Rewards were offered to naval officers who recovered slaves from such ships.e. However. 1808. STEP 3 William Wilberforce contributed greatly to the campaign for Abolition by being the first to introduce a proposal for abolition in a session of Parliament.

N.  The French anti antislavery movement recognized that full emancipation was the only answer to the problem of slavery unlike the British who proposed Amelioration and Apprenticeship before Emancipation.  The members of the British Anti Slavery movement consisted of both religious and non-religious humanitarians.  The slaves in the French colonies did not have to undergo a period of Apprenticeship like slaves in British colonies had to do. Therefore. (read about Apprenticeship in the upcoming section). These arguments were usually put forth by the slave owners and the rich and elite whites in Britain and in the British colonies in the West Indies. (3) Explain 3 ways in which the French Anti slavery movement differed from the British Anti slavery movement. the French members did not make great attempts to take up the proposal in Parliament.(2) Give 3 arguments used by both the French and British abolitionists against slavery in the Caribbean.B.  Slavery was uneconomic and it was cheaper to operate estates by means of paid labour. The activities of missionaries who sought to Christianize slaves were discouraged and missionaries even suffered perc\persecution by slave owners. ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST SLAVERY Arguments for slavery /Arguments by the Antagonists or opponents of the Anti-slavery Movement. slaves in the French colonies didn't have to undergo a period of Apprenticeship as did slaves in Britain.  Unlike the members of the British anti slavery movement.  There was nothing immoral in slavery since it has been practiced throughout .  On religious grounds it was argued that slavery imposed by man was contrary to the word of God and that enslavement of one race by another violated the principle of the equality of man.  The education of slaves as well as religious instruction about Christianity was neglected.

( Religious argument). They were also prone and exposed to disease and in these cases they were not offered immediate and good medical services (Humanitarian argument)  Slavery was uneconomical and unprofitable and it was cheaper to operate estates using paid labour. runaways and rebellions. . (Economic argument)  The education of slaves as well as religious knowledge was neglected. Therefore in comparison slaves were not badly treated. Africans worked well in tropical climates as it was similar to their own at home. Slaves who were educated might believe themselves to be equal to their masters. white indentured labour was difficult to get. (Humanitarian argument). (Economic argument)  Slave labour helped in providing Europe with essential tropical raw materials. this would mean a loss to the owner. Also on the estates. The harshness of the slave system was proven by the man slave suicides. housing clothing and medical care. (Humanitarian argument)  Slaves were improperly housed and fed. Arguments against slavery/ Arguments by the Protagonists or Supporters of the Anti Slavery movement.  It was argued that slavery imposed by man was contrary to the will of God and did not support the idea of Equality of man.  Slaves were provided with food. the treatment of slaves was harsh and brutal. (Religious argument)  The passage of slaves across the Atlantic to the West Indies was unsanitary and slaves were subject to disease.( Humanitarian reason)  Education of slaves was not necessary for them to perform estate labour.  Justice for the slaves was hardly to be expected especially where judges were themselves owners of slaves and where slaves could not give evidence against whites in court.history and there were even examples of it in the bible. (Economic argument)  West Indian agriculture developed by slave labour promoted British Economic development and created employment for British men both home and abroad. (Economic argument)  The treatment of slaves on West Indian plantations was better than the treatment of African slaves in Africa that were captured during tribal wars. (Religious argument)  The labour of slaves was important to make plantations productive. Amerindian labour was inadequate.(Economic argument)  Flogging or whipping of slaves was a normal feature of navy traning and English children working in coal mines. Slaves were an investment and if they were not taken care of and provided with these things and kept healthy.

slave trading interest agents and friends of the West India plantocracy.Baptists. Angered by theobjectionof the Amelioration proposals as a means of preventing Emancipation.a group made up of evangelical humanitarians such as Ramsey.  Society for effecting the Abolition of the slave trade created in 1787. Its chief parliamentary member was Wilberforce. Ramsey. Sharp.  The Chapham sect.  The Quaker society of friends . Interest groups for slavery  The West India Lobby . The rights of masters over slaves was expressed by means of strict laws. Its humanitarian crusade. the lobby was able to block the passage for abolitionist legislature for a long time.a group made up of Granville Sharp and some other critics of slavery. absentee planters.  The New Torries . they still secured twenty million pounds compensation and the apprenticeship scheme for the planters in the Emancipation Act.The plantocracy was a rich white minority who held power in the colonies in the 18th century.This was a group of industrialists who believed that slavery was a wasteful crusade and an inefficient system of labour. Macaulay and others. however the slaves had little to no rights. N. Moravians and Congregationalists who instructed the slaves in Christianity and attempted to improve their conditions. aided by favourable economic conditions resulted in the passing of the Emancipation act. Other prominent members were Clarkson. Therefore slaves got more public support and sympathy than before. Closely . The Plantocracy . Wilberforce. Methodists.A powerful pressure group made up of retired planters.  Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of slavery formed in 1823. Well represented in Parliament. (Humanitarian argument).B. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS THAT LED TO THE END OF SLAVERY Social Factors  Firstly there was a surge of religious sympathy for the welfare of mankind because of a new form of Christianity introduced in the later 18th century. Stephen and Macaulay. INTEREST GROUPS FOR AND AGAINST SLAVERY Interest groups against slavery  Non conformist missionaries belonging to the following religions .

