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UNIT 1: English as Lingua Franca
Adjective list Matching Lexical cloze Reading comprehension Open cloze
Error correction
UNIT 2: Words We Use About Ourselves and Others. Stereotypes
Adjectives Rearrange the words (x2) Adjective check-list Lexical cloze
UNIT 3: Political Correctness
Nouns (job titles) Matching Summarize Comment on List of terms Writing
UNIT 4: Gender Roles and Relationships
Discussion Dialogue Reading comprehension Vocabulary (expressions with man)
Writing Lexical cloze Reading comprehension Grammar focus (Present tenses)
UNIT 5: Religious Symbols
Discussion Lexical cloze (x2) Reading comprehension (multiple choice) Find a
title Synonym list Word formation Discussion
UNIT 6: Legal Aliens
Discussion Lexical cloze Matching Open cloze Reading comprehension
UNIT 7: Discrimination
Discussion Matching Writing (Report) Making a presentation
UNIT 8: Human Rights
Agree or disagree Reading comprehension Gapped text Matching Synonyms
Unscramble the text Writing (Formal letter)
UNIT 9: 1984 & 1989
Presentation Matching Discussion Reading Finish the sentences Matching
Discourse cloze Reading comprehension Writing (How have things changed since
1989?) Discussion
UNIT 10: On Freedom
Comment on Matching Open cloze Reading comprehension Discussion
UNIT 11: Quoting, Reporting, and Interpreting. Linking Words.
Gapped text Collocations Linking words (List and Practice)
UNIT 12: The True Value of Age
Proverbs Matching Discourse cloze Reading comprehension Discussion
UNIT 13: Disorders
Matching Skim Read Lexical cloze Grammar focus (Modal Verbs) Reading
UNIT 14: I Choose not to Place Dis in My Ability
Definitions Brainstorming Open cloze Summarize Matching Idiomatic
expressions (body parts) Writing (Letter of complaint)
UNIT 15: Memory/Memories
Rearrange the words Gapped text (multiple choice) Reading Synonyms
UNIT 16: Fears and Phobias
Definitions Discussion Matching Lexical cloze Creative writing
UNIT 17: Human Relationships
Definitions Matching Prefixes Word formation Discussion
UNIT 18: Money, Money, Money (part 1)
Discussion Brainstorming Lexical cloze Discourse cloze T/F Rearrange the
words Matching Idiomatic expressions

UNIT 19: Money, Money, Money (part 2)

Discussion Matching Discourse cloze Reading comprehension
UNIT 20: Consumerism: One Choice Too Many
Discussion Synonym match Lexical cloze Writing (Advertisement) Word
formation Discussion Summarize
UNIT 21: Happiness
Lexical cloze Prediction (T/F) Discourse cloze Synonyms Reading
comprehension Writing (Opinion essay)
UNIT 22: The Scope of Psychology and Its Faces
Error correction (extra word) Open cloze Discussion Matching Discourse cloze
Reading comprehension
UNIT 23: Dreams Are Not About What They Are About
Definitions Idiomatic expressions (sleep/dreams) Synonyms Matching T/F
Word formation Translation (Ro - En)
UNIT 24: Talking About Addictions
Brainstorming Matching Open cloze Translate Questions (Interview) Reading
UNIT 25: Life Through a Lens
Lexical cloze Discourse cloze Reading comprehension Find the word
Collocations Word formation
UNIT 26: You Have A Brain. Use It!
Discussion Matching (x2) Quiz Definition Writing (Argumentative essay)
UNIT 27: Silent Speech
Skim read Reading comprehension (multiple choice) Idiomatic expressions
Discussion Lexical cloze Word formation
UNIT 28: Punctuation; Prefixes and Suffixes
Error correction (spelling and punctuation) Word formation Grammar focus
(Prefixes and suffixes) Word formation

UNIT 1: English as Lingua Franca

1. My English: Students recount their histories of learning English, from what age, teachers,
books, media, feelings etc.
2. Adjective Brainstorm: Ask students for adjectives describing their opinion / feelings
regarding the English language. In pairs, students talk about the adjectives.
3. My Language: Students tell each other about their language and their feelings for it.
4. Phrase Match: Students match the following phrases based on the article (sometimes
more than one combination is possible):
(a) Report
(b) Redundant
global, general
(c) to shun
(d) to escalate
(e) to slide
to fall, to decrease
(g) Whopping
not necessary, useless
(h) wake-up call
enormous, gigantic
to avoid
to grow, rise, go up
5. Reinsert the missing words into the gaps.
English Official Lingua Franca?1
BNE: Is English the worlds Lingua Franca? A report from the British
Council __________ yesterday estimated that by 2015 two billion
people will start learning English around the world, and three billion
people __________ the planet will be speaking it. However, report
editor, David Graddoll, said that English will not become the new
Esperanto and __________ global language learning as Arabic,
Chinese and Spanish are set to rise in importance. He said the
__________ is towards linguistic globalization and multilingualism, not bilingualism, and definitely not monolingualism.
French, on the other hand, once considered a lingua franca, will see its
status as a world language continue to __________ .
Although English will escalate in __________ , English language
teachers will likely be out of a __________ by 2050, when so many
people will be able to speak English, that teaching it will become
almost __________ . Demand for English teaching will drop by a
whopping 75%, from two billion to 500 million. Instead English will be
taught worldwide at elementary level, and many universities across the
world will choose to teach in English. This suggests a wake-up call for
traditionally __________ and monolingual Britons, who __________
to shun language learning because of their everyone speaks English
mentality. Brits will be left behind in a future poly-lingual world.



Lesson adapted from

2. USING YOUR OWN WORDS, answer the following questions based on the text:
How many people will probably speak English in the near future?
Why will English not become a lingua franca?
What is the situation of the French language?
Why will universities around the world probably teach in English?
In your opinion, will the British truly be left behind in a poly-lingual world?
3. Fill in the blanks from the text Let's face it, English is a crazy language!
There is no egg in eggplant, or ham in hamburger; apple nor pine in pineapple.
English muffins weren't invented in England or French fries in France. Sweetmeats are
candies while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat.
We English for granted. But if we explore . paradoxes, we find that quicksand
can work ., boxing rings are square and a guinea pig is neither .. Guinea nor is
it a pig.
And why is it that writers write but fingers don't fing, grocers don't groce and hammers don't
ham? the plural of tooth is teeth, why isn't the plural of booth beeth? One goose, 2
geese.So one moose, 2 meese?
If a vegetarian eats vegetables, does a humanitarian eat? If you wrote a letter, perhaps
you bote your tongue?
Sometimes I think all the English speakers should be committed to an asylum for the verbally
insane. In language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? Ship by truck and
send cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet that smell? Park on driveways and drive on
. can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, ..a wise man and wise guy
are opposites? How can overlook and oversee be , while quite a lot and
quite a few are alike?
You have to marvel .. the unique lunacy of a language in which your house can burn
as it burns down, in which you fill a form by filling it out and in which an alarm
clock goes off by going on.
English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects the creativity of the human
race (which, of course, isn't a race at ). That is why, when the stars are out, they are
visible, . when the lights are out, they are invisible. And why, when I wind up my
watch, I start it, but when I wind up this essay, I end it...
4. Bad English. Correct the mistakes in the following ads/notices from around the
a) In a Tokyo hotel: Is forbidden to steal towels. If you are not a person to do such thing
is please not to read this notis.
b) Outside a Hong Kong tailors shop: Ladies may have a fit upstairs.
c) In a Bangkok dry cleaners: Drop your trousers here for best results.
d) In a Rome laundry: Ladies, leave your clothes here and spend the afternoon having a
good time.
e) Ad for donkey rides in Thailand: Would you like a ride on your own ass?
f) In an Acapulco hotel: The manager has personally passed all the water served here.

UNIT 2: Words we use about ourselves and others. Stereotypes.

1. Write down 5 adjectives that describe you.
2. Rearrange the words in the suitable order and you will get the definition of the
The stereotype is, an oversimplification, behaviour, of some observed, or appearance, or
imagined trait of, commonly held, a fixed, based on, notion or image, of a person or group
3. Complete the following sentences with your own stereotypes and explain your choice:

The Italians are .

The Americans are ...
The Germans are ...
The English are ...
The Chinese are ...
The Swedes are ...

4. Self-stereotyping: What are you own views on the qualities and the defects of



5. Complete the text with the following words: tomboy, distort, conform, adventurous,
diversity, confirm, landmarks, illusion, creativity, attitudes, propagate, convictions.
Certain mechanisms help (1) _____________ stereotypes. Sometimes, people (2) ________
the image of reality so that they do not have to change their own (3) ______________. For
instance, if we see a little girl clambering up a tree we prefer to think she is a (4)
____________, an exception, and that in general girls are less (5) ______________ than
boys. We (6) ______________ to stereotypes ourselves, we employ them like points of
reference that guide our behaviour and (7) ______________. Following what the stereotypes
dictate, we (8) ____________ them, which helps maintain the (9) _______________ that
they are based on reality. Stereotypes act like (10) ______________ of our daily life,
allowing us to structure our perception of the world. Despite this useful aspect, the fact is that
stereotypes restrict our perception of human (11) _______________. What is more, since

they rigidly prescribe what people are supposed to be like, they stunt our development and
(12) ______________.
6. Rearrange the words in their correct order to form the sentences.
a) Scholars, a projection, fears, stereotypes, are, on others, of an individuals, argue that
b) Racism, do not, from having, but from refusing, and xenophobia, prejudices, stem, to
reject them, and stereotypes
c) Prejudices, towards, directed, strangers, only, are
d) In the, is, and inevitable, of stereotypes, of cases, automatic, the activation, majority
e) Stereotyping, by the media, showing, can also be created, an incorrect, of a culture,
judgment, or place

UNIT 3: Political Correctness

The term POLITICAL CORRECTNESS (often abbreviated to PC) arose in the 1980s, first
in America and soon afterwards elsewhere. It deals with many areas of social interaction,
supporting broad social, political, and educational change, especially in order to redress
historical injustices in matters such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.
In language, PC is concerned with avoiding or replacing words that cause offence or are seen
as discriminating against certain sections of society (e.g. by being racist or sexist), and
extends to the avoidance of terms that may be regarded even coincidentally as offensive, such
as black in black economy and blind (to) meaning unwilling to recognize (a fact), and to
other words that offend various groups (e.g. deaf people, homosexuals, women, and old
people). The PC movement is also devoted to promoting an alternative terminology that seeks
to assert a more positive aspect to negative or undesirable qualities, such as deficiency
achievement for failure, differently abled for disabled, non-waged for unemployed, and many
compounds formed with -challenged (intellectually challenged, vertically challenged, etc.).
One of the main issues with which the movement has been concerned is that of eliminating
gender specificity in job titles. A gender-specific job title is a name of a job that also
specifies or implies the gender of the person performing that job. A gender-neutral job title,
on the other hand, is one that does not specify or imply gender, such as firefighter or lawyer.
1. Complete the table with the missing job titles:
Gender-specific job titles
Gender-neutral job titles
Flight attendant
Salesperson/Sales representative
Member of Congress

2. Match the words with their description (e.g. 3 - a).

1) baubles
a) a lower-class, bad-mannered individual
2) reluctant
b) to guide, direct on a course
3) chav
c) humiliate, degrade
4) repugnant
d) disgusting, distasteful
5) bigoted
e) weakens, threatens
6) to steer
f) unwilling, unenthusiastic
7) bias
g) supporters
8) demean
h) small, round, showy ornaments of little value
9) proponents
i) intolerant, narrow-minded
10) undermines
j) intolerance, prejudice, stereotype
3. Read the article Political correctness gone bad, by Ally Fogg. Then solve the tasks:
a) Extract ONE sentence that, in your opinion, best summarizes the whole text.
b) To what extent do you agree with the author?
Political correctness gone bad2
Words form the thread on which we string our experiences, as Aldous Huxley wisely
observed, but they do more than that. Words form the necklace of beads, baubles and pearls
that we display to the world. They form the millstones round our necks, and sometimes even
the ropes with which we hang ourselves.
I think it is reprehensible to use language that stigmatises, demonises and degrades
whole sections of society. I agree that language informs attitudes and perceptions, and so
influences behaviour, but that is not all. Language offers a window into the hearts of our
fellow human beings. I, for one, am reluctant to see that window veiled.
People are perfectly entitled to use any words they like. I don't like the word "chav"
any more than Zoe Williams does, but I couldn't care less if someone uses it about specific
deserving individuals, in a self-deprecating reference, or in a decent joke. She or he is also
entitled to use it as a blanket catch-all shorthand for the poorest and most marginalised in
society, or for the wider working class, and in return I am free to believe that such a person is
a repugnant, heartless snob. Similarly, anyone who uses a grossly sexist, racist, homophobic
or bigoted epithet within my radar is unlikely to get a sympathetic hearing for the rest of our
probably short engagement.
I realise this is a prejudice, and I may occasionally do an injustice to some kindhearted but clumsy tongued soul, but to be honest I think I can live with the loss. I can also
live with the implications for my own choice of words.
Language evolves, and as it does, I fully support efforts to steer it away from gender
bias, and strip away from everyday discourse terms that stereotype, diminish or dehumanise
sections of society. That requires ongoing debate about what is objectionable in which
circumstances, and more importantly, why. That debate happens in workplaces, in pubs, in
schools, on internet forums and wherever else people argue. I'd be delighted if we could all
feel confident in challenging attitudes that demean others and divide us as a society. But that
is for us to decide. Yes, all of us.

Adapted from the article published in The Guardian on the 19th of July 2008. The whole text is available at:

It simply does not help to have the likes of the Fabian Society or the Equality and
Human Rights Commission laying down the latest list of forbidden words, with all the selfappointed arrogance of a Guide to Modern Etiquette. That totally misses the point.
It is not words that sometimes need challenging, but the attitudes behind them. Sardar
is right to say that words shape attitudes, but he forgets that attitudes shape words to a far
greater extent. Ideological proponents of political correctness make a huge error in thinking
that offensive words themselves, those little strings of sounds or squiggly letters, are the
problem. They're not, they are just words. The problem is that people want to use them in the
first place.
If we are not free to convey our honest beliefs, then our honest beliefs will never be
challenged, and our conflicting opinions will never be fully explored. That cannot be healthy
for any democracy, but worse it actively undermines efforts to build a fairer, better society.
4. Reread the first paragraph. With what would you compare the power of words?
5. Look at the list of politically correct terms and choose THREE that you would keep
and THREE that you consider exaggerated. Explain your choices.
A Crook - morally (ethically) challenged
Alcoholic - anti-sobriety activist
An Immigrant - a newcomer
Bald - comb-free; hair disadvantaged; follicularly challenged.
Blind - visually challenged
Broken Home - dysfunctional family
Cannibalism - intra-species dining
Censorship - selective speech
Cheating - academic dishonesty
China - porcelain
Chronically Late - temporarily challenged
Clumsy - uniquely coordinated
Computer Illiterate - technologically challenged
Cowardly - challenge challenged
Cowboys - bovine control officers
Deaf - visually oriented
Dishonest - ethically disoriented
Drug Addict - chemically challenged
Overweight - differently weighted; horizontally challenged
Freshman - first-year student
Garbage Man - sanitation engineer
Geek, Nerd - socially challenged
Ghetto / Barrio - ethnically homogenous area
Handicapped - differently abled
Homeless - outdoor urban dwellers; residentially flexible
Housewife - domestic engineer
Incompetent - differently qualified
Lazy - motivationally deficient
Loser - second place
Mankind - humankind

Messy - differently organized

Short- vertically challenged
Mute - verbally challenged
Old - Senior citizen; older adult
Poor - financially disadvantaged
Policeman, Policewoman - law enforcement officer
Postman letter/mail carrier
Prisoner - client of the correctional system
Redneck - rustically inclined
Refugees - asylum seekers
Steward, Stewardess - flight attendant
Stupid - intellectually impaired
Ugly - aesthetically challenged
Unemployed in transition between careers

UNIT 4: Gender Roles and Relationships

1. Do men really have more advantages than women in the world of work? With a
partner, discuss whether or not you agree with these statements:
a. Generally speaking, men have a better deal than women.
b. In all age groups, men earn more than women.
c. Women have fewer choices in life than men.
d. On the basis of time spent working inside and outside the home, women work more hours
than men.
e. The worst jobs are generally done by men.
f. In the modern world, men need to take on both masculine and feminine traits and roles.
g. Women who work full time shouldnt have children.
h. Mens life expectancy has increased at the same rate as womens.
i. For many years more money has been spent on research into womens health than research
into mens health.
j. The idea of the man being the sole provider for the family is no longer enough.
2. Read the following dialogue about the role of men in today's society.
a. Which of the points in exercise 1 do they mention?
b. Do they agree?
c. What is the main difficulty that men have to face?
d. What is the main choice facing working women?



I think the biggest thing is that men are being asked to do new stuff, dare I say, feminine stuff,
as well as hold on to all the traditional masculine things. So it's kind of like, if you don't mind
me using the characters, it's kind of like you're supposed to be Arnold Schwarzenegger...
as well as some very soft Alan Alda all at the same time as the new American male and...
Well, it's not fair, that's too many jobs.
Do you think you're getting a bad deal, you think men are getting a bad deal?
I think lately, yes, I think I'm being held up to two opposing standards sometimes, and it gets
really difficult in a relationship when you're trying really hard but it turns out you're holding




up the wrong standard on the wrong day.

OK, here's a question for you. Do you think that men have the option not to work? Like
staying at home....
Yeah, just barely, yeah, I think they actually do, but do you know they have to do a lot of
explaining for themselves, still? While women who join the work world don't have to justify
themselves as much.
Well, except that they do in the sense that we still have a big debate about whether or not
women should work full time when they have children. You know, who does the childcare,
should women try to be at home when the kids are home, should they feel guilty?
They may question themselves but men have to defend themselves greatly if they said they
wanted to be a househusband.
So, you still think that men have to justify themselves if they decide to stay at home or if
there's a man in the playground...
Yes, or if they hold up a singularly masculine role of only, you know, a provider which twenty
years ago, or back in the fifties, say, after the war, was what a male was supposed to do. If a
man tries to hold on to that, then he's not really a modern guy and he has to defend himself
quite a bit. But if a woman want to have it all, well that's almost expected really. I mean that
she's allowed to have a fulfilling career, be a perfect mom, and have a lovely tended home.

3. The language of gender. Look at the following expressions with man. Can you replace
them with non-sexist ones?
a) a man of the people
b) to man an office
c) to be your own man
d) every man for himself
e) to man up
f) a man of my word
g) as one man
h) a man in the street
4. Writing: Comment on the two statements below. Give examples to support your
Women can do any job, even those traditionally done by men.
Men can do any job even those traditionally done by women.
5. You are going to read an article about changes in the number of women in
employment. Discuss these questions:
Are there more women than men in your workplace?
Is the number of women in the workplace increasing? Why, or why not?
How has womens influence in the workplace changed?
What effect has this been having on the men?





