Social Survival Tactics

A Guide to Basic Self-Defense and

Personal Safety Strategy By

Randy Gonzalez


www. drgonzo. org

Social Survival Tactics

A Guide to Basic Self-Defense and

Personal Safety Strategy By

Randy Gonzalez


Social Survival Tactics:

A Guide to Basic Self-Defense And

Personal Safety Strategy

By Randy Gonzalez

ISBN 0-9721688-0-X

**Copyright 1987 - Randolph A. Gonzalez - All Rights Reserved*** This publication is protected by copyright. No part of this publication may be reproduced, in whole or in part, transmitted or otherwise copied in any form by any means, without written permission from the author.




Introduc~ion , , , , .. , , .

; ; .J~

1: Basic Self-Defense

- Defensive Actions ..

Four Key

, , .2

Basic Rules In Self-Defense.


Social Survival Tactics.,.


of Selt-Defen;38, ~ . t , ; ,

What's Available-Defensive Actions , .

• '01

Tr ain i ug and Cond i tiOlung .. " Basic Defensive Actions Checklist

, .. 11


Areas of the Head .

Diagram of Vital Areas of the Head .. Bas J. c; Kicking. ; , .. , . , .... , .. , ,

B1 and Related Actions ..


CounterJneasures ; , .

3: Punching and Additional Tactics with the Hands ..


4: Ta.kedoYln~;J Throy'iS and T\:e atedT8.cti.C::3, Pr ac t ic t ng FaLl s , , 1 • , ~ ; •• I , •• ,

\ ~ .. ,53

[:::/1 • • - .• )'-T


and Throwing Act i ons .. t •

h. A ications of Defensive

, .. 62

, ; 66





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Home ~3ec:uri ty Checklist ... Personal Safety Checklist.

"'7 I.

r; f;.t

, " I \,,,i


At Work .

; -j 7'9

- Review - Using What's Available ... Social Survival Tactics Action Plan Checklist .. ,

Review of Basic Defensive Tactics .. , .. , , .

~ Additional Ccnl::::d.dero_tiol1:3 - Weapons Deferu:3e.



Vi.olent ,

· .94

. ~ .. , . , .. , , , , , . , , , , , ~ ; . , . , ,],

- --~------------


This book is based on the teachings of the author in the program known as the Nijukai-Shido-Ryu martial arts and selfdefense program. The program was founded and developed by the author as a pract i cal approach to personal safety, and sel fdefense for the average person. The title of this book was chosen as a means to express the need for personal safety and self-defense training in a somewhat hostile environment known as the United States. 'Social Survival t a c t l c s ' refers to a range of offensive and defensive actions designed to keep the average person safe from psychological and physical injury in confrontation ~ituations. In essence, the author seeks to offer a combination of basic and practical self-defense tactics and techniques that will assist the average person in a personal risk avoidance strategy.

Many of the techniques suggested throughout this book in the information that fol lows, have been adapted from the various martial art forms, such as Aikido, Karate, Jiu-Jitsu, as well as others. This basic program of training is designed & developed for the reader who is of average ability, like most of us. It assumes that the reader will spend considerable or at least reasonable tfme in the practice and study of the information presented. Compl icated techniques, which are not practical in most street situations, are not presented in the information.

Self-defense training suggested here should not be considered as a 'sport'. The information presented is based on survival concepts in combat situations. It should be kept in mind that self-defense involves no rigid rules when it comes to life-threatening situations. The main idea is survival & reduction of personal injury to the highest extent possible.

Therefore, it should be kept in mind also, that there is no system of the martial arts or self-defense training that is absolute and 100% effective for every possible situation & incident. No single technique is guaranteed for every possible confrontation. What may work in one situation, may not work in another. The first rule of thumb then, is to avoid a confrontation if at all possible. Fight only as a last resort, and when there is no other possible alternative. Only you, as a potential victim, can decide the correct course of action. No one can tell you what is the best thing to do in

any situation. You are the only one who can decide what is

right for you. Again, the objective is to survive and live

to talk about it when it is over. Thus, it is also suggested that you practice jogging, and learn how to run. Because if you can get away and escape before the confrontation begins, you are probably better off!




The basic concepts presented here relate to the use of a

counter-measure in the initial defense of yourself.

If you

are confronted with a situation you cannot avoid,



must learn, in advance, to be keenly alert to the smallest of

details, especially about the assailant.

Your intent is


accomplish and resolve at least four key objectives:

*Distract your assailant1s intent; *Re-direct his direction of attack; *Disable his method of attack;

*Render him incapable of further attack;

In a confrontation situation you must be willing to in-

flict a disabling or incapacitating injury, so that he will

be unable to pursue further assault.

Techniques that

do not

inflict disabling injury, and accomplish the objectives above

may lead to further attack, and serious injury on your part.

A real-l ife street situation has no relation in any way

to fight scenes you have seen on television or in the movies.

Attack situations on the street last seconds, and you do not

have the time to waste on fancy foot techniques,



that are too compl icated, unless you are expertly trained and

educated, with many years of experience.

Even then,


are no guarantees of success.

There are too many variables.

There are a few basic rules in self-defense, which


be considered along with the objectives mentioned above. Such



1) Never underestimate your assailant. Assume the assailant is capable of doing anything, including taking your life. Therefore, be extremely cautious at all times.

2) Be aware that if you decide to confront an assailant, 'stand and fight', you must be willing to inflict a disabling technique, and try to get away as soon as possible. If you try something and you miss, or it does not stop you assailant, you are risking serious personal injury for yourself. Therefore, fighting should be a last resort and when other alternatives have failed that are less confrontational.

3) Remember, in a 'self-defense' situation, there are no guarantees that one tactic or technique will prove 100% effective for each and every situation.

4) Be extremely careful and cautious when confronted by someone with a weapon, such as a gun or knife, or anything else used as a weapon. S) Avoid whenever possible any initial effort as your first move in attempting to move in on a knife or gun, or trying to take a weaponfrom an assailant. Use alternative tactics, such as talking, and only take direct action if no other alternative is available (for example: immediate 1 ife-threatening situations).

6) Learn basic practical approaches to self-defense. Do not become overly concerned about 'fancy' footwork or complicated techniques.

7) Study, review, research and practice self-defense techniques and countermeasures everyday. Plan ahead and think about situations and how you might react.

8) Be aware of the hidden dangers of advice from 'so-called experts' with regard to confrontational advice. Some advice reflects and uninformed ideas about self-defense tactics. Beware of mensional thinking with regard to assailants and techniques. 9) Remember, advance preparation is very important in self-defense & personal safety tactics. It is important to assess your individual strengths and weaknesses. You should learn how to use your environment to your advantage. and you should understand assaultive types of behavior. To survive, you must prepate yourself for the unexpected.

10) Understand at least four important elements in a confrontation or assaultive situation:

naive one-di-

a) The particular set of circumstances, including the surrounding environment, the initial approach of the assailant, and your efforts at planning ahead for the unexpected.

b) Your personality type, mental and physical training, and your willingness to survive.

c) The personality type of the assailant, motivation of the type of assault, weapons present, object of attack, etc.

d) Alternatives, tactics and techniques appropriate to the situation.

There are many other aspects of self-defense that should be consider-

ed, but this initial list should provide the basis for your


of an individualized personal safety program.


It is important to understand that fighting on the street has nO re-

1ationship whatsoever with what you have seen in the movies, or on te1e-

vision. As mentioned earlier (Page 2), your basic objectives in a street

fight situation is to survive, or help someone else survive. These basic

objectives are accomplished by:

1) Causing your assailant to be distracted from his intentions, and consider stopping his attack. This may be accomplished by making his concentration become faulty and redirected.

2) Redirecting his direction of attack by disrupting his control

over his body,

3) Disabling his method of attack by damaging his body with disabling techniques.

4) Rendering him incapable of further assault, and allowing time

for you to escape and summon assistance.

These objectives are supported by direct action designed to


vulnerable areas of the body, Note, that at this point in the discussion

we are talking about situations when you have reached the point where no

other alternative is available, and you have decided to fight as a last


Possible targets for such countermeasures include, but are not

limited to:

1) Attacking the central nervous system, such as the head, spinal column, etc.

2) Attacking the circulation system, such as carotid arteries, and heart areas.

3) Disruption of breathing, such as the throat area.

4) Attacking vulnerable areas such as joints, groin, etc.

Mind, Body And Spirit

One of the most important aims in self-defense training is the pre-

cise coordination of mind, body and spirit. An essential balance in all

three areas is important, and come through practice and dedication. Con-

tro1 in techniques is importantly related to the three. Ensuring the

balance requires understanding and reasoning, as well as practicing with

a discip1 ined conviction.


The ·social survival tactics· program of the Nijukai self-defense & martial arts system concerns the integration of mind, body and spirit in a program of personal safety for modern living. It is a course of instruction that spans the theory and practice of crime prevention and the practical application of the martial arts. Emphasis is placed on the in-

dividual and his or her own initiative, personal self-discipl ine and or her attitude about oneself. The approach is one that seeks to together the psychological dimensions of the individual, as well as

his bring the

physical capabilities of the individual. It emphasizes the age old idea of ·knowing yourself·. It is important to think about who you are, and what you think of yourself. Training in self-defense tactics require the right mental attitude that projects a positive, self-confident and selfsufficient individual, who is confortable and secure in their own unique identity. The spiritual dimension is only one component of a totality of the human being. It is a vast area of discussion, but this book will not

spend a great deal of explanation, since space is limited. The


component goes hand-'in-hand with the mental aspect, and combines with the physical aspect of the individual. All three are interrelated and connected, one to the other. Breathing exercises and intense meditation are necessary to discover this realm, and bring about the integration of this aspect, the spiritual dimension. Mind, body and spirit are a harmonious interaction that serve not only in self-defense situations, but also in deal ing with life·s other aspects. A positive mental attitude, and a

willingness to have an open mind, together with self-confidence,


in developing the foundation for ·social survival tactics·,


self-defense involves many things other than learning techniques.



The essential vital spirit~force within provide a vast reservoir of power and energy, capable of sweeping aside any

obstacle in its path.

For mo s t p e 0 p 1 e, i tis rna i n 1 y an


tapped resource, which will never realize its full potential.

This power has been called by many names, and has many


erent aspects, or dimensions.

An extension of this power


what is known in the martial arts, especially in Japan, as

'ki '. In aikido, the seat of this power is said to be the

'hara', or the Center. Practically all forms of the martial arts teach the utilization of this power, and suggest various

means by which to harness and deve1bp it.

Once you have dis-

covered its true meaning for yourself, studied it, and developed it from rightful and proper use, you will know how to

explain and define it.

In short, the 'ki' is the power


the mind, body and spirit working together to maximize, and perfect the functioning of the human being toward the accom-

pl ishment of an intended objective.

It may be the rescue of

another person from danger, the defense of one's 1 ife, or the positive achievement of a lifelong goal. It also may be simply deal ing with the ups and downs of day-to-day 1 ife. The I k i' can b e com bin e d wit hay ell top rod u c e the rna x i m i z a t ion of an executed technique or self-defense tactic. Whatever the

intent, it is the culmination of all mental aspects to


duce concrete physical results in one sense.

One met hod 0 f de vel 0 pin g the inn e r power 0 f the 'k i' i s through regular meditation and breathing exercises, that are

--~ --.--- --~ -------~


designed to fully use deep abdominal breathing.

Breath con-

trol is important to self-defense, in order that you do not

lose concentration or control of your mind or body, due to

fear, etc.

In the practice of self-defense, note the follow-

ing theoretical basis:

Theory of Self-Defense

Inner Factors:

External Factors:


Inner power and control, stabil ity, confidence & discipline; command and

control center .

The defense system, the instruments of defense &

Projection of defensive actions, skills and tactics, toward direction of attack; motion and technique the attack; All of these factors become as one, in a single fluid and powerful defense of the person.


persc al weapons system; Spirit:The 'ki', the other-self the real-inner person, & power source;


The concept of 'defensive-aggressive-offensive'


to your attitude as projected in your surrounding environment

and the way you conduct yourself.

'Defensive' means that you

are ready to defend yourself, yet you are calm, confident and

non-aggressive unless you absolutely have to be. 'Aggressive'

refers to that which takes place after you are confronted and

you perceive that you are about to be attacked.



aggressive to the extent necessary to ensure your personal &

mental well-being.

'Offensive' means that you go on the phy-


The 'defensive-aggressive-offensive' concept is


ily a state of mind, a personal sense of self-confidence, and

an attitude about who you are.

It suggests the idea of pro-

tecting yourself from injury, yet you are not yourself the

aggressive person.

The concept requires education,


and planning, and the ability to make critical decisions par-

ticularly in a crisis situation.

In a crisis situation,


when confronted by a potential assault, stress occurs.


stress confronts the body, certain physical changes take over and affect the mental state. The body prepares itself for a

'flight' or a 'fight'.

Energy is generated and can be


to your advantage if you maintain control.

In a potentially

dangerous situation you are confronted by decisions to make.

Depending on the situation, you should consider as part of

the 'defensive-aggressive-offensive' reaction the basic questions:

Are the risks to great to stay in this area (location or

fo 11 ow in g

situation, etc.)?


attempt to run, escape or evade?

What are the risks, if I stand and fight? What are the alternatives to the situation?

How much time do I have to react, implement or otherwise take appropriate action to ensure survival?

Part of this concept involves being aware and alert to

the environment, and planning ahead for potential problems in any given setting.


The idea of the 'defensive-aggressive-offensive'


includes the suggestion that if you are going to stand and fight, you are willing to carry through, using whatever is at hand to protect yourself. It is a determination to survive, and a kind of stoic composure in the face of adversity, and danger.

Using What's Available-Defensive Actions

Self-defense involves using a variety of techniques and

tactics to ensure your safety and security.



range from using hands, elbows, legs, feet, etc. as weapons,

to using anything else that is available to you.



confrontations, you may be able to use other things than your body to resist the attack. Self-defense means resorting to unconventional tactics, or whatever ensures your survival in

a life-threatening situation.

Therefore, use anything


can get your hands if necessary to protect yourself, or some-

one else from serious bodily harm or death.

There are a mul-

titude of ways that you can distract, trip, hit, jab, or defend against an attacker, in order to accompl ish the stated objectives indicated in Pages 2-4 of this book. In addition to actual hand-to-hand techniques, some of which are indicated in this book, the following items can also be considered &

u t i 1 i zed as weapons.

Caution is indicated here.

Be aware of

the fact that anything can be used to inflict serious


harm, and can be lethal.

Your intent is to use that


of resistance and force that will allow you to escape.

Cigarette or cigar Ashtray

Baseball bat

Bike chain locking system Household chemicals

Soda bottle, or can


Cha i r

Household utinsils Comb

Hair spray

Lamp and/or cord

1 0

Flashl ight

Fork, knife or spoon handle Garbage Can Lid


Golf club

Jack handle


Pen or pencil Length of board Brick

Yard tools Tools

This represents only a partial listing of the many types

of items that can be used as defensive weapons.



around the house can be used as a weapon.

must use your own ideas.

On the street, you

Your personal weapons (those of the body), which


sents your primary 1 ine of defense, include:

The Head: front and back areas used for butting or ramming an assailant.

The Hand: wrist should be straight and firm, except when using the thee' of the hand; in addition to using a closed fist to strike or punch, the edge of the hand can be used, as well as the edge of the fist; blows can be del ivered in a chopping manner, from across the body (from inside to outside, or from outside to inside), with the palm down, or downward with the palm facing in; fingers can be used as well, slightly flexed and held rigid for jabs to the eyes or face areas;

The Elbow: can be delivered to the rear, sides, upward, etc. can be used as a forearm or elbow blow combined with a rising block method;

The Knee: can be directed to the face and groin area; can be used by pulling the foot backwards as close to the buttocks & raising the knee sharply and forcefully;

The Foot: can be used by kicking forward with toes curled to the body; the edge, ball and heel can be used to the front or the side or to the back; by raising the knee upward until it is parallel with the ground, the foot can be used to kick in a snapping or thrusting motion, and directed toward the knee, shin, groin, etc.

To review the basic weapons of the body, note the fo11- owi ng:

----------------------_ .. _._-


Elbow - for elbow jabs, strikes and related attacks; Forearm - for strikes;

Knee - strikes to the groing area, etc. Edge of fist - for high impact strikes;

Heel of hand - strikes to face and nose area; Extended Knuckles - attacks to the throat areas;

Foot - use of toes, ball, edge, and heel for kicking, etc. Fingers and Edge of hand - strikes and jabs to face, etc. Edge of hand - chops and strikes, etc.