 Secular humanitarians were influenced by the agitation against the slave trade started by religious groups and achieved definite goals in law courts and in Parliament e. Interests such as cotton from the USA and sugar from beet root from Europe itself. merchants would import food and goods from India to sell in Englandsuch as cloth.  Slavery was bound to come to an end when these new influential men industrialists and merchants. . the only rich and influential men were the plantation owners. (This new interest in Inida was called the East India Interest).Before this revolution. These were the owners for big industries that were built during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. Bristol and Liverpool had begun to develop other economic interests other than sugar from the Caribbean. RELATED PAST PAPER QUESTIONS (1)Name 1 leader of the British anti slavery movement.came to dominate parliament in 1832. They were supported by other religious groups. The industrialists dominance mean a victory of industiralists over agriculturalists and this eventually led to less people fighting their cause in Parliament. tea and cotton. Economic Factors  The main English cities engaged in the slave trade namely London.  The British government earned more from customs and taxes on imported cotton and the export of manufactured goods than it did from the slave trade. Both Sharp and Wilberforce were connected to the Committee against the slave tradde formed by the Quakers.  The British trading empire began to grow in other parts of the world because a new group of influential and rich men had emerged . the early 19th Century was a period of depression in West Indian agriculture.For instance. Granville Sharp in the Somerset case.followed by the Quakers who had long quarreled for an end to slavery. Wilberfoce who secured the support of Prime Ministers Pitt and Fox against slavery.g.the industrialists and merchants. Industrialists and merchants involved in trade with India resented the slave trade because West Indian planters had the advantage of protection from competition because of the Navigation Acts which forbade competing cpountries from trading in their zone.These industrialists had little care for the slave trade and slavery as they were attracted by more profitable business opportunities in India. Because of this.

(2)Sate 3 achievements of the British anti-slavery movements up to 1834. called the Society for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. So they changed strategy and decided to propose Amelioration to Parliament themselves. They thought that if they improved the condition of slaves they could silence the anit-slavery movement and continue slavery so they could remain with the use of their slaves. This mandated that slaves should have Sunday off work. (4)Explain some religious and humanitarian arguments that made many Christian missionaries in the Caribbean support the abolition of slavery. IN 1816. Their work day was also to be no longer than 5am to 7pm whith 30mins for breakfast and a 2 hour lunch. Amelioration  AMELIORATION Amelioration was a proposal made by a group of plantation and slave owners called the West Indian Committee to the Colonial Secretary in Britain to improve conditions for the enslaved Africans. official Amelioration laws were passed for the ALL of the British Caribbean territories. The reason why the planters proposed Amelioration was to hinder of delay abolition of slavery and the emancipation of slaves. The abolitionists set up over 200 branches of the new society in a year. Their plan was to campaign for an immediate improvement in the conditions of enslaved Africans and then to get slavery completely abolished. as well as one other day every fortnight to do their own planting. They were to have at least 26 days off work every year. Their representatives in London sent their suggestions to the Colonial Secretary who accepted them and ordered the propsals put into action in the British Caribbean territories. These improvements were made between 1816 and 1826. Some of the terms of Amelioration are as follows:  Female slaves could not be whipped . This was the first instant where slave condtions were improved. In 1823. The British Abolitionists formed a new organization.Jamaica had already passed the Consilidated Slave Law. (3) Give 2 reasons why many Caribbean sugar planters did not want slavery to be abolished. The British Caribbean planters soon realized that public opinion was not on their side and that they might also lose the support of MP's if anti-slavery legislation went to Parliament. However it is not certain to what extent the law was enforced. (5)Outline the economic arguments used by many British Caribbean planters/ plantation owners to defend slavery.