The number of women working in the UK has been rising1 steadily for several decades. In
the mid-1960s, around 42% of women of working age were in ___________; in the late
1990s this number increased to nearly 70%. Today women have actually overtaken2 men in
the job market men have never been in such a position ___________ and now it appears3 to
be affecting the way they view their role in life.
This phenomenon is spreading4 rapidly around the world. The number of working women in
the ___________ force in China has increased5 from 49% in 1980 to nearly 60% today the
highest of any country in the world. At the other _________, only about 10% of women in
Iraq and Saudi Arabia currently work6.
Although their numbers have been increasing7, only 3% of the directors in the UK's top 1,500
companies are _________. Moreover, despite the fact that women have made8 progress in
areas such as childcare and increased flexibility in working hours, they are still facing9
___________ discrimination. Tina Knight, who has had10 various jobs in the industry is now
chair of Women Into Business, is currently lobbying11 Parliament on these issues. One big
mistake that successful women make12, says Tina, is to try and shut ________ out. We have
to work _________ each other.
6. Reading comprehension. Are the following statements True (T) or False (F) according
to the text?
a. There are fewer women than men working in Britain.
b. The number of women in employment is influencing the way men think of themselves.
c. China has witnessed the highest decrease of men in the workforce.
d. Saudi Arabia has the lowest percentage of women in the workforce.
e. There are not enough women in top positions in the UK.
f. The discrimination faced by women at work has gone down.
g. Women and men need to learn to collaborate at work.
7. Find a numbered verb in the text above, which expresses:
1. an action taking place at the moment of speaking
2. an action that happened at an unspecified time in the past
3. an action that has begun in the past and is likely to still go on in the future
4. a general and/or repeated action
Name these tenses.
1. Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple:
1. Are you hungry? ______________________ something to eat? (you/want)
2. Jill is interested in politics but she _______________________ to a political party. (not
3. Dont put the dictionary away! I _______________________ it. (use)
4. Dont put the dictionary away! I _______________________ it. (need)
5. Who is that man? What ____________________? (he/want)
6. Who is that man? Why ____________________ at us? (he/look)
7. George says hes 80 years old but nobody ___________________ him. (believe)
8. She told me her name but I _________________________ it now. (remember)
9. I ______________________ of selling my car. (think) Would you be interested?


10. I ______________________ you should sell your car. (not/think) You

_____________________ very often. (use)
11. I used to drink a lot of coffee but these days I _____________________ tea. (prefer)
2. Read the situations and write two sentences using the words in the brackets. Be
careful when you use the present perfect and when the present perfect continuous.
a) Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page
(read/two hours) _________________________________
(read/53 pages so far) _____________________________
b) Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her
tour three months ago.
(travel/for three months) ______________________________
(visit/six countries so far) _____________________________
c) Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This
year he is national champion again for the fourth time.
(win/four times) ______________________________
(play tennis/since he was ten) ____________________
d) When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make
(make/ten films since they left college) ____________________________
(make/films since they left college) _______________________________

UNIT 5: Religious Symbols

1. What do you know?
Which of the following words from the text do you associate with the Muslim religion, which
with the Christian religion and which with the Jewish religion?

Yom Kippur




2. Key Vocabulary. Fill the gaps using these key words from the text:

outlaw (vb)



1. If something is ____________________ , it is very noticeable or easy to see.

2. France is a ____________________ country. In other words, there is no official state
3. If you ____________________ something, you prohibit it or make it illegal.
4. A ____________________ is a piece of cloth that a woman or girl wears on her head
and ties under her chin.
5. ____________________ is behaviour that does not show strong feelings or opinions
and, for example, does not support either side in a war or a disagreement.
6. If something is ____________________, it is completely stupid.
7. A ____________________ is a group of people who are officially asked to
investigate something.


8. An ____________________ is a person whose job is to deal with complaints made by

people about official organisations.
3. Read the article3 and insert the words below in the gaps.
a. separation
e. conspicuous

b. neutrality
f. headscarves

c. secularism
g. French

d. ombudsman
h. school holidays

Muslim headscarves and other religious symbols are almost certain to be banned from
French schools and public buildings after a special commission told the government recently
that legislation was needed to defend the secular nature of the state. The 20-member group,
appointed by President Jacques Chirac and headed by the national (1) _______________,
Bernard Stasi, recommended that all "(2)______________" signs of religious belief
including Jewish skullcaps, oversized Christian crosses and Islamic headscarves be
outlawed in state-approved schools.
The report, compiled after six months of study, also recommended that the laws
should include a clause requiring "the strict (3) ______________of all public service
employees". Some Muslim women had reportedly been insisting that their husbands
accompany them at all times in hospital and would accept only female doctors. The report
said the legislation must remind all health service users that "it is forbidden to reject a
healthcare worker, and that the rules of hygiene must be respected".
In a gesture of respect to "all spiritual options, the report said the Jewish and Muslim
holy days of Yom Kippur and Eid should be made official (4)____________, and companies
should consider ways of allowing their employees to take off the religious holiday of their
Mr Chirac said that he favoured a law protecting France's secular republic, "I will be
guided by republican principles and the demands of national unity and the solidarity of the
French people," he said. The question of whether a "secularism law" is desirable or
necessary- particularly to deal with the increasing number of Muslim girls wanting to wear
(5)_____________ at school - may seem abstract, or even absurd, to those used to British or
US notions of multiculturalism. In France, where (6) ______________ is a constitutional
guarantee and everyone, in the eyes of the republic, is supposed to be equally (7)
______________regardless of ethnic or religious differences, the issue has dominated media
and political debate for several months.
Mr Stasi said the proposed law aimed to preserve constitutional secularism and
counter "forces trying to destabilise the republic", a clear reference to Islamic
fundamentalism. But he stressed that the law was not directed at the mainly moderate Muslim
community of 5 million. "Muslims must understand that secularism is a chance for Islam,"
Mr Stasi said. "Secularism is the (8) _____________ of church and state, but it is also the
respect of differences."
The main teachers' union, the SNES, said that the proposals did not go far enough to
promote secularism in schools.
Kamal Kabtane, the head of the Grand Mosque of Lyon said Muslims would respect a
law on headscarves but he added, This will resolve nothing at all. It will only add to the

Adapted from an article (France to ban pupils religious dress, by Jon Henley) which appeared in The
Guardian and is available at:


4. Reading Comprehension. Choose the best answer:

1) The Stasi commission has recommended that the wearing of headscarves in French schools
be banned because...
a. they are conspicuous.
b. they represent forces trying to destabilise the republic.
c. the commission wants to defend the secular nature of the French state.
2) The commission recommended a clause requiring the strict neutrality of all public service
employees because...
a. they wanted to remind people that it is forbidden to reject a healthcare worker.
b. some people only accept female doctors.
c. it took six months to compile the report.
3) The commission recommended the introduction of new public holidays...
a. in order to allow workers to choose their holidays.
b. as a gesture of respect to all religions.
c. in order to ensure the strict neutrality of all public service employees.
4) The constitutional guarantee of secularism under French law means...
a. that people cannot wear headscarves to school.
b. that everyone is regarded as equally French whatever their religion or ethnic
c. that the issue has dominated media and political debate for several months.
5) The main teachers union criticized the proposals because...
a. they were too radical.
b. they were not radical enough.
c. they promoted secularism in schools.
5. From the information you have garnered, what would be an appropriate title for the

6. Vocabulary: words with similar meaning. Decide which word of the following groups is
significantly different from the others and justify your choice.





anomaly = strange or unusual aspect of a situation


to ban
to promote
to oppress

to outlaw
to sponsor
to stress

to sanction
to develop
to underscore

to forbid
to obstruct
to point out

7. Use the most appropriate word from exercise 6 (in the correct form) in each of the
following sentences. More than one option may be possible at times.



Smoking __________________ inside the laboratory.

The new military regime ________________ strikes in the country.
Ive been smoking for 10 years and now its really hard to break the _____________.
The ______________ language in James Joyces Ulysses really shocked the world in
the 1920s.
5. This country is __________________ in the field of genetic research.
6. You were really __________________ by your absence yesterday.
7. Evil witches are always depicted in fairytales as having a _________________ nose.
8. After her return from Africa, Janet _______________ an interest in pottery.
9. We are hard at work ____________________ the Christmas concert.
10. I _________________ to him where I used to live.
11. The case was brought before the ____________ who decided in the favour of the
8. Discussion:
a) Find 3 arguments for and 3 arguments against the wearing of religious symbols in public
b) In your opinion, should girls be free to wear headscarves to school?

UNIT 6: Legal Aliens

1. Why do people immigrate? What is the most difficult thing about changing nationality /
moving to a different country? What would you miss most about your country of origin?
2. Put the following words in the gaps below: bureaucracy, jargon, alien, passport,
naturalized, immigrant, native, forms, fill, officialdom, citizen, assimilated, documents,
outsider, expatriate, affidavits, permit, authorities, testimonials, officialese.
When you arrive in a new country, hoping to live there, you are officially an a)
.., and you will also be described as an b) ., which is another
way of saying foreigner. In the eyes of your own countrymen, you are an c) .,
because you chose to live in a different country. In you adopted country, you will certainly be
made to feel like an d) , especially when you first encounter the e)
who ask you a lot of questions, using their own language, which is called
both f) . and g) They will make you h) .. in
many i) ., ask to see your own official j) .., including k)
.. from people who know you to say you are of good character, and sworn
statements, also called l) . If you are lucky, they will give you a m)
. to stay for a short time, and you may hope eventually to be n)
.., or made a o) .. of that country. You will probably never
feel like a p) ., but when you have lived there a long time, you will at least
become q) .. and feel less foreign. Then you can proudly show your own r)
., and, you hope, have nothing more to do with s) .. or t)
., two words for the same thing and a thing the world we live in has too
much of!4

Text taken from: Short Cuts: Using Texts to Explore English, 1995: 119.


3. Match the words on the left-hand column, with their equivalents on the right:
stinging (vb)
poor, dilapidated, untended, decrepit
backward, retrogressive, traditionalistic
importance, significance
shy, timid
import (n)
crowds, large gathering
whether you like it or not
devastated, sad, angry
10 painful, wounded, sensitive
11 competence, knowledge
12 biting, hurting
13 calming, appeasing
4. Read the text and supply the missing words:
Dislocation and neglect in Muslim Britain's ghettos5

It was the Rushdie controversy ________ forced us into the open. An invisible
community then - if such a word could be used for a group as diverse ______ we were,
divided by language, national origins, race and class - we were attacked by the racist
scorpions then set loose, stinging us all without distinction. The term "British Muslims" was
invented in that era _____ media hysteria and, willy-nilly, we found ourselves adopting it.
Real assimilation was the hardest hurdle. ______ all immigrants, the first generation
acquired varying degrees _____ proficiency in English, but still wept and cursed in its
original tongues - in Urdu, Arabic, Bengali or Turkish. We still read our old countries' papers.
We were ravaged by news from Bosnia, Iraq, Kashmir or Palestine and increasingly
infuriated by Britain's hostile policies on these matters of grave import _____ 2 million of its
citizens. The umbilical cord with home had not _______ cut and there was no soothing local
midwife to help.
Assimilation is a two-way, well-tended street, not a rubbish-filled dead-end street like
the ________ we lived in. Even if we had desperately wanted to integrate - and a great many
did - we could not have done it ______ a welcoming hand from our new compatriots. Such
generous gestures were rarely available. Instead, there was stinginess and suspicion, ______
both local and government level. We were left _____ our somber psychological or material
ghettos, but not before being handed the bright flag _____ multiculturalism to wave
Modern Britain - its schools and its high streets - intervened between father and son
and, ________ sinisterly, between father and daughter, only to withdraw, leaving them
stranded, paranoid and angry.
This dislocation, _____ private and public, was a very raw state to be in. ______
wonder organised religion - financed from abroad, with US blessings, by the most regressive
elements in Pakistan and the Gulf - landed ______ such an appeal in the lunar landscape of

Article by Rana Kabbani, published in The Guardian on June 17, 2002, available at:


Muslim Britain. With no mainstream to admit them, no secular institutions to attract them, no
money spent on their rundown neighbourhoods, no training opportunities or jobs, no future
_____ all in fact, young Muslims flocked to the mosque in droves, often _____ the alarm of
their self-effacing parents. The doors were opened wide, _______ to receive, and then to
claim them.
5. Answer the questions:
a. Rana Kabbani says The umbilical cord with home had not been cut and there was no
soothing local midwife to help. What does it mean in your opinion?
b. What does Rana Kabbani call the dangerous state in which Muslims found themselves
vulnerable to the influences of fundamentalism?
c. Why was this state so dangerous?

UNIT 7: Discrimination
DISCRIMINATION is prejudice in treatment, actions and policies directed against minority
groups. Very often it is difficult and even impossible for a member of a minority group to
change their status (being a gypsy, an immigrant, a former delinquent etc) because the
dominant group considers this status as a permanent one.
Gender discrimination is an exception because women are the majority group in the world,
and still they are discriminated against.
Attempts to fight discrimination have led to affirmative action and positive action, which
refer to measures that take race, ethnicity, or gender into consideration in order to promote
equal opportunity or increase ethnic or other forms of diversity. In fact, these efforts have
resulted in another form of discrimination, this time towards the opposite group.

1. Match the following types of discrimination with their definitions:


1) Racial discrimination

a) Refers to the belief or attitude that one gender or sex

is inferior to the other
2) Employment discrimination b) Is treating a person or group differently because of
what they do or do not believe in
3) Disability discrimination
c) Is treating a person or group differently because of
they way they look or dress, the music they listen to etc.
4) Age discrimination
d) Refers to prejudice against someone because of their
country of origin
5) Ethnic discrimination
e) Refers to prejudice against someone because of their
skin colour
6) Sexism
f) Represents discrimination against various age groups
8) Religious discrimination
g) It is discrimination in hiring, promoting, firing, or
compensating certain employees. It includes various
types of harassment.
9) Discrimination based on
i) Refers to prejudice against someone because of their
10) Discrimination on the
j) It is treating a person or group unfairly on grounds of
grounds of lifestyle or
physical or mental impairment
personal appearance
2. List at least 3 other types of discrimination.
3. Based on the graphs below, write a short report about ethnic discrimination and
discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation in the EU. How do peoples
perceptions vary from one country to another and from one type of bias to the other?
Structure of a report:
Give a title
Write 5 paragraphs: 1) introduce the topic; 2) analyse the first graph; 3) analyse the
second graph; 4) compare and contrast the two graphs; 5) speculate on the causes or
reasons which have lead to these statistics; draw a conclusion.



Useful language and other tips:
The purpose of this report is/ The report evaluates/describes/presents
In the first graph we have/can see / Whereas in the second graph
On the one hand /On the other hand
In my opinion / I would say /I am of the opinion that/All these arguments
considered/In conclusion
Give relevant examples (not more than 3 in one sentence!) and percentages to support
each idea/argument.
4. Present your report to the class.


UNIT 8: The Fundamental Human Rights

1. Do you agree/disagree with the following statements? Why/Why not?
"Hope is power" (Amnesty International)
"Please use your freedom to promote ours." (Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese Democracy Leader
and Nobel Peace Laureate)
Poverty is the mother of crime. (Marcus Aurelius)
"If you judge people, you have no time to love them." (Mother Teresa)
2. Read the short fragment and answer the questions:
Every person is entitled to certain rights, simply by the fact that they are a human being. They
are called rights" because they are things you are allowed to be, to do or to have. These
rights are there for your protection against people who might want to harm you or treat you
unjustly. They are also there to help us get along with each other and live in peace.
Born out of the atrocities and enormous loss of life during World War II, the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights was created by the United Nations in 1948, to provide a
common understanding of what everyones rights are. It forms the basis for a world built on
freedom, justice and peace.
According to the first article of the Declaration, All human beings are born free and equal
in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards
one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
When was the Declaration created?
What is its purpose?
What is the importance of the first article of the Declaration?
3. Read the following articles from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and fill
in with the missing words from the table. Which do you believe is the most important?

to torture
liberty and security

slavery or servitude

thought and expression

proper and fair

Other articles in the Declaration state that:

everyone has the right to life, (1)______________________
everyone has the right to freedom of (2) ____________________
everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law (3)
_______________ of race, colour, gender, religion, language, political opinions, etc)
no one shall be held in (4) ____________________
no one shall be subjected (5) ________________ or to cruel, inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment
all are equal before the law and are entitled without any (6) ______________ to equal
protection of the law
everyone has the right to a (7) ____________________ trial
everyone charged with a penal offense has the right to be presumed (8) _____________
until proved guilty


everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the (9) _________ of
each state
nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person
any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the (10) ______________
of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
4. Match the terms from the first column with their definition in the second column:
1) Refugee
2) Resolution
3) Slavery
4) Famine
5) Genocide
6) Illiteracy

7) Kidnapping
8) Prisoner of
9) Human trafficking
10) Lynching

a) It is a form of human rights violation in which people are considered to be,

or treated as, the property of others
b) It is the commerce and trade of people, for the purposes of slavery,
prostitution, forced labor, and servitude
c) It is the taking away of a person against the person's will
d) It is the deliberate and systematic destruction, partially or totally, of an
ethnic, racial, religious, or national group
e) Person who has left their country due to fear of persecution because of
race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or social group.
f) It can refer to anyone imprisoned because of their race, religion, color,
language, sexual orientation, belief, or lifestyle so long as they have not used
or advocated violence
g) It is a punishment carried out illegally by a mob, usually by hanging.
h) Text adopted by a deliberative body or an international organization
i) It is a lack of ability to read and write
j) It is a widespread absence of food, usually accompanied by regional
malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality.

5. Match the words from the article on the left with their synonyms on the right:
childhood, education
rebellion, insurgence
to clamp down (on)
symbol, icon
faction, coalition
to repress, shut up
6. PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER. Number these lines in the correct order.
( )
10,000 demonstrators. This made Suu Kyi more determined to help
( )
for freedom and democracy. The brutal regime clamped down on the people and slaughtered
( 1)
Aung San Suu Kyi has been a figurehead for her countrys struggle for democracy
( )
release. Her new goal is to work with anyone and everyone in Burma to make a better
country for her people.
( )
since 1988. She was born to lead her nation; her father was Burma's independence hero. He
was assassinated when she was just
( )
seats in the 1990 election. The regime never recognized the results. The Generals offered her
freedom if she left the country,
( )
being detained. She was given her freedom by the military dictatorship on November 13th,
2010. She was greeted
( )
arrest. Even though the government arrested her, the party she led won a staggering 82% of






two years old. Suu Kyi had an international upbringing. She was educated in
her people by increasing her efforts to fight the dictators who were leading her country. She
was put under house
chaos after a new military junta took power. A nationwide uprising against the Generals
started and Suu Kyi campaigned
but she refused. Suu Kyi has been under house arrest for the best part of two decades. Ms
Suu Kyi won the Nobel Peace Prize while
by thousands of adoring Burmese at the gates of her home. World leaders welcomed her
In 1988 she returned home to care for her dying mother. Burma was in political
Burma, India, and the United Kingdom, where she got her PhD.