Fist - attacks to various vulnerable areas;

Front and back of head - striking forward and backward, etc.

There are many possibilities in the use of the body parts in a

se I f-

defense situation. You are only 1 imited by your imagination. However, for

basic self-defense street situations, it is recommended that you limit your

weapons to the use of: fist, knee, head, foot, elbow. Learn basic practi-

cal techniques and perfect them. Forget about fancy foot-work, or compli-

cated kicks, etc. You are basically 'buying t i rne ' in order to survive and


Training and Conditioning

As part of your self-defense training, you are encouraged to develop a

highly motivated physical conditioning program. Self-defense is not only

a mental expression, but it is very much a physical art form. Good train-

ing and conditioning are essential. And, probably one of the most import-

ant aspects of physical conditioning is your diet. Plan and implement a

good diet program, and be careful about the use of sugar, starches, fats &

other similar items. Your body needs a balanced diet! There are many good

sources of information concerning diets, the Use of vitamins, etc. You

are encouraged to evaluate the current literature. You can obtain free in-

formation on food and nutrition from at least one source, by writing the

following: Consumer Information Center, P.O. Box 100, Pueblo, Colo. 81002,

and ask for the IConsumer Information Catalogl•


Defensive actions are not so much size and muscular strength as they are speed and combat efficiency. Timing, coordination, balance, impact & target areas, including some degree of accuracy, are more important that mere size differences between assailant and victim. The preciseness and perfection of a technique is not as important as being able to execute a

combat manuever. In order to train on your own, and help develop


sense of combat efficiency, the following exercises are offered as a simple guide. When possible, these basic exercises should be done a min-

imum of thirty minutes per day. In fact, you should set aside at


one hour per day, in which you mentally and physically train yourself in the basics of self-defense. If you set aside an hour a day, to plan and think about personal safety~ and practice basic self-defense techniques & tactics, by the end of the week, you will have devoted seven hours a week in training and conditioning. The idea is to practice and train over a

period of time. For example, most martial arts students spend mately three days a week, about two and half hours per day in a


tional training program, or roughly seven and half to eight hours of the training per week, in a formal program of instruction. Since most people do not have the time (e.g. work, family, other interests, etc.) to devote to such rigorous formal training, it is important to maximize and utilize your time in informal training the best way you can. Spending close to an hour a day in your personal training program, comes within range of

approximating what others do in a formal program. Advance


training and practice are important. It is a known fact, in the


world, that if a player learns his or her own strengths and weaknesses, & and develops strategies about different environments (playing areas) he


or she will be better prepared for competition. On the day of the sports

event, the players are able to assess their opponents quickly, and adjust

their strategy quickly. The same idea applies to training and condition-

ing in self-defense. A basic exercise and conditioning plan follows:

Exercise 1: (Kicking Practice) Obtain a tennis ball and drive a small or appropriate sized hole through the center. Take a piece of line, string or cord, and insert it through the center of the tennis ball, and tie off one end with a knot. Next, suspend the ball from a door frame or from the ceiling. Hang the ball from a sufficient height and practice kicking from different directions. The idea is to achieve speed and accuracy and not p~wer. Practice kicking from different angles, with both feet, using different parts of the foot (See pages 10 and 11). This can also be used for striking practice with the hands by raising the level of the ball. If you desire to practice power kicking, you should probably invest in a bag made for that purpose.

Exercise 2: (Speed and Coordination) Jumping rope is a good way to develop speed and coordination. You should strive to increase speed of your jump and movement of the rope.

Exercise 3: (Blocking and Striking) With a partner, construct a practice stick, with some type of cushion on both ends (a sponge or small pillow - for example). Have your partner, starting out slow, try to strike from different angles, as your block or strike. Practice good safety at all times.

Exercise 4: Prior to practicing actual techniques as listed in the above exercises, you should warm up first. Consider the following, or combine the following with your current exercise program if you currently have a regular exercise program, such as jogging, riding a bike, using a stationary bicycle, etc. Do what is comfortable for you and avoid injuries. Do not over-exert yourself. If is a good idea, before developing any exercise program, that you get a complete medical checkup. An integral part of self-defense training is warming up for the actual practice. Try the following:

Exercise 4: Stretching the back - (Use caution and be careful):


Note: To start, each exercise should be practiced ten times per side, or

~ to the front or back. You should increase repetitions at

I~=S"""" your own rate, when you feel comfortable in doing so, and

p \s~~l'-. __ \at your pace.

)~')_~.--------ExerCi se 5: (Stretch i ng the sides) Bend to

\ /' \ \ side, with your arm over the top of your head

I, I . '\ and do not bounce, but stretch easily. Keep

(J'./ \ \ your legs about should w i d th apart, and use

/1} '-\i the other hand to brace your leg. After ten

(/ '\). repetitions, switch to the other side.

Exercise 6: (Twisting the trunk of the body) With your back straight, and legs more than should width apart, twist as far as you can in both directions, without moving your feet when you do the exercise.

Exercise 7: (Back stretch-Second Type) Move

forward easily, reaching for your ankles or toes. Try to put your head down as close to your thighs as possible, without bending the legs. Hold for a few seconds, and then put yourself back in a full sitting position and repeat the process about ten times. Each time you practice try to increase the time

you hold your head down.

Exercise 8: (Loosen joints and muscles) From a standing position, with legs about shoulder width apart, shake your wrists and ankles, alternating each side of the body, to loosen up the joints and relax the muscles. Also, rotate your head around in a circular motion from side to side, to loosen the neck muscles. Bounce a few times up and down on one foot, and switch from one to the other.


Exercise 9: (Squatting and Walking or Jumping) Squat down with both feet flat at first. Place your hands behind your back and practice your balance. Try lifting up on the balls of your feet, flex for a few seconds & then return your feet to a flat position. Repeat this process a couple of times. Next, try walking in this position, or jumping as you move in this position. Be careful, this puts a strain on the knees. Do what you feel is comfortable.

Exercise 10: (Deep breathing) Proper breathing is helpful and important & critical in self-defense training. Breathing assists in more active and efficient muscular coordination, as well as other physical aspects, and psychological strength at critical moments. You can practice breathing almost anywhere and at any time. One way is to stand straight and inhale through the nose. Inhale to a count of ten. Then, hold your breath for a count of ten. Next, exhale through the mouth to a count of ten. Each day, without straining or becoming uncomfortable, practice and try holding your breath longer. After exercising vigorously, you can also practice breathing from a seated position, with body relaxed, as part of the 'cool I down phase of training.

Exercise 11: (Pushups): These help with arm strength and upper body development. Try pushups from a comfortable position, with body held in a rigid position on the palms and balls of the feet. Keep the back level & straight as you go up and down, bending at the elbows. Keep your head up and look straight forward. As an alternative, brace your body on your knees, instead of your toes. As you go down, breath in, and as you go up again, breath out, pushing away from the floor.

Exercise 12: (Situps) These help build the abdominal region of the body. Care should be taken not to strain the back, and the knees should be situated so they are slightly bent. Place both hands behind the neck, at the base of the head, between the shoulders. Keep hands open, palms down and hands crossed. Lift up as far as you can upward toward the knees but not all the way, just enough to bring tension to the mid-section. Repeat as many times as you feel comfortable. This is a modified approach to situps, and you may prefer the more traditional method.

This series of basic exercises is only a guide. You may have other ideas to add to these, as a means to develop your own conditioning, and training. Use these to supplement your regular training, if you already have a program.


Training and conditioning for self-defense includes not only physical factors, but mental factors as well. The psychological factors that come into play during an assault are very critical to your survival. There is a high probability, that in a fight situation on the street, the victim will be physically outmatched by the assailant. This may be particularly true in sexual assault incidents, where the attacker is a male, and the victim is a female.

Survival will rest heavily upon psychological strength & power. Although it is easier to say 'stay calm', than to do it, but, you must remain in control of your mental powers and focus on survival. You must practice thinking about how you will maintain control, and keep a sense of certainty about an overcoming of the situation. If emotions take over, and you lose control, from a self-defense standpoint, you might miss, or otherwise lose an opportunity to attack an adversary at a vulnerable point. In addition, you may know the right move to make in a specific situation, but, unless you are willing to act immediately, and execute the defensive action, you may place yourself in further jeopardy_

You must teach yourself to be calm, observant. aware of your environment, alert to an attacker's advances, and ready to act quickly and without hesitation. To survive you must prepare yourself for the unexpected at all times. Training & conditioning are ongoing processess, whereby you improve and grow each day.

1 7

Basic Defensive Actions

In a situation where other alternatives have failed, and

you realize you are under attack, blocking and using


ance or evasive manuevers becomes important.

A 'block' is a

means by which you stop or divert the angle of the attack and

the direction of the weapon used. There are many ways that a

person can use blocking techniques. As a basic rule, if you

are close to an assailant, the greater the skill needed to re-

act to the attack.

This is the result of the shorter span of

time required to cross a shorter distance of space. You have

to think faster, and react faster.

By using avoidance, or an

evasive action, you are trying to avoid contact, and stay out

of range of the attack.

In self-defense, defensive


require the study of distance and the judgement of distance.

Avoidance in defensive actions can take at least the fol10w-

ing forms:

1. Avoidance by running, escaping, getting away, etc.;

2. Avoidance through blocking, with counterattacks;

3. Avoidance by presenting low target profile, etc.

You must learn to use your strengths and weaknesses to

your advantage, in defensive actions.

For example, in tradi-

tional martial arts training, emphasis focuses on


the student to use both sides of the body (left hand,


hand, left foot, right foot, etc.).

Until you reach a


level of confidence, skill and ability, it is probably a good

idea, for basic self-defense, to focus on your strengths, and

develop these as much as possible.


Therefore, decide which aspects of your natural weapons

you will emphasize over the others. For some people,


may be used to an advantage. For others, weight may be used

to an advantage. Most people may have little of either in an

overall sense. Height has the advantage of reach, and with

such, you may want to emphasize punching skill, grabbing and

throwing skill, or other aspects. Weight has the


of power and center of balance. With such, you may want to

focus on locks and holds, disabling techniques, etc. A light-

weight smaller person has the advantage of speed and agil ity.

You may want to use any combination of these advantages, and

use them to develop special skills. For the purpose of il1-

ustration, survival tactics and defensive actions are

b u i 1 t

upon four basic cournerstones:

Mental/Physical Practical Tactics,

Conditioning ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• And Techniques

Skill Development, Practice,Plannlng,

Growth, Expertise •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Applicatlon, etc.

Most survival and defensive action teChniques are basic

and simple, as presented in this book. Many are based on the

elements of common sense precautions. However, you must try

to practice as often as possible to successful. They must be

natural and reflexive. Under stress, and in a crisis situa-

tion, you will instinctively revert to your training.

1 9

The following 1 isting has been designed as a 'Basic De-

fensive Action' (BOA) checklist, for review, training and ac-

tive practice.

BOA-I: Develop an effective conditioning program, to be used on a daily and routine basis. (See Page13 for beginning of a series of basic exercises). Combine exercises with practical techniques, and with your regular conditioning-exercise program, and strive for maximum efficiency and readiness.

BOA-2: Know yourself, and develop a proper mental attitude & sense of personal self-confidence in all that you do. Consider:

a. A self-assessment: confidence, awareness, trust and

believe in instincts, know your environment, and know what is happening around you at all times.

b. Observe and be alert: a survival state of mind, constant vigilance, preparedness, preplanning, physical fitness, readiness to act.

c. Assertiveness: believe and act as if you come first

and do not allow yourself to be unknowing ledcinto a vu~nerable situation. Develop escape plans, and alternative tactics, fight only as a last resort.

d. Interpersonal Signals: be alert to nonverbal behavior and patterns leading to confrontations. Be alert to body language, mannerism, method of dress, etc. Protect personal space.

e. Awareness: Study your environment and be aware of the potential danger signs. Stay conscious of your setting and surroundings at all times. Utilize all of

your senses.

f. Control: control yourself and your environment. for time to escape. Do the unexpected. Control combine the power of mind, body and spirit.

Fight and

BDA-3: Learn to distract, from the use of a powerful yell to intellectually outsmarting the assailant. Review pages 2-4, of this book. No one knows exactly how they will react in an assault situation. Only you can decide that. Reaction to a crisis situation is highly individualized, and depends on a number of factors. You will be able to handle such a situation better if you have complete control, awareness and understanding of yourself, the environment, the potential confrontation, motivation of the attacker, and basic preventive and tactical countermeasures. The way you react will depend on your physical condition, state of mind, training and conditioning, and knowledge of basic practical tactics.


No one can tell you what specific tactic to use in any given situation. For what may work in one, may not work in another situation. You, as an individual, must deal with the attacker as an individual, on a one-to-one basis. You must take into consideration the time, place, alternatives available & other factors. 'Panic and fear' are normal reactions to a crisis situation. But, learn to redirect this energy to your advantage. You may consider:

a. Using a diverting noise to distract.

b. Running as fast as you can.

c. Gaining the psychological advantage.

d. Talking your way out of the situation.

e. Using your own ingenuity as your best guide.

f. Speaking calmly and sincerely as one human being to another.

g. Using surprise and speed of reaction to your advantage.

BDA-4: Take advantage of your strengths, know your weaknesses, and also your use of these to your advantage. For example, with a heavier person, do not match weight with weight. Attempt to throw the heavier person off balance. Try to get them in a position where you can control them, such as on the

ground. ~


BDA-5: Know and understand the vulnerable areas of the body. Use them to maximum advantage.

/---=~~ 23-------§( "

1 - - - - - - - - :-1 ~=-'i - - - - --7

2--------- \ --Yt ------8

3---~-- .. -- )~---J

24----- -:..:~ ,-,.::- ---9

/" ......_ -- --10

i 1'-/ __J

25- - ~ - -~ - - - - _\ - -1 1

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4---T-f----' i -12

\ { I


\ \1' 1 __ - ----14

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5 - - - - - - -1"\- /, It)

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6-------~- 1 I )

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t ! 1-----16

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26------------.~ •. '~

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27------- -- ;(:::::


l. Bridge of the nose 1 3. Under bottom rib 25. Solar plexus
2. Upper 1 i p 14. Upper thigh 26. Base/skull
3. Side of the neck 1 5. Lower Thigh 27. Backbone
4. Abdomen 1 6. Ankle bone 28. Vertebrae
5. Knee caps 1 7. Instep
6. Shin 1 8. Tailbone
7. Ea r lobe/base of ear 19. Upper arm area
8. Under jaw 20. Behind knee
9. Neck/\O/indpipe 21 • Calf/lower leg
lO.Shoulder muscle 22. Achilles heel
11.Elbow joints 23. Temple
12.Forearm/top of muscle 24. Adam's apple 22

BDA-6: Remember that you<must be willing to inflict disabl ing injury to an assailant if you decide to stand and fight. In a confrontation situation, you cannot afford to risk injury to yourself by wasting important time and effort on techniques that do not work to achieve objectives stated earlier. In studying vulnerable areas of the body, know wh l ch ones wl l I inflict the serious Injury. Keep in mind, that when considering any basic defense to a confronation, you should evaluate the situation carefully, and match appropriate response to the degree necessary for your survival. It may not be justifiable to inflict serious injury when the situation does not call for it. Possible target areas, when serious injury may result. include some of the fo l l ow l nq r

1. Head and face areas;

2. Sides of the neck;

3. Throat and windpipe areas; It. Knees and joint areas;

5. Abdominal areas and groin area;

6. Temple areas;

7. Solar plexus;

8. Base of Skull;

9. Vertebrae, base of neck and spinal column; 10. Base of back;

BDA-7: If you decide to use a more covert technique, It/hen confronted by a situation in wh l ch you have time, such as fainting, be sure that you will be able to pull off the 'act'. You must be a good actor/actress. If the assailant figures out that you arc faking it, you could be inviting further trouble. To fake a fainting spell, you must go completely limp, fall to a floor, or ground level, and lay completely still. Be extremely cautious & convincing if you think you might try something like this. This would also apply to faking an illness. etc. This type of tactic places you at more of a disadvantage than others, since it is more difficult to react quickly and defend yourself if you have fainted, fallen to the ground. closed your eyes and gone limp. Howeve r , the point to be made here, is that if you try to 'trick' your attacker in some way, you Must be convincing.