 Slave owners and overseers could not carry whips with them in the fields  Slave families could not be separated  Slaves had to receive religious instruction  Banks for slaves to store their savings had to be established.Many parliamentarians already belonged to . Explain 2 ways in which the planters reacted to the new Ameliorarion proposals. St Vincent and Dominica) refused to accept and pass the proposals. In the end the slaves were only treated worse. Describe 5 proposals introduced in 1823 to improve the conditions of slavery in the Caribbean. this Act was passed due to overwhelming support for the anti slavery movement in parliament. They found that it gave the slaves too much freedom and too many rights and that this could cause disorder and riots.  Slaves could not be sold as payment of debts  Slaves had to be allowed to go to church on Sunday and to go to market on Saturday  All floggings over 3 strokes were to be recorded by estate officials and the records submitted every 3 months to a magistrate  Slaves should have a legal right to give evidence in court once sponsored by a member of the clergy (church member)  A male slave who was to be whipped should be given one day's notice before the actual whipping  Why did Amelioration fail? Amelioration failed because planters from all the islands (especially Jamaica. By 1826. These savings were to help slaves save money to buy their freedom if they wanted to. Related Past Paper questions 1a. it was clear that Amelioration was a failure and the Emancipation society and many British parliamentarians demanded for slavery to end. b. The Emancipation Act and Apprenticeship  The Emancipation Act and Apprenticeship The Emancipation Act The Emancipation Act was passed in British Parliament in May 1833 and it was put into practice in 1834. Barbados.

The planters in parliament had lost political power mainly due to the fact that they had not stuck to the amelioration proposals made by their own colleagues in London.the Society for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. Terms of the Emancipation Act  All slaves were to be freed at the same time  Most of the former slaves were to become 'apprentices' who would have to work for their former masters for a fixed number of hours per day for a specified number of years  The slave owners were to be paid a monetary sum as compensation for the loss of their slaves  The money for this payment was to come from raising the duties (a type of tax) on sugar from the colonies  Therefore the main concerns of the Emancipation Act were to  Ensure that former slaves had protection of the law  Ensure that there would be a transition period between slavery and full freedom  Calm the planters whose business would be disrupted by these changes. Cuba. Economically. Another factor that led to a majority vote to end slavery in British Parliament in 1833 was the fact that the 1830 election in Britain brought in a majority of new members who were industrialists who had no interest in slavery and wanted it to end. Brazil or Mauritius and therefore less in demand in Europe. What were the aims of apprenticeship?  It was intended to provide an easy and peaceful transition from slavery to freedom for the slaves  It was meant to guarantee the planters an adequate supply of labour during the . The planters were also unpopular because the public was growing to be against them on the issue of slavery. slavery was becoming useless because sugar from the British colonies was more expensive than sugar fro. The system of apprenticeship was neither full freedom nor full slavery but rather a system set up for planters to keep their labourers on the plantations although slavery was officially over. Apprenticeship The system of apprenticeship was put in place by the Emancipation Act which was passed in 1833.

The main problem faced by these magistrates was that they worked under poor working conditions and this prevented them from performing their roles effectively. They were mostly retired navy and army officers.to facilitate the change from slave codes to new laws  to Provide time for the establishment of colonial banking institutions to meet the needs of a new society Structure of Apprenticeship  Non-field slaves were to be apprentices for a period of four years and field slaves for a period of six years  All children under the age of six years were freed  Destitute mothers could indenture their free children on estate until they reached age 21  Stipendiary magistrates were appointed by the Crown to protect the freed Africans against overwork. The rest were non-officials from Britain as well as some whites and coloured West Indians not associated with the planter class.  It was meant to give the planters time to introduce new equipment. technology and labour management  To allow time for legal changes. These stipendiary magistrates were paid by the Crown  All apprentices were to work forty and a half per week  Food allowances would continue as during slavery  The apprentices had the option of performing extra labour or purchasing their freedom What measures were put in place to enforce the system of Apprenticeship ? Officials called Stipendiary Magistrates were put in place to enforce the apprenticeship system.period that it lasted  it was expected to train the apprentices for the responsibilities of freedom especially in working regularly for wages. Most of these men were appointed from Britain. Duties of the Stipendiary Magistrates  Their main duty was to supervise the operation of the act of Emancipation  To inspect jails and work houses  They were to ensure that both owners and apprentices secured their respective rights under the law . maltreatment and abuse.

