You are on page 1of 10

Learning from ABCs (II)

Full Stop / Period .


Question Mark
Exclamation Mark !
Comma ,
Colon :
Semicolon ;
Hyphen -
En Dash
Em Dash
Parentheses ( ) [ ] { }
Quotation Marks "
Apostrophe

1.
2. Mrs., Dr., P.S.
IBM, DNA

How will you solve the problem


I wonder how you will solve the problem

Will you please give me a call tomorrow.

1.
thus, however, therefore (
)
I realize I need exercise; however, Ill lie down first to think about it.
2.
The employees were Tom Hanks, the manager; Jim White, the engineer; and Dr. Jack Lee.

It was raining hard, they could not work in the fields.


-----

It was raining hard; they could not work in the fields.


It was raining hard. They could not work in the fields.
It was raining so hard that they could not work in the fields.
They could not work in the fields because it was raining hard.
It was raining hard, so they could not work in the fields.
As it was raining hard, they could not work in the fields.

The essay is poorly organized, there is no central idea.


The essay is poorly organized; there is no central idea.
The essay is poorly organized: there is no central idea.

1. This is her plan: go shopping.


2.
We transferred three employees to new branches:
Tony Wang to New York City

Mike Jackson to Tokyo


Mark Foster to Paris
We need seven people: three student
s, three engineers, and a professor.
3. The professor said: It was horrible.
4. Dear Mr. Lee:(
)
5. 16:45 4:45 p.m.
6. Web Directory: World and Non-U.S. Economic Data

1. I will go to Shanghai, Beijing, and Shenzhen.


2. a small, fancy bike
3. The Grizzlies were out o
f timeouts, and Miller missed a desperation 3-pointer as time expired.
4. Since hes your younger brother, please take care of him.
5. In the middle of the coldest winter on record, the pipes
froze.
6. Mary said, Lets go fishing.

Mary said we should go fishing.


:
He worked very hard, didnt he
,:
Hyphen( -)
1.(: self-,ex- all-) :
ex-husband(),brand-new,poorly-dressed
I have forty-thousand or fifty-thousand dollars.
I want to obtain the whole-year or half-year lease of the apartment.
, ,
, the whole-or half-year lease.
2.
3. , ,

non-nuclear, re-use, semi-independent

4. 100

twenty-one during the years 1949-1999


, ,
: one fourth [ one-fourth ] of those surveyed
5., ha-ppy,
hap-py,,

Parenthesis( ( ) )
1(: (1) (2) )
2
,,,,
They might take a walk together(remember feet) and see the neighborhood with fresh , new eyes.
Quotation Marks()
(single quotation marks) (double quotation marks)

1 40 ,

Well, the foreigner said to him , you look like an engineer.


()
He told the gunman ,I refuse to do that his knees , however , were shaking even as he said thos
e words.
She called this schedule of activities her load work , study , exercise , recreation , and sleep.

The teacher asked , Could you understand me


Did the teacher ask ,Have they gone
Did the teacher ask ,They have gone
The frightened girl screamed ,Help!
The fellow only said ,Sorry !
He interrupted me , Now , listenand went on saying.
,
, ,
2. ,
Have you read The Old Man and the Sea
Chapter three is entitled The Internet .
3.,, ,

The report contained the facts of the case.

The speaker owns a fat farm


in California , which slims down rich overeaters for 2 , 500 a week.
4. ,
It is customary to say You are welcome whenever anyone says Thank you.
SOS is a message for help from a ship or aircraft when in danger.

Ellipsis (...)
,
1.
Max wrote ,...in one word ,manps consciousness , changes with every change in the conditions of
his material existence....
,

2.
If that the way you think...just go back to school ,he said.
3. ,

Apostrophe( )
1.
rest my sons
a moments books
A three weeks pay
2.
Dont use so many ands in the sentence.
How many 5s have you got
, s ,
3. ,
Ive got it. Yes ,ma am ,the waiter said.

Id like to( I would like to)

Underline( ) Italics
, ,

1.
Challenger () Apollo Nine()
2.
Have you read Gone with the Wind
, ,
the Washington Post Time magazine
3.

In Korea , the sixty-first birthday is called huan gup (beginning of new life) 1 He longed for La
dolce vita.
4. , , (
)

1.