BOA-8: Developing a fight stance is good for practice and training in the use of techniques, etc. However, in a street situation, unless your training is very skilled and proficient, it is a waste of time to assume a traditional martial arts fighting stance at the onset of a confrontation. Any attempt to frigthen your attacker by taking a stance, may be perceived by the attacker as a challenge. You should never pretend to know more than a basic know l edqe of the martial arts, unless you actually do. In addition, a fighting stance conveys that you are going to fight, and you do not know how I:Jel1 trained the attacker is. Any fighting stance that you take should be limited to protecting yourself, anu not designed to scare or challenge the attacker. If the attack is sudden, you will not have to worry about a fighting stance. Surprise and speed of reaction should be used to your advantage. You must be prepared to react without giving away your intention or technique.


BDA-9: When confronting a weapon use extreme caution. In many

assault situations the attacker is armed. The weapon could

be a knife or a gun, or some other type of item used as a

weapon. The prudent action, when confronted by a weapon, is to avoid physical action if at all possible. If the alternative is immediate danger to life or serious injury, then some defensive action will be necessary. In most incidents of an armed attack, the motive is personal gain through the removal of your wallet, purse, etc. The most sensible action is to assure the robber of your cooperation, and hand over the property. If the motive is personal assault, instead of property, then you must seek other alternatives. If you try to reason with the attacker. and that fails, you must be willing to act quickly, and use whatever means possible. Possible considerations at this point include:

Distraction: Attempt to confuse or disorient the attacker for a fraction of time necessary to react. The distraction must be subtle, such as a 51 ight movement of the hand, or the foot to make him look to the side, down, or anywhere away from you

for a moment, but not enough to startle him. lowering your

voice, or whispering, to make him concentrate on your voice

for an instant may be helpful.

Yelling or Throwing: If necessary, depending on the situation at hand, yelling or throwing any object at hand, or making a wild jesture, may serve to buy you time to react.

Talking: Keep talking and convince the attacker that you are not a threat, until that point is reached when you can react and maneuver around the weapon. Try to gain his confidence & get him to lower his defenses, and look for a way to overcome the weapon. Get the attacker to relax.

Disarming: Most disarming techniques are extremely difficult, and dangerous to execute. Such an approach should be used as a last resort, when you feel you are about to be shot, or stabbed, etc. The attacker must be within armis reach, or touching you. If your action is delayed or 'telegraphed' you risk serious injury. You must act with speed and timing, and direct the weapon away from your body and to the side. You must continue to fight until you are safe and the attacker is incapacitated.

BDA-l0: If the attacker wants to disable you in some way, for example, tying you up, you must use your head. Change the attacker's mind, stall for time until you see a way to escape the situation, and react. Again, you must bring yourself to his level on a human basis, win his confidence, and cooperate until you can more safely react. Once you are tied up, your options in reacting defensively are seriously reduced.



As in BDA-9, you must use every effort to retain your mental alertness and emotional stability. Review the key points of page 3, with special attention to Item 10 (a-d). As long as you remain emotionally and mentally in control, you can read the movements and intentions of the attacker. Capitalize on your stability and the attacker's lack of it. Deal with the

attacker on a human level. This is not an easy thing to do

when dealing with a potentially violent person. But, it is

important that you be the best actor or actress you can be.

Buy time, when it is possible, by trying to gain the confidence of the attacker. Go along with the situation, by being clever and creative, until you can see an opportunity to escape and avoid further attack. Use good judgement and do not forget that the things you can do are only 1 imited by your imagination.

BOA-It: If you are awakened during the night, and confronted, or at least awa r e that someone is in your bedroom. Do not try to make any sudden movements that may startle the intruder & provoke him to attack. Pretend to be asleep if the person is not attempting to attack you in bed at this point. Remain in an alert state of mind, and listen for every sound. Be very quiet and be ready to react if an attack starts. If you are awakened by the sounds of someone breaking into your house at night (or, say during the day, if you are napping), yell and callout to some fictitious person. For example, 'Mary, call

the police, someone is breaking in, 1111 the gun!" If you

hear an intruder coming toward your room, try to lock and

secure the door as fast as possible. If you have a gun, get it and make sure it is loaded and you know how to use it. You should take cover behind a dresser, and make sure the intruder knows you are armed. Never threaten to use a weapon, and hesitate or refuse to use it if the situation requires use of deadly force. like assuming a 'karate stance' and not knowing what you are doing, the presence of a weapon signals your intent to fight.

*Examine and review local laws, state statutes, etc. with regard to the use of deadly force in defense of your 1 ife. Some laws vary from state to state.

With regard to the use of handguns for personal protection & security around the home, keep in mind that they could be a hazard to your family and yourself. In one study, for example, (Parents Magazine, t~arch 1987, Page 26), guns kept in a home killed friends twelve times more often than intruders, & killed members of the household eighteen times more often as an intruder. In addition, weapons should be protected from a

child at all times. If you have a gun, make sure you know

how to use it, and are familiar with its operation. Take a

firearms safety course, and learn how to shoot properly.


BDA-12: If you carry a firearm in your car, or on your person, you should be well aware of local laws and state laws in the use and possession of firearms. Comply with all firearms laws and legal restrictions as they may apply. If you use a gun to shoot an attacker, it is quite possible to hit him in several places and yet not stop his attack. Naturally, at this point in the discussion, we are talking about situations in which you are absolutely sure you are in immediate defense of your 1 ife. This is an immediate life-threatening situation, and there is no other option or alternative to you concerning defense of your 1 ife. You must shoot the attacker in a vital spot to produce incapacitation. Also, there is the possibility you might miss, which will put you in additional, and immediate danger. Therefore, you must train yourself in as effective manner as possible with your gun. Note the following key points:

*Handguns should be used as a last resort, and in the defense of life, upon perception of immediate threat of danger when an attack is in progress.

*Handguns or any weapon should be kept safe from children.

*Handguns, and any other weapon used can also be taken away

from you and used against you.

*You must know how to use a gun, and take a firearms course. *A gun must be readily available, and used without hesitation in order to be effective.

~':A .38 cal iber revolver is sufficient firepower for a person-

al defense. It should be of high quality.

*Comply with all applicable gun laws in your location. *Practice, train and learn shooting on a regular basis.

= Sh oo t at vital areas only, when in defense of your 1 ife.

*Be confident and know what you are doing when it comes to a firearm, or for that matter, any other weapon.

*Vital target areas include:

Head and Brain Area Spinal Cord and Backbone Long Bones of the Legs

Heart and Major Blood Vessels

BDA-t3: If you return home, and find a window open, the door unlocked, broken glass from a window, etc. (and, you know the door or window was secure when you 1eft), do not enter. Go to the nearest telephone and call the police. The main objective is to get away from the house. The same would apply to your office. Avoid getting between the intruder and the door or exit point.

BDA-14: If you are attacked in a public place, and there are people present, make it known to them that you are not involved in any way with this person. Summon help immediately & contact the pol ice. Get attention to your situation.


BOA-IS: When on the street, be alert to your surroundings at all times. Be aware of people near your location, and be ready to act immediately if you perceive danger. If walking on a sidewalk, and a car pulls up, and persons inside begin to harass you, turn in the opposite direction and look for a means to escape. Move toward more populated areas. If you are getting the feeling someone is following, while you are walking, find a public place, such as a restaurant, and call the police.

BDA-16: When striking an attacker, focus on the vital points as indicated on Page 21. You must transmit the maximum concentration of power and force from your body, to that of the attacker. And, you must hit with effective force one of the vital points. Your basic striking weapons include the following:

Index jabs,

---Fist, using power-force on 1st two knuckles of the hand •••

First Two ~

fingers ~-~

:~~.~~~:-----~ ~


Edge of hand for striking and 'chopping' at targets




The first chapter focused on basic concepts of defensive tactics, along with training and conditioning activities, and a basic checkl ist related to basic defensive actions. In this chapter, emphasis is placed on additional counter-measures as well as basic concepts concerning blocking and kicking.

Since self-defense tactics are basically unarmed defensive actions in response to offensive actions, such tactics & techniques should be used primarily for defensive purposes or

Isocial survival I.

In many instances, a blocking, side-step-

ping, or other evasive action, may be the first point of en-

counter with an aggressive att~cker.

Blocking, and


maneuvers, are very important.

A properly executed blocking,

or evasive technique, should be employed not only to parry or deflect an attack, but also to inflict injury as well. A well planned and executed blocking technique should be used to in-

fl ict injury at the point of contact if possible.



subsequent fol1owup counter-measure should accompl ish the initially stated objectives of self-defense (Page 2-4).

The type of blocking action to be used depends on the

situation in which you find yourself.

Keep in mind that


two situations are the same and thus, no two defensive moves

wi 11 work in every situation. points when blocking:

Also keep in mind several



I. Be calm and maintain your center of balance.

2. Be alert to any counter moves by the attacker.

3. Visualize the whole situation and always look for ways to escape.

4. Avoid over-extending your block.

5. Avoid offering vulnerable target areas of yourself to the attacker.

6. Execute the blocking maneuver quickly and with a maximum of force.

7. Followup with appropriate countermeasures to ensure your safety, and try to escape as soon as pos sib 1 e .

When defending against grabs, jabs, swinging fists, etc.

it may be effective to counter with open-handed techniques or

use of the edge of the hand, or wrist and elbow, forearm, etc

to counter the attack.


,?,,---open-handed blocking maneuver to

K'1i"</ direction and angle of attack •••

i·~\),,7\Jr---execut~on of kicking maneuver,

I~r{/ to groin area, knee caps, etc.

Other hand ready to----- ~01

follow kicking man- J

euver with punch or 11,', ,

jab, etc. Ij

-------balance and coordination at all times; center of gravity to be maintained.

----------- -------_


After the execution of a blocking technique, an immediate response must

follow with the use of a counter-measure. The countermeasure must focus an

intense degree of force to accomplish the stated objectives of survival and

escape. That is, the technique must be such that it will disable the attack

situation (attacker), render him incapable of further assault. and inflict a

sufficient degree of injury. The focus of the countermeasure should be dir-

ected to a vulnerable target area, or mUltiple of target areas, such as the

head and abdomen areas.

Vital Areas of the Head

The following are basic points of consideration, and depend on the pos-

ition of your body and that of the attacker.

(Mashiro, 1978)

Hair: Grabbing the attacker's hair can be used for throwing, take-downs, and forcing the attacker to release a hold on you. The degree of force used can also distract the attacker for a followup technique, escape maneuver, or as a control method to move the head in position for a throw, etc. As one type of counter-response, the attacker's hair can be grabbed with both hands, the head pulled down forcefully, as you bring your knee upward to the face.

Bregma: This is the point on the top of the head, where frontal and parietal bones of the skull connect. A powerful 'hammer' strike with the fist, or side of the fist can cause damage to the skull and brain areas. An object, such as a bottle, board, or other hard item can be used in the same manner.

Coronal Suture: This area is located at the edge of the frontal bone, and passes upward along the temples to the bregma. This area is vulnerable to attack by Use of hard striking to the area.

Temporal Area: This bone area of the head is located above and around the ear, and does not represent an effective target area. Much more force, and a hard object are needed to inflict serious injury in this area, than mere chopping of the hand.

Sphenoid Bone: This is a small bone area on the side of the head, about an inch to the rear of the eye area. It is a relatively thin area, and structurally weak. It is potentially a very lethal area as a target.

Temporal Artery: A sharp object, striking at this area, along the side the head, over the sphenoid bone, can sever the temporal artery. This produce serious injury from excessive bleeding.

of wi 11



Other possible points of striking, jabbing and related direct action

against an attacker include such areas as the orbital bones. This area

around the eye socket can be punched using

sufficient force to create

injury to the brain. In addition, the bone area behind the eye, between

the brain and the eye, is very thin. A finger jab to this area will in-

flict serious injury.

The bridge of the nose can be punched or chopped,

causing pain and distraction to the attacker. Review diagram below for

particular target areas. (Reference Source: Mashiro, 1978, Page 14-15).


Carotid Artery----------

Nasal bones and Nose area


Coronal Suture---

, , , ,



-..t-Orbital Bone


(Entire Area Around the Eye)

Temporal ArteryTemporal Bone-Sphenoid Bone--

-----Mouth area

Vertebral Artery-------

-----Chin and Jaw areas



Generally speaking, any small object, such as a pencil, piece of

wood, umbrella, wrench, etc., can be used to jab or strike at the head.

For example, a strike to the head, such as the temple area, can be exe-

cuted using a Iyawara stick' method of attack. This is accomplished by

making a fist around a straight object, such as a round stick, with the

top of the object extending above the thumb and first finger. The upper

part of the object is used to jab or strike in a 'hammer-like' manner at

the attacker's vulnerable areas. The strike could focus on the head area

or the lower body area, such as the solar plexus.

Another counter-measure, might employ some type of chemical


used in a similar manner as above, such as hair spray, insecticide, tear-

gas, etc., and used to attack the eyes and face areas. The container it-

self can also be used as a weapon in a striking or jabbing fashion. Fin-

gers jabbed to the eyes and into the nostrils at the same time, can be

a very effective means of temporarily distracting the attacker to aid in

escape. These actions can also inflict very serious injury in the pro-

cess, depending upon the degree to which they are applied.

Other countermeasures applied to the head and face areas, include or

otherwise relate to the following applications: (possible examples)

On the ground, kicking to the face and jaw;

In close, biting the ears, or clapping with cupped hands; Keys or other objects jabbed into the back of the jawbone; Keys or other objects jabbed into the ears, artery, etc.; Attacking jugular vein/carotid artery with sharp object; Chops, strikes, blows to the throat area;

These are only possible examples of many applications. Your imagin-

ation is your only limit, when applying any defensive action to


assault situations.


Basic Kicking

For the purposes of kicking in self-defense, tactics and techniques

should not be difficult, complex or complicated to execute. There is not

sufficient time in a real-life street confrontation to rely on complica-

ted tactics with regard to foot movements. Kicking defensive actions are

best kept simple and directed toward primary vulnerable target areas. In

consideration of kicking actions, actual points of contact with the ad-

versary should likewise be basic and simple. For example, the following

are examples of the foot parts that can be used as weapons:

Heel Instep

Inside edge of the foot Outside edge of the foot Bottom of the foot


Ball of the foot

It is probably good practice to learn how to use all parts of the

foot as effective and efficient weapons. However, for practical applica-

tion, it is probably more realistic to narrow the above group to just a

few basic applications, and perfect these as best as you can. For exam-

ple, the ball of the foot, the bottom, and the outside edge should be

the primary points of focus. Since you will probably be wearing


these parts of the foot, or the shoe will more likely be the most practi-

cal: ball or front part of the foot/shoe, side of the foot/shoe, or the

bottom of the foot/shoe. It is also a good idea to practice kicks while

you are wearing shoes, since you are more likely to be the target of an

assault, while you are wearing shoes or some type of foot covering item.


The front kick, the side kick and the back kick, are probably some of the most basic kicks for self-defense situations. There are of course variations of these, such as stomping down, kicking to different angles, front and back, etc. But, the basic action is primarily kicking to the front, sides or to the rear. To execute a kick properly, sufficient and effective force should be used. This involves use of the hip, raising the knee to almost a parallel level with the ground, and then snapping at the appropriate angle and direction to the target area. The lower leg is snapped or thrust with maximum force and impact into the target zone for maximum penetration. These should be directed low and to vital areas of

the body, such as the knee caps, shins, or groin areas, or to the


witnin easy reach, such as the head or upper body, when these are brought within range of the foot. For example, grabbing the head and jerking it downward to meet the foot coming up with a snap kick. Again, the intent of kicking should be to disable the attacker, and should be followed up or used in conjunction with other combinations of techniques.

Review the target areas indicated on Page 21 for use in kicking, and

application of kicking techniques. All of these areas, including


indicated on Page 30, can be kicked when they are brought within range of the feet or knees. If the assailant can be taken to the ground, the feet can also be used for kicking and stomping to these target areas. Kicking

should focus on power and force to vital target areas, and at

the same

time kept simple and direct.

You should avoid trying to kick high tar-

get areas, and concentrate on lower levels of kicking. Kicks should be from about hip or waist high and directed outward on a horizontal plane. Sufficient force and power must be used for the kick to be effective.