so the stipendiary magistrates who were appointed to oversee and enforce the new system did not have proper records to base their decisions on  women and children were overworked  Work hours were extended beyond the forty and a half stipulated in the Act to 45 and even 50 hours  The work day was extended from 9 to 11 hours  Food. 1840. apprenticeship was nothing but a changed/modified version of slavery and apprentices could not bargain with the planters about the conditions of labour Why did Apprenticeship end two years before it was supposed to? According to the Emancipation Act of 1833. . Some of the abuses are as follows:  Enslaved Africans were re-classified by the planters from non-praedial (farming) to praedial. so they would all be forced to work in the fields and do six years instead of four  There was no proper registration of the slaves. However. They were expected to administer justice and assist in preventing social and economic disturbances  They were appointed to help maintain the peace  They had exclusive jurisdiction over offences commited by apprentices and their employers  They made sure that no one was unduly jailed without proper reason  They ensured that apprentices received proper medical attention  They had to come up with the price of slaves who wanted to buy their freedom Problems with the Apprenticeship system There were some abuses when planters tried to break or bend the new laws. domestic ex slaves were to serve for 4 years and the field slaves were to serve for 6 years. This meant that field slaves would have had to remain apprentices until August 1st. However. both domestics and field workers got freedom in 1838 because. clothing and other requirements specified in one of the clauses of the Act were withheld Extent to which the aims of Apprenticeship were accomplished To an extent they were because estates were provided with adequate supply of labour since apprentices were required to work for many hours for free.Apprenticeship also kept up production in the sugar industry as well so it was also successful to this extent.

the apprentices were working too long hours to get any type of additional training  By 1838 ALL apprentices (both field and domestic) were looking forward to freedom. Successful Maroon communities were established in Jamaica as seen with the Sambo. Give 3 reasons why apprentices would have been unhappy with the apprenticeship system Marronage  MARRONAGE Maroons are slaves who ran away and established small settlements in the mountainous areas of Jmaica. Cudjoe Town (named after leader General Cudjoe) and Nanny Town.  The British Government was beginning to have doubts about the so called benefits of apprenticeship that apprentices were supposed to receive e. 1838 apprenticeship and thereby slavery was totally ended. As Maroon communities increased. There were two types of marronage. They served as a constant reminder to the white community that Africans wanted their freedom and could be self governing. They also reminded the slaves that there was an alternative to their current situation and therefore a source of hope. the slave owners felt more threatened. Related past papers questions 1. which describes individuals or small groups who ran away. So on August 1st.Mosquito on the Mosquito Coast. clothes. Maroon communities prove to the white slave masters that Africans were not childlike and docile. Many planters believe that they would benefit more if all were freed. British Guiana and Suriname. Grand Marronage which refers to large groups of people who ran away from plantations and Petit Marronage.g. medical care and housing. . Granting freedom to only domestics and forcing the field workers to work as apprentices for two more years would have caused revolts. The word is derived from 'marronage' which came from the Spanish word 'cimarron' meaning fugitive or runaway.They would no longer have to provide apprentices with food.The Grand Maroonage led to the establishment of Maroon communities while Petit Marronage was comprised of people who would sometimes return to the plantations and who can be seen as habitual runaways or people who tried to get away from their situation temporarily.

agreed to help capture runaway slaves and to help in the defense of the colony.Europeans had difficulty getting through these areas and thus Maroons were able to exist peacefully in these areas. They frequently used this knowledge defending themselves against European trackers who attempted to find their communities. yams. they planned successful raids and made important decisions. tobacco.  To some extent Maroon communities survived because Europeans grew to fear and even respect them .After a long period of conflict with the Maroons. plantains. This agreement or treaty gave the Maroons the right to their independent communities. coffee beans and sugar cane in some larger communities.Reasons for the success of Maroon Communities  Geographical Topography was used to their advantage .They produced enough to feed themselves and planted a variety of crops such as sweet potatoes. Tainos taught the Maroons to survive in the forests and the Maroons introduced the Tainos to various new farming methods and types of farming.  The Maroon Wars First Maroon War (1729-1739) .Various Maroon leaders helped maintain well organised communities through their administrative skills. -They met groups of Tainos in the mountains and formed agreements with them.They carefully chose where to settle and they had organised systems of government in their settlements. Second Maroon War (1795-1796). In return. bananas.g General Cudjoe signed a treaty with the colonial government to gain its cooperation and to ensure that the Maroon community would survive with little interference from the Europeans. e. The two groups traded their surplus food. They also helped develop a sense of unity and confidence among community leaders. the British Government in Jamaica came to an agreement.  The Maroons established well planned communities . the Maroons pledged their support to the colonist regime.The Maroons felt they were being mistreated . It also helped when the Maroons raided plantations for supplies.  The Maroon leaders were very effective .  Their knowledge and practice of guerrilla warfare was valuable.This is eveident by the treaties which were signed with some Maroons after the first Maroon war and the Second Maroon war.  They became self sufficient communities .  They established symbiotic relationships with the indigenous peoples ( a symbiotic relationship is a relationship in which both groups benefit).They settled on mountainous regions such as the 'Cockpit Country' in Jamaica because there were many caves in that area.