Why do you think she remained in Myanmar even though she had the possibility of
Why do you think she was finally released?
What would you ask Aung San Suu Kyi if you could interview her?
7. Read the following letter and identify which fundamental human rights are violated
in the described case?
Dear Amnesty International,
We are two Bulgarian sisters that have been rescued by Italian police from a circus. I
am 16 and my sister is 19.
She was forced to swim with piranhas in a transparent tank while I, had snakes draped
across my body and suffered bites.
Four members of our family have also been freed from what we called the "circus of
horrors", in the south of Naples.
Three men have been arrested and charged with holding us in slavery. We were paid
100 euros a week, forbidden to leave the camp and forced to work 15- and 20-hour
Our family has now been moved to a safe house but we are writing to you to draw
your attention to the desperate situation of people caught up in human trafficking
networks across Europe.
We have read that the European Union estimates that 500,000 people are affected by
trafficking every year in Europe.
Please stop the trafficking chain!
Thank you very much,
Nadia and Ludmila

9. Write a similar letter to an NGO starting from one of these stories taken from
Amnesty International:
a) 5 September 2015 - Amnesty has been working with refugees and migrants for decades,
from helping to prevent refugees being returned to be persecuted, to protecting the most
vulnerable migrants from being exploited and abused by their employers, traffickers and


smugglers. Around 1,700 refugees and migrants died trying to cross the Mediterranean in
January-April 2015 alone. Hundreds of thousands are dislocated, struggling to make it to
Western Europe where they can apply for asylum.
b) 24 August 2009- Thirteen girls and women were arrested in July for wearing trousers. Ten
were punished with 10 lashes and a fine. Lubna Ahmed Al Hussein has refused the pardon
offered her, bringing attention to the violation of the rights of girls and women in Sudan.
c) 9 June 2009- More than half of Nairobis population around two million people lives in
slums. Crammed into horrible shacks on just 1% of the citys usable land, people live without
adequate access to water, hospitals, schools and other essential public services.
d) 24 April 2009- In Slovakia, huge numbers of Romani children are placed in "special
schools" or classes for children with mental disabilities, or segregated in Roma-only
mainstream schools or classes. There, they study lower curriculums in virtual isolation from
other pupils. Independent studies suggest that as many as 80 per cent of children placed in
special schools in Slovakia are Roma.

UNIT 9: 1984 & 1989

Born Eric Arthur Blair, George Orwell created some of the sharpest satirical fiction of the
20th century with such works as Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). He
was a man of strong opinions who addressed some of the major political movements of his
times, including imperialism, fascism and communism.6
Animal Farm (1945) was an anti-Soviet satire in a pastoral setting featuring two pigs as its
main protagonists. These pigs were said to represent Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Nineteen
Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is set in Airstrip One (formerly known as Great
Britain), a province of the superstate Oceania in a world of perpetual war, omnipresent
government surveillance, and public manipulation. The tyranny is epitomised by a Party
leader who enjoys an intense cult of personality but who may not even exist. The Party "seeks
power entirely for its own sake. It is not interested in the good of others; it is interested solely
in power."[4] The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party,
who works for the Ministry of Truth, which is responsible for propaganda and historical
revisionism. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles, so that the historical record always
supports the party line. Many of the novels terms and concepts have entered into common
use since its publication in 1949.7
1. Match the following terms from/connected to Orwells novel 1984 with their

Thought police

a) uncover and punish crimethink

b) ministry that falsifies historical events
c) TV and security camera-like devices

Information taken from:

Information taken from:



Big Brother

d) accepting 2 opposite beliefs

e) describes a futuristic totalitarian state
f) fictional, simplified language
g) English socialism
h) illegal thoughts
i) tyrant, knows everything about everyone
j) society controlled by a repressive state

2. How are concerns about privacy and freedom expressed in the novel manifesting in
the contemporary world?

3. Read the text8 by Neil Postman and answer the question: How is Huxleys society
different from that described by Orwell?
We were keeping our eye on 1984. When the year came and the prophecy didn't, thoughtful
Americans sang softly in praise of themselves. The roots of liberal democracy had held.
Wherever else the terror had happened, we, at least, had not been visited by Orwellian
But we had forgotten that alongside Orwell's dark vision, there was another - slightly older,
slightly less well known, equally chilling: Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. Contrary to
common belief even among the educated, Huxley and Orwell did not prophesy the same
thing. Orwell warns that we will be overcome by an externally imposed oppression. But in
Huxley's vision, no Big Brother is required to deprive people of their autonomy, maturity and
history. As he saw it, people will come to love their oppression, to adore the technologies that
undo their capacities to think.
What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there
would be no reason to ban a book, for there would be no one who wanted to read one. Orwell
feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared those who would give us so
much that we would be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would
be concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance.
Orwell feared we would become a captive culture. Huxley feared we would become a trivial
culture, preoccupied with some equivalent of the feelies, the orgy porgy, and the centrifugal
bumblepuppy. As Huxley remarked in Brave New World Revisited, the civil libertarians and
rationalists who are ever on the alert to oppose tyranny "failed to take into account man's
almost infinite appetite for distractions". In 1984, Huxley added, people are controlled by
inflicting pain. In Brave New World, they are controlled by inflicting pleasure. In short,
Orwell feared that what we hate will ruin us. Huxley feared that what we love will ruin us.
This book is about the possibility that Huxley, not Orwell, was right.

Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business, Penguin Books, 2005, page


4. Complete the sentences with the words you consider appropriate:


Human nature is
Tyranny is
Civilization is
Technology is
The future is

1989: The Walls That Separate Us

The Great Wall of China- Chinese emperors began constructing it more than 2000 years
ago to keep out Mongols and invaders. It is actually a series of walls, spanning about 6000
km through the northern part of the country.
Border fence along the U.S.A.-Mexico border- At the very western edge of the U.S.Mexico border, there used to be a small plaza between San Diego and Tijuana called
Friendship Park. This was one of the few places on the border where people from Mexico and
the U.S.A. could meet and talk across the frontier. Under George W. Bush, the Department of
Homeland Security started installing a secondary fence (besides the existing pedestrian
barrier), essentially creating a no man's land where Friendship Park once stood. Almost 1000
km of fence went up until President Obama canceled plans to extend it.
A Roma wall or Gypsy wall is a wall built by local authorities in the Czech Republic,
Romania and Slovakia to segregate the Roma minority from the rest of the population. In
Baia Mare, Romania, the local administration built a wall surrounding the social housing
that houses 1000 Roma people into one-room apartments, some without water or electricity.
According to the mayor, this wall was designed to "prevent traffic accidents", while prodemocracy organizations say it amounts to "institutionalized racism". In 2011, the national
anti-discrimination council fined mayor Ctlin Chereche for the building of the wall and
ordered it to be pulled down. The wall nevertheless proved popular with the majority
population and the mayor was overwhelmingly re-elected in 2012.
1. Match the words from the text with their equivalents:

barbed wire



to stem
to defuse
to scale
to swarm



a place along a road or a border,
where travelers are stopped for
to climb
to rush together
to stop
to disarm

2. Reinsert the following phrases back in the text: a) 2 million people, b) 12-foot-tall, 4foot-wide, c) mass defections from East to West, d) 12 checkpoints along the wall, e) United
States, Britain and France; f) including some 600 border guards, g) by closing its border for
good, h) East and West Germany, i) to shoot escapees on sight
Berlin Wall: 1961-19899
On August 13, 1961, the Communist government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR,
or East Germany) began to build a barbed wire and concrete Antifascistischer Schutzwall,
or antifascist bulwark, between East and West Berlin. The official purpose of this Berlin
Wall was to keep Western fascists from entering East Germany and undermining the
socialist state, but it primarily served the objective of stemming (1) ____________________.
Before the wall was built, Berliners on both sides of the city could move around fairly
freely: They crossed the East-West border to work, to shop, to go to the theater and the
movies. Trains and subway lines carried passengers back and forth.
The existence of West Berlin, a conspicuously capitalist city deep within communist
East Germany, stuck like a bone in the Soviet throat, as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
put it. The Russians began maneuvering to drive the (2) _________________________ out
of the city for good. In June 1961, some 19,000 people left the GDR through Berlin. The
following month, 30,000 fled. In the first 11 days of August, 16,000 East Germans crossed
the border into West Berlin, and on August 12 some 2,400 followedthe largest number of
defectors ever to leave East Germany in a single day.
That night, Premier Khrushchev gave the East German government permission to stop
the flow of emigrants (3) ___________________________. In just two weeks, the East
German army, police force and volunteer construction workers had completed a makeshift
barbed wire and concrete block wallthe Berlin Wallthat divided one side of the city from
the other.

Abridged and adapted from:


After the wall was built, it became impossible to get from East to West Berlin except
through one of three checkpoints: at Helmstedt (Checkpoint Alpha in American military
parlance), at Dreilinden (Checkpoint Bravo) and in the center of Berlin at Friedrichstrasse
(Checkpoint Charlie). (Eventually, the GDR built (4) ___________________________.)
The construction of the Berlin Wall did stop the flood of refugees from East to West, and it
did defuse the crisis over Berlin. (Though he was not happy about it, President Kennedy
conceded that a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war.) Over time, East German officials
replaced the makeshift wall with one that was sturdier and more difficult to scale. A (5)
___________________ mass of reinforced concrete was topped with an enormous pipe that
made climbing over nearly impossible. Behind the wall on the East German side was a socalled Death Strip: a gauntlet of soft sand (to show footprints), floodlights, vicious dogs,
trip-wire machine guns and patrolling soldiers with orders (6) ________________________.
In all, at least 171 people were killed trying to get over, under or around the Berlin
Wall. Escape from East Germany was not impossible, however. From 1961 until the wall
came down in 1989, more than 5,000 East Germans, (7) _____________________________,
managed to cross the border by jumping out of windows adjacent to the wall, climbing over
the barbed wire, flying in hot air balloons, crawling through the sewers and driving through
unfortified parts of the wall at high speeds.
The Berlin Wall stood until November 9, 1989, when the head of the East German
Communist Party announced that citizens of the GDR could cross the border whenever they
pleased. That night, ecstatic crowds swarmed the wall. Some crossed freely into West Berlin,
while others brought hammers and picks and began to chip away at the wall itself. More than
(8) ___________________________from East Berlin visited West Berlin that weekend to
participate in a celebration that was, one journalist wrote, the greatest street party in the
history of the world. People used hammers and picks to knock away chunks of the wallthey
became known as mauerspechte, or wall woodpeckerswhile cranes and bulldozers
pulled down section after section. Soon the wall was gone and Berlin was united for the first
time since 1945. Only today, one Berliner spray-painted on a piece of the wall, is the war
really over.
The reunification of (9) _________________________ was made official on October
3, 1990, almost one year after the fall of the Berlin Wall. To this day, the Berlin Wall remains
one of the most powerful and enduring symbols of the Cold War.
3. The year 1989 brought about the fall of communism in the so-called East European
a) What walls do you think we still have to tear down?
b) Do you think it is possible to build a wall high enough in order to prevent people
from breaking it?
4. Make a list of the most important changes that have taken place in Romania after the
1989 Revolution.
e.g. Since 1989, Romanians have earned the right to free speech.
For the past 25 years, we have been able to travel abroad freely.


UNIT 10: On Freedom

1. Read the following quotes. Comment on
a. The average man does not want to be free. He simply wants to be safe.
b. You have freedom when you're easy in your harness. (Robert Frost)
c. Freedom is the will to be responsible to ourselves. (Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols)
d. None are so hopelessly enslaved as those who falsely believe they are free. (Goethe)
2. Match the words from the text with their equivalents/explanation in the second

to venture
to exercise
to infringe


disposable, that can be dismissed
to employ, to use, to apply
to break, to violate
infringement, violation
to take a chance, to dare
dweller, holder, occupant

3. Read the following text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate word:
The struggle ________________ Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous feature
in the portions of history with which we are earliest familiar, particularly in that of Greece,
Rome, and England. But in old times this contest was between subjects, or some classes of
subjects, and the Government. By liberty, was meant protection _______ the tyranny of the
political rulers []
They ________________ of a governing One, or a governing tribe or caste, who derived
their authority from inheritance or conquest, who, at all events, did not hold it at the pleasure
of the governed, and whose supremacy men did not venture, ____________ did not desire, to
Their power was regarded ___________ necessary, but also as highly
________________; as a weapon which they would attempt to use against their subjects, no
less than against external enemies.
The aim, therefore, of patriots was to ___________ limits to the power which the ruler
should be suffered to exercise over the community; and this limitation was what they meant
by liberty.
It was attempted in two ways. ___________, by obtaining a recognition of certain
immunities, called political liberties or rights, which it was to be regarded as a breach of duty
in the ruler to infringe, and which, if he did infringe, specific resistance, or general rebellion,
was _______________ to be justifiable. A second, and generally a later expedient, was the
establishment of constitutional checks,
A time, however, came, in the progress of human affairs, when men ceased to think it a
necessity of nature that their governors should be an _______________ power, opposed in
interest to themselves. It appeared to them much better __________ the various magistrates
of the State should be their tenants or delegates, revocable at their pleasure.


____________ was now wanted was, that the rulers should be identified with the people;
that their interest and will should be the interest and will of the nation. The nation did not
need to be protected against its ___________ will. There was no fear of its tyrannizing over
itself. Let the rulers be effectually responsible to it, promptly removable by it, and it could
afford to trust them with power of which it could itself dictate the use to be made. Their
power was but the ______________ own power,
In time, however, people came to realize things were not always so.
The 'people' who exercise the power are not always the _________ people with those
over whom it is exercised; and the 'self-government' spoken of is not the government of each
by himself, but of each by _________ the rest. They realized that the people, consequently,
may desire to oppress a part of their number; and precautions are as much needed against this
___________ against any other abuse of power
4. Answer the following questions based on the text:


What did liberty mean, initially?

What were the attributes of the governing authority?
What were the dangers?
How did the people try to limit the powers of rulers?
What would happen if rulers did now follow rules?
What was the next step in the evolution of the relationship between ruler and the
What was the misconception of this new form of government?
Explain in your own words: the 'self-government' spoken of is not the government of
each by himself, but of each by all the rest and the people, consequently, may desire
to oppress a part of their number; and precautions are as much needed against this as
against any other abuse of power
What does freedom mean to you?
What would you do for freedom?
Do you agree with the lyric: freedoms just another word for nothing left to lose?

UNIT 11: Quoting, Reporting and Interpreting. Linking

A. Referring directly to other peoples words: to quote, to paraphrase, in the words of, as
has it, according to, once wrote.
_____________ the Chancellor, a tax increase is unavoidable.
_____________ Shakespeare, All the worlds a stage.
_____________ Julius Caesar: I came, I saw, I conquered.
_______the Prime Minister _________, Things can only get better.
Beckett ___________ that people were bloody ignorant apes.
_____________ Abraham Lincoln, were not all idiots all the time.
B. Casting doubt on what people have said:
If Julian Assange is to be believed, Wikileaks is doing an ethical thing.
I gather / I understand / I hear Julian Assange is constantly harassed.


Julian Assange is supposed to be in danger.

Theres a rumour going around (town) that his loyalists are abandoning him.
The word is that Assange will post more secret documents on the Iraq war..
C. Verbs that indicate a persons attitude:
state (categorically); (utterly) repudiate; (proudly) proclaim; (rightly) remark; (strongly)
support; (totally) agree; (fully) understand; (greatly) appreciate
A. Powerful adjectives:
It cost a lot. CAN BECOME: The price was exorbitant / extortionate / astronomical.
Its a big problem. CAN BECOME: Its a vast / colossal / huge problem.
B. Collocation- a number of intensifying adjectives close to the meaning of complete,
collocate with particular nouns but not with others: unshakeable, sheer, unmitigated, eternal,
utter, comprehensive
- an________ optimist;
a ____________ defeat; ________ stupidity;
____________ faith;
an ___________ disaster
C. Adverbs of degree: adverb-adjective combinations are common to give emphasis:
absolutely ridiculous

totally wrong

plain stupid

dead right extremely


ADDITION: in addition, furthermore, moreover, besides, further, also, too, similarly, again,
and, equally important, first, second, finally, still
COMPARISON: likewise, similarly, also, in the same way
CONTRAST: in contrast, on the contrary, yet, however, still, nevertheless, on the other
hand, instead, in spite of, at the same time, otherwise, regardless, although, even so, even
EXAMPLE OR ILLUSTRATION: for example, for instance, to illustrate, thus, in this
manner, in particular, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, that is,
truly, specifically, after all
REPETITION: in other words, that is, to repeat, again, to be exact, to be specific, to be
precise, more specifically, more precisely
TIME SEQUENCE: at once, suddenly, at length, immediately, at last, meanwhile, in the
meantime, now, presently, at the same time, shortly, in the end, temporarily, thereafter, after a
while, afterwards, again, also, and then, as long as, at that time, before, earlier, eventually,
finally, lately, recently, next, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, until, when


SUMMARY: all in all, altogether, as has been said, in brief, in other words, in conclusion, in
particular, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently,
to summarize
EMPHASIS: indeed, certainly, in fact, of course
CAUSE AND EFFECT: as a result, for this reason, therefore, hence, consequently,
CONCLUSION: to conclude, to sum up, in summary, in brief, on the whole, finally

Rewrite the sentences using the linkers in parenthesis. Make the necessary changes:
1. She apologized several times. Her husband wouldnt speak to her. (although)
2. We decided to go to the beach even though it was raining. (in spite of)
3. He works part-time to pay his university fee. Hes a good student. (in addition)
4. Id love to join you tonight. I really havent got the time. (however)
5. Paris is a great place to visit. It has got huge traffic problems. (despite)
6. Mike was very busy yesterday. He helped me pack my luggage. (but)
7. She goes to the gym every day. She cant lose weight. (yet)
8. It is a private parking area. If you pay, you can park here. (unless)
9. Jo learned German because she wanted to get a job with Siemens. (in order to)
10. Brenda reads a lot. Last week she finished 3 books. (for example)
11. Mark knew about the speed limit. He was in a hurry to get home. (nevertheless)
13. John does extra work. He wants to catch up with the top of the class. (so as to)
14. My brother doesnt speak Spanish. My sister-in-law doesnt speak Spanish. (neither...nor)
15. The accident was serious but nobody was killed. (Even though)

UNIT 12: The True Value of Age

1. Societal Attitudes towards Aging
a) What type of attitude is reflected in the following English sayings:
Old age is ripeness, There is no fool like an old fool, Age and wedlock tame man and
beast, With age comes wisdom, Gray hairs are deaths blossoms, Old foxes
are not easily caught.
b) Find six Romanian proverbs referring to old age (with positive or negative connotations).
2. Match these words with their equivalents in the sentences below: nonagenarian, limber
up, grueling, feat, tough cookie, bowed out, jaunt, missed out, tickled the ivories, staple
a. Organizing this conference with hundreds of participants was a real performance.
b. John is over ninety years old. He is a veteran of WWII.
c. Before running, athletes usually have a practice session where they warm up.
d. We're talking about a determined, undaunted woman who raised five children on her own.
e. Running a marathon is a very exhausting undertaking.
f. Actors and actresses are a permanent presence in the scandal press.