The execution of kicking techniques, combined with other appropriate countermeasures and followup tactics, can be extremely effective in selfdefense situation. There is massive natural power in your legs, and, if combined with practice and proper appl ication, the result can be serious damage and injury to the attacker. However, the key is practice, training and concentration on basic applications. As in all countermeasures, your mental attitude is vitally important, especially in kicking. You must endeavor to exercise mental and physical discipline. When you are practicing, you must learn to appreciate your individual unique abilities and potential. Avoid any negative thoughts about your ability, learn to think positive and be confident at all times.

The more you practice and train, especially if you design some type of simple but sturdy kicking device, the more you will be able to develop eye and foot coordination. Practice soon becomes second nature, and in a confrontation situation you will automatically fall back on your training

ability. The body and the mind adjust, the more you train and yourself.

One of the most basic kicks, as mentioned on Pages 32 and 33, is the front snap kick. This kick is executed by using the ball of the foot to


the front direction, when an attacker is standing in front of you. The process is simply raising the leg by bending the knee. The knee is used as a guide to point upward, and bring the leg up, parallel to the floor & snapped outward from the knee. During the application of the kick, the impact is enhanced by shifting body weight forward, with a thrusting kind of action. When you practice, stand straight, and focus on delivery of the kick to your practice target. Practice with both feet, and practice every day.

------~--~---.---------.----~-,- .. -- ... ------ .. ---.--.------ ------- ---


To practice the front snap kick, consider the following format as a

simple means to train and exercise:

1) Stand straight facing your target, feet about shoulder width


2) Bring the knee up, pointing toward the ceiling.

3) Maintain balance, by shifting weight as appropriate.

4) Quickly extend foot outward with a snapping motion, and then bring it back and down.

5) Repeat at least 10 times, and then switch to other foot.

Practice for speed and surprise. Avoid any unnecessary movements &

actions that might indicate you are going to kick. In a


situation, you do not want to 'telegraph' your movements. You must learn

to aim, strike your target, and deliver maximum impact without giving any

hint that you are about to react. Any indication that you are going to

strike, will give the attacker the opportunity to react. Therefore, you

should practice kicking by learning how to shift your body weight to the

supporting leg, and then kicking without unnecessary movement in the rest

of your body.


To add to the personal weaponry of your body, with regard to


ing, the side kick represents another basic defensive action. The side

kick employs the use of the outside edge of your foot. The major objec-

tive is to focus power and impact, beginning in the hip and extending to

the leg, into the 'cutting edge' of the foot, or the side of the shoe. In

basic application, you form a kicking angle by turning your foot inward &

at the same time upward with the toes. The ankle is flexed, creating a

feeling of muscular tension at the ankle.

To practice, stand erect, feet together, turn your head to


side (the direction you will practice kicking), and bring your hands up

as if protecting your face and upper body. Then, raise the leg you will

kick with at the knee, balancing on the other leg. Bring the knee up to

the front, about waist high, form the 'cutting edge' with your kicking or

striking foot, and thrust outward to the side and direction you are kick-

ing. Practice from both sides, and focus either on an imaginary target,

or use a practice kicking device.

The back or rear kick can be accomplished very similar to the re-

verse of the front kick. This is accomplished by powerfully extending &

projecting the back kick sharply to the rear and upward. See the diagram

below for an example of this type of kick.

---- ---------


Proper and effective kicking is one of your most basic and most useful defensive aspects. Continuous training and practice is necessary for you to develop a strong defensive foundation, with regard to kicking in self-defense situations. The following presents basic aspects of target application with kicks.

Knee Areas:

Knees are vulnerable target areas, yet a kick to the knee may prove to be of limited value, since it is not a completely incapacitating tactic. In addition, a knee kick requires you to be in close range to your attacker, and requires a maximum delivery of impact and force, at a good angle to the knee. However, if applied properly a kick to the knee can dislocate or break the knee area, and thereby, create other opportunities for a more aggressive defensive action. You must be aware of the fact in such situations, that a kicking action to the knee, puts you within range of the attacker's fists. Kicking to the knees should be delivered at a 4S-degree angle into the knee area, which creates the situation in which there is less flexibility to the knee itself. A knee kick should be used when an attacker is already close enough, giving you the opportunity for such a kick. If the kick does not put the attacker down, then it should give you the opportunity to something else, since it will throw the person off balance to a certain degree.

The Shin:

The area just below the knee, between the knee and the foot, or the instep area, is the shin area. In most people, this area is sensitive to even the sl ightest of pressure, since bone nerves are exposed to any impact. Sufficient power and forceful impact are needed to bring about a desired result. Again, this is a limited target area, as with the knee.


The Instep:

Another sensitive leg area is located on top of the foot. A moderate degree of force can create pain in this area, as a distracting tactic to del iver a more disabling technique. Broken bones can result with a very forceful smashing or stomping kick.


The groin area can be a very effective kicking area. However, there is an automatic tendency by people to instinctively protect this area, or anticipate a kick to this area. You must practice on a target to develop the ability to hit this target area effectively. This can be a fatal target area, if sufficient force and impact are delivered effectively.

As a basic rule of thumb, when determining which is the best area of the body to kick, you should consider your distance from the target area. In addition, you must determine how easy it will be to reach your target area without losing your balance, and maintaining control over the rest of your defensive capabilities. You must also decide whether or not you will have to move in close to execute the technique, which brings you into range of the attacker1s weapons. And, you need to determine whether or not you can use a maximum of power and strength to deliver the kick to the target area.

Other possibilities include use of your knee as a striking weapon to hit various target areas. This is used against such areas as the groin & soft body areas of the upper body area. Again, you must be close enough to direct the impact inward to affect the vital organs, which sufficient, and powerful force to disable the attacker. If you are able to deliver a sufficient amount of power, a good target area is the solar plexus, which could serve to knock the air out of your assailant.

- - -----.------------------~------~~-- .... ------~~--~ --_.

The previous section was designed to cover only the very basics of

kicking. There are many variations of kicking, all of which are based on

the front kick, side kick and back kick, with modifications, and differ-

ent body movements. There would not be sufficient space in the scope of

this publication to cover every possible kicking application. However, it

is not necessary for self-defense situations to learn more than the basic

ki cks.

Blocking & Related Actions

A block is used primarily to deflect and divert the direction of an

attack, such as a punch or a kick from an attacker. As with kicks, there

are many variations of blocks. Keep in mind that the closer you are to a

person, the less time you have to react, the greater the skill needed to

respond, and the quicker you must be to deflect the attack. Combined and

used with blocking is avoidance or evasion. This means that you try to

avoid any contact, by keeping a safe distance, out of range of the other

person's attack. A good self-defense posture is based on judgement of

distance, alertness and the ability to react quickly and effectively to

ensure your personal safety. Primarily, you want to be able to react as

soon as possible, disable your attacker, and then get safely away if at

all possible. Keep in mind the following key points in an attack situa-

t ion:

1. Tall persons have an advantage with their reach.

2. A heavier person has the advantage of power.

3. A light-weight person has an advantage of speed.

4. A short person has the advantage of movement and agility.

These are suggested in the general sense only. You must decide what

are your strong points, and then learn to make the best use of these. A

combination of the above, gives a person the advantage of variety.

------------------_-- ----

Keep in mind, that if you have any advance warning, try to keep out of range if at all possible. Keep a low profile, and expose as little of your body as you can. By leaping, side-stepping or sliding to one side or the other, stay out of range of the direction of the attack. Train by changing feet and direction, until you feel confident you can quickly and easily move from side to side, and maneuver into a better position of defense. After you become more agile, add a kicking technique to your tactics, following the movement. Then, try punching as followup maneuvers.

To begin, shift weight onto the balls of your feet, then shift more, or sufficient weight, onto the foot that will follow in the direction of

your movement (the trailing foot). Push yourself off with the

trai ling

foot, with the leading foot carrying less weight. Always maintain a good sense of balance and center of gravity. As you recover from the action & the movement, from your leaping or sliding maneuver, execute the kicking action or the punch.

Aside from leaping, moving out of range, dodging and parrying, etc., blocking remains your final alternative. This action places you at risk, and puts you in a more vulnerable situation, since you must confront the attack more directly. A small person may have difficulty effectively and

sufficiently blocking an attack from a heavier taller person. If


defensive action requires a block, avoid over-extending your action, or putting yourself off balance. Protect your vulnerable target areas, and use caution. You must execute a block or blocks quickly, and then follow with an appropriate countermeasure. If, for example, a punch comes to your upper body area, you can use your forearm in an upward rising direction, to deflect the attack, while, at the same time, moving your body out of the direction of the attack.


The following diagrams serve to illustrate some of the simple basic

blocking actions. There are a number of ways to deflect and attack.

Most often, an attack to the front, if a punching action is not im-

mediately apparent, may be an attempt to grab and apply a hold. This may

also be true if no weapon is present. For self-defense purposes, blocks

should be kept simple, with some variations. Protect your upper body and

head area, by use of upper rising or outside types of blocks. The lower

parts of your body can be protected by downward blocks.


Upper Blocking Action:

To execute the upper block, practice by standing in a comfortable or

otherwise normal stance. Face in front of a mirror if possible. Slowly,

raise your forearm upward, across the front of the chest, with your wrist

coming to about eye level. Start off practicing with your stronger arm.

As your arm comes up, again wrist is at eye level, turn your wrist so the

palm is facing outward and away from your face. The little finger on the

hand executing the block, is pointing slightly upward. Note that


hand should be formed into a fist, and upon execution of the block, the

arm should extend upward, slightly above the top of the head. The upward

block emphasizes use of the forearm to deflect the blow of the attack and

directs the assault down the angle of the forearm, and off the point of

the elbow.

Partial rotation of the forearm as the arm moves up. Wr i s t rotates to

place palm out.

The upper block can be modified to accompl ish a deflecting action if

the direction of attack comes toward the midsection. In this case, the

arm moves from the inside to the outside, with the palm of the fist fac-

ing to the outside, away from the midsection of your body. By


the attacker's arm to the outside, his stomach, groin and midsection be-

come targets for your countermeasures. This block can also be


to deflect the attack to the inside, which moves the direction of attack

across the front of your body. At the same time, you move your body out

of range, by twisting in the direction of the deflected blow. The attac-

ker's ribs and kidney areas are now open to your countermeasures.

Downward Blocking Action:

Adjust the arm to focus downward, and snap the fist downward in the direction of the opposite leg. If you are practicing with your right arm during training, then the direction of the downward strike would be toward the left leg, over the top of the knee. This action serves to protect your lower body area, such as the lower abdomen or the groin.

Basic Countermeasures

In traditional martial arts training, the student often learns to

practice with both sides of the body. That is, he or she is taught to punch, kick, etc., using both right and left arms or legs. However, for self-defense purposes, it is probably a better idea to concentrate on the strengths of your body, and then make the best use of the weak aspects of your personal weapons. For example, one hand will be stronger than the other, and the same applies to the legs and feet. Therefore, adjust your training so that emphasis is given to the various strengths that you have available. Over time, as you develop proficiency, compensate by developing the weak side.

After executing a blocking action or kicking technique, you


followup the tactic with a powerful countermeasure. There are a wide and varied number of things you can do, following an attack, and depending on the type of attack. These involve striking at vital target areas, with

simple direct tactics, and avoiding complicated techniques that


too much time to execute. The countermeasure may be a punch, a jab, a strike, or a combination of actions, designed to disable the attacker and provide an opportunity for you to escape or otherwise disengage from the confrontation. The following is a basic listing of some types of actions designed to serve as countermeasures.


1. Focus countermeasures to vulnerable target areas, using maximum power and force. Keep in mind, that when attacking the assailant, after a blocking action, your followup strike, punch, jab, etc., should aim for a target area that will disable the attacker. The degree of how effective a technique will be depends upon several factors. These include:

-Target access.

-Speed and effectiveness of technique.

-Skill employed to deliver the technique to the target.

-Physical strength, training and knowledge of the defender.

-Ability of the assailant to counter the technique.

2. Generally speaking, the following target areas are listed in order of the most effective/vulnerable areas at the top of the list, with the least effective at the bottom. Review pages 21-30, etc.

Areas of the Head Eyes

Throat areas

Front part of neck Groin area

Feet, 1 eg areas Knees


Hands and fingers Kidneys





Followup techniques are numerous, after a blocking action, or tion of kick. The following can be adapted in many ways to countermeasure techniques.


Hands - closed fist for punching; open-handed for chopping, using the heel of the palm or edge of the hand to strike soft areas of the neck, face, under chin, nose, etc.

Feet - the most powerful weapon of the body; better range than the hands; use as kicks, stomps, etc. to mid-section, groin, knee areas, etc.

Elbows- has limited range and depends on positioning; generally more effective when attack in from behind in the form of a grab or over-the-arms attempt to pin; two areas of use of elbow include the point above elbow, and the tip of the elbow as the diagram depicts.


f "

/ l__ ~

I -------.A

Above the tip of the e 1 bow----------L~ __ -~4~,i

The tip of the e1bow---------------- --------

Elbow strikes can focus on head areas, neck or upper body and lower body areas;

Head Your head can be used as a weapon depending upon the circumstances; smashing the forehead against the nose of the attacker; striking point of your head is just about the level of the hair1 ine; striking backward, the area just below the top of the head can be used;

Use of Whatever is Available - in addition to body weapons, anything that is readily available can be used in the countermeasure tactic and fo1lowup; almost anything can be used as a weapon, such as:




Umbre 11 as

Penci 1 slPens Rolled Magazines

Handbags Aerosol Sprays

Lighted Cigarette, Cigar, Pipe Cigarette Lighter

The list is endless, but the key points are that anything you use as a weapon must be readily available, quickly employed & require simple operation. In addition, you must also know how to use it against a vulnerable target area. Any hard or sturdy item, which can be held firmly, can be used for jabbing, striking, scraping, etc.

Other Possibilities - other actions include some of the following tactics in addition to combinations of things already mentioned:

Striking to the eyes Clapping hands to the ears Finger jabs to throat Grabbing the throat Chopping the neck Twisting the groin