EACH benefited from the Treaties signed at the end of the Maroon wars in 1739. some Maroons turned against the Spaniards and assisted the English. Describe 3 ways by which the Maroons supported their communities. Later most Maroon armies turned against the English and proved a thorn in the side of the new English settlers. Outline 5 factors that explain the origins and growth of Maroon communities in either Jamaica or Suriname.  Related past paper questions 1.and conflict began again in 1795.a Who were the Maroons? 1. Another treaty was signed whereby the Maroons would return all runaway slaves.b Name 3 Caribbean countries which were home to Maroon settlements. the British signed a significant treaty with them in 1739. (a)Describe the development of the Maroon communities in Jamaica from the time of the Spanish occupation up to 1738.  Piracy in the Caribbean . 1. ask for the king's forgiveness and be relocated to other parts of Jamaica. Buccaners and Privateers in the Caribbean. Pirates. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow: It is during the Spanish occupation of Jamaica that we first hear of the Maroons. During the English conquest of Jamaica.c Give 3 factors which helped the Maroons decide on the location of their communities. (b) What Maroons did the English expect to gain from the treaty of 1739? 3. 1. d. Unable to defeat the Maroons. 4.  2 . Discuss 2 ways by which the Maroon communities of Jamaica and the British.

and eventually no town was safe along the Spanish Main. To combat this. These raiders committed acts of piracy before the queen declared war on Spain and made them privateers. During the early 1600's. and European goods to the colonies of the new world. from the 1560s the Spanish adopted a convoy system — a treasure fleet (flota) would sail annually from Seville (and later from Cádiz). The period during which pirates were most successful was from the 1640s until the 1680s. The classic route in the Caribbean was through the Lesser Antilles to the ports along the Spanish Main. As a result. Spain controlled the West Indies and large areas of the South American mainland. English. Tortue Island (also called Tortuga Island). pillaging and taking away as many valuables as could be found. Their numbers grew. especially in the capture of enemy merchant shipping vessels. There were pirates. carrying passengers. The Spanish could not afford a sufficient military presence to control the area or enforce their trading laws. The privateers attacked merchant ships of the enemy nation and sank or robbed them. French. and other European sailors settled on Hispaniola. troops. Before the development of strong navies. Dutch. then northwards into the Yucatan Channel to catch the westerlies back to Europe. Pirates were more likely to shadow the fleet to attack stragglers than try and seize the main vessels. Unlike pirates. bands of English. Pirates held a Spanish town ransom until all inhabitants gave them all of their wealth in exchange for their lives. They included such famous English captains as Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins. Among these robbers were the "sea dogs" sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England to raid Spanish fleets. Dutch. and if a war was declared there was widespread piracy and privateering throughout the Caribbean. By 1550. Other European countries were eager to colonize the newly discovered Americas led to an outbreak of piracy on the Caribbean Sea.Sometimes pirates would attack Spanish colonies. privateers and buccaneers.The great era of piracy in the Caribbean extends from around 1560 up until the 1720s. and other Caribbean islands. and French pirates robbed Spain's ships and looted its settlements. privateers operated with their government's permission. This led to constant smuggling and colonization in peacetime. They raided Spanish ships and towns and soon became known as buccaneers. many nations commissioned privately owned ships to assist them in time of war.A pirate was a sea robber who on his own without permission. Piracy did not only take place on the sea. The officers and crew of such a privateer could keep a large part or all of the money from the . A Privateer is a privately owned armed vessel. an area that included the coasts of what are now Colombia and Venezuela. A privateer was a private individual who owned and officered an armed ship commissioned by the government and authorized for use in war. They would ransack the towns. Pirates sailed the Caribbean for over 300 years.