g. They went on a journey through the mountains to see the waterfalls.

h. She resigned after two successful terms as governor.
i. Joanne had played the piano since the age of five.
j. We always go to the music festival, but we skipped it this year in favour of a holiday in
3. Reinsert the fragments back in the text:
but I just can't
move as fast

to help her through at the finish

has raised about


he's there for me

67 years

I say that every


oldest woman

I'm still going to


showing up

16th marathon

I never try to

it was like a

92-year-old becomes oldest woman to complete marathon 10

Harriette Thompson is tougher than you. Seriously. She became the (a)__________________
to complete a marathon when she crossed the finish line Sunday at San Diego's Rock 'n' Roll
Marathon after 7 hours, 24 minutes and 36 seconds.
To be exact, Thompson completed the feat at the age of 92 years and 65 days. She
finished 2014's San Diego race in 7 hours, 7 minutes and 42 seconds. This makes Thompson
the fastest female nonagenarian to complete a 26.2-mile race. Sunday marked her (b) ______.
"It's amazing to me that I feel as well as I do. I'm a little stiff but limbering up as the
day goes on," she told CNN the day after the race. "My mother asked her mother when she
was 89 how it felt to be 89, and my grandmother said, 'Oh, I feel just like I did when I was
16, (c)_____________________,' and that's the way I feel."
Of the more than 21,000 runners who completed the race at the Padres' Petco Park,
Thompson drew exceptional applause (d)________________, with still and video cameras
capturing the moment as confetti littered the air, The San Diego Union-Tribune reported.
But finishing the race at her age isn't the only thing that makes Thompson a tough cookie.
That has more to do with how she had every reason not to bother (e)____________________.
Since she began running marathons at age 76, she has missed the San Diego race only
once - in 2013, as she underwent treatment for oral cancer. Last year, she had barely trained
because she was receiving radiation treatment for cell carcinoma on her legs, according to a
marathon news release.
According to race organizers, she missed out on training in late 2014 and early 2015
because her husband of (f)_________________, Sydnor, died in January after a battle with
cancer. And if all this wasn't enough reason to bow out of Sunday's race, Thompson also
contracted a staph infection in her legs during training.
"I'm sure all that weakened me to some extent, so I'm not as strong as I'd like to be but
(g)_________________________," Thompson told the magazine before the race. "I'm just
going to walk real fast and then run some, and just try not to wear myself down too fast. It'll
be sort of interesting. I'll be the most surprised person if I finish it. I hope I will!" She told

92-year-old becomes oldest woman to complete marathon, by Eliott C. McLaughlin, CNN, available online.


race organizers she would be relying on the assistance of her 56-year-old son, Brenneman, to
get through the grueling course. "Anytime I need anything, (h)_________________,"
Thompson said. "Water, Vaseline, Gatorade, PowerBars, GU, bananas, oranges, pretzels."
Her son, whom she calls Brenny, was right by her side, capturing his mom's historic jaunt on
his iPhone and crossing the finish line right behind her.
"I was really tired at one point. Around Mile 21, I was going up a hill and
(i)____________________," she said, "and I was thinking, 'This is sort of crazy at my age.'
But then I felt better coming down the hill. And my son Brenny kept feeding me all this
wonderful carbohydrates that kept me going."
Brenny is not her only motivating force. A former concert pianist who has played
Carnegie Hall and still enjoys tickling the ivories at her Charlotte retirement home,
Thompson plays piano compositions in her head (j)__________________ the grueling races.
"I do think the discipline required to play the piano has helped my running," she told race
Also, she told CNN, this race carried added significance because another son, Sydnor
III, was recently diagnosed with cancer. "So I thought about him a lot on this race, hoping
and praying that all this research is going to help him," she said. Given her close relationship
with cancer - which includes several friends and family members who have battled blood
cancers - it should be no surprise that Thompson (k)________________________ for the
Leukemia and Lymphoma Society since 1999. She raised more than $8,000 Sunday.
"(l)_______________________________," she told race organizers. "I just try to make
money for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society."
It's not clear if Thompson will take to Southern California's streets in 2016 for the
marathon at which she's become a staple. Even before Sunday's race, she told race organizers
she was considering bowing out. But just maybe. "I believe this will be my last time, but my
friends remind me that (m)________________________," Thompson said.
4. Answer the following questions:
a) What do you think of Harriette Thompsons story?
b) What makes her an example?
c) How do you see yourself in old age?
d) Can you think of other examples of elderly people who lead a young life?
5. Christa DSouza uses the term age-orexia11 to refer to the fear of growing old. Read
the fragment below and then answer the questions:
a) Why are people today so afraid of growing old?
b) Do you think cosmetic products and plastic surgery can keep us forever young?
The fuss began last month after an episode of the BBC2 documentary series Horizon
investigated the 25 billion anti-ageing product industry. The surprise conclusion was that
yes, in fact, there was one product that could help make wrinkles disappear. The programme
aired on the night of 27 March 2007. Within just 24 hours, sales of No7 Protect and Preserve


My name is Christa. I'm an age-orexic, The Observer, 13 May 2007, available at:


serum had increased by 2,000 per cent Well hooray. Its official. Im not the only
ageorexic around We are now, amazingly, more obsessed about being young than we are
about being size zero In other words, if you want to insult the average British woman,
dont guess her weight, just guess her age.

UNIT 13: Disorders

1. Match the following mental illnesses and disorders with their definitions:
1) Schizophrenic and
other psychotic disorders

Definition of specific disorders

a) Include abnormal sexual practices or discomfort with ones

2) Anxiety disorders

b) Are conditions in which a person acts as if he or she has an illness

by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms.
c) Involve the failure to resist an impulse, drive or temptation.
d) Include deviations of personality from what is expected by society.

3) Mood disorders
4) Developmental
5) Sexual and gender
identity disorders
6) Eating disorders
7) Sleep disorders
8) Impulse control
9) Personality disorders
10) Factitious disorders

e) Are characterized by loss of contact with reality (hallucinations or

delusions), serious disturbances of thought and perception, and
bizarre behaviour.
f) Are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behaviour.
g) Involve problems in the amount, quality or timing of sleep.
h) Represent abnormal changes in mood, quickly going from extreme
depression to elation.
i) Occur at some stage in the childs development and include
language and learning disorders.
j) Are different forms of abnormal and pathological fears and
anxieties, often including panic attacks.

2. In which of the above categories would you include the following disorders: anorexia
nervosa, insomnia, kleptomania, narcissism, pedophilia, manic depression, schizophrenia,
claustrophobia, Munchausen syndrome, or ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
3. Read the text12 and underline all the examples of obsessive-compulsive behavior:
The main features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are recurrent obsessions
and/or compulsions that are extremely time consuming, cause marked distress, or impair the
individual's functioning. Obsessions refer to intrusive and persistent thoughts, impulses, or
images that are not simply exaggerated worries about real-life problems. Common
obsessional themes include contamination/ disease, ordering/symmetry, doubting one's safety
or memory, harming someone, and performing inappropriate/unacceptable behaviors. For
example, contamination obsessions typically involve extreme fear of contracting germs or
diseases after touching certain objects; harming obsessions may include the sudden urge to

Adapted from Todd A. Smitherman 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook. 2007. SAGE
Publications. 16 Sep. 2009.


throw hot coffee on a stranger, an impulse to run one's car into a tree, or the mental image of
a family member being killed; obsessions related to performing inappropriate behaviors may
include thoughts of violent sexual acts, the sudden urge to swear in church, or having a
thought contrary to one's religious beliefs.
Compulsions refer to the repetitive and ritualistic behaviors that the individual feels
compelled to perform in response to the obsessions and in order to prevent some feared event
from occurring. In this regard, compulsions are similar to most avoidance behaviors.
Compulsions may be overt behaviors or covert mental acts (e.g. praying, repeating words
silently). Individuals with contamination obsessions wash their hands, shower, and clean
excessively to avoid contracting diseases. People with obsessions about ordering or doubting
may arrange insignificant items into precise positions, repeat certain behaviors a particular
number of times, or repeatedly check certain objects (e.g., checking the door locks, checking
to make sure the stove is off). Other common compulsions include repeating certain words
silently, counting, praying excessively, and repeatedly requesting reassurance from others.
Some compulsive behaviors may be driven by thought-action fusion, or the belief that
negative thoughts and negative behaviors are morally equivalent (i.e., thinking it is as bad as
doing it). Individuals high in thought-action fusion also believe that having a thought about
a negative event makes it more likely that the event will actually occur (e.g. Because I had
the thought that my wife would die in a car wreck today, she is more likely to do so).
Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 2 to 3 percent. Although
less prevalent than social or specific phobias, OCD is one of the most disabling and timeconsuming anxiety disorders, and entire inpatient hospital units have been developed for
those with severe OCD. Unlike most other anxiety disorders, the prevalence of OCD is
relatively similar in males and females, with evidence suggesting that childhood OCD is
more common in boys and that adult OCD is slightly more common in women. Care must be
taken to distinguish the obsessions of OCD from the delusions of schizophrenia. Contrary to
patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, patients diagnosed with OCD are
usually able to recognize that their obsessions and compulsions are excessive, unreasonable,
and a product of their own minds (ego-dystonic).
4. Fill in the blanks with the disorders (or noun referring to the person suffering from
the disorder) from the photo below:
a) A . might suddenly fall asleep while driving.
b) A should not be trusted to tell the truth.
c) Someone who suffers from .. cannot stand to be around people.
d) A person affected by may have a panic attack at the thought of
throwing things away.
e) Someone who suffers from the .. could fall in love with their
f) One who suffers from must check the door three times before they
leave the house.
g) . will make an individual annoyingly self-absorbed.
h) If you experience terrible migraines and severe size distortions, you have to see a doctor
since you may have
i) She wouldnt take any decision without her husbands approval. She suffered from


1. Find a modal verb from the ones in the previous exercise that expresses:
a) a recommendation
b) a possibility or uncertainty
c) an ability or the lack of an ability
d) an obligation
e) a strong possibility (formal)
f) a possibility (more informal)
g) an assumption, almost a certainty in the speakers opinion
h) a certainty (in a suppressed conditional)
i) a necessity (not quite an obligation)
2. Underline the correct modal verb in each sentence:
a) I don't think you could/should tell anyone yet.
b) I couldn't/shouldn't possibly leave without paying.
c) That mustn't/can't be the hotel Jane told us about.
d) There are times when the traffic here can/could be really heavy.
e) We are enjoying our holiday, though the weather could/must be better.
f) You couldn't/shouldn't really be sitting here.
g) You could/may be older than me, but that doesn't mean you're cleverer.
h) You might/should like to look over these papers if you have time.
i) I'm afraid that nobody should/would help me in that kind of situation.
j) Members of the association mustnt/may not remove official documents from
these premises without written permission.


3. Complete each sentence with one of the phrases from the box:
couldn't be

wouldn't be

must like

I might

need to

dont have to
may be

couldn't possibly


might as well

The heating comes on automatically. You dont have to turn it on.

Of course I'll help! I ______________________ let you do it on your own.
It's a lovely hotel. And the staff ______________________ more helpful.
George ______________________ it there if he has stayed there for so long.
You ______________________ right, but I'm still not convinced.
We ______________________ go in this museum. There's nothing else to do.
I love these trees. Without them the garden ______________________ the same.
There's the phone call I was expecting. It ______________________ George.
Thanks. And now you just ______________________ sign on the dotted line.
Try as ______________________ I simply couldn't open the lid.

4. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence,
using the word given. Do not change the word given.
a. I couldn't be happier at the moment. (could)
I am as happy as could be at the moment.
b. Although I tried hard, I couldn't lift the suitcase. (might)
Try as , I couldn't lift the suitcase.
c. Imagine you and I having the same surname! (should)
It's odd the same surname!
d. I think you should take up jogging. (were)
If I take up jogging.
e. It's possible that this kind of snake is poisonous. (could)
This snake the poisonous kinds.
f. You can't borrow my car! (won't)
I borrow my car!
g. I'm sure this isn't how you get to Norwich! (can't)
This way to Norwich!
h. It makes no difference to me if we call it off. (may)
We call it off.
5. Read the text entitled Imagined Ugly Syndrome and answer the questions below:
Last month, stunning actress Uma Thurman surprised her fans when she confessed that she
thinks shes fat and ugly! Ever since I had my babies Ive had the Body Dysmorphic
Disorder. I see myself as fat, she told an interviewer. She has in fact felt insecure about her
looks since her school days. I didnt fit in. I was a foot too tall, had one eye on each side of
my head, an extremely large nose and big, thick lips in the middle.
The Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Uma refers to is the medical term for
Imagined Ugly Syndrome. This syndrome causes people normally thought of as being
attractive, to look in the mirror and see faults in their faces and figures that no one else can
see. People suffering from it become obsessed with these imaginary physical defects and will
do anything to hide or change them. So, the BDD shares certain characteristics with eating
disorders such as anorexia (an anorexic is someone convinced she / he is fat and won't accept


any view to the contrary) and bulimia (also called binge eating). Constant pressure from the
media for people to conform to a particular idea of the perfect body shape or look has only
helped to aggravate this problem, and we are seeing more and more people (particularly girls)
resorting to unnecessary methods (such as plastic surgery) at a far younger age.
Distorted deliefs about body size are found even among those not suffering from an
eating disorder. Studies have shown that, when males and females are asked to indicate what
they think is the body size most attractive to the opposite sex, answers reveal distorted
perceptions. Thus, females rated their ideal body wieght as significantly lower than the males
thought most attractive, whereas males rated their ideal body weight as higher than the
weight women found most attractive. These differences place extra pressure on women to be
slim, and on men to be more muscular. The so-called Adonis complex is an obsession with
the idea that a person is not muscular enough.
The only way to treat the BDD is through addressing its root cause (hypervigilance to
a perceived body flaw). Whether this involves therapy or any other form of psychoanalysis is
obviously dependent on the individual case. What it doesn't require is going under the knife
time and time again.
What is BDD?
How does the disorder manifest itself?
What segment is most vulnerable?
Why is it so important for people to be good-looking?
Do you think image is over-rated these days?
In your opinion does cosmetic surgery influence ones personality?

UNIT 14: I Choose Not To Place "Dis", In My Ability

The SERVICES FOR THE DISABLED have a rather short history. During the ages,
little has been done for persons with disabilities. Even more so, in ancient Sparta for example,
individuals with disabilities were left to die of exposure. By contrast, Native Americans
allowed mentally disabled people to live unharmed, as children of the Great Spirit.
Nowadays, societies are trying to be more inclusive towards this category of the population.
A disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment that makes lifes major
activities more difficult. A disability may occur during a person's lifetime or may be
present from birth.
On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally agreed on the Convention on the
Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the first human rights treaty of the 21st century, to protect
the rights and opportunities of the world's estimated 650 million disabled people. These
provisions included equal rights to education, employment, and cultural life; the right to own
and inherit property; not be discriminated against in marriage, children, etc; not be unwilling
subjects in medical experiments. Disabilities can be roughly divided in two big categories:
physical and mental.
Physical impairment refers to a broad range of disabilities, which include: orthopedic,
neuromuscular, cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders, visual and hearing impairment, or


certain chronic illnesses. In what follows we shall focus on two of the above-mentioned
disabilities, namely restricted mobility and blindness.
1. BRAINSTORMING: Think of problems that people with restricted mobility face. (e.g.
difficulty in accessing any building with stairs).
2. What are some possible solutions to these problems? (e.g. creating ramps for every
building/means of transport)
3. Read the following news report and then:
a) fill in the blanks;
b) summarize it in ONE sentence.
Access Denied
Florence M., a 45-year-old Parisian teacher, was looking 1) __________ to a night out at the
movies. She had chosen Kingdom of Heaven- was it really the best film of the year? That is
a question Florence will not be able to answer because she was prevented 2) ___________
entering a cinema in Paris. The employee refused her entry for her safety. He 3) _________:
In the event of emergency, people in a wheel chair could not be exited quickly enough. 4)
____________ is an essential concern for our management, and if there is a fire or another
disaster in the cinema, speed of exiting is our 5) __________ responsibility.
However, Florence, who suffers from a bone-brittle 6) __________ and gets around in
a wheel chair, feels she has been discriminated 7) __________ and decided to sue the
management of the cinema. And she is not the only one who asks for 8) ___________
treatment. Europe has an estimated 50 million disabled people. They often find themselves
blocked from entering airports, buildings, buses, restaurants, subways, toilets, or trains. For
9) _________ chair users, physical barriers are a part of daily life. Cant we do anything to
10) __________ this reality?
4. Read the following letter of complaint. Identify the basic steps of writing such a formal
letter and then insert them in the right-hand column.
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to complain about an incident which took
place last week at the Paris Multiplex Cinema. I would
like to draw your attention to the discriminatory
practices of your employees.
Firstly, I would like to point out the fact that I had
booked and paid my ticket online a week in advance. I
was looking forward to viewing Kingdom of Heaven, a
much acclaimed blockbuster. There was no checkbox
on the website asking me if I had any disability, so I
printed the ticket and prepared for the night out at the
However, to my utter surprise, when I got to the


Greeting formula
Paragraph 1: Reason for writing

Paragraph 2:

Paragraph 3:

cinema, 30 minutes prior to the start of the film, I was

prevented from entering! Your employee explained
that, in the event of emergency, I could not be exited
quickly enough.
Moreover, when I pointed out that it was your
establishments responsibility to ensure the safety of
wheelchair users, the bodyguard started insulting me.
Not only this, but he violently pushed me outside, to
the perplexity of other customers and passers-by.
In consequence, I demand a full refund and a formal
apology. I strongly suggest you take this matter
seriously and take action against your staff.
Yours faithfully,
Florence M.

Paragraph 4:


Formal greeting

5. Write a similar letter of complaint on behalf of a visually-impaired person. Address it

to the town hall and complain about:
- public libraries lack audio books and books in the Braille alphabet (a method used by
blind people to read and write; each Braille character or cell is made up of six dot positions)
- public phones/websites do not have text-to-speech software and/or text-to-Braille
- the absence of traffic lights with sound
- coins and banknotes are not adapted so that the value can be determined by touch.
Mental impairments (also called developmental disabilities) refer to substantial limitations in
one or more important life activities, such as working, learning or communicating.
1. Match the following impairments with their description:
1) Mental retardation
a) affect person who has a difficulty to learn effectively, caused
by an unknown factor or factors. Usually, people with such
disabilities have a normal intelligence level, but they have
problems with reading, writing, spelling, doing math etc.
2) Cerebral palsy
b) sometimes results from brain injury before/during birth. It
affects motion control, but sometimes also vision, speech, and
hearing. However, people affected by this disability may have
normal or superior intelligence.
3) Autism
c) is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by
unprovoked seizures. The affected person has convulsions and
may be unconscious for a period of time afterward.
4) Down syndrome
d) affects children in the first three years of their life. It
manifests through repetitive motions, paying attention to
random sounds, rather than to words, delayed language
development, and withdrawal into a world of their own. These
children do not respond positively to their parents attention,
often behave violently or fearfully when approached.