The use of powerful punching tactics require training and practice

in order to develop effectiveness in the execution of a punch. To train,

begin by clenching one of your hands. Ensure that your thumb is not in-

side your fingers. That is, do not wrap the fingers around the thumb and

tucked against the palm. The thumb should rest on the outside, folded &

bent across the fingers, as depicted by the diagram. When punching, the

back of the hand should be straight, and in 1 ine with the forearm so that

you can maximize power, and direct the punch in a straight line

to the

target area. With the hand clenched in a fist, the hand should be relax-

ed, yet closed. Avoid tightening the hand to the point that the muscles

are flexed in the arm. This takes away from the energy and flexibil ity &

effectiveness of the punch, when del ivered to the target area.

~~~~ -.----.----~~~


As you practice punching, you should concentrate on plac-

ing the first two knuckles within a target area of about one

inch square.

As you punch, use the strength in your hips and

legs to drive the arm from the body to the target,



fist hitting the target zone, and the force of impact direct-

ed through the fist, into the knuckles, and into the target.

The Point

and this is the point where the maximum of impact should be concentrated for maximum effect.

Punching incorporates one of the most powerful and versa-

tile hand techniques.

The punch is designed to maximize both

power and penetration into the target zone.

It must be deli-

vered efficiently and quickly,

This technique can be direct-

ed toward almost any target area on the assailant.

When you

practice, begin slowly, and then add speed as you change each


Become more powerful with your punch, as you begin


get more comfortable in the execution of the technique.


your wrist straight, as you del iver the punch to the target &

keep movement in your body to a minimum.

Maintain good

ba 1-

ance at all times.


Focus on the vital target areas and practice directing or

driving the fist into and beyond the target zone.

B u i 1 d


practice 'dummy', such as a pillow attached to a chair. Or,

buy a practice punching bag, so you can get the idea of how

it feels to make contact with a target.

As you develop


abil ity to punch, without losing balance, try changing the

directions of your counter-attack.

Punch from different dir-

ections, and practice moving around, shifting your feet. In a real combat situation, you will not have time to set up some kind of stance. Learn to punch from different angles, and from different positions. Think and develop mental pictures as to how you might punch someone from different directions & different angles.

The punch, using the first two knuckles, is practical and effective when directed toward soft tissue areas of the body


The action should be sharp, quick and powerful with

the direction of the fist following a straight line, not mov-

ing in a circular or curving pattern.

As you practice,


velop your breathing habits.

That is, inhale each time


prepare to del iver the punch, and tighten the abdomen.


exhale, yell, and deliver the punch to the target, giving as much strength as possible to the execution of the technique.

Your intent is to develop precision, focus, speed,


delivery, quick action, and maximum impact on the target zone

to influence disabl ing action.

You must practice as often as

you can to develop proper del ivery and execution of the technique.


When training, keep in mind that you are not only


oping your muscles, and educating your body to react, but you

are also programming your mind.

Take time from your training

to think about what you are doing, and concentrate on


oping a natural tendency to respond.

Start at the beginning

and build a foundation as carefully as you can.

Aim at


ating smooth pol ished movement, with precision and focus. The

following key points should be considered when practicing the

punching action:

I. Start with one punch from each side, then add a combination of one, two, three punching action.

2. Add other movements, a kick and punch, a side-step & punch, e t c , , building upon movements.

3. Add countermeasures to your punching action.

4. Keep in mind, for training and practice:

a. Straight upright posture;

b. Rotation and reverse action with punches;

c. Coordinated power, focus, and balance;

d. Keep hips and legs balanced and coordinated;

e. Concentrate on timing and del ivery;

f. Make movement with proper weight transfer;

g. Focus on proper impact and del ivery to target;

Learn to be creative and innovative with your punching &

striking actions.

The following is designed as a review for

striking and punching at various target areas with the hands.

Hand Techniques:

Target Area For Strike/Punch:

Open Hand - Fingers .•......... Eyes - one or both; if attacker has glasses, drive hand up and under;

Fist or Outside Edge Throat area - may cause damage

of Hand and constriction to breathing .. significant force could cause collapse of trachea s suffocation.

Open Hands ......•............. Pressure to the throat to in-

terfere with breathing .


Open Hands - Grabbing Adamls Apple, Sides of Neck at

or Twisting Action Artery location;

Fist or Open Hand Used Groin area, twisting, striking

with Knife Edge or pulling testicles, etc.

Fist or Open Hand .....•........ Punches, jabs, Icuppingl ac-

tion, etc. to temple, jaws and neck areas, ears (hard slap or ICUpl on both sides at once) .• nose, mouth, chin, back and at sides of head, etc.

These are only some samples of different uses of hand or

finger techniques.

Review the perviously mentioned target or

vulnerable areas of the body, as mentioned in the information

provided on Pages 21 through 30, and others.

When learning a

technique, stick with the basics.

Your self-defense


should include basic countermeasures.

Punches, kicks, or any

other tactics should be simple and practical for self-defense


When developing a training program, emphasize


basic aspects of punching, and incorporate them with


combinations of defensive action.

For practice purposes, use

the following sequence, and then build further upon these for

precision, using combinations, etc.:

Punching Kicking Blocking

Striking with other body parts (elbow, knee, forearm, etc.) Punch - kick combination

Kick - Punch combination

Multiple punches - kicking combination Side-movements - Punch-kick combination Blocking - Punch - Kick combination

Begin by punching slowly, then build speed and power with

each new punch.

Initially, do at least ten repititions


each side of the body.

----- --------------


A sound program of personal self-defense, and a strategy of personal survival tactics, cannot be developed overnight &

perfected in just a few short lessons.

The ultimate aim


self-defense training is individual development and the integration of physical, mental and spiritual aspects. These are components that take time and effort. Practice and training should reach a point where sphericity of action and extension

of power become as one.

The development of a significant de-

gree of balance and coordination is important.

These should

result in fluid movements, functional actions, and focus of

power to target areas.

Rigid actions, whether from a mental

state or physical state, should be overcome.

The student can

learn coordination, reflexsive movement, timing, etc. by just

training on a regular basis, each and every day, and


mental pictures of countermeasures in practical application.

Defensive actions should be carefully calculated well in

advance of an actual attack situation.

If caught in a situa-

tion in which no other alternative but to fight is available,

then you must react decisively and swiftly.

You must


look for opportunities to escape and get out of the situation

when possible.

Everyone will have a different approach


appl i cat ion of sel f-defense measures.

You must learn to de-

velop your own style, and perfect your own skills, abilities, and reactions. You own particular lifestyle will determine how often you practice, and how well you will develop a personal self-defense program.


A balanced personal self-defense program should


the proper application of punching and striking technigues as

well as other key countermeasures.

One of the basic princi-

ples underlying the use of punching or striking is the application of maximum concentration of force from your body to a

vulnerable target area.

It is an extension of energy,


is directed through the point of impact, into the target zone and beyond. Perfection of this action is critical to the use of punching or striking techniques, and this comes through a program of regular practice and training.

As mentioned earl ier, the most common striking technique is by use of the closed hand or fist, with focus on the first

two knuckles.

The focus of concentration runs along an imag-

inary line through the forearm and between the knuckles of

the middle and forefingers. In this appl ication, the wrist

is kept firm and not bent.

The intent, as will all the vari-

ous techniques, is to use a maximum of power and impact, with a minimum of movements, to disable or otherwise incapacitate,

the attacker. The less compl icated the actions, the the defensive action.

Keep in mind that punching is only one aspect of a total


self-defense program.

Punching, combined with kicking,


other practical countermeasures should serve to make up a total program of social survival tactics. A variety of basic capabilities will serve to enhance your self-defense strategy in order to deal with a variety of situations.



In considering throwing or takedown maneuvers, care must

be exercised, since this area of self-defense requires a more

precise execution, than basic countermeasures, such as punch-

ing or kicking. This area of self-defense requires you to be

close to the attacker, which allows for the opportunity that

the attacker may take advantage of his weight, size, reach or


You must exercise additional caution, and use


takedown or throwing maneuver when it is to your advantage &

the risk to you is less than another technique.

Correct balance is important and fundamental to the use

of throwing and takedown actions.

For example, in

the use

of a hip throw, where the attacker is behind you (e.g.attemp-

ting to grab from the rear, etc.), requires pulling the other

person off balance toward your hip, and then over your hip to

the ground.

See diagram below:

Basic Actions: Break attacker's balance by pulling directly into hip, and place your hip into attacker's midsection; Put your hand/arm around attacker's neck or waist; as hip makes contact using your hip as the axis, revolve your body so that attacker lands to the front and over the

hip, and to the ground .


It must be kept in mind, that most takedowns and throws are not an

effective action in self-defense situations, unless they are a


to an initial defensive measure. The initial defensive measure must be

sucb that it stops, disables, or otherwise limits the intended attack and

accomplishes objectives previously stated. In short, throws and


downs are subsequent actions, which follow a technique or techniques that

have caused the attacker to become confused, disabled, and vulnerable to

the throw or takedown.

Practicing Falls

Before you begin to practice throwing and takedown actions, it is

a good idea that you learn to fall, in order to learn how to respond and

protect yourself should you take a fall. You will need the help



friend to assist you in the practice of falls, as well as throws, and any

takedown actions. At all times, you should exercise care and safety when

you practice. Be sure to use a practice area which allows ample space so

you will not hit other objects, etc. In addition, use an area that has

sufficient padding, such as a well carpeted floor. Proper falling is an

important aspect. If, for example, you are knocked to the ground, you

are able to protect yourself from injury by falling correctly, and you

will be able to respond quickly to any further attack. Consider the in-

formation below as the basics of falling practice:

1. Start from a relaxed position in which you are seated on the floor.

2. Sit with legs together and pointed straight forward. Rest your hands on your thighs. Keep your back straight.

3. Raise your arms slowly to about shoulder level, and tuck your chin down to your chest, which brings your head forward.

4. Fall backwards, but do not jerk and push yourself off with your legs.

5. As the lower part of your back touches the floor, slap down in a quick motion with your hands, slapping the floor.


6. Keep your arms close to the sides of your body, and your hands slightly cupped in the process.

7. Your head should always be protected from hitting the floor at a 11 times.

8. The slapping motion with your hands at the proper time, allows for the impact to be absorbed. It also protects the back and the internal organs.

9. You should practice this over and over until you feel confident to move on.

From the basic practice fall, the next process is to learn how to

fall from a standing position. Note the following exercise for practice

of the standing fall, and falling to one-side:

1. Carefully raise one leg from the floor, balancing on the other.

2. Let yourself down carefully at first, and make sure that your head does not hit the floor.

3. As you fall backward, roll from either left to right, depending on the side that will hit the floor.

4. As you make contact with the floor, again slap down with the

hands, and break the impact.

5. Upon rolling onto your side, also slap the floor with the opposite foot. That is, if you fall to the left side, slap the floor with the left hand and the right foot.

6. Use the other hand to protect the face and upper body areas.

7. Practice responding with defensive measures as you recover from the fa 11 .

From a standing position, and falling straight back, as if


pushed backward, consider the following for practice:

1. Stand straight with arms extended in front of you, hands open, palms down toward the floor, and thumbs barely touching.

2. Take a short step backward, with one foot, as you bend forward, as if to reach down to your toes.

3. Sit backward and down onto the extended foot, allowing your

body to roll backward.

4. As your lower back hits the floor. continue the roll, and slap the mat with both hands.

5. Bring your legs upward and roll, with your head off the floor.

6. Do the fall gently and carefully at first, and practice until, you feel more confident.

Proper training and practice will be important to learning how to

fall in a coordinated fashion.


Takedowns And Throwing Actions

The information that follows presents some of the basics concerning

basic takedowns and throwing actions. Again, these become practical to a

self-defense situation, when they previous action that sets up the basic

throw or takedown action.

Takedown From The Side:

In the 'Takedown from the Side', the maneuver follows a pre-throwing action, such as hand or foot techniques, or a combination of actions dedesigned to prepare the attacker for the takedown. For example, you may have punched to the face area, or jabbed to the throat or eyes, or some other action designed to confuse or

----------------temporarily disable the attacker to the point where the takedown can be executed.

In the diagram, you would grab a the shoulders or arms, with both your hands, and sharply spin the attacker around and away from you.

Next, with your right hand grip at the attacker's collar, you would kick to the back of the left knee and stomp down with your right foot pulldownward at the same time. Your left hand would jerk downward at the attacker's right elbow. You would direct

the downward action of the takedown backwards to the ground. The force of the kick to the back of the attacker's knee should be of significant impact to jolt the attacker down and backward at the same time. Once the attacker is on the ground, you may elect to followup with additional and appropriate kicking and punching actions, until such time you can safely escape from the situation.

Once again, as Tegner (1974) points out, in his excellent work on

self-defense, Complete Book of Jukado Self-Defense:

None of the throwing techniques is suitable for practical self-defense unless preceded by action which stops the intended attack and which weakens the adversary, confusing him enough so that he is vulnerable for your throw. (Page 106)


According to Bateman (1980), take-downs are methods by

which an attacker is held motionless, as long as may be needed unti 1 other appropriate actions can be taken. A take-down may be necessary to restrain an attacker until help arrives &

he is otherwise disabled or prevented from hurting you


further action.

Take-downs require precise movements and are

to be executed quickly, without hesitation.

You must


fore execute the movement as fast as you can. Initially, you need to evaluate the situation very carefully, and use takedowns only when necessary, and when there is limited risk to yourself.

Keep in mind that height is an important factor

i n


use of a take-down action.

Bateman (1980) states: "Make sure

that you practice with people of various heights. of the take-downs, you can follow through with a

With most


attack to make sure that an attacker stays down without strug-

gl l n q . !' (Page 56)

As you practice a take-down, ensure


your posture is straight and well-balanced.

If your balance

is off, you may lose control of the situation, and end up on the ground, thereby losing control of the situation.

It is probably best, for self-defense purposes, to keep

take-down techniques to a minimum.

Since an actual attack or

assault situation lasts for only a few moments, it may become

difficult to execute anything that is too complicated.


is the possibility that an attack could come by surprise, in

which there is no advance warning.

In this situation, it may

not be possible to execute an effective take-down.


Page 56 illustrates one of the basic take-down'maneuvers

from the side of the attacker. The following information has

been designed to present additional basic take-down maneuvers

for further consideration.

Basic Foot Throw:

In the basic foot throw, upon setting up the pre-throwing action, your left hand would guide the direction of the throw, by pull ing at the arm (right arm) of the attacker. Your right hand could be used to jab at

the throat area, and then grab the

t h r 0 at i t se 1 f, f u rt her g u i din g the

direction of the throw to your left. The actions with your hands, would be similar to turning a wheel to the left, and downward. In the process, your right leg would come across in front of the attacker, and you would twist your body, so that your right

