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DIET & YOUR HEALTH

Cultivating healthy eating habits


Introduction
Making improvements in terms of diet and physical activity can help reduce the risk
of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer,
dental disease, and osteoporosis.
Demand for animal products like meat has increased
In what is known as the "nutritional transition", traditional plant-based diets
including foods such as cereals and potatoes are increasingly being replaced by
diets that are richer in added sugars and animal fats. This transition, combined with
a general trend towards a more sedentary lifestyle, is an underlying factor in the
risk of developing chronic diseases.

Balanced Diet - Healthy Living"


But eating right isnt nearly as tough as it seems once you learn what to fill your
plate with and what to leave on the grocery store shelf.
Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from five
food groups.
1. FIVE MAIN GROUPS
Carbohydrates Protein Fats Vitamins and minerals Diary and milk
CARBOHYDRATES
Found in breads, pastas, cereals, and almost everything sweet.
Carbohydrates provide energy your body needs to help you function throughout the
day. They are the fuel that keeps your body moving, similar to the way gas functions
for a car.

PROTEINS
All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy
products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. Meat,
poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, and seed group provide nutrients that are vital for
health and maintenance of our body.
FATS

Fat is a nutrient. It is crucial for normal body function and without it we could not
live. Not only does fat supply us with energy, it also makes it possible for other
nutrients to do their jobs. Fats give our body energy that can be stored a layer of
fat under our skin keeps us warm. Eating too much fat can make us overweight.
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. Vitamins and minerals
boost our bodys defense system and help to grow our body. We can get the
Vitamins and Minerals from Vegetables and Fruits.
DAIRY & MILK
Consuming dairy products help to make our health good and make our Bones and
Teeth healthy. Foods in the Dairy Group provide nutrients that are vital for health
and maintenance of your body. These nutrients include calcium, potassium,
vitamin D, and protein. We can get these nutrients from Milk, Yogurt,
cheese mostly.
THE FOOD PLATE MODEL

Diet and Heart Disease


What you eat greatly affects the health of your heart.
Fat intake and Heart Disease
Take fat for example. Saturated and trans fatswhich are found in fried foods,
fatty cuts of meat, regular dairy products, and processed foodsare harmful to
heart health. On the other hand, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
which are found in nuts, vegetable oils, and avocadocan help lower cholesterol
and blood pressure, guard against irregular heartbeats, and decrease your risk of
coronary artery disease.

Choose foods with healthy fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid
foods with trans fat.
Good fatsmonounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatslower disease risk.
Foods high in good fats include vegetable oils (such as olive, canola,
sunflower, soy, and corn), nuts, seeds, and fish.
Bad fatssaturated and, especially, trans fatsincrease disease risk. Foods
high in bad fats include red meat, butter, cheese, and ice cream, as well as
processed foods made with trans fat from partially hydrogenated oil.

Quick Tips: Choosing Foods with Healthy Fats


1. Use liquid plant oils for cooking and baking. Olive, canola, and other plantbased oils are rich in heart-healthy unsaturated fats.
2. Ditch the trans fat. In the supermarket, read the label to find foods that are
trans free. The label should say 0 (zero) on the line for trans fat; you should
also scan the ingredient list to make sure it does not contain partially
hydrogenated oils.
3. Eat at least one good source of omega-3 fats each day. Fatty fish (such as
salmon and tuna), walnuts, and canola oil all provide omega-3 fatty acids, essential
fats that our bodies cannot make. Omega-3 fats, especially those from fish, are very
beneficial for the heart. Read more about omega-3 fatty acids and why they are so
important to good health.
4. Cut back on red meat, cheese, milk, and ice cream. Red meat (beef, pork,
lamb) and dairy products are high in saturated fat. So eat less red meat (especially
red processed meat, such as bacon), and choose fish, chicken, nuts, or beans
instead. If you do eat red meat, choose lean cuts and keep the amounts low.
Salt and Heart Disease
Reducing your salt intake by just half a teaspoon can reduce your blood pressure,
lower your risk of heart attack, stroke, osteoporosis, and kidney disease.

The Benefits and Dangers of Salt


Major role of salt/ sodium

Maintains the proper balance of fluids in your body.


Improves the function of your cell membranes, which impacts major bodily
functions.

Sodium also helps your body absorb other vitamins and minerals during the
digestive process

Maintain normal blood volume and pressure.

But the fact is, while your body does need a certain amount of salt, most people
consume significantly more than they need. Its the excess amount that can
sometimes lead to problems.
High blood pressure is the primary health condition associated with consuming
more salt than your body needs. Too much salt can cause your blood pressure to
rise, putting you at risk for potentially serious health conditions.
Blood pressure that measures higher than 140/90 mm/Hg is considered high blood
pressure (hypertension), and puts you at risk for heart disease or stroke. Reducing
the amount of salt in your diet is a positive step toward lowering your blood
pressure and reducing health risks.
Salt Intake Recommendations
The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends an intake
of between 1200 and 1500 mg of salt per day for adultsa modest amount
that equals less than one teaspoon of table salt per day.
The National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute (NHBLI) has a looser guideline for
adults: less than 2300 mg of sodium daily to avoid health problems such as high
blood pressure. However, experts believe that most Americans already eat more
salt than either of these recommended upper limits.
Salt
Common table salt is sodium chloride, which is approximately 40 percent sodium by
weight.
Here are the approximate amounts of sodium, in milligrams, in a given
amount of table salt:
1/4 teaspoon salt = 575 mg sodium
1/2 teaspoon salt = 1,150 mg sodium