5) Epilepsy

6) Learning disabilities

e) is caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st

chromosome. Often this syndrome is associated with some
impairment of cognitive ability and physical development, as
well as common facial appearance (round face, almond-shaped
f) may be caused by injury at birth, genetic causes, poor infant
nutrition, a serious illness affecting the mother during pregnancy
(e.g. measles), or certain habits (drinking, smoking, drug use)
the pregnant mother manifests. IQ tests are used to measure
degrees of retardation: 100 = IQ score for people of average
intelligence, 50-70 middle retarded, 20-35 severely retarded, 020 profoundly retarded.

2. Translate the following idioms connected to eye/sight:

a) a sight for sore eyes
b) the apple of my eye
c) to turn a blind eye on something
d) to see eye to eye
e) to give someone the evil eye
f) out of sight out of mind
3. Find two English idioms with each of the following body parts: heart, head, leg, foot,
and mouth.

UNIT 15: Memory/Memories

1. Rearrange the words to form a correct sentence:
a. involved, storage, encoding, three, and, essential, are, processes, retrieval, in, memory.
b. claim, forgetting, forgetting, aging, or, brain damage, theories, of, that, occurs, result, as, a,
trace, memory, of, the, decay of.
c. memory, context, memories, flashbulb, an, are, example, of.
d. may, lead, concussions, amnesia, to, head, in, which, injuries, or, a, patient, memories, loss,
suffers, a, of.
2. Multiple choice: Choose the word (A, B, C, D) that best completes the sentence and write
it in the blank space.
Mathematician John Griffith has estimated that, by the time the 1) __________ person
dies, he/she will have stored 500 times as 2) __________ information as can be found in the
Encyclopedia Britannica. In our own encyclopedia of memories, we could 3) __________ the
meanings of thousands of words. The impressive capacity of human memory reveals a
complex mental system. An explanation of this system begins 4) ____________ a look at the
kind of information it can handle.


In 5) ____________ hand does the statue of Liberty hold the torch? When was the last
time you spent cash for something? What part of speech is used to modify a noun? The
answer to the first question is likely to be an 6) ______. To answer the second you must 7)
____________ a particular event in your life. The third concerns general knowledge 8)
___________ to be tied to a specific event. Some theorists argue that answering each of these
questions involves a different type of memory. No one is sure how many types of memory
exist, but most 9) ____________ suggest that there are at least three basic types. Each is
named for the type of 10) ____________ it handles: episodic, semantic and procedural
memory. Any memory of a specific event that happened when one was present is an episodic
1) average
2) many
3) require
4) from
5) where
6) image
7) resort
8) possible
9) researchers
10) emotion

social workers



3. Read the article13 below and provide a synonym for all the words underlined:
Erasing Our Memories: Scientific Breakthrough or Social Nightmare?
Slowly but surely, scientists are getting closer to developing a drug that will allow
people to eliminate unpleasant memories. The new issue of Neuron features a report from a
group of Chinese scientists who were able to use a chemical - the protein alpha-CaM kinase
II - to successfully erase memories from the minds of mice. The memory losses, report the
authors, are not caused by disrupting the retrieval access to the stored information but are,
rather, due to the active erasure of the stored memories. The erasure, moreover, is highly
restricted to the memory being retrieved while leaving other memories intact. Therefore, our
study reveals a molecular genetic paradigm through which a given memory, such as new or
old fear memory, can be rapidly and specifically erased in a controlled and inducible manner
in the brain.
Technology Review provides further details on the study:
Researchers first put the mice in a chamber where the animals heard a tone, then
followed up the tone with a mild shock. The resulting associations: the chamber is a very bad
place, and the tone foretells miserable things. Then, a month later - enough time to ensure
that the mices long-term memory had been consolidated - the researchers placed the animals
in a totally different chamber, overexpressed the protein, and played the tone. The mice
showed no fear of the shock-associated sound. But these same mice, when placed in the
original shock chamber, showed a classic fear response. The chemical had, in effect, erased


By Nicholas Carr, available at:


one part of the memory (the one associated with the tone recall) while leaving the other
Fiddling with mice brains is one thing, of course, and fiddling with human brains is
another. But the experiment points to the possibility of the eventual development of a precise
and quick method for manipulating peoples memories: The study is quite interesting from a
number of points of view, says Mark Mayford, who studies the molecular basis of memory
at the Scripps Research Institute, in La Jolla, CA. He notes that current treatments for
memory extinction consist of very long-term therapy, in which patients are asked to recall
fearful memories in safe situations, with the hope that the connection between the fear and
the memory will gradually weaken. But people are very interested in devising a way where
you could come up with a drug to expedite a way to do that, he says. That kind of treatment
could change a memory by scrambling things up just in the neurons that are active during the
specific act of the specific recollection. That would be a very powerful thing, Mayford
says. Indeed. One can think of a whole range of applications, from the therapeutic to the
cosmetic to the political.
4. How do scientists actually manage to erase memories?
5. Think of some advantages and of some disadvantages if this process were applied to
large groups of people.
6. Would you erase any of your memories? Bring arguments to support your answer.

UNIT 16: Fears and Phobias

1. What is the difference between fear and phobia?
Some of the most commonly named fears include: fear of speaking in public, fear of
loneliness, of death, and of the dark.
A phobia is an anxiety disorder, which refers to a persistent, excessive, and irrational fear
of a specific object or situation. Five major subtypes have been identified:
(a) animal type, if the fear is initiated by exposure to animals or insects;
(b) natural environment type, for fear that is prompted by objects in nature, such as heights,
storms, or water;
(c) blood-injection-injury (BII) type, for fear that is cued by invasive medical procedures, by
receiving an injection, or by seeing blood or an injury;
(d) situational type, for fear that is prompted by a specific situation, such as enclosed spaces,
public transportation, driving, or bridges; and
(e) other type, for fear that is cued by an object not classified within one of the above
categories, such as a fear of vomiting or of clowns.
Interestingly, BII phobics typically manifest a physiological response pattern opposite to
that of other phobias. Instead of rapid and prolonged heart rate acceleration, BII phobia is
characterized by a brief acceleration of heart rate, followed by a quick deceleration of heart


rate and a decrease in blood pressure. As a result, and unlike other phobias, fainting is often
observed in BII phobia upon exposure to the feared stimulus.
2. Match the following phobias with their definitions:



Social phobia





10 Arachnophobia

Fear of being on an airplane; also called aerophobia or fear

of flying.
Abnormal fear of thunder and lightning.
Anxiety in situations where it is perceived to be difficult to
escape (e.g. wide-open spaces, crowds, bridges, malls,
Extreme fear of medical procedures involving injections.
Intense fear in social situations.
Pathological fear of contamination and germs.
A type of animal fear, namely the fear of dogs.
Fear of spiders.
A nonclinical phobia, used to describe unreasonable fear of
foreigners or strangers.
hypersensitivity to light.

3. Fill in the blanks with the following words: snappy, undergone, low-brow, vertigo,
aneurysm, skeptical, allegedly, definitive
New kidney 'changed my whole personality'14
A woman claims to have a) ......................... a complete "personality transplant" after
receiving a new kidney. Cheryl Johnson, 37, says she has changed completely since receiving
the organ in May. She believes that she must have picked up her new characteristics from the
donor, a 59-year-old man who died from an b) ........................
Now, not only has her personality changed, the single mother also claims that her tastes in
literature have taken a dramatic turn. Whereas she only used to read c) .........................
novels, Dostoevsky has become her author of choice since the transplant."You pick up your
characteristics from your donor. My son said when I first had the transplant, I went d)
....................... - that wasn't me, Mrs. Johnson added. The former Preston North End football
steward's life has been turned round since her successful operation. After developing kidney
problems in 1998, she had previously undergone every available form of dialysis as well as a
failed transplant in 2001.
Academics in America have developed a theory called cellular memory phenomenon to
explain the personality changes that are e) .................... experienced by some transplant
recipients. Examples include a Massachusetts woman with f) ...................... who became a
climber; a Milwaukee lawyer who began eating Snickers, having always hated chocolate; and
a seven-year-old girl who had nightmares about being killed after being given the heart of a
murdered child. However, the only case recognised by the scientific community is that of a
15-year-old Australian girl whose blood type changed following a liver transplant.UK

Published in The Telegraph, on 15 March 2008, available at:


Transplant also remains g) ..................... about the phenomenon. A spokesman said: "While
not discarding it entirely, we have no reason to believe that it happens. We would be
interested to see any h) ................... evidence that supports it."
4. Although most researchers believe it is nothing more than a superstition, lets assume
people do take on some aspects of the donors personality. What personality trait would
you like to have transplanted and what personal characteristic would you hate to see

5. Choose one of the following fears and describe a day in the life of a person/character
living with this fear: abandonment, being laughed at, being touched, change, commitment,
failure, falling in love, leaving the house, accidents, animals, being buried alive, disease or
germs, fire, ghosts, growing old, pain, people, public speaking, storms, violence, water. DO

UNIT 17: Human Relationships

Social Psychology is concerned with how people interact with and understand one another. It
covers different aspects including concepts about SELF, relationships with OTHERS,
communication, social beliefs and actions.
The self is often seen as embedded within a social and cultural network. Thus, social
interaction is important in the development of the self-concept. The self-concept consists of
two components: self-image (a factual self-portrait, including information about the body, the
persons likes and dislikes, their past experience) and self-esteem (an evaluative component,
concerned with internalized social judgments about how worthwhile a trait of personality is).
Interpersonal attraction forms a major aspect of our social lives. Factors influencing
attraction include:
physical attractiveness (we tend to act more favorably to good-looking people);
similarity and complementarity (we are attracted to people who have the same
kinds of attitudes and ideas as we do);
familiarity (physical proximity);
reciprocal liking (we spend more time with people who show they feel positively
about us);
perceived fallibility (we often find people who are not perfect more attractive).
Close interpersonal relations involve powerful emotions such as love. Some psychologists see
love as an extreme example of attraction or liking. Freud sees love as a special version of
the sexual drive, channeled into a socially acceptable form. Maslow distinguishes between Dlove (deficiency love, originating from unsatisfied needs for security and belonging) and Blove (being love, a more settled kind of love in which both partners are balanced,
independent, secure, with their psychological needs fulfilled). How do you see love?


1. Match the types of love with the definitions provided by Dwyer (2000) and Hayes

Romantic (Eros)


Companionate (Storge)


Game playing (Ludus)


Possessive (Mania)


Pragmatic (Pragma)


Altruistic (Agape)

a) A logical love, based on selecting a partner who satisfies practical

needs and matches in terms of age/religion/background. (Dwyer)
A practical style of loving, in which objective information like the
partners occupation or location, is seen as being just as important as
emotional feeling. (Hayes)
b) An emotionally intense, jealous, obsessive love shown by an
individual who lives in constant fear of rejection. (Dwyer)
A very emotionally intense love style, in which the person is very
jealous of the partner. (Hayes)
c) An all-consuming emotional experience, an immediate powerful
physical attraction. (Dwyer)
Searching for a partner who matches up to a physical ideal. (Hayes)
d) An unconditional, caring, giving and forgiving type of love. There
is no expectation of reciprocity, love is self-sacrificing. (Dwyer)
A type of love in which the person loves the other without any
thought of payback. (Hayes)
e) Love based on fun, with little commitment. It is usually short-lived
and will end as soon as boredom sets in. (Dwyer)
A playful form of love, in which the relationship is seen as a source
of enjoyment, but not necessarily of commitment. (Hayes)
f) A comfortable intimacy that grows and involves mutual sharing
and gradual self-disclosure. (Dwyer)
A form of love based on the idea of friendship, which gradually
increases in intimacy and affection. (Hayes)

2. Guess the missing word! Hint: it is a small animal.

Interpersonal relations are extremely complex. The 's dilemma, or sometimes
the porcupine dilemma, is an analogy about the challenges of human intimacy. It describes a
situation in which a group of .. all seek to become close to one another in order
to share their heat during cold weather. However, once accomplished, they cannot avoid
hurting one another with their sharp quills. They must step away from one another. Though
they all share the intention of a close reciprocal relationship, this may not occur for reasons
which they cannot avoid.
Both Arthur Schopenhauer and Sigmund Freud have used this situation to describe
what they feel is the state in which individuals will find themselves in relation to others. The
's dilemma suggests that despite goodwill, human intimacy cannot occur without
substantial mutual harm, and what results is cautious behavior and weak relationships. Thus,
one is recommended to use moderation in affairs with others both because of self-interest, as
well as out of consideration for others. This metaphor of the .. is often used to
justify or explain introversion and isolationism.
3. Look at these prefixes. Which of them have a negative meaning?








Now make new verbs from the ones below, using some of these prefixes:
allow, discover, estimate, exist, please, stabilize, trap, unite.

4. Read the text below, and then make suitable words from the ones given in capital
letters, remembering to add negative prefixes where necessary.




Compromise is no cure for conflict

The capacity to communicate openly and honestly in a relationship does not guarantee
(0)________________ to distress. At times, one person may (1)_______________ the other,
causing frustration and conflict. A compromise is normally reached, but this amounts to an
(2) ___________________strategy. Perhaps people should abandon the (3)
___________________to smooth things over, in favour of an (4)___________________
process, where more fundamental questions are asked. Though this may be very (5)
___________________ at the time, the airing of basic (6) ___________________ often leads
each person to view the other more (7) ___________________ in the long run.
Jealousy can be one of the most (8) ________________ feelings in any relationship. In
jealousy, there is a perceived loss of (9) ____________________if a partner is paying
attention to someone else, that attention is being (10) ____________________from you.
Often, these feelings of jealousy remain (11) _________________, either for fear of (12)
____________________ the relationship or because of a basic (13) ____________________
to confront the issue. Jealousy endured in silence breeds (14) ____________________, which
in turn brings even greater (15) ____________________to the sufferer.
5. How much do you enjoy the company of other people?

6. Isolationism leads to loneliness, which is the opposite of love. We can distinguish between
situational loneliness (most people experience it sometimes, for instance when they move
house, end a close relationship, etc.) and chronic loneliness (feeling lonely on a long-term
basis and not always because of social isolation).Which of these words relate to loneliness
and isolation? What do the other words mean?













UNIT 18: Money, Money, Money (part 1)

1. Rank the following values according to how important they are for you: money, peace,
love, friendship, career, family, health, long life, social status, spirituality.
2. Spend 2-3 minutes writing down some of the words you associate with money and
3. Write the words from the article into the gaps. Then find the words in the article to
see how they are used in context.





1. people who use money to start new businesses and make business deals ________
2. a person who is head of a business that has complete control of the product or service it
provides because it is the only company that provides it _________________
3. to be successful, especially by making a lot of money ________
4. a successful and important person with a lot of power in a particular industry ____
5. a sudden increase in something ____________
6. used about a place where people have a lot of money _______________
7. bringing a lot of money __________________
8. a large business organization formed when several different businesses join together
9. things that can be bought and sold, especially basic food products or fuel _______
10 a rich and powerful person who is involved in business or industry ___________
Extra question: Which three of these words have very similar meanings?
4. Read the text and fill in the blank spaces with the missing fragments from the box:
distribution of

threatening to sue

proportion of

Two new British


haves and the

have nots

Asias richest man

Americans and

to hand a huge


first non-American

college dropout
The richest person in the world15
Forbes rich list topped by Mexican mobile phone titan Carlos Slim
The old order is under threat at the worlds billionaires club. Traditionally dominated
by (1)______________, the top ranks of the worlds richest people have been infiltrated by
scores of ultra-rich entrepreneurs from the developing world capped by the Mexican
telecoms tycoon Carlos Slim.

Article by Andrew Clarke, published in The Guardian, 10 March 2010, available at:


Today, Slim, the titan of mobile phones in Mexico, criticized as a ruthless monopolist,
was crowned as the richest person in the world by American business magazine, Forbes,
which calculated his net worth at $53.5bn (35.7bn). Bolstered by a surge in the share price
of his America Movil empire, Slims wealth edged ahead of the $53bn fortune amassed by
the Microsoft boss Bill Gates, making the portly cigar-smoking 70-year-old the
(2)__________________ to hold the top spot since 1994.
In third place was the legendary Nebraska-based investor Warren Buffett with $47bn.
Britains top entrant into the global rich list, the Duke of Westminster, could only muster
45th position as his vast landownings gave him a net worth of $12bn.
Below the top few individuals, however, the lower ranks of Forbes closely watched
annual list showed a substantial change in the (3)___________________. The number of
billionaires from Asian and Australasian nations leapt from 130 to 234 last year, with the net
worth of the regions super-rich doubling from $357bn to $729bn.
Asia is leading the comeback, said Forbes editor-in-chief, Steve Forbes. There are
remarkable changes taking place in the global economy.
He pointed out that as the number of billionaires in the world swelled from 793 to
1,011, the (4)__________________ dropped from 45% to 40%: The US still dominates but
its not doing as well as the rest of the world in coming back from the financial crisis.
(5)___________________, Indian, Mukesh Ambani, became the fourth-richest person
on the planet with $29bn, as his textiles-to-petrol Reliance Industries empire prospered.
Pakistan also produced its first billionaire, banking magnate Mian Muhammad Mansha, and
the number of Chinese billionaires leapt by 27 to 64.
Among those enjoying an upsurge in fortunes was Robin Li, founder of the Chinese
internet search engine, Baidu, whose wealth reached $3.5bn as his company prospered on
Googles abrupt withdrawal from China, due to censorship concerns. Another Chinese
tycoon, property magnate Wu Yajun, has emerged as the worlds richest self-made woman
with $3.9bn from her Longfor Properties empire, which includes apartments, town houses,
luxury villas and (6)________________ across China.
The upsurge in the number of super-rich individuals from less affluent nations went
beyond Asia. The number of billionaires from Russia almost doubled from 32 to 62. The
owner of the London newspaper, Evening Standard, Alexander Lebedev, re-entered the ranks
with $2bn, after (7)_______________ Forbes a year ago for claiming that losses in the
financial crisis had stripped him of his billionaire status. And Alisher Usmanov enjoyed a
lucrative year at his metals conglomerate with his net worth surging from $1.7bn to $7.2bn.
Turkey saw its number of billionaires swell from 12 to 28. And from South America, a
commodities tycoon, Eike Batista, became the first Brazilian to make the worlds top ten for
wealth. Batista, 52, a (8)_____________ who made his fortune from gold, oil and diamonds
is ranked eighth in the world with $27bn.
Economists say that a rapid rise in super-wealthy individuals from the developing
world reflects the pace of globalization. But it also points to a widening in inequality between
the (9)____________ in poorer parts of the world.
In British terms, little changed among the ranks of the super-rich. Behind the Duke of
Westminster came property developers David and Simon Reuben, the clothing store chain
Topshops boss Sir Philip Green and Virgin supremo Sir Richard Branson. (10)
____________________ joined the billionaires club financier Alan Howard, who runs the
hedge fund Brevan Howard, and China-based property developer Xiu Li Hawken of Renhe
Commercial Holdings, who holds British citizenship.
For the newly crowned richest person on the planet, topping the rich list cements a
rapid rise to global fame. However, he is only top thanks to the generosity of a rival if Bill


Gates had not chosen (11)_____________________ of his wealth to his Gates Foundation to
fight disease in the developing world, the software supremo would be worth as much as
5. True/False: based on the information in the text, which of these sentences are true (T) and
which are false (F)
Carlos Slim is a billionaire from an underdeveloped country.
The richest man holds the top spot by a narrow margin as opposed to second place.
Most billionaires are from the US.
The number of billionaires from China has gone down.
The richest woman in the world is Chinese.
The richest Brazilian does not have higher education.
The gap between the rich and the poor is being reduced.
Richard Branson is a newcomer on the British side of the list.
Carlos Slim is nr. 1 because of serious losses suffered by Bill Gates.
6. Arrange the jumbled words in the correct order:
a) A fool and money his are parted easily
b) makes Money the world round go
c) grow Money on trees doesnt
d) Money a in your pocket hole burns
e) To ends make meet.
f) rags From to riches
g) and a leg to cost an arm
h) The love evil of is the root of all money
7. Match the idioms above with their meanings:
1. to have enough money to live on
2. money is not abundant or easily obtained
3. to be very expensive
4. start being very poor and become very rich and successful
5. the desire for money is the cause of all crimes
6. you are eager to spend it quickly or extravagantly
7. money is the most important thing in the world because every human activity depends
on it
8. people who aren't careful with their money spend it quickly
8. Fill in the following sentences with some of the idioms from 6:
1. I wont give you my credit card anymore! ___________________ Last time you
bought a $20,000 watch!
2. Its a story of a woman who went _____________________. She came from a village
in Siberia and now she is on Forbes Top 100.
3. This new phone ___________________________ but I dont regret buying it. Its so
4. I dont earn much money but I __________________. Im ok for now.
5. Because of their fathers enormous fortune, the two brothers ended up killing each
other. I guess _______________________.