leg comes to about the knee of the

attacker's right leg. A hooking action with your right leg

could be used to bend the attacker's right leg at the knee & from behind his knee, to cause him to lose balance. Also, you could use a stamping action with your right foot down on the attacker's right shin. At this point, your action would be to pull the attacker off balance, around in a circular motion moving him to his left, and then downward. Once on the floor or the ground, then you could followup with striking or kicking actions as appropriate to the situation.

Basic Back Throw: The basic back throw would be very similar to the basic foot throw. After executing the pre-throw tech-

nique, such as a stike to the head area, you would grab the

attacker in the same fashion~ as indicated above. In this

situation, you might also bring the right leg sharply upward, and drive the knee to the groin. You would then step past to the right side of the attacker, extending your right leg behind him, hooking his right leg behind the knee. At the same time, you would twist his upper body around in a circular direction to his left, and pull downward with your left hand at

his arm. Your right leg would hook upward sharply, and you

would force him off balance downward and to the ground. The

need for swift sharp hooking action is crucial to this action in bringing the attacker off balance and under your control.


Basic Shoulder Throw:

In the shoulder throw, which could be executed against a rear attack, you will need to maintain good balance at all times. You pivot on the ball of your left foot, and turn counter-clock wise, if you are facing the attacker. You would also maintain a good grip on the attacker's upper right arm, with your left hand. Pull downward. As you reach under his right arm, the arm you are pinning/restraining, with your rightarm, you control the turning action & you should end up directly in front of him with your back to his chest. Your

feet should be in front of his feet.

Next, you squat down slightly, lean forward and pull him forward, but not around you. You complete the throw by pull ing forward unti 1 he comes off the ground, and his weight shifts to your hip. You then lift upward sharply and straighten at the legs, and twist down and around to the left side, pulling hard with the hands. The attacker should be directed over &

down to the ground.

Basic Foot Sweep: You cannot expect to match your weight to that of a person who significantly outweighs you, for any of the take-down actions. However, in this particular action as illustrated below, a heavier person can be placed at a disadvantage by using his direction of attack against him. Your action is to move in the direction he is attacking, offering, or giving little or no resistance. At the same time, you would grab and restrain his arms, and stomp to the shin of his right leg with your left foot, using the inside edge of the foot. You would also stablize his right leg by placing the foot of your left leg just above the ankle. You would also pull the attacker toward you and downward & spin in a counterclockwise direction. Your action would actually be like a tripping maneuver, pulling him off his balance and to the ground, with sharp, and jerking actions. This action will direct the attacker along his path of attack and out of direct conflict with you.


Hip Throw-Take-Down:

With a grip either around the attacking person's neck, under the shoulder, or around the waist (your right arm in the diagram), you would pull the attacker & bring him directly to your right. You would place your right hip into an area around the midsection. Your left hand would restrain his right arm, and with your hip as an axis, you would rotate & turn counterclockwise. The attacker is then brought over the hip and to the ground. You are applying rotation and shifting to maneuver your attacker into a throwing or take-down position.

Drop Down - Back Roll Technique: In this action, you grip the attacker at his left lapel with your right hand, and his right elbow with your left hand. You pull him forward and off bal-

ance, and at the same time, raise your right knee, driving your foot hard into his groin area. After kicking to the groin, 1 ift your knee and put your foot

into his midsection, and drop down to

go into a backward roll. As you con-

tinue the process, pull him forward and

sit down. Both hands are pull ing him

downward with you. Sit down on your

left foot, roll backward, and pull the attacker onto your right foot. Jerk to the rear, and force the attacker upward by pushing at his midsection. Keep rolling and force him up and over you, as you roll backward. Your right leg moves in a bent position as you drive the attacker over your head in a circular motion. You can either attempt to throw him over so he lands flat on his back, or drives his face into the floor. This is a fast moving action, and should be done quickly and without hesitation. Once you move into the roll, keep going and drive the rigth foot hard and upward.

In the technique above, the pre-throwing action may have

been set up as a response to his grab to your chest area, or

his attempt to choke you.

Your initial response will be


control his hands and arms, and restrain them in an effort to

go into the roll action.


The previous pages only presented some of the basics of takedown

and throw actions.

You should keep in mind that there are a variety of

techniques designed to place an attacker on the ground, or in a position to


However, for basic :3elf-defense, and for the scope of thj_:3

training publication, the information pre:3ented has been directed t owar-d basic applications.

You are encouraged to find a qualified instructor and regularly

participate in an ongoing class of instruction.

Keep in mind, that most

martial arts classes do not teach practical self-defense measures,


carefully for the appropriate class of instruction.

M:.; you develop your

personal self-defense program, consider implementing as part of strategy

both verbal and physical resistance measures.

In using various techniques,

you should keep in mind that you musrt be creative in whatever you do.

Practical self-defense techniques must be practice often.

To develop skill

and ab:Lli ty in body movements, execution of techniques and t act tcs ,

reqUires mental and emotional commitment.

Remember, good self-

defen'3e tactics require minimum :3kill to learn, a l l ow for proficiency

de'leloFnnent in a r,::;hort period of time, and do not utilize complicated


The intent of simple and aggressive t act i ce is to maximize

your ability to disable your attacker quickly, and then escape and survive.









countermeasures, you must be willing and able to disable your attacker in

as l I t tLe time a:3 -possible.

On the street, you will not have time to

attempt to a.pply a complicated technique.

Develop your personal defense

strategy with care and devotion.


CHAPTER 5: Applications of Defensive Strategy

There are basically three stages in an attack situation, in wh i ch you
re:3pond to the attack. These include: perception of danger or immediate assaul t, evaluation and decision making, and reaction.

Your defensive

strategy will depend upon the time between your first perception of danger of attack, and your Lmmedf at.e response to the situation. You must learn to pr-ac t ice reaction time, and bring together perception, evaluation-decision,

and reBction into a simultaneous response to the situation.

In an assault

situation, the mind. must be the center of control and execution.

It is the

command center that wi 11 direct the end:3 necessary for survival of the


The moment an aggre:3si ve act is perceived, you must be ready for

defensive action.

In this effort, you must endeavor to unify and

coordinate all your powers, including mental, physical and functional

aspects of your defensive strategy.

Your actions should follow a direction

of clarity, intensity and focus toward the survival of the attack.

Awarenes:3 and development of the senses are key to defensive strategy.

In the very excellent work, enti tIed AIKIDO AND THE DYNA1UC SPHERE, We:3tbrool{ and Ratti 0(80) suggest that being aware Is the foundation of an

effective combat readiness.

It is therefore important to learn to use your

instincts and develop your sense:3 to maximum capacity. Your react.ion t.o an attack must be directed with speed, ssur pr-Lee , balance, leverage and momentum.


vihen confronted by an armed attacker, for example, you c;hould

ini tially maintain safe distance from the weapon.

At the same time, you

should maneuver into a position where you can safely react and deflect the

weapon, delivering aggressive defensive action to the attacker.

If you are

unable to immediately disable the attacker by kicking ac't i on , then a takedown maneuver may be possible, fo l l owe d by aggressive action directed

toward a vital target area.

Thi'3 would app l y to a knife or club attack,

at.nee an attacker armed with a firearm requires a different response,

Your strategy should be based upon preparation designed to minimize

the possibility of injury and further assault by the at.tacker .


should be directed to learn and use appropriate and effective mental and

physical actions to disable and otherwise deter the attack.

In previous

pages of this publications, Page,:_:; 2 through 4, the objectives of your

strategy were presented. Again these are suggested as follows:

Distract the attack

Disrupt the attack

Disable the attack

Disengage from the attack - escape and survive

Basic self-defense strategy suggests the beginning process of learning

how to avoid becoming a victim, by whatever means that requires.


victims of an attack, become victims not because they lacked ab l I i ty, but

because they did not prepare adequately and failed to develop a strategy to

----.------ - ..... ---.~----.-----~-.-----


In the tradi t i ona l approach to

mean::::; to attain a high level of fi ssk i Ll , developed over many ye,3x,s

of study.

Ueua l l v ,

such training overlooks the real-life needs of

,sur-vi val, and the app l tcat t on of techniques to practical combat. situations,

Attacks in real-life situations vary

different degrees.

They range from

mild confrontations of a threatening or intimidating nature, to the actual

intent to inflict serious personal injury.

Some situations may be handled.

through verbal response,

with assertive self-control and display of


In these situations, it may be pO!3si ble to avert the situation

from escalating into violence through creative thinking and talking,


situations may require more d i r ec t physical action.



effective strategy musrt allow for a full range of response:3, that are both

physical and verbal in nature.

Build an effective defensive strategy on self-control, determination.

effE!cti ve re::;istal1ce and a. refusal to a.ccept the role of victim.


demeanor, a+t i tude , verbal n3sponses, tone of voice, and. other gestures cO.n







going to tolerate




aggressive actions.

Bei ng a!3!3ertt ve can !30metimes reduce the opportunity

for an attack, depending on the c ircumst.ancee Invo I veel ..

Yet, no two

situa.tions B_re oxact.Ly the same.

That is why it is important to be

fLex l b I e

in your response,


a l 'flays look for opportuni t ie:3 for

alternative actions.

If one approach does not work, then be ready to


, ' -I

your response approprla~e~y.

De ve Lop i ng a sense of confidence is an important by-product of

training and practice.

Through regular practice and application one builds

skill and ability, and thereby develops a sense of confidence in overcoming

an attack.

Several factors aTe critical in developing a ciefem,;ive

strategy. in addition to some items aLr eady mentioned,

These include:

l'<1fmtal attitude


Bodv mechan i cs


.+ oJ.


target area:3


Application of practical techniques

Skill development and ability

Swift and decisive action

A defensive strategy is not

y a matter of matching your strength

and ab i Li

against that of another.

It is more a matter 01 using your

creative morrta I rE:<30urce.s to out-maneuver the attacker, and use hi.s

wealmesses against him,

This may also using anything that is at

hand against him, such a:3 u:3ing a available article as v!eapon. The

human body has numer oue weak po i nt.e, or vulnerable targ-et areas,


af;:3ume that your attacker is stronger and has the ability to inflict injury

upon you.

liever undere:3tirll.ate the attacker, and work from that a:3pect,


In developing a defensive strategy, consider the following key points

in your overall plan:

Defensive Strategy Checklist

Assume the other person is

dangerous and always look for alternatives to physical conflict.


pOE;si ble, if the ~3i t i on penni t:3, U:3e verbal approach and talk your way

out of the situation.

Ah!aY:3 look for Ivay to escape and run when pos'3i ble.

2. In a physical confrontation, keep in mind proper stepping, weight

shifting; body mechanics, balance, 1everage, speed, etc, in avo i di ng the


Attempt to maneuver' the attEl_cker to your advantage for a counter-


C! <r ,

Learn to use your body as a complete system or un i t,

Combine mi nd ,

body and spirit into maximum advantage.


Do not rely on complicated movae or techniques.

Do not be misled by

reot ion picture


ce l . .

t;,~ eva s i on


Stick with bas i c app l t Lca t i one of

self-defense and strategy.

5, Always attempt to maintain a stable foundation. with braced feet and a

balanced position. yet be flexible in application.

6. Learn to coord:Lnate punching, jabbing, blocking, striking, throwing,

etc., to the attacker's vi tal target areas.

Focus countermea:3ures on

disabling the attacker as soon ae possible.

Remember: Distract, Di:3rupt,

Disable. and Disengage .... (See page 63).


? Do not oppose the attacker by matcb.t ng strel1gth for strength~ povfer

for pm"er, etc,

Seek to harmonize your vital energy and senses, and use

your strong points to maximum advantage,

Move around the attacker's line

of attack.


Know the vi tal target areas,

Strike to the vital areas and avoid

techniques that do DOt inflict disabling injury to vital target areas,

g, Be alert at all times wherever you are.
be alert to 0.1 1 actions of ' 1 attacker,
1:..!.18 In a physical confrontation,

After delivering disabling

techniques, always be alert for any Iurt:ner action from the attacker until

you are safely out of the area.

1 O~

Use discoreation and good COmlllCm sense.

Your mind. is your most

i mpor+ant

weaoon for survival.


Be confident and nurture self-control.

11. In developing a de renat ve strategy, conduct a self-Eu3:3essment, and

think about who you are,

Know yourself, and think about your capabilities,

Trust your senses, and react on your instincts when somethj_ng or someone

presents a concer-n to you,

Be con.stantly aware of things happening around


12. When dealing with other people, and particularly in a potential

assault situation when pOSSible,

sa.y what you reallly mean and use

asserti ve verbal on.


Think and act as if your ,=;urvival depends on it.

Avo id allowing

yourself to be placed in vulnerable settings or situations.

Get out of a

dangerous situation as soon as possible.

Pay attention to verbal and non-

verbal cues from others.

Control your environment.


14. Keep in mind, that no one piece of advice, or one all-purpose

defensive tactic is valid in all '3elf-defense situations.

There are many

types of responses which could prove useful in a given situation.


si tuation is different and depends on the setting and environment, the

personality, training and education of the potential victim, and the

motives of the attacker,

No system of self-defense is absolutely foolproof

for every possible situation.

15. Ensure that your defensive strategy includes a comprehensive p l ann i ng

of both personal safety and physical security, for the varied aspects of

your life.

The basic component.e include:

Your Personal Security and Safety Plan

Home and FaratLy E;ecurity Plan

Office, Business and Work Enviroment Security Plan

Personal and Business Travel Security Plan E'elated Safety and Securj ty Components

16, Your various defensive strategy components, as related to Item 15

above, include sub-topic areas, such as:

Home and Neighborhood

Safety all tIl(') Street

Safety when Driving a Car

Protection of Family


SafE;ty when using Public Transportation Systems

work Environment and Setting and Sightseeing

Going out for the Evening and Dating

Staying at Hotels, Motels, Resorts, etc.

Bus; Travel

Su1}v;aY:3 and Train Travel

Travel by Air and Airports



Foreivn Countries


Schools and College Campuses

Other areas of concern and consideration

Developing a defensive strategy for self-defense and personal safety

is more than simply learning a few baste techniques,

It involves planning

a program for your total e nvtr onmerrt and lifestyle.

It is a means of

avoiding trouble whenever possi. b l e , by planning ahead, making dec ts i cne and

taking precautions.

Defensi ve stratesy suggests competency and. confidence

in your decision making abiUty,

followed by appropriate corrective

measures to ensure your safety and security.

When developing your strategy

about a particular aspect, you should ask yourself basic questions, such

as: Have I planned ahead?

How great are the risks?

What are the

",.1 ternat1 ves? How much time do I have to implement ac t ion?

Is the threat

tmmediate, and, if so, how do I escape?

Anticipate, appraise, recognize

and take action in your defensive strategy.


Current research studies in the field of sexual assault indicate that

there 1:3 no one

fie way to re:3pond to an asssau Lt s ttuati on (Hazelwood

and Harpold, 1986).

The same idea should be applied to attack situations

in general.

There are a multitude of factors involved, and many different

,;rays in which a person may re:3pond to the situation.

In an assault

situation, there are different

aseat Larrt , and intended v i ct i m.

A technique or tactic that may "rorK in one

!3i t.uat i on , may only ser·~\Te to aggravate the 8i tuat t cn I n a different :3etting

or c Ir-cums't ancee .

In developing

defensi ve e t r a

cautious of advice that

only one plan of action,

You Eihould be

flexible and prepared to deal accor-d i

to the at t cs of the

specific situation.

It should be no t.ed that traditional basic method:3 of

resistance certainly have a degree of effectiveness given the right set of

For exampl e ,

in the field have suggested the

following typical responses in an assault situation.

Most of these relate

to ::;elf-defense advice given to women as a means of resistance in sexual

assault situations.