(n. Holland was a trading nation so it already had many ships plying the Caribbean sea routes and between 1569 and 1609 Dutch privateers were also very active in the region. Smuggling Local Caribbean smugglers sold their tobacco or sugar for decent prices and then bought manufactured goods from the trans-Atlantic traders in large quantities to be dispersed among the colonists of the West Indies and the Spanish Main who were eager for a little touch of home. Kitts ( from 1623) and Nevis (from 1628). Eustatius. and Bermuda. Hispaniola and Martinique and they nominally held Tortuga. Antigua (from 1632). It soon became a haven for pirates. The Spanish Caribbean empire was in decline from the 1600s. especially Spain which had bankrupted the state. was often great. The Caribbean continued to reflect European policy shifts. was established as was a colony on Providence Island in 1625. and the Spanish presence in the Caribbean began to decline at a faster rate. a noted pirate base from the 1640s. France and Holland became stronger they moved from fighting the Spanish over religion to fighting each other over economics. the surrounding Caribbean islands were being overrun by other nations' more aggressive expansion. The English had expanded beyond Barbados. St Kitts was the first successfully settled British Caribbean colony. The Dutch had remained an almost baseless trading presence in the area but following the Spanish decline they became established at Curaçao and St.b. The French were well established on Guadeloupe. other nations began to become more established — Barbados. becoming more dependent on African slave labour and with a reduced military presence. There was not much difference between pirates and privateers in the Caribbean at that time. Montserrat. While the major cities of the region were still Spanish. Eventually the Spanish chased the Dutch out of the Caribbean. the first colony. Dutch pirates proved to be a headache for the Spanish and diverted enough Spanish ships for the British and French to colonize most of the Lesser Antilles.captured vessels. Meanwhile. and attack every ship in sight regardless of what nation. althought Barbados was the first British colony. Spain was also at war with the Netherlands. The distance between the Caribbean area and the European nations prevented the latter from exerting much control on the privateers. . This was reflected in the Caribbean with both a constant influx of European refugees and the shrinking of Spanish power. The Dutch were a major presence but they were mainly there to trade rather than to colonize. The end of widespread conflict in Europe left most of the nations in a dreadful state. with successful colonies on St. It is referred to as the mother of the British Caribbean colonies). When a privateer was less successful the temptation to become a pirate. As England. Even so.

multiply and divide in columns from top to bottom. Their symbols were a dot for 1. made sacrifices and decided dates for planting and harvesting. The Mayan civilization lasted from about 300 AD to 100 AD. This calender is said to predict the end of this civilization in 2012 and has been the topic of much controversy and . This was a small unit ruled by a priest king oR Halach Uinic. Political Organization The Maya developed city states. Even their sacred ball game called pok-a-tok had ritual significance and the losers would be sacrificed. subtract. Mayan hieroglyphics were used to tell stories passed down through generations. Each village was controlled by batabobs or chiefs who answered to the Halach Uinic. They had 166 gods. (Tainos ans Kallinagos).the rain god and Yum Kaax the corn god. Advancements The Mayas were more advanced than other Amerindians because they practiced writing. using a script with an 'alphabet' of about 850 characters. They practiced human sacrifice. Among them were Chac .The Mayans  THE MAYAS  The Mayas were Amerindians from Central America who produced one of the finest civilizations in the western world. a bar for 5 and a shell for 0. They set and organized festivals. They were far more advanced than the relatively primitive island Amerindian culture. Ah Kin or priests were very important in Mayan society. They could add. The Mayans began writing in about 300 AD. mathematics and they had a calender. The population was divided as follows: Priests or Noblemen | Warriors | Merchants and Diplomats | Craftsmen and Farmers | Slaves Religion The Maya were polytheistic (worshipped many gods). The famous Mayan calender was very accurate and demonstrated a well developed knowledge of astronomy.

THE MAYAS AND THE ISLAND AMERINDIANS : A COMPARISON 1 .They practiced subsistence farming which meant that they grew just enough crops to fill their immediate needs.They lived in fixed fortified cities. Peasants such as the farmers and craftsmen lived in small villages with houses made of mud and wood. they did not build permanent structures. 3. Therefore. Both the Tainos and Kallinagos made their houses out of thatch because of the availability of this material. FARMING Mayas . There was also the movement caused by Kallinagos chasing Tainos up the islands as well as the Tainos moving frequently in search of trade.LEADERSHIP Mayas . Island Amerindians . the Tainos had settlements on almost every Caribbean island at one point.They practiced surplus farming.These people were more or less nomadic which meant that they moved around and settled in different places. For this reason.They never tried to establish one central empire but rather many .They moved to fresh gardening plots every few years. They grew enough only to meet their needs from season to season and when supplies ran out they would turn to fishing. the nobles and priests resided there. They built complicated pyramids. temples and ball courts with manual labour and little else. 2. Maya lands were divided between many independent city states all built of stone. which meant that they planted more than they needed and saved the rest. They did so so that large number of people could be fed while crops that were left over could be traded or paid as taxes. COMMUNITY AND HOUSING Mayas . They left enduring features of their architectural prowess at various sites in areas such as Chichen Itza. Island Amerindians .movies such as the movie '2012'. hunting and gathering.