UNIT 19: Money, Money, Money (part II)

1. Pre-reading questions:
a) What is the last thing you bought?
b) What would be the hardest thing for you to give up if you couldnt use money
c) Why do you think people constantly buy new things?
d) Have you ever bought something you didnt need?
e) What would you do with the money if you won the lottery?
2. Matching:

To wallow
To impoverish
To downsize
To discard


To reduce in number, shrink

Excess, overabundance
Survival, endurance
Self-denial, self-renunciation
To cast aside, throw away
To indulge
To pauperize, to deprive, to make poor
Capable of paying one's debts
Small, inadequate, poor
searching through waste, junk, etc., for
something that can be eaten, saved or used

3. Read the text16 below and insert the paragraphs back where they belong:
Daniel Suelo lives in a cave. Unlike the average Americanwallowing in credit-card debt,
clinging to a mortgage, terrified of the next downsizing at the officehe isn't worried about
the economic crisis. [1]__________________________________
On a warm day in early spring, I clamber along a set of red-rock cliffs to the mouth of his
cave, where I find a note signed with a smiley face: CHRIS, FEEL FREE TO USE
Night falls and after an hour Suelo tramps up the cliff, mimicking a raven's callhis
salutation. He's lanky and tan. His hands are black with dirt, and his hair, which is going gray,
looks like a bird's nest, full of dust and twigs from scrambling in the underbrush on the
canyon floor. Grinning, he presents the booty from one of his weekly rituals, scavenging on
the streets of Moab: a wool hat and gloves, a winter jacket, and a white nylon belt, still
wrapped in plastic, along with pants and sandals, which he's wearing. [2]
He wasn't always this way. Suelo graduated from the University of Colorado with a degree in
anthropology, he thought about becoming a doctor, he held jobs, he had cash and a bank

Adapted from an article by Christopher Ketcham, available at:


account. In 1987, he joined the Peace Corps and was posted to an Ecuadoran village high in
the Andes. He was charged with monitoring the health of tribespeople in the area, teaching
first aid and nutrition, and handing out medicine where needed.
The more they spent, says Suelo, the more their health declined. He could measure the
deterioration on his charts. "It looked," he says, "like money was impoverishing them."
The experience was transformative, but Suelo needed another decade to fashion his response.
By 1999, he was living in a Buddhist monastery in Thailandhe had saved just enough
money for the flight. From there, he made his way to India, where he found himself in good
company among the sadhus, the revered ascetics who go penniless for their gods. Numbering
as many as 5 million, the sadhus can be found wandering roads and forests across the
subcontinent, seeking enlightenment in self-abnegation. "I wanted to be a sadhu," Suelo says.
"But what good would it do for me to be a sadhu in India? A true test of faith would be to
return to one of the most materialistic, money-worshipping nations on earth and be a sadhu
there. [4]______________________________
I tell him that living without money seems difficult. What about starvation? What about
getting deadly ill? That it's hard is exactly the point, he says. "Hardship is a good thing. We
need the challenge. Our bodies need it. Our immune systems need it.
When I tell him about my rent back in New York$2,400 a monthhe shakes his head.
What's left unsaid is that I'm here writing about him to make money, for a magazine that
depends for its survival on the advertising revenue of conspicuous consumption. As he
prepares a cooking fire, Suelo tells me that years ago he had a neighbor in the canyon, an
alcoholic who lived in a cave bigger than his. [6]________________________________
Suelo considers the riches of our own forage. "What if we saw gold for what it is?" he says
meditatively. "Gold is pretty but virtually useless. Somebody decided it has worth, and
everybody accepted this decision. The natives in the Americas thought Europeans were
insane because of their lust for such a useless yellow substance."[...]
From the perch on the cliff, the life of the sadhu seems reasonable. But I don't want to live in
a cave. I like indoor plumbing. I like electricity. Still, there's an obvious beauty in the
simplicity of subsistence. It's an un-American notion these days.
[7]_________________________________ For most of us, it's as real as the next house
payment. Suelo doesn't take public assistance or use food stamps, but he does survive in part
on our reality, the discarded surfeit of the money system that he denouncesa system, as it
happens, that recently looked like it was headed for the cliff.
Suelo is 48, and he doesn't exactly have a 401(k). "I'll do what creatures have been doing for
millions of years for retirement," he says. [8]_________________________________ Until
then, think of him like the raven, cleaning up the carcasses the rest of us leave behind.



The tribe had been getting richer for a decade, and during the two years he was there he
watched as the villagers began to adopt the economics of modernity. They sold the food
from their fieldsquinoa, potatoes, corn, lentilsfor cash, which they used to purchase
things they didn't need, as Suelo describes it.
My hardships are simple, right at handthey're manageable."
That's because he figured out that the best way to stay solvent is to never be solvent in the
first place. Nine years ago, in the autumn of 2000, Suelo decided to stop using money. He
just quit it, like a bad drug habit. [...]
To be a vagabond in America, a bum, and make an art of itthe idea enchanted me."[]


We don't revere our ascetics, and we dismiss the idea that money could be some kind of
consensual delusion.
"Why is it sad that I die in the canyon and not in the geriatric ward well-insured? I have great
faith in the power of natural selection. And one day, I will be selected out."
The old man would pan for gold in the stream and net enough cash each month to buy the
beer that kept him drunk.
He's also scrounged cans of tuna and turkey. All in all, a nice haul from the waste product of
America. I hand him a bag of apples and a block of cheese I bought at the supermarket, but
the gift suddenly seems meager.

4. Comprehension questions:
a. What episode determined Suelo to give up on money? Why?
b. Why did he decide to live as a bum in America rather than anywhere else?
c. What is the paradox that the reporter & Suelo find themselves in?
d. Suelo equates money with lack. Why do you think?
e. What is your opinion about Suelo?
f. Is he really living with 0 dollars?
g. How do you comment on the last sentence?
h. Is there anything one can learn from Suelos life choices?
i. What are the psychological implications of giving up on using money?

UNIT 20: Consumerism: One choice too many

1. What do you think about:
a. fast-food being sold in schools?
b. cosmetics being advertised in schools?
c. advertisements broadcast during programs for kids?
2. Match the following synonyms from the article:
3. Insert the words on the right in the appropriate gaps:
Food Companies Targeting Kids Online
____________-greedy corporate marketeers have found a new means of
ensnaring children into the net of consumerism. Not ________ with



bombarding kids on TV, in the streets and at schools, marketing executives

are utilizing Internet games to ________ their wares to unsuspecting
children. The latest insidious ________ of more than eighty percent of the
worlds chocolate and snack food companies has been brought to
________ in a new report, entitled It's Child's Play: Advergaming and the
Online Marketing of Food to Children. It is the first comprehensive
analysis of the nature and ________ of online food advertising to
children. The research was commissioned by Americas Kaiser Family
Foundation and exposes the questionable ________ of companies such as
Mars, Hersheys and McDonalds in targeting children to promote their
products. The latter company, in particular, focuses its ads more on
enticing kids with cheap ________ toys than food.
The report ________ increases the likelihood of a new word entering the
English vocabulary the advergame an immoral and callous technique
to get kids ________ while having online fun. In addition, a variety of
other advertising and marketing tactics designed to lure kids into spending
an ________ amount of online time being ________ with corporate logos
are employed on these sites. These include viral marketing (encouraging
children to contact their ________ about a specific product or brand, found
on 64% of sites); promotions (65%); memberships (25%); on-demand
________ to TV ads (53%); and incentives for product purchase (38%).
Kaisers William Dietz said the scale of this advertising was an eye
opener. It ________ ethical concerns about the role food advertising plays
in childhood obesity. Kaiser vice president Vicky Rideout warned the
________ of online advertising is much deeper than that of television.



4. Imagine you are a marketing executive for a junk food company. In teams, come up
with an advertisement (not longer than 5 lines) in order to promote your products in: a school,
hospital, mall, library, or office building.
5. Complete the text below by inserting the word in brackets with its correct prefix.
The job advertisement had asked for a self-motivated individual with good social skills. I
remember thinking that the salary wasn't brilliant, but the job didn't seem too (1)
___________ (paid) for what was required. However, I soon found out that what they wanted
was a workaholic! The factory was dirty, noisy, and the work was incredibly tiring. The place
was seriously (2) ___________ (staffed) with ten people doing the work of fifteen - and the
management was lazy and (3) ___________ (efficient). It soon became clear that anything
the factory produced was (4) ___________ (standard) as quality control was minimal. Not
surprisingly, relations within the workforce were poor and it was impossible to get anybody
to co-operate on projects. People were either irritable and (5) ___________ (patient) or just
couldn't be bothered. I remember the day I finally handed in my resignation. I tried to explain
some of the problems I'd experienced to senior management, and implied that some of their
working practices were quite frankly (6) ___________ (legal). But, true to form, they were
completely (7) ___________ (communicative) and (8) ___________ (interested). I was faced
with a wall of silence, then more or less thrown out of the factory gates!
6. Explain what the following concepts mean:
- retail therapy (shopping therapy)


- shopaholic
- compulsive shopping
- shopping spree
*What needs are compulsive shoppers fulfilling when they buy something?
7. Read the article Consumerism: One Choice Too Many17 and summarize it in one
Federal law permits people to take their phone numbers with them if they switch cell phone
service. It's nice to have more flexibilitybut is this really what we need? Already, getting
phone service forces consumers to navigate a bewildering set of decisions: peak minutes and
off-peak, family plans and individual rates, flip-phones or one-piece "candy bar" devices,
analog, digital or GSM service, text messaging and camera capabilities, plastic color palettes
and vast ringtone libraries, recharging equipment and battery types, hands-free accessories,
phones with web access and phones that act like walkie-talkies.
Cellular service is an extreme example, but American life is flooded with too many
choices, says Barry Schwartz, a psychologist at Swarthmore College. In his book The
Paradox of Choice, he argues that the result is a society of stressed-out and unsatisfied
customers. Options overload applies to everything from raising children to buying jeans, and
might be at the root of that "overwhelmed" feeling that's been going around.
Choices seem like a good thingprices stay low, and we can have things that are
"just right." But Schwartz argues that at least in the United States, as consumer options have
proliferated, we've long since passed that point. People faced with too many options are likely
to throw up their hands and not bothereven when a lot is at stake. Some people respond by
trying to examine every possibility as thoroughly as possibleand they are the unhappiest of
all, says Schwartz. A "maximizer," to use Schwartz's term, second-guesses his decisions,
constantly looking over his shoulder to see what he missed. "Maximizers do better, but feel
worse," Schwartz saysthey are never satisfied that they've made the best choice. While
some might be born that way, he speculates that our consumer culture actually breeds
maximizers: The average American is exposed to 3,000 ads a day. Happier are the people
who Schwartz calls "satisficers," who simply use the standard of "good enough." And if you
can't remember that "perfect" is the enemy of "good," Schwartz says that remembering to feel
grateful for what we have releases us from the tyranny of choice.


Available at:


UNIT 21: Happiness

1. Fill the gaps in the sentences using these key words from the text:
drift off




a) If you are .., you are not able to concentrate on something.

b) If something happens , it happens regularly and in the same way.
c) A persons . is the satisfactory state they should be in, especially as regards
their health and security.
d) If you are ..., you are concentrating on a particular aim and not wasting
time or energy on other things.
e) When you think and talk about enjoyable experiences in the past it is said you
f) If a task is , it is interesting and keeps your attention.
g) If you .. something, you think that it will probably happen.
h) Something is . when it is chosen or it happens without any particular
method, pattern or purpose.
i) If you ., you either stop concentrating on something or you fall asleep.
j) processes are those that are connected with recognizing and understanding
2. Decide whether the statements below are true (T) or false (F). Then check your
answers by reading the text.
a) People spend more than half their time thinking about something other than
what they are actually doing.
b) If your mind wanders, this will make you less happy.
c) Being distracted is the cause of happiness.
d) People are happiest when they are doing sports or are in a conversation.
e) People are in a content state of mind when using a home computer.
3. Put the following phrases in the text:
a) and what made them most happy; b) what they are actually doing; c) to reflect on the past
and learn from it; d) made them less happy; e) to support the advice; f) failed to hold peoples
attention; g) cognitive achievement; h) at random times; I) the lead author of the study; j) the
cause of unhappiness.
Living in the moment really does make people happier18
Psychologists have found that people are distracted from the task at hand nearly half of the
time, and this daydreaming consistently makes them less happy.
Happiness is found by living in the now, according to a major study into mental
wellbeing. But the study also found that people spend nearly half their time (46, 7%) thinking
about something other than (1) .

By Ian Sample, 11 November, 2010, adapted from The Guardian


The benefits of seizing the day are extolled by many philosophic and religious
traditions, but until now there has been scant scientific evidence (2)
Psychologists at Harvard University collected information on the daily activities, thoughts
and feelings of 2,250 volunteers to find out how often they were focused on what they were
doing, (3) . They found that people were happiest among other things when
exercising or conversing, and least happy when working, resting or using a home computer.
And although subjects minds were wandering nearly half of the time, this consistently (4)

The team concluded that reminiscing, thinking ahead and daydreaming tend to make
people more miserable, even when they are thinking about something pleasant. Even the most
engaging tasks (5) . Volunteers admitted to thinking about something else at
least 30% of the time while performing these tasks.
Human beings have the unique ability to focus on things that arent happening right
now. That allows them (6) ..; it allows them to anticipate and plan for the
future; and it allows them to imagine things that might never occur, said Matthew
Killingsworth, (7) At the same time, it seems that human beings often use
this ability in ways that are not productive and, furthermore, can be destructive to our
happiness, he added.
For the study, Killingsworth developed a web application for the iphone that
contacted participants (8) during their waking hours. When they received a
message, those taking part had to respond with information about what they were doing and
how they rated that activity. The results showed that happiness was more affected by how
often people drifted off than by the activity they were doing at the time. The researchers say
theyre confident that being distracted was (9) rather than the other way around.
The authors write in the Science journal: A human mind is a wandering mind and a
wandering mind is an unhappy mind. The ability to think about what is not happening is a
(10) that comes at an emotional cost.
4. Find the words and phrases in the text:
a) gerund that means to fantasize
b) verb that means to praise enthusiastically
c) adjective meaning very little or not enough
d) verb meaning to move around aimlessly
e) verb meaning to take place or to exist
f) a two-word expression meaning while you are not asleep
g) an expression meaning vice-versa
5. Reading comprehension.
a. Check your predictions from exercise 2.
b. What does Killingsworths research try to find out?
c. How did he conduct his research?
d. What is the general conclusion of the study?
e. How do think the relationship between happiness and technology will evolve?
6. Writing. Amy Bloom says that the Fundamentally Sound, Top Five Components of
Happiness are: (1) Be in possession of the basics food, shelter, good health, safety. (2) Get
enough sleep. (3) Have relationships that matter to you. (4) Take compassionate care of
others and of yourself. (5) Have work or an interest that engages you.
In your opinion, is there more to happiness than this?


UNIT 22: The Scope of Psychology and Its Faces

1. Some of the lines below are correct. Others have a word that should not be there. Tick
each correct line or write the extra word in the box.

What is psychology? It is a field of enquiry that is sometimes defined as so the

science of the mind, sometimes as the science of behavior. It is concerned with a
how and why organisms do what they do, why moths fly into the flame and sons
rebel against their fathers, why we are remember how to ride a bike 20 years
the last try, why humans speak and make peace or war. All these are behaviours
and psychology is the science that studies them. The phenomena it studies are
extremely numerous. Some one border on biology, others touch on social
such as is anthropology and sociology. This enormous range covered by
psychology makes it a science of many a faces. Dreams are a perfect illustration
of how psychology approaches a single case. A dream is a kind of nocturnal
drama which can only be accessed by the falling asleep. It is usually a series of
scenes, sometimes common, sometimes bizarre and disjointed, in which the a
dreamer is often a participant. The events in the dream are generally experienced
as real, so real that a Chinese sage wrote 2000 years ago: Once I dreamt I was a
butterfly, flying around as freely. Suddenly I woke up. Now I dont know
I am a man to dreaming I was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming I am a man.

