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Simile compares two unlike things by using the words like or as.

She floated in like a cloud.


Metaphor compares two unlike things without using like or as. (It is more direct.)
The book was a passport to adventure.
Analogy - Is the use of a simile or metaphor that is extended to show more ways that two unlike things are
similar.
Living in a dormitory is like a candy bar. The freedom is sweet, but you can run into some nuts.
The Internet is a superhighway because of its speed and connections to so many computers.
Personification gives human characteristics to a non-human thing.
Her stomach growled.
Hyperbole uses extravagant exaggeration for emphasis.
My backpack weighs a ton!
Oxymoron combines opposite and contradictory words.
Clearly confused
Idiom is an expression that means something different from the literal meaning of the words.
Give it a shot
Hyperbole vs. Idiom vs. Clich
A hyperbole deals with inflating or stretching the truth.
I have told you the answer a million times.
She could have cried a river.
Idioms have nothing to do with what they mean.
She sang at the top of her lungs.
He dragged his feet to get finished.
A clich is overused, but it basically means what it says.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
Hyperbole Vs. Metaphor
Oxymoron Vs. Simile
His mother had warned him a million times that he would be severely punished if she caught him in a lie.
After studying all night, Charles walked around like the living dead.
Remember OXYMORONS are two CONTRADICTORY terms.
A symbol is an object that represents something else.
Popular symbols
fire in Fahrenheit 451
night or sleep may symbolize death

Irony - The use of words to express the opposite of what one really means or the difference between the
actual result of events and the expected result.
Situational exists when the outcome (tragic or funny) is the opposite of expectations.
Verbal is a person saying the opposite of what is meant. (This is often sarcastic.)
Dramatic occurs when the reader or audience knows something important that a character does not know.
Paradox
Contains ideas that seem to contradict or go against logic.
Is different from irony because it contains the truth but sounds totally impossible!!!
Water, water, everywhere and not a drop to drink.
Putting your cell phone on the charger all night will run down the battery.
Exercising will increase your energy level.
Allusions
Are an indirect reference to cultural works, people, or events.
Can come from history, literature, sacred texts, art, or current events.
Cause the reader to compare one thing with the thing being alluded to.
He was a Scrooge around Christmas.
She threw us to the lions den.
When you spoke about uniforms, you opened Pandoras box.
Imagery
A collection of word pictures that appeal to the readers senses and is sometimes referred to as sensory
imagery.
Can include literary devices (simile, metaphor, etc.)
Can create a picture in the readers mind
The young girl shivered on the icy stone bench as she watched each breath appear in the frosty air. The
mournful sounds of the large ship horns were her only company as she waited near the harbor.
Rhyme Vs. Assonance Vs. Alliteration
Alliteration is the repetition of similar sounds at the beginning of the words.
He was determined to doubt and dared me to debate it.
Assonance is the repetition of similar vowel sounds. (used for effect or sound)
I saw a life of blind kindness.
Rhyme is the same / similar sound at the end of the words.
Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet eating her curds and whey. Along came that spider and sat
down beside her
Onomatopoeia the use of a word that imitates a sound, such as buzz and hiss.
The bang outside my window and the whirring of the chainsaw could mean only one thing; the
men were still working to remove the fallen tree.
Repetition the intentional use of the same words or words over and over again.
Often used for emphasis
We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail. George W. Bush

Setting

Is the time and place of a story, which include the surroundings or the environment.
Time may be specified or general
Place may be specified or general.
Often described using imagery.
As I entered the elaborate ballroom, my ears met the lilting lyrics of softly sung music. The
dancers gracefully waltzed, and I was wooed to watch.
Mood the feeling created in the reader.
happy, contented, uplifting, sad, despairing, depressing, shocking suspenseful, scary, horrific, dreadful
Tone the writers attitude toward the subject or toward the characters.
Serious, playful, humorous, sarcastic, sympathetic, mocking, formal, casual, matter-of-fact, bitter, critical,
optimistic, carefree, hopeless
Atmosphere the overall feeling that an author creates by using mood, tone, and setting.
Direct characterization when the author comes right out and tells you what the characters are like.
Jordan at five is a sweet but mischievous girl who loves to dress up and play pretend games.
Indirect characterization when you have to learn about the character through his actions. This is most
effective because the author is showing, not telling.
The husband was angry with his wife. That bag of lettuce is half empty. Why didnt you try to
get one that had more in it?