Physical Resistance! learning; self-defense measures, studying t ne

mart i a I ar ts . etc;

Verbal Resistance: learning how to approach and respond verbally. use

of voice t one , manner-t sms, at t i tude: screaming7 negotiat:il1g or' being'

o.:3sert i ve ;

Noi!3emaking Device:::;: WUlstles, :3irell~3 and related devices that make a

loud noise to scare off the attacker;


Use of Chemicals:

tearg'as or other' cne mt ca l ageIlt:3~

1];=3e of 'weapons: teaching persons hOI;! to ,:shoot guns, use keys, or other

i te:ms ass weapoll:3;

Use of a Pretext: using the claim of pregnancy, or having some kind of

GISeaSe, such as veneral disease, etc. I appealing to the attacker's sense

of fear or kindness. etc.:

Vomiting, Urinating. Defecating, etc:

performing a disgusting act to

repel an attacker by ,::;uch phye i ca l ac t t ona:

Fe i.n t i ng :

preterHiin.g to faint ~ or' faking a hear-t attacker or SOlEe

kind of seizure to repel an attacker's intent, etc.;

All of the:38 defensi ve measures can certainly be cone i de r-ed.


should be kept ill mi nd , that such act i ons rnay not work in all :::lituati.cms.

Instead; anyone of tbe'3e measures mi

be totally wort h Lesse , an.d per-haps danger-ous given the par-ti cu l ar set of

circumstances involved.

As a strategy. you should be aware of

t.h is fact, but also keep in mind that all of the::3e tactics could be

It .J U;3't: de pe n .. d:3 on the 31 t ua t Ion and the envt r onment.


must learn to deal with a s i t ua t i on based a the spect rtc situation, and the

environmental cond i t t ons pre:3ent.

Do not be lulled into a false sense of

securi tv j U:3t because you have a set of car keys, or carry teargas, or have

a. whistle.

You may not have the opport.urd ty to readi ly use one of these


For example, your :3elf-defense re::;p011:3e would be different if you

were confronted in a crowded aboppt ng mall at 2: OOpm, as opposed to being

stranded Oll a deserted h i g hway at 4: OGara.

You simply have to be alert to

the range of possible alternatives, and act accordingly.


Your 0\"111 personality and cond I t i history \>{ill pl ay a major role

as to how you will react to a given situation.

The decision as to how you

ahoul.d react, whe t her to be passive or agg-ressivf=t is a decision t.nat only

you can make.

No one can tell you the right or wrong way to respond.


you can determine the best course of action, which ensures your persona.l

safety and survival.

The :3ucce:3S of your defense strategy depends on your

own unique ability to apply techniques appropriate to the particular

ci:r·curnstance~3 ,

It is therefore Lmoortarrt that you consider a range of

alternatives, and practice on a regular basis.

Lear-n to asse:3:3 your strong

points and weak


'i?ork hard. on the strong points and overcome the

~veak paints as best. as you can.

Think about how you might use certain


cond i tions to the disad'\lantage of th.e attacker. and to your


Be able to evaluate a situation, and assess the motives of the

attacker, and respond. appropriately in a manner that ensures survival and

the r educ+Lon of" per-sona l injury as much as possi-ole,

Think about possible

escape plans that you :might use if confronted at home , at wor-k, wh l l.e

shopping, or while on a trip.

Practice the pm<ler of positive thinking and

be ~3afety ccnsc i ous at all times.

The wse of a defensive strategy and its

application to modern living r-equ i ree mental and physical training and

de ve I opme nt..


mentall v



and physically able

to apply

survival tactics, and assess the specific situation, thereby responding in

a swt tt and efficient manner.


mentally prepared is the pr-t mar y

objective of your defensive strategy.

And, you must :31:rl ve as much as

possi-ble to minimize your personal exposure to potentially dallgerous plac;es

or :3ituations.


CHAPTER 6: Survival Tactics Planning and Preparation:

The sec t i on deals with the basic:3 of developing a defensive E;tratr:?gy

with regard to certain aspects of your en.vironment.

J'iIO:3t people today 1 i ve

in all urban environment, and experience an active lifestyle~

Too often,

people cecome :3trangers in their own neighborhood, and develop a sense of

isolation in t.he i r O~1l1 eur-r-ound i

The following topics areas are

desi.gned to a~5si;3t you addre:3sing is;:::ues related to personal sa.fety and.

Self-'dei'ell:3e measures.

The Horne Env l r onmerrt

a sense of protection and securl


should rely to a degree on effective locks, security hardware, alarm

devices, effective lighting and good security practices.

A:3sess whe t he r or

not your door-s and w.i ndowe are a good deterrent to intrusion.


look for pcf nt.s of concea l ne nt ~

1 v near wi ndowe and doors that


cannot be ea:3i 1 y observed from the street,

In an. apar-tment complex, pay

attention to a l l ey-ways ,


and hallways that do provide good

visibility for surveillance.

Doors and wi ndows should be well-protected by

Many homes and apartments do not come equipped

with effective locks, and often use

i ng operated mechanisms.

You should

replace ineffective locks, and ensure that doors cannot be opened by use of

a cred i t car d , kn i fe or- other' in~3tr-ulnent ~

Protection should be provided


especially around the

locking device,


Inspect the entire door and door frame,

and ensure Droner fit ",,'hen the

.L .i..

door is closed.

If hinge pins are exposed to the outside. they ShOUld be

replaced with security type norr-r-emovab l e pins, or otherwise :3afeguarded

from tampering.

Maximum security dead- bol t locks should be used in all


Doors should be of solid core construction.

If there is any glass

in the door, this should be :3ecurE!d by protective material.

If you have a

chain lock on the door, it should only be used as a secondary device. Do

not rely on the chain lock for secur i ty protection.

In addition, a wide

angle door viewer should be installed in all exterj_or door-s.

Sliding glass doors and wi ndowe should receive special attention.

since they could be an easy target for an intruder.

A piece of wood, or a



can be

placed into



so cne


do not move.


hardware store3 carry specially made sliding glass door bar-s for such


To further protect ::;1 iding gla:3s doors; two metal screws can

be placed into the top center of the upper track.

They can be adjusted so

that the door barely clears the screws as it slides under them,

This will

prevent attempts to lift the door's out of the t racka.

A hole should be

drilled through the inside door, when both doors are in the closed


A connecting hole should be drilled in the opposite door,


a nail or special secm-'ity pin can be placed through both doors, and

prevent further movement of the doors.

There are also an array of special

locking devices available for securing sliding glass doors and wi ndows ,


door-s and wi ndowe should receive special attention,


they are

vour _,

first line of defense from the out.e i de of the home.


Safeguard your house or apartment keys at all times.

Duplicate keys

should be kept in a safe place.

Avoid hiding keys anywher-e all the outside

of the house or apartment.

Carelessness with keys can present a potential

danger to your personal :3ecuri ty.

If you use an attended parking lot or

garage, where you are required to leave a car key, separate your house

keys ,

Do not leave any house or apartment keys I'd th an attendant.


same would apply when leaving your car for repairs.

Protect your keys at

all tiTl1ES, no mat.t er \~lhere you are.

Attempt as much as possible to make your home or apartment uninviting

to a potential intruder.

Use your imagination.

Consider the installation


a securi ty a Larm


There are many types

of alarm

svstems on the


marke t , ranging in price from r eaeonab.l e to \rery expene i ve .

SOTae a l ar m

systems can be purchased as a 'do it your-se l r j ki t ,

::;hop around and

investigate the various types available.

Electronic stores, hardware

stores and some maj or department stores offer a variety of protective

devices that can be installed easily and are simple to operate.


;rour local police department for their recommendations, and find out what

laws and Loca l cr-d i nancee apply to home security systems.

Most police

departments have a crime prevent:Lon unit, or cr i me prevention officer. A:3k

for their advice on home security, and find out if they i,,111 conduct a free

home seeuri ty inspection for you,

They could be an inva.luable source of

information and assistance in your personal security planning program. You

should also find out how you can help start a 'neighborhood watch' crime

prevention and security program for your neighborhood.

Good neighborhood

cooperation i:3 important to home secur-i ty planning.


Consider the following Horne Secur'lty Checklist~ and think about the

things you lllig11t do to upgrade YDur security profile:

Home Security Chec;k1is:;t

Security Topic: Security Needs & Problem Areas: .

Doors In Genera1 _

En t!~ aIlee __ ~ ~ . . _


Door-s _

Bac k Door . . __ . . _

Baseme n t Door . _

Garage Doors . __

Other Ope n i ng:3 . _

Sl i di ng Door :s _

Ba 1 cony - Porch Areas . . . .. _

Other Loca t i ons . _

;- ]

VI L n(10WS In Ge ne r a l . _

Dou b 1 e Hu ng t ype _

Sliding type _

Caseme 11 t t ype ~ ~ ~ ~_~ __

Lou vel' Type . _

Others _

Li gh t i ng F i xt u 1'es . __

Landsca pe & Shr-u bber-y . . __ . _

Alarm System & 3ecu1'i ty Devlces . _

Locks _


Personal Safety Checklist Answer 'YES' or • No' to the follmving questions.

A 'NO' answer to any

of the quesst t cns should call your attention to increased secur t ty measures.

1. Do you have bar-r i er' protection such as a fenced yard?

2. Do you use pr-ot ect i ve grill work or bars on doors and windows?

3. Do you have an emergency escape plan from the house or apartment?

4. When you move to a new home or apartment do you re-key all doors?

5. Do you think doors and locks could Nithsi:and a forced entry attempt?

6, If your apartment has window3 or door-a that open Dl1tO a balcony, fire

escape, patio or porch, are they well protected; and do you secure them at


7, Are all Locks adequate for all doors and window:3?

8. Do you use appropriate dead-bolt locks?

9. Are doors with glass in them well-protected?

10. Are there wi de angle viewers in all exterior doors?

11. When you leave your home or apartment for any period of time, do you

secure all doors, \'lindows and other openings?

12. Do you keep garage doors locked at all times, even when home?

13. Are cabt ne t s , cl oee t s and drawers \vi th valuable property properly


14. Arp :3pare keys well protected in a safe place?

15. When arriving home at night; are keys ready for use?

16. Do you use only initials and Lae t name all the mail box?

17. Do you keep your car aecur ed whe n parked?

lEi. Do YOll have an unlisted telephone number?





have a security alarm sy:3tem and smoke and fire protection?

20. Have you marked or engraved your high value property?

21~ Do you cancel deliveries when you go on a trip?

When you are away for any period of


t i me ,

will a neighbor watch the

home or apartment for you?

23. Do you avoid advertising personal travel plans?

24. Do you have adequate lighting around the home or apartment?

25~ Do you use automatic timers to turn on 1 ights inside t hs home or

apartment, or a radio or stereo when you are away?

Personal Security Away From Home

Consider the following key points whe n you are away from home on the

street, in your car or using public transportation.

L When walKing alone, try to stay in well-populated areas, where there

are other people on the streets.

walk on the outside part of the sidewalk

near the street, and steer clear of doorways, alleys, and shrubs.


a sense


direction and move briskly.

Keep personal

i t.ems close

. .j..._ .... t ... w

your body.

2. If for some reason you think you are being followed, turn around and


If someone 1:3 t o l Lowi ng you, then be prepared for defensive action

and stay alert,

Project a sense of positive self-confidence.

3, Let :30:meon.e know where you are goin.g and when you ,;Till return.


Always keep your car locked.

When approaching your car, look for any

signs of tampering.

Have your keys ready.

Check the backseat and make

sure no one is hiding there~

Enter quickly and lock the doors and keep the

rolled UD.




:::;tay OIl f r-equerrt Ly traveled streets and highways when. driving.


remote areas and streets unfamiliar to you.

Consider in:::;talling a CB-radio

in case of mechanical problems, and join a motor c Lub ,

6. Remember, if you encounter extreme problems, which could mean a threat

to your personal ea re ty, a car can be used as a defensive weapon.

7 Al\"lays ma i rrt a i n your car and keep in good r-unn i ng or-der- and mechanical

B. when uSlng public: t ion boar-d at ~":}'ell-lighted Loca.t t ona.

Select maas t ransf t that 18 wliiely used by other people.

Keep alert and


other passengers.

fall ae l eep when us i ng public



Avoid getting off in remote and unlighted areas.

Try to

S1;_; near the driver or conductor if pos13ible.

Security At Work

Consider similar kinds of 3ecurity measures at the office or place of

employment that you would cons tder for the 11Ome,

Such thi ngs as good

1 ig·}.1ting, effective locking systems, ~3ecure door-s and vlindows are as

important at work as in the home.

If you are working late at night, try to

park as close the building as possible, in well-lighted locations. Let

someone know you are working late, and when you plan to arrive at home, if


Try to establi:3h a 'buddy system', planning late hours when

ot.har-s wi 11 be pre3ent.

If there is a secUl'i ty patrol in your office

building, ask them to provide periodic checks of your office area.


your office door locked and a telephone nearby,

Summon security par-sonne I

or call the police if you suspect sU~3picious actions or persons in your

office area.

Think security and safety at all times.


Eev i.ew of Basic Defensive Tactics

WJlether you are at home, on the street, at the office or on a trip,

think about basic survival tactics that will ensure your personal safety.

Review the other chapters pertaining to defensive tactics and strategy. If

you have to defend yourse Lr , keep in mind the basic target areas.


areas of the body are vulnerable, depending on where you strike and how

much force you use.

You mue t Ln i t i a Lt y decide hail! serious of a threat .1.~

confronting you in relation to how aggressive your response will be. At

the same time, you will have to decide what target o.rea:3 are readily available for striking, kicking, etc.

Again, depending on the nature of the attack, your objective is to

incapaci tate the attacker to that point wher-e you can escape and e neur'e

your survi val,

You must react swiftly and without hesitation.


si tuations may require a pr e l t mi nar-y action to allow you to get into a

posi tion to apply countermeasures,

For example, in grabbing situations,

wher-e an attacker is trying to hold you, it may be possible to apply

prei3sure in the hollow point, under and behind the ears.

This could cause

the attacker to release his grip, and provide the opportunity far you to

react with a .

A grinding action 1I1i th your thumb or knuckle

into this area may provide the desired results.

If you are close in, jabbing or poking up and under the jaw bone toward the neck may also be used as a preliminary measure to affect a


Striking this area may also prove effective,

A forceful blow to

the side of the neck may cause sufficient pain and disorientation, allowing

time for followup countermeasures.

The solar plexus, under the



bone , is a mor'e difficult targ"et t unless you can inflict a powerful strike

or kick to this area.

It is a possible

when more vulnerable areas

are not available, or you are grabbed from the rear.

Another possibility

for this area is by using an umbrella or hard pointed object.

A stick or

umbrella, or powerful sst r t ke could also be inflicted to the body under the

last rib.


These include the area at the bend in the elbow, and the muscle

area just be l.ow the elbow.

A sharp blow to the elbow or muscle could

inflict sufficient distraction.

This could be used for breaking holds and

providing the opportunity to followup wi;:;h a countermeasure. The wrist may


to be

more painful a




A b l ow to the


bones, especially ~\ii t h a hard obj ect, could be an effective distraction



The wrist could also be used as a lever, by pulling up or down

against the attacker, in order to control the direction of his body. A

g'ood. striking target is the back of the hand, between the tendons.


area could a lso be ueed wi t h a grinding or digging action.

Use of the

knuckles, a hard object or other instrument could be used on the back of

t.he hand.

Finger joints are also possible target, by using pulling or

leverage action.

On many people, the shin bone is a very sensitive target area.

If you

are close I n to the at t acker, sscr-ap l ng, stolnping~ kicking or striking wi t h

a hard object could prove effective in breaking a hold, or setting up for a


Remember, you have to use sufficient force and power to

maximum advantage.

---- ---------------- ----

---------------- ----

If you are out of fist range, with regard to the shin as a target

area, you can still focus a kick to this area, or use a nara object. The

me+hod of ki.:Jl:ing would be ~3imilar to a kick to t he knee"

From the :3~hin

area, you COUla also focus on the ankle or the Achilles tendon, which are

both :::;ensi.t.ive ar eas.

Kickj_ng ro the:38 areas pr obab l v will not I nf l t c t

s8r'iol)S i ur y , but may buy time to followup with a CDunt'-3rm.easure, The

basic areas of focus, with

~o delaying tactics,

ning release from

grips and ho l ds , and buying tj .. me , I nclude :

The hollow behind the e::trs; the j awbons :

The side of the neck;

The solar plexus;

Under the last rib:

The forearm;

I'hE: back or' the hand;

The f

j Dints;

The shin;

The ankle and the Achilles tendon;


CaslC target areas.

There are other

and you musrt E;tudy the target o_rea::3 and know them weill



are u~sed_ primarily in resl)onse to non-sser i ous at.tacke , in which the a+t aok

has not escalated to the point of a liie-threatening situation.

JhE~Se are

D.g t ics, u:3ed in combt na t I on with more e ffLc i en t courrt er meaeur-ess ,



time in orner tor you to

mor-e ef'fecti ve ly,

--- ----.-~--~-~-.---,-~.,------ - --~--- .. ---.

:Review and cOl1.sicler the

areas illustrated and information

pre:3ented on pages 21 through :30 of this publication.

Keep in mind that

serious at t ack :;;i tuations demand more immediate and direct ac t ion ,


situations involve liie-threatening attacks, personal injury, or even death,