2. Provide a suitable word for the blank spaces:

a) In order to address the ______________ Is psychology a science? it is important to
understand the definitions of _____________ psychology and science.
b) A new _______________ of thought developed as an alternative ___________
c) Behaviourists realized they could produce ___________ any response by
___________ an individuals environment.
d) The counselor creates a warm ________________ in which the patient feels
comfortable and willing to ____________.
e) Some people claim that when we move from describing a ___________ behavior to
explaining it, we ______________ move from science to opinion.
3. What is the difference between a: psychologist, psychiatrist, psychotherapist and

4. Match the words from the text with their equivalents/explanations:





Fragile, breakable
To highlight
Arrogantly, condescendingly
Trend, mania


spun glass (adj)
To plummet
To underscore
cookie-cutter (adj)


Rudimentary, not yet fully developed

To collapse, to drop
Tough, enduring
Spreading, expanding
Fully developed

5. Reinsert the fragments back into the text:

a. delicate, fragile, and easily shattered creatures
b. and how they want to feel about themselves
c. one-size-fits-all interventions
d. just so long as he doesn't overdo it
e. happiness, virtues, personal strengths, and altruism
f. For defensive pessimists, positive psychology has a decidedly negative side.
Is Positive Psychology for Everyone? New Research Raises Doubts19
As even a casual observer of the psychology scene is surely aware, the field of psychology
has long had its share of fads. Some develop into scientific disciplines, many die out entirely,
and still others become full-fledged pseudosciences. Over the past decade or so, one of
psychology's foremost fads has undeniably been "positive psychology," an intriguing,
sprawling, but at times inchoate movement that seeks to restore "positive" features of human
nature, such as 1) ______________, to their rightful place within the field of psychology.
Many advocates of positive psychology believe that the field of psychology has been too
focused on mental illness, and insufficiently focused on mental health. The term positive
psychology was coined by humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1964.
It remains to be seen whether positive psychology will mature into a legitimate
scientific discipline. Without question, some positive psychology research has proven
valuable by highlighting a crucial point that popular psychology had neglected for far too
long - namely, that most of us are far more resilient than traditional psychologists give us
credit for. In 1973, the brilliant University of Minnesota clinical psychologist Paul Meehl
poked fun at what he called the "spun glass theory" of the mind - the notion that most of us
are 2) ______________ who need to be treated with kid gloves. Since then, other researchers
have shown that most people are surprisingly resilient even in the face of extreme trauma. For
example, even when confronted with horrifically frightening events, like wartime combat,
earthquakes, or floods, the majority of trauma-exposed people (probably 70% or 75%) do not
develop posttraumatic stress disorder.
But I worry about the all too frequent implication that positive psychology is for
everyone. Psychology must respect individual differences, and 3) ______________are rarely
helpful. In some cases, such as crisis debriefing for trauma-exposed victims, they can
probably do harm.
One potent strike against the "positive psychology is for everyone" assumption
derives from the work of psychologist Julie Norem on defensive pessimism, summarized
nicely in her book, The Positive Power of Negative Thinking. If you knew someone in school

Adapted from Scott Lilienfeld on Jun 19, 2009 in The Skeptical Psychologist, available at:


who drove everyone nuts worrying about how he/she would do on exams and who ended up
getting A pluses on all of her his/her exams, you probably knew a defensive pessimist. For
defensive pessimists, worrying about upcoming challenges is a way of life. But it's also a
healthy coping strategy that helps them prepare for adversity. Norem has shown that when
defensive pessimists are deprived of their pessimism by being forced to look on the bright
side of life, their performance on tasks plummets. 4) ___________________
In a three-part study, Joanne Wood of the University of Waterloo and two colleagues
also decided to see if positive affirmations work.
The answer, it turns out, isn't so simple. For participants with high self-esteem,
repeating a positive self-statement ("I'm a lovable person") made them feel a bit better, but
not all that much. But of course, people with high-esteem rarely need to repeat positive selfstatements, as they already like themselves. What about participants with low self-esteem,
from whom positive affirmations are typically intended? Here Wood and colleagues found
that repeating a positive self-statement actually made them feel worse, probably because
doing so underscored the discrepancy between how they feel about themselves 5)
____________________. In all likelihood, it just reminded them of how unlovable they
really feel.
So although positive psychology surely has a useful role to play for some of us, it just
as surely has its limits. And for some people, a purely positive approach to everyday life
appears to backfire. As we psychologists have yet again learned the hard way, any cookiecutter approach to human nature that cavalierly neglects individual differences is bound to
fail. So if your defensively pessimistic friend wants to spend the weekend worrying about
that Monday morning job interview, let him have at it - 6) ______________________.
6. Answer the following questions based on the text:
a. What is positive psychology?
b. What is positive psychologys main contribution?
c. What is the downside of this branch of psychology?
d. What does defensive pessimism refer to?
e. Does positive psychology work for defensive pessimists?
f. Does this type of approach help people with low self-esteem?
g. What is the authors attitude towards positive psychology?

UNIT 23: Dreams are not about what they are about
DREAMS are thoughts, emotions and the images shaped by them, which are encountered
when asleep. One has dreams during the rapid eye movement sleep (a state of sleep
characterized by increased neuronal activity of the forebrain and midbrain, dreaming and
rapid eye movements). Slow-wave sleep, on the other hand, is a state of deep, usually
dreamless sleep that occurs regularly during a normal period of sleep. Various theories on
dream interpretations exist but the real purpose of dreams is still unknown. Dreams are
closely associated with the human psychology. Research shows that during an average
lifespan, a human being spends about six years in dreaming which is around two hours every
Dreams are not about what they are about
Sigmund Freud proposed that dreams are the means of one's expressions of his/her
unconscious wishes. He said that bad dreams allow the brain to gain control over the feelings


that are a result of distressful experiences. Carl Jung suggested that dreams compensate for
one-sided feelings borne in consciousness. According to Ferenczi, a Hungarian
psychoanalyst, a dream bears something that cannot be expressed outright. Some theories say
that dreams involve one's repressed emotions that are fantasized during the sleep. Anyway,
dreams speak in a deeply symbolic language. The unconscious mind tries to compare your
dream to something else, which is similar.
We only dream of what we know
Hartmann believes that dreams give a person an opportunity to organize his/her thoughts.
Blechner's theory of Oneiric Darwinism, which attributes the generation of new ideas to
dreams, is quite supportive of Hartmann's analysis. Griffin, through his recent research has
proposed the expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming, according to which dreaming
completes patterns of emotional expectations.
People also tend to have common themes in dreams, which are situations relating to school,
being chased, running slowly/in place, sexual experiences, falling, arriving too late, a person
now alive being dead, teeth falling out, flying, failing an examination, or a car accident.
Have you ever had a precognitive dream?
*Precognition, also called future sight, refers to perception that involves the acquisition of
future information that cannot be deduced from presently available and normally acquired
sense-based information. Results of several surveys across large population sets indicate that
between 18% and 38% of people have experienced at least one precognitive dream and 70%
have experienced dj vu. The percentage of persons that believe precognitive dreaming is
possible is even higher.
1. Explain these idioms about sleep/dreams:
- Not sleep a wink =
- Recharge your batteries =
- Toss and turn =
- Beauty sleep =
- Catnap =
- Hit the hay =
- Sleep like a log =
- Daydreaming =
2. Supply a word that means:
- To have full awareness of what is going on around you =
- To make sense of dreams =
- A person who likes to be active at night =
- To awaken someone =
- Another term for sleep =
3. Match the following terms connected to sleep disorders with their definitions:


Onset insomnia

Maintenance insomnia


a Performing different activities in a state of

low consciousness.
b Ceasing to breathe while asleep, waking
up panicked, grasping for air.
c c. Severe sleep disorder arising from
different reasons, mainly the physiological

Sleep apnea



Kleine-Levin Syndrome (KLS)



Polysomnography (PSG)

states of anxiety and tension.

It is a test used in the study of sleep and as
a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Rare disease, suddenly falling asleep
during the day
Excessive amounts of sleepiness.
Waking up frequently during the night
Having difficulty to fall asleep.
Involuntary grinding or clenching of teeth
during sleep
Also known as Sleeping Beauty
Syndrome, this is a neurological disorder
characterized by recurring periods of
excessive amounts of sleeping.

4. True/False:
1) Everybody dreams.
2) We forget 90% of our dreams.
3) Hypnosis is a state of sleep.
4) A full 12% of sighted people dream exclusively in black and white.
5) Insomnia cannot be treated.
6) Animals dream too.
7) During REM sleep the body is paralyzed by a mechanism in the brain in order to
prevent the physical body to move.
5. Put the words in the appropriate form:
a) Behave; b) Effect; c) Miracle; d) Relax; e) Know; f) Proceed; g) Assist; h) Distract
Do you wish you could change some anti-social aspect of your a) ..? Have you
ever tried to curb an unpleasant, self-destructive habit, only to find your methods totally b)
? If so, then perhaps its time you looked to the c) power of selfhypnosis for help. This new book will be essential reading. In conventional hypnosis, the
hypnotist brings the client into a deeply d) . State in order to access e)
.. parts of the mind and deal with whatever it is that is causing the problem. In selfhypnosis, you go through a similar f) ., but without the g) of a
hypnotist. Of course, in order to get into a hypnotic trance youll need as few h)
.. as possible, but the authors claim the method is not dangerous, as at no time are
you fully asleep.
6. Translate the following text:
Visele ajut la nvat i la consolidarea memoriei20
Oamenii de tiin au considerat mult vreme c somnul i visele au explicaii diferite.
n ultimii ani, ns, cercettorii au ajuns la concluzia c aceast perspectiv este greit. Una
dintre cele mai importante funcii ale somnului, consolidarea amintirilor, se realizeaz prin
visare.Este binecunoscut faptul c somnul mbuntete memoria de toate tipurile. Pe lng

Fragments taken from:


acest lucru, creierul folosete perioada de somn pentru a reprocesa amintirile proaspete,
aezndu-le ntr-un context mental nou, transformndu-le n amintiri permanente i totodat
extrgnd un neles mai profund al acestora. Visele, cred oamenii de tiin, reprezint un
simptom al faptului c acest proces se afl n desfurare.
n unul dintre experimente, participanilor la studiu li s-a cerut s in minte un cuvnt
inventat, cathedruke, ce se aseamn cu un cuvnt real din limba englez, cathedral.
Apoi, n cea de-a doua etap a studiului, cercettorii au cerut participanilor s recunoasc
cuvntul cathedral, n cadrul unor teste. Rezultatele au fost interesante: cei care au efectuat
primul test seara iar al doilea n dimineaa urmtoare recunoteau mult mai greu cuvntul
cathedral dect cei care au efectuat primul test dimineaa i cel de-al doilea n seara
aceleiai zile. Cercettorii cred c motivul este faptul c cei din primul grup au dormit (i, cel
mai probabil, au visat), transfernd cuvntul cathedruke din memoria pe termen scurt
(aflat n hipocamp) n memoria lexical, situat n cortex, o regiune mai avansat a
creierului. Trecnd n memoria lexical, cuvntul inventat cathedruke afecta capacitatea de
recunoatere a cuvntului real cathedral. Acest studiu a artat c pentru ca un cuvnt nou
nvat s ajung n memoria de lung durat, unde se afl vocabularul obinuit al unei
persoane, este nevoie de somn.

UNIT 24: Talking About Addictions

ALCOHOL remains one of the most abused substances in the world, which can lead to
addiction (physical and/or psychological dependence). It is a significant factor in premature
death, road fatalities, homicide, suicide, family violence etc. Other psychoactive substances
to which people can become addicted include tobacco, caffeine, and drugs.
The use of DRUGS (narcotics and hallucinogens) has also been documented through history,
but only recently has it become the object of acute international concern. Use of drugs can
lead to both physical and psychological addiction. It can have similar consequences as
alcohol abuse, however it also presents other specific long-term effects: malnutrition or
anorexia (drug addicts have low or no appetite), diseases (AIDS, infections, blindness,
psychiatric problems, depression etc.), problems during pregnancy and others.
In your opinion, what are some reasons that determine people to start taking drugs?

Some possible SIGNS of drug abuse:

- physical: red eyes, fatigue, cough, scars/marks, shaking;
- psychological: irritability, low self-esteem, depression, becoming aggressive or
passive, decreased interest in school, drop in grades, truancy, discipline problems.
Once a person becomes addicted, TREATMENT is complex and difficult. It requires
medical detoxification as well as psychological counseling. In order to eliminate the physical
need for the chemical substance, one must spend about 3 months in detox clinics or rehab


centers. Eliminating the psychological need, however, may require up to 18 months of

therapy. And there is always the danger of relapse.
1. Match the Standard English terms connected to drugs from the first column with their
slang21 equivalents from the second column:
1) Addict
2) Marijuana
3) Cocaine
4) Withdrawal
5) To overdose
6) Heroin
7) Barbiturates
8) Amphetamines
9) Drug dealer
10) Being on drugs
11) Phencyclidine (PCP)
12) Morphine
13) Rohypnol (date-rape

a) Uppers, meth
b) Downers
c) High, pipe, buzz, stoned, trip, airplane, to fly, to ride the
wagon, to have the slows, loaded
d) Roofie, forget-it, forget-me-pill, ruff-up, magic date
e) Candyman, pusher, watermelon man
f) Cold turkey, kicking the habit, chucks, sweats
g) To OD
h) Brown sugar / crystal, big H, gold dust, boy, Henry
i) Coke, crack, snow, candy, girl, Charlie
j) Pot, grass, weed, joint, Mary, Juanita, broccoli, African
bush, no-brand cigarette
k) The white nurse, mojo
l) Junkie, pillhead, snowbird, doper, tripper22
m) Angel dust, angel hair, angel mist, aurora borealis, horse

2. Fill in the blanks with one suitable word:

From the beginnings, people have always relied on 1) _________ to ease their
unhappiness, as well as their physical 2) _________. The Ancient Greeks got drunk on
alcohol; marijuana (also referred to as 3) __________) was used in China and India well
before the birth of Christ, and 4) _________, obtained by chewing coca leaves, was used by
sixteenth-century Incas.
If drug-taking is such a constant practice in human society, why are we so concerned
about contemporary drug 5) ____________? Because so many people today are starting to
use drugs at a very 6) __________ age. While certain drugs, such as 7) ____________ and 8)
____________, may not be so harmful in moderation, others, like 9) ____________ and 10)
__________, cause addiction and other severe long-term effects. In the years of identity
crisis, adolescents often turn to drugs as answers to their problems. They are not aware that
they are endangering their physical and psychological health and that they will be needing
medical 11) ___________ as well as 12) _____________.
3. Translate the following text into English. You will need to include the words: junk
sickness, junk kick, syringe, dehydration, Demerol, codeine.

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the word slang refers to

1: language peculiar to a particular group: as a: argot b: jargon 2
2: an informal nonstandard vocabulary composed typically of coinages, arbitrarily changed words, and
extravagant, forced, or facetious figures of speech
All slang terms are taken from The Slang Thesaurus, Penguin Books, 1986


Cteva minute mai trziu, a venit o sor cu o sering. Era demerol. Demerolul ajuta ntructva, dar nu e nici pe departe att de eficace pentru reducerea simptomelor sevrajului cum e
codeina. Seara a venit un doctor s m examineze. Aveam sngele ngroat i concentrat din
cauza deshidratrii. n cele 48 de ore n care am stat fr drog, am pierdut 4 kg i jumtate.
(...) Seara la 9 mi s-a fcut o nou injecie cu demerol. Injecia asta nu a avut niciun efect. A
treia zi i a treia noapte n sevraj sunt de obicei cele mai rele.Dup a treia zi, rul ncepe s
dea napoi. (...) E cu putin s te detaezi de cele mai multe suferine (...). De starea de ru
provocat de sevraj pare s nu existe scpare. Starea de ru a sevrajului e reversal strii de
bine legate de marf23.
4. Imagine that the lines below were taken from an interview with a former addict. Arrange
them in a logical order and provide the questions. What other questions would you
consider asking him/her?
a) It is easy to start, but it is difficult to quit. Believe me, I know it well. Your life will
never be the same again.
a) I was not the one in control, the drugs controlled me.
b) When my father got angry with me for taking drugs, I took more and more. I didnt
want to stop.
c) It was exciting because I was doing what I wasnt allowed to.
d) During my stay in rehab, it was easier for me to get drugs.
5. Social media addiction?24
A study conducted at the University of Maryland found that nearly four in five students had
significant mental and physical distress, panic, confusion and extreme isolation when forced
to unplug from technology for an entire day. They found college students at campuses across
the globe admitted being addicted to modern technology such as mobile phones, laptops
and television as well as social networking such as Facebook and Twitter.
A clear majority" of almost 1,000 university students, interviewed at 12 campuses in
10 countries, including Britain, America and China, were unable to voluntarily avoid their
gadgets for one full day, they concluded.
The research also showed that students used virtually the same words to describe their
reactions. These included emotions such as fretful, confused, anxious, irritable, insecure,
nervous, restless, crazy, addicted, panicked, jealous, angry, lonely, dependent, depressed,
jittery and paranoid. Thus, one in five reported feelings of withdrawal akin to addiction while
more than one in 10 admitted being left confused and feeling like a failure. Just 21 per cent
said they could feel the benefits of being unplugged. One British participant reported: I am
an addict. I dont need alcohol, cocaine or any other derailing form of social depravity...
Media is my drug; without it I was lost.
A significant part of the attraction of Facebook and other social media is the promise
of connections with others. Humans are social creatures; we need relationships in order to
flourish. But for many, social media does not fulfill the promise of connection. That promise
is best fulfilled in face-to-face conversations and relationships, rather than on Facebook.

Fragment from Junky, by William S. Burroughs, p. 152-153, Polirom, 2005.

Adapted from an article available at:


Social media have good and bad features, like most technology. It is up to us to make the best
of these technologies while minimizing their bad effects on our lives. For some people, the
only way to minimize those effects is to go cold turkey.
6. What other addictions can you think of?