Id like to...that is...if you dont mind....


2.

She slowly, carefully, deliberately moved the box.


and
-- She slowly, carefully(,) and deliberately moved the box.

Hamlet / Hamlet
Winters Tale / Winters Tale
The New York Times / The New York Times


""""


--Apostrophe
--Hyphen-
Virgule or Slash/ It could be for staff and / or stud
ents. bed /bed/


.
...
......
-
--

(1) ,
:
1. While she is readingGone With the Wind, I am cooking
2. My sister bought a lot of fruits for me , such as banana orange apple and pear.
,
;;
:
1. While she is reading Gone With the Wind , I am cooking. ()
While she is reading Gone With the Wind , I am cooking. ()
2. My sister bought a lot of fruits for me , such as banana , orange , apple and pear.
,,

(2) ,,
,
:
3. I thought to myself :What kind of trap is she laying
4. He asked :Where are you from

,for example()
5. Good manners can be seen in everyday life.
For example : a person with good manners is kind and helpful to others.
5. Good manners can be seen in everyday life.
For example , a person with good manners is kind and helpful to others.
(3) ,
,:
6. We are studying and living at the famous university Beijing University.
6. We are studying and living at the famous university , Beijing University.
,
,:
(1) (non -restrictive attributive clause) (restrictive att
ributive clause) :
7. We were led into a nearest fabric shop that was divided into two parts.
,, shop , that which :
7. We were led into a nearest fabric shop , which was divided into two parts.
(2) ,
8. We will go there , if it is fine tomorrow.
,;,
, :
8. If it is fine tomorrow , we will go there. We will go there if it is fine tomorrow.
(3)
9. What fun we girls could expect , to stay in the same class , studying for four long years wi
th them I wondered.
9. What fun could we girls expect , to stay in the same class , studying for four long years wi
th them , I wondered.
,
(4) however ,therefore , because , thus ,
(comma splice)
10. She thought what the teacher pointed out was right , however , she didnt care for that .
,
(and , but , or , for , so , nor , yet) :

10. She thought what the teacher pointed out was right . However , she didnt care for that .
She thought what the teacher pointed out was right ; however , she didnt care for that .
She thought what the teacher pointed out was right , but she didnt care for that .
(5) comma splice ,,,
,(fused sentence) :
11. Young men like blue jeans they wear them all the time.
11. Young men like blue jeans ; they wear them all the time.
Young men like blue jeans. They wear them all the time.
Young men like blue jeans , and they wear them all the time.
Young men like blue jeans ; they wear them all the time.
Since young men like blue jeans , they wear them all the time.
(6) and
12. Through the window , in front of me were large green fields which reminded me of the s
mall clearing where I spent my lonely and hard childhood.
and ,
12. Through the window , in front of me were large green fields which reminded me of the s
mall clearing where I spent my lonely , hard childhood

(contraction)
(), 1/ 3 ,
:
1. Id like to share my joys with you. ( I would like to)
2. .you cant behave like that . (you cannot)
3. .therere so many splendid toys for me to select . (there are)

(1)
13.No pain , no gain. If you .
13. As the saying goes ,No pain , no gain.
,

14. Glancing through the essay entitledWhy Not More , Dr. Jefferson frowned thoughtf
ully.
14. Glancing through the essay entitledWhy Not More ,Dr. Jefferson frowned thoughtfu
lly.
,:
;;,
,,

(2) ------
,: 13 August 200213
August , 2002
(3) perhaps , so :
16. Perhaps , I would not have such a good chance again.
17. So , they keep in touch with each other merely by writing letters and phoning now.

(4) (hyphen) ,boyfriend


boy -friend;middle schoolmiddle -school,
,,
, foreign fruit plants(),
foreign fruit , plants(),

200
,
Please send me a gross each of the red , green ,blue ,orange and black ties.
5 (1 = 12 )
, 4
:
Please send me a gross each of the red , green ,blue ,orange ,and black ties.
Please send me a gross each of the red , green ,blue ,orange-and-black ties.
, ,
People make history , unusual people make history interesting. ,

Mary was happiest when she was free of her parents scrutiny , or while she was working in her g
arden. ,,
, ,