that may CiH1E8 Eeriom3

H your li fe 1.:3 in immediate j

you do not have time to vJa.ste

011 numer-ous moves or techniques.

One of the most target areas

are the eyes, when your hands are fr ee to respond.

Poking, clawing, Dr

jabbing into the eyes can caW3e a high degree of pain and serious permanent

injury to the at tacker'.

Striking the eyes can result in impEl_irment of

sight or blindness.

Review the target areas carefully, with regard to the

head, as indicated on pages 29 and :30 of this publication.

Another important target area, I,'ihen the attacker is a male, is the

gem_ l:EU ar-ea of the body,

In particular, the testicles, when grabbed and

squeezed, can cause the attacker to go into shock.

A direct punch to the

testicles, can also be effective.

You must be cautious when attempting to

k ick or knee the attacker between the legs,

If the attacker is expecting

you to kick or knee him in t11i:3 area, and most men are usually on guard for

th:i.:3 action, your kick or knee could easily be blocked.

Therefore, in

order for a kick or knee to be effective, you musst maneuver the attacker

into a position for the kick or knee, and execute the action quickly.

Ki ck

or Imee should be directed_ upwar d , to focus on the testicles, not the

or groin area in general, and f o l l owup up with appropriate countermeasures. Il!:aximulll strength and power must be u2;ed to effectively infl ict i nj ury and

disable your attacker,


-"r~he rl1aj or

areas in cl serious confr-on+ a+Lon , Lnc l ude the


The haad , 8==:;pecially the eves;

T~he testicles;

The windpipe;

in mi nd that 'V'OlJ muat use these targets wit h suf f i cf errt r orce and.

power to d laab l e vour: at.tacker.

"tour r-eact t on must be sv.;ift and e ffeo ti ve ,

all your strength.

After execution of your tactics, ',101) must


look for avenues of escdpe and evasion.

Make certain +hat you

your body areas a,,,; we l l.

1 Y YOU1-' abdomen and :3to! area:31

If you. are caught Dff-guard and punched in the 10s;3 of breat.h

oou Ld re:=;ult,. and place you in further jeopa.rdv.

Secondary targets of

cone tder-et t cn , in addition to the maj or targets~ Lnc l ude :

Under the chin and. j aw area,3;

The instep;

13et.,."een the



of the


Base of the neck;


of the nose;

Under the nose;

Kidney a.rea;

M.outh area;


Back of knee area;

You should consider t~he secDTiclary

area:::; in combination with more

direct disabling technj.ques.

N'e'ver a.tteln}Jt to execute a ~31

e action,

,,-Ii t.hout fo Ll.owup that e neur-e inj ury or i ncapac i t ati on of

the attacker.

Direct your acti.ons ,·,i th max i num strength and f ocus , speed

and the element of sur-ortse.

''Ileapons -

What Is Available

Almost anything can be used B'=· 1>leapOn in a ,=,.elf-deiense situation, As

indicated on page 45, the llS~ of possible weapons is endless. The

fDllo\"ling lS a review of SOffit:?: basic i(lc-H~_:3~ along with

ble target a.reas

of the body .


Possible Target Areas:

Pf311 or


. Head,

f ace ,

nack area:3;'



abdominal region:

Aerosal spray can ..... ,',.,., . Face. eyes;

Fla'3hlight. , , , .... , , , . , . , .

. Face, head, abdominal

on, Knee, ~3h:tn;

Ro l l ed ma_gazine/nev-lspaper,

,~ace, throat areas:

1}!11brel1B. .. " , , .

,All vulnerable areas;





Barel +bou nd





. Face :

High heel~3 ....




neck, head areas;

Po i rrt ed shoes,

,.Feet, shins, knees, face, etc.

,~ace. neck, hands, etc,;

Tb_ese are only a few ideas.

But ~ the em.phasis is to use v"hatever IE


a ..... ra i Labl e ,

It de pende on where you happen to be at the time, how

fast you can get your hands on the item, how quickly you use it. and how

bDtt1E'S; or



depending on the sItuation.

For a vleal)On to be effective, it must meet

certain criteria:

1.. It mue t be readily avai lab i e ,

a vital target area.

Al):3ent these bas i c cr i La. a vfeapon mav prove to be ineffecti '\l8 and

useless in protecting you.

Keep in mind. t.hat if the ""eapon IS taken a.way

from YOl), it may be use on you.

In ::3.ddi t t on, ~iepending on the V-l8ctpOTI; such


All firearms

ng ownen;::;h:L p and


f you own o. t i rearm you should take .3. firearms course and. know

how to use effecti

You should also examine the

consequences of

using a firearm in self-defense,

,=:hecldng the laws Ln your state.

Planning and preparing your social survival tactics requires careful

thought and application.

It means having a good

an of action, and

continuous evaluation of your

setting and situation.

You :must be

aware of your environment and. examine the potential threats or danger:;::; that

When. you approach your nome, the oIllce, go

ng or t8.kE~ a

, you should be on guard and

to take

Survi vaI tactics in. B_n ongDing

planning process that reqUIres a positive and confident state of mind. You

must learn to develop good securi

and safety habits, and, at the :same

time, have the competence and confidence in

ng to situations

de(~;isi~le action

to help yOU survive.


""lou_~cse 1 f Z7,Iln vour famiI V frorn var-rous thre!at.eni ne; E~18Inen.t.:::; wi +ni n the



ng soc:ia.l !3urvt\ral +ac t i cs requires

e duoa't t on and


ng, decisive action and

ly paying attention

to your

There are al\,yays .pcL3sibili ties and 0.1 tF~rnati ve;3 to a.


to :3urvl val ,

'To sur'vive in today! s intense ur ban


you mUE;-S l.ear n your 5:1JrrDUndin8's~

and adjust accordingly,

pot.en.tially dangerous 81 t.uation whenever possi b l e ,

You must learn

to appreciate the fact that anyone can be a criminal, just as anyone can be

a vi ct.Lm.

Learn to evaluate 'lour surroundings and upgrade

security as the situation requires.

Exami ne wha tact j_ ons wi 11 oe neces~3Q.ry

to modI fv or c;hange YDur lif

e, and reduce your chances of becoming a

for v i c t Lmi za't t on.

Your soc;ia.l survival tactics iE not a one-


Instead, it takes in a range 01


at home, and extend_inp; GO 'lour place of employment.

It a.lso

e:J{t.en,(is to leisure ti1D.E c.u:tivitj_8:3 as well, including vaca+t ons , DUElne~3S

trips, foreign travel, shopping and so on.

Physical resistance in response

to an aE,Eaul t IS onl V one ma_:I or

of the total concept of ~:~oc~ial

Survival Tactics.

This is advocated as a last resort

ion, when otller

alternatives fail



ficant advantage over physical

re:3i stance.

You mus t learn to ant I o i pate possible situations, appr at ae and

evel uat.e C;irC111nstance~3, recognize

ial dangers and personal security

haz arde , and take appr-opr t at.e action to ensure your

and surVl V-3_1 t

Plan ahead and ada

There are !3eVen ma] Dr aspects or components to planning and

your personal social survival ~actics 'Action Plan'.

The :fol

checklist has been de ve Loped a'E; 8. r ev i ew of the t nfcr-ne.t.a on already

your program,

All of this can be

v i ewed as a total self-defense

wh t ch t ncor many related.


Social Survival Tactics Action Plan:

.L ,

Per,sonal St?c:u.rit~{ Planning L~ Preparation:

Education and training

d.irected t cwar d mental and physical preparation in dealing with a range of

situations, including basic self-defense tactics, knowledge or vital target

ications of a.

1.C8.1 nature.

Dbj ecti ves of self·-defen;3e ann defensive strategy.

Training and conditioning - vital target areas.

Basic Defensive Actions Criteria,

Counter Measures -

I Kicking, Punching, Takedowns,

and related tactics.

Practical Applications of Defensive Strategy

Survival Tactics Planning and Preparation Techniques.



at Home :

l<lea:3ures to be taken inside and out s i de of the home

or acar-t.nerrt to ensure a high

at personal security and safety.

L J Neighborhoocl selection and location prior to moving in,

Construction layout and


ing considerations, etc.

Ri:3tory of crime in the neighl)orhood, and previous crime problem:=.:;

at the particular re:3idence, apartment, condo, etc,

Evaluation of security needs.

II 1, ;38cur1

at the OffLoe or Pla.ce of Empl oyment.:

}\ to be tatren

inside and outs ide of the off i.ce to en;3ur8 personal

and !3afety i

Type of business location ana neighborhood.

Avai Lab i l i t v of :38c:urit'f{ lTI8a::::~ure:3: business securi


f or ce ~ a I arrns ~

Layout, design and construction, and location of your offics, or

wor k area.

iIlg to office.

t r emerrt s of working late hours.


Travel Secm-i 'GV Away from Home or Office:

Ivleasure:3 to be taken when

ay:jay f rom home or office, Lnc Lud i ng snoJ?plngj staying at ho+e l s , foreign

travel; etc: ~

Persona. I security planning for: personal property, walking,


a car or public transportation, hotels, air travel, parking lots &

Evaluation of security needs.

V. The Criminal Element - flloti vat.i.ons and Intentions: Understanding the

reo. Li ty t hat potential threa.ts

t he cr t mt nal e Lerne n t exts t wi thin the

e nva r-onmerrt ,

Knowledge of exist

ems around the neJ.ghborhood, the office

and other places.

Awarene'3s that anyone cance a or i mtna.I and potential aasat Larrt ,

Recognition of non-serious threats versus serious threats.

Motivations - personal gain versus assault.



Personal securitv needs and vulnerabilities.


VI, Use of Weapons and Personal Security Devices: The choice you make with

regard to the types of weapons or devices to ensure your personal security.

Legal requirements for

of weapon or device.

Personal training and application accorcHng to type of weapon.

Weapons criteria: ready availability, immediate use, vital target

~3ecurity devices at home , office, travel, car? e t c .

VI1. Evaluation and Assessment of Social Survival Tactics:

Your persona.l

planning and decision making with rega.rd to your total environment, and the

need for personal security and safety.

Mental preparation.

cal preparation,

Anticipation, appraisal, recognition, action,

Overcoming, adapting, surviving,

~Researchin12; and Developing Knowledge: locating information of a

practical and r ea l i e t t c nature to help make (lecisions and learn to

develop a plan of action:

ice department

The 1i

;3elf-dt?fen~:;e progra.llls

0.1 Interest Books - security, self-defense, etc.

Alarm and security device:" :3upply companies

Service Organiza.tions - Commun i ty Groups

Security Consultants - Related Services

- Arlditional Considerations -

Again, it. ::-=J.1DUld_ be pointed out ~ that YOU v·do 11 hea.r or rea.d. about.

various :methods

SUCH as karate,

j udo ~

J anc :30



will tell YOU that one form of fi

Ing is betTer than



will advocate that their techniques are superior and

wi Ll pr ovaue a perfec t means of hand l i ng any situation.


ml.nd , that no

of traininR is absolutely perfect for all situations.

'TIle tradi t i cna l mart taI art s , for

e, are a way of ife, and training

a lt zet i on ""ith many yeal":3 of study.

Al though the author ad.vocate:3 the ,ievotion arid study of t he martial arte ,

s'C<ch a':3 effort is usually beyond the reacd.l of moat


The average

1)erSOn who needs :3elf--defen::=;e~ and. r-equ,lres

ica l t ac t ice, wil l not

find the t r adi t i onal study of 1: hE' mar t t a l arts to be valid in a short

the mart LaI ar ts , taught through the correct



es of the EHlc:ient tradi tion'3, offer::; a

lite-long endeavor,

the a.verage person does not have the: tin18 nor

Lnc Lt nat i on to IJUr'::;ue suc:h ac t i ";,;""1 ties.


to 881£'-

~:ief8nse; to fit the ~needs of everyone, must be practical, sim,ple to Le arn ,

of :3hori-term dur at i on, and be

e to r-eal+-I He, 3i t.uat i one.


objective is to survive, ana to aD whatever is necessary to achieve this


It requires being unconventional. innovative, and using

head tD

look for alternatives to the situation at hand,

Tz-ai m nz and

ice mue t


L.t.ed ou t

Co lone l Dav i d



-'. -r _'p

. .t'll.


H'i'C)1J. lIlUst know your e,VIE

orientation and the 'day "'\TDU behave under pres~;ure or in untamili ar


'lou mue t leE1~rI1 how to DVerCOlTIe an attack 81 t.uat i on

L")T threatenil1g cirC;UIl1stances; adapting to the need_E at hand , and sur'~living


ma't t.e r wha t

j>3 required of


In Ben'-A:3her':3

, 1


which j.E

a gUide

to cal fitness and self-defense for the Israel Defense Forces, he also

points out ~he need to avoid panic, and to know how to look, think, keep

ca l ra and react ..

To d.Blend vourse f, you must be

ca Lt v and men+a.l r v

to reac:t





In or der

to 8,xecutE:~ 0_11

E;ffec:ti VE:; punch or k ick, you must knovI i,\ib.ich

are vulnerable, and

J.:3h your' ol)jec:tives <.t~3ee page 2),


IHUst be ab l.e to inflic:~t]_ ur-v to accomp l ieh tho:3e obj e c ti vee , k i

prez:=;, biting-l pull

a.pply::Lng leverage~ or

In addi tj_on~ you 11lU~3t a Iso be

I' Dr the end result of VClur ac t t one , wh ioh could be sever2~ t r-auraa ,

unconsciousness, even death to your attacker,


There is not sufficient space within the Dublication to

a'3pect of '",B ap orie defense:3,

This section deals only with some of the basic

A:3 mentioned em page 24 and 135

of t.his publ ica'ti on , \J\f8apOn!3 req.uire special cOllsicieratiDns.

In your

hands, a weapon is

dangerous to ~he attacker, but can also be

t o you

If thrE:at.ened

cal action if at all



UnlesE; vou per c i eve irmned.iate da.nger of personal i ury j you SI1.ould

avo id any act-ion that mi.

provoke the attacker to use his weapon.

th.reo_t:3 of armed a t t ack u:3ua.l

'{OU first 'learn what

t~he mo t i ve is, and then react acoordi

If, for exarapl e , the mo t ive of.

and all the a.1:,tB.(:ker ¥-{B.ntE is propert.Y1 the pr uderrt

action is to surrender the


YDU must calmly a'3SUri:~ the attacker

of your cooperation in


up the money or oth8r

HON8ver, on

the harid ~

if the mc+ i 'ge of the attack is r ape Dr- other ner-sonar

ur y ,

then other tacttcs are called for.

YOl) d.B(:;ide if you can maneuver the


ta.lking and recu30ning~ t n+o a situation in wh ich you can rE:~a.ct

wi t.hou t confronting the weapon,

If reB.~;on f a I Ie , and there IS no ether'

al na't Lve

then you must


:!. n the

mos+ effective


• ~',f J .




. . f ' .

aVOId cDn.ron~lng

the weapon,


offering physical reSIstance if at all possible.

If you must react. do the

conditions of the situation, then react swift

and with determination to

n~?utralize the \vea.pDTl and disable the a+t acker ,

Distraction is a useful

t there iE; a possibi.lity of

dl,::; on the, part of the at t acker , you may

have a brief second to react.

A ;:listraction I1J.lJ;;:::t be ver v subtle and not the attacker to use the Weap011.

It may be a sligh.t movement of the

the opportunity for t he

3.tta,cKer tel:shift his v i euaI fOCU:3, and time for you to react~

It couLd

al sso be: a ver ba l di et ract Lon.

Bur 7 over-t move ment.e or Loud nOi!38, :may

startle t.he a t tacker , EH1Cl

h i m to moe the v{eapcm.

You must use

e}~tre:me care in dealing v!i th weapon:::;,


A basic uncler:3tancling' of the :3tati;;=:tics concer nt ng violent cr ime , a Ilt:l

ng your social

!c;urvival plan.

According to research conducted

the \J. S. Department of

Justice (Schlesinger, 19B3), consider the following:

Homi c l de - Horai c i de is r.he least

ue n t violentc:rime·,

93% of the

v t c-

t I ns were slai n i D. ;3i

victim situations. At least 55% of the

a_11m.urders occur-r-ed 01'"' \;-le:r" 8

to have occurred

as the

re:3uJ.t of !;:::;Olne feloniDus act.i

(e. g.

ary etc.)


Most rapes involved a lone offender and a lone victim. About 36%

of the rapeE~ 1,-·.,rel"'e oorami t t.ed in the vi.c t t m' s home f5a'!~



rapes occurred at

Robbery - Robbery i'3 the violent crime that t.yptcal Ly tnvol ves

more than

one offender (about half of all cases). About half of the robo-

eries involved the use of a weapon.

Less than 2% of the robber-

le',,' reported t.o

lce were bank roOOerles .

• l\ssa.ult - :.3tIuple a::::;::::;aul t JllOre

uently than aggravated assault. &

acsau l t is t he lHDE;t CD1TllTIOD. type of violent cri me ,

Burglary - 42% of all household

es occurred w:Lthout forced entry. In

the Lar v of homee, the offender:;:; 811terf2d through uru ocked

wi ndcws or door-s or used a.

te.g. a key 'hidden' under

t he

drior mat); 6?% of the

nst hom8'3 e


non-residential property.

About :34'%


the burglaries took

between 6am and. i3pm.

(page 2)

----- --_- .. -- ----

Weapon Used Homicide .

_. Fj_ rea.rrn--·-·-- --- -'--6 2 .~::~---------- r?'~/~_' __ . __ <_ ---_- --18 %--------~-9%


-Other Weapon-----13%---------1%----------9%-----------14%

-Unknown type-----O-----------2%----------1%-----------1%

-None Used--------6%----------77%---------54%----------68%

14, Schlesinger, 1983)

In the above table,

vary due to thE, tabulations


the Bureau of Ju::;ti.::;e Statistic:s of the U. i3. DS1)artment of J ust.lce. T118

pE~r(;entEtge add to over 1001~~ 111 EOlne C01UTlln:3 due to the fac+ that in :::;ome

v tot i -"nizat-ion:3 :more than one v1ear>on IDB_y have been uS8cl.

A(;c:ord_ing~ to th_8 l"-es8arc:n cited above, vic:t.ilTIS u:3ed or d i

a gun

Dr knl fe to


add lt i on, victims


caI IOTC-:;8 or SOine

Cons ider tlH3 following table 111 terms of hOl'l victi:ms r'eacted to a

violent or i me by using some protective measure.

These are listed in order

of assertiveness.

Victim Response: . ,

....... RaD8 ....•

. Assa.ult

Used Dr brandished gun or knife .

! .• , .1% .. l ! ••• 2% ... I


or tried


for-ce . , .

Ver baI He::::;ponse -

Thr~?:a~tened u


1',-ea~30necl ~

, .1'7%.

Attracting Attention -

Tr i ed to

help, attract attention. etc., .. 15% .. , ... 7% ..... , .... , .6%

Nonviolent Evasion -

Resisted without force, used evasive action .. 10% ,11%." ,19%

Other- " ,.,., , , , ,5% 41"", ..

No Self-Protective Actions -

23. Schlesinger, 1983)

According to t.h is re:3earcb., mos+ violent vi ct.Lrai z ati one do not re:3ult

than ethers to 1)8 aE:.30cia.teci "v-d,th seriDus injury,


t118 National Cr i me r3clrvey (Schle:3tnger~ 198~i)

phys tcal r or ce ~ trytng t o at t r-act at t.ent.i on and do nothing to prot~3ct

oneself, resulted ln the hi

10m.:, of seriouslv injured victims,

011 the ot.her hand, t he r'es,earC:[1

that those victims who tried "to

talk their way of the si +uat ion , or t ook nonviolent evasive actions, vlere

less likely to incur ser10US injury

23), Therefore, for self-defense

purpose:::;, it :3.hould be kept Hi mind , that. talting direct

cal aot ion

does carry the risk of serious

inj ury ~ if you do not immediateJ y

dh;able the attacker and acccmp.l ieh the obj ecti ves of ::;elf-defen:38.

the possibility of serious I n j ur y ,

according to current research and the statistics available.

The research

ctata does not always indicate that the probabtLt


i ury

will be related to self-protective measure:3 taken by a vic t t m,

It d08:3

that ~:;ome act.Lone w5_11 be mor e dangflrous t.nan others. Bu t, you are

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