3/4 teaspoon salt = 1,725 mg sodium

1 teaspoon salt = 2,300 mg sodium

Sodium

Content

on

Nutrition

Labels

Here are sodium-related terms you may find on food packages:


Sodium-Free

Less than 5 milligrams of sodium per


serving
and
contains
no
sodium
choloride

Very Low Sodium 35 milligrams or less per serving


Low-Sodium

140 milligrams or less per serving

Reduced (or less) At least 25 percent less sodium per


sodium
serving than the usual sodium level
If the food is "low calorie" and "low fat"
Light (for sodiumand sodium is reduced by at least 50
reduced products)
percent per serving
Light in sodium

If sodium is reduced by at least 50


percent per serving

Food labels cannot claim a product is "healthy" if it has more than 480 mg
of sodium per labeled serving (for individual foods) or more than 600 mg
of sodium per labeled serving for meals/main dishes, according to the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Once you start to recognize these terms, youll see that there is sodium in many
foods even those that dont taste very salty.
What You Can Do
By eating just half a teaspoon less per day, you can see the short-term benefits
of reduced bloating and risk of edema and lowered blood pressure. On a longer-term
basis, this small change solution can help you lower your incidence of heart disease,
stroke, heart attack, osteoporosis, and kidney disease. Speak to your doctor if you
have concerns about the amount of sodium you consume or if you need help
making changes to your diet. The steps you take now can pay big dividends toward
a healthier future.

THE DONTS IN DIET


1. Dont eat too much fats and oils
Reasons

Fats has a lot of energy and therefore can easily make one fat
Fatty foods give false satisfaction

Fats from animals are saturated and increases ones bad cholesterol level
leading to congestive heart disease and others

Animal fats increases ones total cholesterol

How much must we eat?


4 6 dessert spoonfuls of fats with only 1 dsp full or less being saturated
EAT THE BEST OILS!!!!!!!
Examples of oils with low saturated fats;

Sunflower seed oil


Corn oil
Sesame oil
Peanut oil
Olive oil

Examples of fats with high saturation;


Lard
Margarine
shortening
shortening Soft fats that produce a crisp, flaky effect in baked products. Lard
possesses the correct properties to a greater extent than any other single fat.
Shortenings compounded from mixtures of fats or prepared by hydrogenation are
still
called
lard
compounds
or
lard
substitutes.
Unlike oils, shortenings are plastic and disperse as a film through the batter and
prevent the formation of a hard, tough mass.
Shortening is any type of solid fat used to prevent the formation of a gluten matrix
in baked goods. Lard, hydrogenated (solidified) oils, and even butter can be used as
shortening, although in the mainstream market shortening often refers solely to
hydrogenated oils.

2. DONT EAT TOO MUCH PROTEIN FOODS ESPECIALLY MEATS


Excessive intake protein foods puts a lot of burden on the liver and kidney
One risks consuming more than necessary saturated fat along side
Protein is caloric and excess of it can make one fat

HOW MUCH MUST WE EAT?

7- 9 Unit servings per day


Fish/Tuna/meat 1 small match box size = 1 unit serving

Snail/Egg 1 large size = 1 unit serving

Milk 1 glass low fat (< 3g per 100 ml) or 1/3 evaporated milk

3. DONT TAKE TOO MUCH REFINED SUGARS

High consumption of sugar over a long period have been found to result in
tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and Diabetes
Excessive intake can results in low blood sugar levels (Hypoglycaemia) which
brings about fatigue, overeating and thus obesity
Refined sugars are bad for the digestive tract and causes abnormal enzyme
and acid levels

HOW MUCH MUST WE EAT?

WHO recommends intake less than 10% of ones calories


Interpretation: < 4 dessert spoonful daily

4. DONT TAKE TOO MUCH OF SALT


Excessive Salt intake may result in: Hypertension, Hardened Blood vessels, Heart
diseases
HOW MUCH MUST WE EAT?
Daily recommendation of Na+ is 0.9 2.3g which translate to about
0.5 1.5 teaspoon full a day

5. AVOID INTAKE OF FLAVOUR BOOSTER CUBES


They have been found to raise blood pressure
May results in overeating hence obesity
What shall we use?
Garlic, ginger, onions, whinteaa, nketsenketse etc
DOS IN DIET
1. EAT MORE COMPLEX STARCHES WHOLE GRAINS AND CEREALS

These foods contain a lot of fibre and hence makes food bulky, Enhance satiety,
Prevent constipation and enhance GIT health, Prevent High cholesterol and Keeps
blood sugar levels in safe ranges

2. EAT MORE VEGETABLES AND FRUITS


Help us fight diseases- vitamins and minerals
Have fibre
Are filling
Eat enough vegetables and up to 4 servings of fruits daily
3. DRINK ENOUGH WATER (< 8 glasses a day)
4. EXERCISE REGULARLY