They were very technologically advanced for their time. Venezuela. No taxes were paid to them. In Mexico. mathematics nor calender.They were not at all technologically advanced as compared to the Mayas who were advanced in the 300AD.They moved from South America ( Peru. The various Mayan city states traded extensively with one another. Belize.These tribes had rulers who ruled over their entire communities. . Tainos settled mostly in the Greater Antilles while the Kallinagos were settled in the Lesser Antilles up to 1492. They had a script or form of writing in 300AD which had an alphabet of sorts which was made up of hieroglyphics. Guyana) up the chain of islands. Taxes were paid to these leaders in the form of crops. Trading voyages extended as far north as upper Mexico and as far south as Panama. Bolivia. DESCRIBE THE INTERACTION THAT DIFFERENT MAYAN CITY STATES HAD WITH ONE ANOTHER. The city states also waged continuous warfare among themselves in order to get slaves for sacrifices to the gods. 5 . They passed on their history orally through tales told by the elders in the tribes.independent city states with each one having a priest king or Halach Uinic. they had no writing. In 1492 AD. In the 11th Century the Mexican Toltecs invaded and conquered the Yucatan Maya and established the Toltec town of Chichen Itza. Guatemala and Honduras Island Amerindians . They did mathematics and had a counting device and they had a calender. They introduced new dimensions to Mayan architecture and warfare. Island Amerindians . The Kallinagos had the Ouboutu or warrior chief and the Tainos has their Cacique. Island Amerindians .They were found in Central America. 4. fishermen and farmers.LOCATION Mayas .TECHNOLOGY AND ADVANCEMENT Mayas . but they received the best crops and food when they were brought in by hunters.

The famous Mayan calender was very accurate and demonstrated a well developed knowledge of astronomy. They could add. using a script with an 'alphabet' of about 850 characters. This was a small unit ruled by a priest king oR Halach Uinic. Ah Kin or priests were very important in Mayan society. Mayan hieroglyphics were used to tell stories passed down through generations. They were far more advanced than the relatively primitive island Amerindian culture. Each village was controlled by batabobs or chiefs who answered to the Halach Uinic. They set and organized festivals. a bar for 5 and a shell for 0. subtract. Their symbols were a dot for 1. This calender is said to predict the end of this civilization in 2012 and has been the topic of much controversy and . The Mayans began writing in about 300 AD. made sacrifices and decided dates for planting and harvesting. multiply and divide in columns from top to bottom. Even their sacred ball game called pok-a-tok had ritual significance and the losers would be sacrificed. (Tainos ans Kallinagos). They had 166 gods.The Mayans  THE MAYAS  The Mayas were Amerindians from Central America who produced one of the finest civilizations in the western world. The Mayan civilization lasted from about 300 AD to 100 AD. Among them were Chac . Advancements The Mayas were more advanced than other Amerindians because they practiced writing. mathematics and they had a calender. Political Organization The Maya developed city states. The population was divided as follows: Priests or Noblemen | Warriors | Merchants and Diplomats | Craftsmen and Farmers | Slaves Religion The Maya were polytheistic (worshipped many gods).the rain god and Yum Kaax the corn god. They practiced human sacrifice.

LEADERSHIP Mayas . They did so so that large number of people could be fed while crops that were left over could be traded or paid as taxes. COMMUNITY AND HOUSING Mayas . THE MAYAS AND THE ISLAND AMERINDIANS : A COMPARISON 1 .They practiced surplus farming.movies such as the movie '2012'. which meant that they planted more than they needed and saved the rest. Island Amerindians . 2. Island Amerindians . they did not build permanent structures. For this reason.They moved to fresh gardening plots every few years. They left enduring features of their architectural prowess at various sites in areas such as Chichen Itza.They practiced subsistence farming which meant that they grew just enough crops to fill their immediate needs. the nobles and priests resided there.They lived in fixed fortified cities.They never tried to establish one central empire but rather many . Therefore. They built complicated pyramids. FARMING Mayas . the Tainos had settlements on almost every Caribbean island at one point. There was also the movement caused by Kallinagos chasing Tainos up the islands as well as the Tainos moving frequently in search of trade.These people were more or less nomadic which meant that they moved around and settled in different places. 3. hunting and gathering. They grew enough only to meet their needs from season to season and when supplies ran out they would turn to fishing. Maya lands were divided between many independent city states all built of stone. Peasants such as the farmers and craftsmen lived in small villages with houses made of mud and wood. temples and ball courts with manual labour and little else. Both the Tainos and Kallinagos made their houses out of thatch because of the availability of this material.