UNIT 25: Life through a Lens

1. Fill the gaps in the sentences using these key words from the text.
widespread--- facilities--- sedentary---- decline---- pastime--- balanced---survey--- reluctant--multitask---essential
1. If you ____________, you do more than one thing at the same time.
2. If something is ____________, it happens or exists in many places.
3. A ____________ life is one in which all parts combine well together and exist in the
correct amounts.
4. A ____________ is a set of questions that you ask a large number of people.
5. ____________ are things such as rooms or pieces of equipment provided at a place for
people to use.
6. A ____________ is a reduction in the amount or quality of something.
7. If something is ____________, it is completely necessary.
8. A ____________ is something people do regularly for fun in their free time.
9. If you are ____________ to do something, you dont want to do it.
10. If an activity is described as ____________, it involves a lot of sitting and not much

2. Read the text and reinsert the missing fragments in their suitable place:
have a TV set in their bedroom
only a quarter do so daily
they watch more than four hours
social interaction or the childs
continues to decline as a regular They watch TV before they go to
own imagination
to watch just one programme
has overtaken fun
they go online just over four
Children as young as eight
Life through a lens: How children eat, sleep and breathe TV25
A generation of multitasking children are living their daily lives including eating and
falling asleep to the accompaniment of television, according to a survey of young peoples
media habits. (1) __________________, when they return home, as they eat their evening
meal and then for 63%, a much higher percentage than read a book each day in bed at
night. The survey of five to 16-year-olds shows that four out of five children now


Adapted from an article by Lucy Ward, published on 16 January 2008, available at:


Television has become so widespread that many children now combine it with other
activities, including social networking online, looking from their laptop to the TV screen and
back again. Even if they are concentrating on the television, young people are now unwilling
(3) _______________, often switching between channels to keep up with two programmes at
the same time. The survey, conducted by the market research agency Childwise, will increase
worries that childhood is increasingly about private space and sedentary activities and less
about play, (4) ___________________.
Internet use is also continuing to increase rapidly. This means children spend an average
of five hours and 20 minutes in front of a screen a day, up from four hours and 40 minutes
five years ago. Reading books for pleasure, on the other hand, (5) ________________. While
four out of five children read books in their own time, (6) _______________________ and
53% at least once a week.
The report, based on interviews with 1,147 children in 60 schools, found television
viewing now averages 2.6 hours a day across the age group, though one in ten say
(7) _________________________.
It seems that children now multitask, keeping one eye on the television as they flick
through magazines or use the computer, Duff added.
Computers are also now a key part of childrens private worlds. The Internet is now an
essential part of most young peoples lives, says the study. On average, (8)
_______________ a week, spending two hours each time.
The survey shows a rise in Internet use, particularly among younger children. This is
mainly the result of social networking sites, primarily Bebo.
Communication, says the report, (9) __________________ (e.g. online games) as the
main reason to use the Internet and study is now far behind. Almost three quarters (72%) of
children have visited a social networking site, and over half have their own profile
sometimes lying about their age to avoid minimum age requirements. (10)
________________ are now signing up.
Kathy Evans, policy director of the Childrens Society, which is conducting its own
inquiry into modern childhood, said there was now growing public and professional concern
about the possible effects of childrens TV and Internet viewing habits. The inquiry will
report next month on children and technology as part of its two-year investigation.
3. Look in the text and find this information as quickly as possible.
1. What percentage of children watch TV in bed at night?
2. How much time on average do children spend in front of a screen each day?
3. How many children read books in their own time each day?
4. How many children did the survey interview?
5. How much time on average do children spend online (on the Internet)?
4. Comprehension check: Are these statements True (T) or False (F) according to the text?
1.Children often watch more than one TV programme at the same time.
2. Over 50% of children read every day.
3. The rise in Internet use is mainly the result of social networking sites.
4. Many children watch TV and use a laptop at the same time.
5. Watching TV and using the Internet teaches children how to play.
6. Some children are too young to join social networking sites.
5. Find the word: Find the following words or phrases in the text.


1. A four-word expression meaning while something else is happening or can be heard. (para
2. An adjective meaning not wanting to do something. (para 2)
3. An adverb meaning every day. (para 3)
4. A four-word expression meaning to watch, to follow something. (para 5)
5. A two-word phrasal verb meaning look quickly at a magazine or newspaper. (para 5)
6. A verb meaning to catch up with something, to replace. (para 8)
7. A two-word phrasal verb meaning agree to join a course or organization. (para 8)
8. A noun meaning customary practice. (para 9)
6. Verb + noun collocations. Match the verbs in the left-hand column with the nouns in the
right-hand column to make collocations.
1. visit
a. facilities
2. turn on
b. the Internet
3. improve
c. a magazine
4. flick through
d. attention
5. make
e. a survey
6. use
f. a choice
7. pay
g. a website
8. conduct
h. the television
7. Word building: Complete the table using words from the text.
1. interact
2. imagine
4. research
6. inquire
7. investigate
8. please

UNIT 26: You Have A Brain. Use It!

What is intelligence? Simply put, it is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and
interact with ones environment. This general ability consists of a number of specific
abilities, which include:


Adaptability to a new environment or to changes in the current environment

Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it
Capacity for reason and abstract thought
Ability to comprehend relationships
Ability to evaluate and judge
Capacity for original and productive thought.

Dr. Howard Gardner developed the theory of Multiple Intelligences. He says that there are
eight kinds of intelligence, not just one. People areintelligent in different ways and therefore
they learn things in differentways. All the different types of intelligence are important and
valuable, andeducation should help people to learn in different ways. According to Gardner,
the eight types of intelligence are: linguistic, musical, mathematical-logical, spatial,
bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.
1. Match each type of intelligence with its description:
a) Linguistic
Controlling the body and handling objects
b) Musical
Being sensitive to feelings of others and responding well
c) Mathematical-logical
Understanding our own feelings and controlling our own
d) Spatial
Being sensitive to words and sounds and the use of language
e) Bodily-kinaesthetic
Recognizing and classifying flora and fauna
f) Interpersonal
Hearing and making sounds and rhythm in music
g) Intrapersonal
Understanding the visual world and responding well to it
h) Naturalist
Seeing number patterns and following an argument
2. Match the activities with the intelligences. There are FOUR activities for each type.
asking questions about how things work
being individual
copying actions
doing experiments in nature
doing jigsaw puzzles
doing maths in my head
doing sports
having lots of friends
helping my friends
humming tunes
leading meetings and games
learning about nature
learning from films and pictures
learning from my mistakes
learning vocabulary
listening to other peoples problems
making things from paper or wood
playing a musical instrument
playing chess
playing number games
reading maps
recognising different types of things
remembering peoples names
saying tongue twisters
sorting things into groups


spending time on my own

studying alone in the library
tapping rhythmically
telling jokes and stories

3. Now check your answers by doing the quiz26 below. It will also help you identify
which intelligences you are strongest in. For each activity give a mark:
If you are very good at the activity, put 4.
If you are ok, but nothing special, put 2.
If you are no good at that activity, put 0.
A) Linguistic intelligence 4, 2 or 0
1) telling jokes and stories
2) remembering peoples names
3) saying tongue twisters
4) learning vocabulary
B) Spatial intelligence
1) reading maps
2) drawing
3) learning from films and pictures
4) doing jigsaw puzzles
C) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
1) copying other peoples actions
2) sewing
3) making things from paper or wood
4) doing sports
D Interpersonal intelligence
1) leading meetings and games
2) helping my friends
3) listening to other peoples problems
4) having lots of friends
E) Intrapersonal intelligence
1) studying alone in the library
2) spending time on my own
3) being individual
4) learning from my mistakes
F) Logical-mathematic intelligence
1) doing maths in my head
2) playing chess
3) playing number games

What are you good at? - BBC | British Council 2005(


4) asking questions about how things work

G) Musical intelligence
1) humming tunes
2) singing
3) playing a musical instrument
4) tapping rhythmically
H) Naturalist intelligence
1) doing experiments in nature
2) learning about nature
3) recognising different types of things
4) sorting things into groups
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of
oneself, of others, and of groups. Various models and definitions have been proposed of
which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature.
High EI people, for example, can accurately perceive emotions in faces. Such individuals also
know how to use emotional episodes in their lives to promote specific types of thinking. They
know, for example, that sadness promotes analytical thought and so they may prefer to
analyze things when they are in a sad mood (given the choice). High EI people also
understand the meanings that emotions convey: They know that angry people can be
dangerous, that happiness means that someone wants to join with others, and that some sad
people may prefer to be alone. High EI people also know how to manage their own and
others' emotions.
Criticisms have centered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has
incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions.
1. Can you guess the emotions on the faces below?


2. How do you think Emotional Intelligence helps us in our personal and professional

UNIT 27: Silent Speech

1. Skim read the article below. As you read think about these questions:

Why is body language important?

How can it be used to your advantage?

Practical Psychology27

Have you ever taken a dislike to someone for no reason at all? Or ever wondered
why one particular plain, dull person is swamped by a vast circle of friends and a busy social
calendar? According to some psychologists the answer is simple its all down to body
Sheena Meredith explains some of the secrets of our silent speech. Body language, it
seems, could be the key to all sorts of unsolved mysteries. Experts believe that our silent
speech the way we move, small changes in appearance, postures and gestures convey far
more meaning than the words in any conversation. Body language can make or break any
encounter, especially if youre feeling uncomfortable.
Learning the Language
If body language doesnt match words, it makes us feel uncomfortable even if we cant
identify why. Dr. Desmond Morris, the world-famous animal and people watcher, calls these
incongruities non-verbal leakage, the failure of our social mask, and being able to spot
them can help us to make much more sense to our interactions.
Watching other peoples body language can also help your own self-image. The main
problem when people are insecure or lack self-esteem is that they imagine everyone else is
secure, he says. If you spot the tricks someone is using to intimidate you, they seem less

Tricia Aspinall and Anette Capel, Advanced Masterclasss CAE Workbook, Oxford University Press, 2006, p.


threatening. Psychologist David Lewis concurs: If you dont feel good about yourself, its
going to show. You can only fake it to an extent. He teaches people how to use body
language to think themselves into a more confident manner.
Walk Tall
Anyone whos ever tried to change the way they move, say from being round-shouldered,
knows that it takes a great deal of concentration for a while. It can also become as much of
a habit as a slouched posture. And walking tall increases and creates confidence.
Echoes of Friendship
Consider how you feel with true friends. There is a sense of relaxation, of freedom of the
tension, power plays and uncertainty experienced during encounters with strangers. The key
there is that you are of equal status. Among friends, there is a similarity of posture and
mimicry of movement, known as postural echo. It carries the message I am like you.
Popular people seem to have a natural ability with postural echo, and it is often used by
successful salespeople. The synchrony is missing in people with serious mental disturbances,
and many normal people have poor postural echo. Perhaps their parents were
undemonstrative or unloving, they seem never to have absorbed the unconscious signals of
co-operative movement.
Minding your Language
People signal feelings and intent in body language. Jabbing a raised finger in conversation
means power or anger. Turning the head, or crossing legs away from someone youre talking
to however animatedly shows you dont want to be involved. Other barrier signals, like
folded arms, may reveal a persons hostility or insecurity. Submission gestures like nodding
and bowing are ritualised socially. We all start to edge away slightly, or sit forward in our
chair, when were too polite to say Id like to leave, and most people will take the hint.
Lies and Language
A whole new world opens up if youre aware of contradictory signals. If a friend who
seems to be listening raptly is tapping her toes as well, change the subject, shes bored. No
matter how charming the boss is being, those aggressive little foot kicks probably mean
youll not to be given a pay raise. After a lovely evening, the man of your dreams says hell
call soon, but he isnt looking at you and his arms are folded dont bother to wait by the
Safe Space
The way we dominate space is an extension of body language. The more expansive we
are, the more powerful, from the hands-behind-head, feet-on-desk pose, to the positioning of
towels on a beach or books on a table. Furniture is often used to dominate, like the common
ploy of forcing a visitor into a lowly position in the guise of having the most comfortable,
squishy armchair. Encroachments into strangers territory, like placing your bag firmly on
their desk or putting your coffee cup down near to theirs, make them nervous and increase
your dominance in an encounter.
Close Encounters
The first four minutes of any encounter are critical, Dr. Lewis says. When two people
meeting make eye contact, both raise and lower their eyebrows in a flash greeting, which is
known by experts as the eyebrow flash. This may signal hello, a query, approval, thanks,
agreement, flirtation, emphasis or occasional disapproval. During a conversation direct gaze
is needed for contact and to convey good intent, but it can also be threatening. Intense staring
occurs at the heights of both intimacy and aggression. On the other hand, too short a gaze
implies disinterest.
2. Reading comprehension:


1) Low self-esteem can be improved by

A using body-language to hide what you really feel.
B using threats to make others feel small
C recognising that everyone else feels secure.
D recognising that body language need not to be a threat
2) One of the ways to become more confident is to
A relax more with friends
B imitate the facial expressions of others
C alter the way you walk
D avoid direct contact with people
3) Some people have poor postural echo because they
A do not co-operate with their parents.
B do not mix with people of equal status
C have not received the proper training
D have not understood the signals in a relationship
4) How can you show that you want to end a conversation?
A cross your legs
B move back a little
C make themselves more comfortable
D hide their own nervousness
5) People dominate space in a meeting in order to
A give themselves an advantage
B put other people at their ease
C make themselves more comfortable
D hide their own nervousness
6) What should you try not to do in a social encounter?
A fail to return an eyebrow flash
B glance away while talking to someone
C look directly in someones eyes
D appear too friendly and interested
3. Multiple choice: Select A, B or C.
1. This is information _________________, so I am not sure we can use it in the report.
A heard on the grapevine
B off the record
C at your fingertips
2. The bulletin will _________________ on recent arrivals of vintage stock.
A be at your fingertips
B on the grapevine
C keep you posted
3. Why are you telling me now? _________________ about Erica.
A Off the record
B To put you in the picture C At your fingertips
4. Perhaps this should be _________________ but I dont think it really matters anymore.
A off the record
B on the grapevine
C at your fingertips
5. The participants in the discussion wanted answers _________________.
A on the grapevine
B from the horses mouth
C at their fingertips
6. As a journalist you need to _________________________ for any scoop.
A have your ear to the ground
B keep you posted
C put in the picture


4. Discussion: JUST SAY NO

In some countries, people don't like to say no to a request. They avoid saying no by:
1 remaining silent
2 saying something vague or unclear
3 changing the topic
4 ending the conversation without answering the request
5 giving a false excuse
6 delaying a reply to the request
7 saying, "Yes, but"
Do people in Romania use these ways of saying no? Which are the most common? How
would you decline these requests without saying no?
- Could I borrow your car?
- Can you lend me $100?
- Could you please help me move to my new apartment on Sunday?
- Do you want to see a movie tonight?

5. All the verbs below describe different ways of looking. Choose the appropriate
verb to complete each sentence.
1 He . intently at the piece of paper in front of him, wringing his
hands in despair.
2 He stretched to his full height and . over the wall to see what
Lady Thackeray-Smythe's daughter was doing.
3 We .through the fog, blinking, trying to catch a glimpse of a
moving light.
4 She stopped fidgeting and fiddling with her dress. She just sat, absolutely still,
and.out of the window, miles away, just occasionally pursing her
lips, then biting them hard.
5 The referee .at his watch again, made a sign to the linesmen,
then blew the final whistle.
6. Put the words below in the correct form:
1) Automatic; 2) behaviour; 3) mean; 4) judge; 5) arm; 6) consistent; 7) approach; 8)
consistent; 9) express; 10) consequence
On the receiving side of nonverbal communication, we take in, more or less
1), a complex array of appearance and 2) information from those


around us. Usually we do not have to think about the 3) of this input. It
simply registers and leads to 4) . about the others. A friendly smile, for
example, 5) our suspicions, just as an angry glare alerts us to a threat.
However, there are times when the friendly smile is 6) . with the tense
posture of the 7) .. stranger. And most people will realize the 8)
and act accordingly. Sometimes body language varies in meaning from one culture to
another. For example, norms regarding touch, gaze, and 9) .. vary from
country to country. 10).. ,the impact of the same gesture may be quite different.

UNIT 28: Punctuation. Prefixes and Suffixes.

1. Read this text carefully and punctuate it correctly.
PSYCHOLOGIST JOHN GOTTMAN believes parents should teach their children to deal
with feelings. Try to see things from a childs view. When a birthday present arrived for his
brother and Kyle said it wasnt fair, his dad said When its your birthday Grandma will
probably send you a package. Gottman explains: While this statement explains the logic of
the situation, it denies Kyles feelings at that moment. On top of feeling jealous Kyle feels
angry that his dad doesnt understand his position Imagine if his dad were to respond: You
wish Grandma had sent you a package too - I bet that makes you feel jealous. Realizing his
father understands the way he feels makes Kyle more receptive.
Parents often set limits on inappropriate behaviour such as rudeness. But as Gottman
says Its not easy for children to change the way they feel about a situation. A childs sadness,
fear or rage doesnt just disappear because a parent says: Stop crying If we tell a child how she
ought to feel, it just makes her distrust what she does feel, leading to a loss of self-esteem.
But if we tell her she has the right to her feelings, but there may be a better way to express
them, her self-esteem is left intact. Also she knows she has an adult on her side
2. Use the correct form of the word in brackets to complete the following sentences:
1) Fortunately, as a soldier, he had been taught_________________ (to survive) tactics
during his training.
2) The ___________________ (to injure) passengers were rescued within minutes.
3) It is unfair to ___________________ (comparative) an amateur sportsman with a
4) There is no evidence that children of __________________ (to divorce) parents are more
likely to turn into criminals.
5) _____________ (to argue) the best lifestyle is one you feel most comfortable with.
6) Cigarettes and alcohol are known to be ___________________ (harm) in excess.
7) Eleanor will ___________________ (broken) her fathers heart when she gives up her
swimming career.
8) The life of a mountaineer has no ___________________ (attract) for me.
9) The article gave a detailed __________________ (describe) of the place where the
travelers had camped.
10) Have you___________________ (report) your missing bike to the police?
3. Prefixes and suffixes. Group the following into prefixes and suffixes:
a) un less in



b) Now use the prefixes and suffixes to make new words out of these in the box.
used to
professional employed
4. Complete the sentences 1-8 using a word with a suitable prefix or suffix from the box
in 3. Use each prefix and suffix once only.
1. Edward was totally ___________________ with his exam results.
2. There is a high degree of ___________________ surrounding which players will be
selected for the team.
3. A large grant from the fund will go towards setting up shelters for
the___________________ .
4. The officer was criticized for his ___________________ during the riot when he was
seen sitting in his car during the height of the confrontation.
5. It would be___________________ if those who were to be made redundant could be
told as soon as possible.
6. It is quite___________________ to force such large numbers of people to disperse
7. The ___________________ scenes of violence outside the stadium have surprised
and shocked us all.
8. It is vital that___________________ of any kind between the witnesses is prevented
before and during the trial.
5. Insert the correct form of the word given in capitals below into each of the gaps.
Many people remain in (0) unhappy relationships where conflict and (1)______________
are the norm. They do not realize how (2) ______________ this can be, nor do they
believe that it is (3) ______________ to talk about their problems. Some believe that (4)
______________ is good enough and it is too much to expect to have a truly (5)
______________ relationship. (6) ______________ many marriages end in divorce
because couples have not realized how (7) ______________ it can be to ignore their
difficulties. The mere thought of consulting a stranger is (8) ______________ to them.



Advanced Expert CAE Coursebook, by Jan Bell, Roger Gower, Drew Hyde, Pearson
Longman Publishing House (2008)
Proficiency GOLD Coursebook, by Jacky Newbrrok and Judith Wilson, Pearson Longman
Publishing House (2009)
Advanced Gold Exam Maximiser, by Sally Burgess, Pearson Longman Publishing House
Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature, by Randy J. Larsen
and David M. Buss, McGraw-Hill Publishing House (2005)
Personality Traits, by Gerald Matthews, Ian J. Deary, Martha C. Whiteman, Cambridge
University Press (2003)
Caregiving Plus: English for Social Workers, by Ramona Bran and Andreea Pele, Mirton
Soultending: English for Psychology, by Cheveresan Constantin and Cheveresan Luminita,
Editura Universitatii de Vest (2006)
Short Cuts: Using Texts to Explore English, Mel Calman and Ben Duncan, Penguin Books