They passed on their history orally through tales told by the elders in the tribes.They were very technologically advanced for their time. DESCRIBE THE INTERACTION THAT DIFFERENT MAYAN CITY STATES HAD WITH ONE ANOTHER.TECHNOLOGY AND ADVANCEMENT Mayas . They had a script or form of writing in 300AD which had an alphabet of sorts which was made up of hieroglyphics.independent city states with each one having a priest king or Halach Uinic. They introduced new dimensions to Mayan architecture and warfare. Guatemala and Honduras Island Amerindians . 4. but they received the best crops and food when they were brought in by hunters.They were found in Central America. They did mathematics and had a counting device and they had a calender. Taxes were paid to these leaders in the form of crops.They were not at all technologically advanced as compared to the Mayas who were advanced in the 300AD. No taxes were paid to them. The various Mayan city states traded extensively with one another. The Kallinagos had the Ouboutu or warrior chief and the Tainos has their Cacique. Belize. The city states also waged continuous warfare among themselves in order to get slaves for sacrifices to the gods. In the 11th Century the Mexican Toltecs invaded and conquered the Yucatan Maya and established the Toltec town of Chichen Itza. In Mexico. fishermen and farmers. 5 . Trading voyages extended as far north as upper Mexico and as far south as Panama. In 1492 AD. Bolivia. they had no writing. Guyana) up the chain of islands. Tainos settled mostly in the Greater Antilles while the Kallinagos were settled in the Lesser Antilles up to 1492.These tribes had rulers who ruled over their entire communities. . Island Amerindians . Island Amerindians .LOCATION Mayas . mathematics nor calender. Venezuela.They moved from South America ( Peru.

The paid respect to blood ties and ancestral spirits. the Maroon people developed a religion called Kumina which was based on spirit worship. They paid respect to spirits of the ancestors. okroe. eddoes. Shango.Food plants from West Africa are yam and cassava. food and folk tales. complicated rhythms and speech tunes. African influenced music to this day is infused with alot of drumming and percussion. pelau. spirits of the seasons and the elements and nature. (6) Music .The variety of West African languages brought to the Caribbean by the man tribes of West African slaves. Some were used to heal and some were used to poison slave masters. forced the slaves to invent a common tongue or creole language which included many African words relating to religion. (5) Medicine . okroe and rice stewed meat. Obeah men and Myal men and medicine dostors were trained in the use of these herbs and were sought out by other slaves for their expertise. (4) Religion . (3) Social Relations . Dishes include: callallo. clappers. Other elements of West African music still seen today are polyphony. rattles.Slaves brought traditional herbal medicines to the Caribbean. . An example of such African words that are still used to this day are: yam. scarppers and the tambu bamboo invented in Trinidad. the Yoruba tribes worshipped a God of Thunder and lightning called Shango still worshipped in african inspired religions today such as Orisha in Trinidad.West African family was based on kinship. cou cou. Related Past Paper questions Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. Pocomania was another African based religion practiced in Jamaica. obeah. customs.The Cultural Legacy of African slaves on the West Indies  The Cultural Legacy of Africans on the West Indies (1) Language . In Cuba there is still a relgion called Santeria based on African spirits. This had its legacy in the West Indies extended family structure and a respect shown for elders.Some examples of these were the Akan tribe thanksgivings of harvest (still practiced in some caribbean islands today). In Jamaica.West African religions were highly sophisticated and polytheistics (worshipped many gods). Anancy and limbo (2) Food .African music placed heavy importance on the drum and other related percussion instruments such as the xylophone.

(a) Give TWO reasons why Africans "lost most of their culture" during slavery. Nevertheless. many African religious practices and beliefs continued in the Caribbean throughout slavery.Africans who were brought to the Caribbean lost much of their culture during the period of slavery. (d) Give FOUR examples of African musical instruments that were used in the Caribbean up to 1838 (e) Describe THREE features of Caribbean culture. (b) Give TWO reasons why some A frican cultural forms continued in the Caribbean throughout slavery. . (c) State THREE African practices and beliefs found in the Caribbean during slavery. other than religion which show African influences.