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Topics from Chapter One ----Books definition of psychology

*Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental

What are the four goals of psychology

*Description (What is happening?), Explanation (Why is it

happening?), Prediction (When will it happen again?), Control (How
can it be changed?)
Wilhelm Wundt

*Established first psychology laboratory, he used objective

introspection, he is linked to Structuralism
William James

*Is linked to Functionalism, was influenced by Darwin

John B. Watson

*Believed we should focus our research on observable

behavior, linked to Behaviorism
Sigmund Freud

*Linked to psychoanalysis, focused on role played by the

unconscious mind
Humanistic psychologists

*Focus on free will and self actualization

Gestalt psychologists

*Known for the saying the whole is greater than the sum of
its parts
Evolutionary psychologists

*Focus on influence of natural selection

Books definition of hypothesis

*A tentative answer or explanation for the behavior you have


Survey Research
What is a population

* Group of people
What is a sample

* Not representative of the larger population

What is meant by random sampling

* 1. Full list of people

2. Draw sample using random selection
Know the 3 potential problems with surveys

* 1. They depend upon self-report data

2. The sample may not be representative of the population
3. The wording can affect the results.

Observational Research
What is naturalistic observation

*Straight observation (not participating)

What is participant observation

*Laboratory observation (participating)

What is the observer effect

*Presence affects studies

What is observer bias (and how can you control for it)

*Researchers going into the experiment with a pre-existing

opinion of result; Double blind study
What is a case study

*Individual (using everything you can to learn)

Correlational study

*it demonstrates the degree or strength of the relationship

between two variables, it allows us to study pre-existing conditions
that we cannot control (things like intelligence and income), it
CANNOT be used to demonstrate cause and effect
Know the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation (and be able
to recognize examples)

*Positive up causes up. Negative up causes down

Know how to interpret a correlation coefficient (for example, which coefficient shows the
strongest relationship: +.54 or -.82?)

* Closest to 1/-1 shows the strongest positive/negative

Know that they range from -1.00 to +1.00, know that the sign ( + or -) tells us whether the
correlation is positive or negative

Positive is positive; Negative is negative

This is the only form of research that allows

*Us to demonstrate cause and effect

Know the difference between an independent variable (manipulated) and a dependent
variable (measured), be able to pick out which is which in a description of an experiment

*Independent variable: Manipulated

Dependent variable: Measured
What is a control group and why do we need one? How does it differ from the experimental

*Control group: Baseline

Experimental group: Change
What is random assignment to groups and why do we use it?

*Random sample to get a representation of the population

What is a placebo, what is the placebo effect, what is the single blind technique and why is it

*Placebo: False treatment

Placebo effect: The idea that any treatment will change you
What is experimenter bias (effect), what is the double blind technique and why is it used

*Experimenter bias: Unfair to one side of experiment

Double blind technique: Neither know if apart of experiment
What is informed consent? What is debriefing?

*Informed consent: Telling the participants what they might be

Debriefing: Deception must be justified
What is replication and why is it done

*You must be able to replicate the experiments and expect the

same results
Topics from Chapter Two ----Know the definition of the nervous system
know the difference between a nerve and a neuron
Know the difference between sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons
Know the parts of the neuron, the order theyappear in, and what they do
Dendrites receive information (stimulation) from other cells
Soma or cell body, contains the nucleus which governs the metabolism of the cell
Axon, carries the message on to other cells
Know about the resting potential and what creates it
Know about the action potential; know that this involves ion channels opening to allow
positively charged ions to enter the axon; know that this process follows an all or none law
(if the neuron starts to fire it fires all the way to the end of the axon); know about thresholds
Know about the myelin sheath that covers some axons insulating them and speeding the
action potentials
Synapse, synaptic gap
Know how information is transmitted across this gap via neurotransmitter substances; know
that these can be excitatory or inhibitory and that the two forms of message can cancel
each other out; know about receptor sites and how neurotransmitters and receptors fit
together like a lock and key; know about reuptake
Know the connection between endorphins and pain relief
Know the two main divisions of the nervous system (central and peripheral)
Know that the central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord and that the
peripheral nervous system is composed of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Know how the sympathetic system takes action in emergencies (fight or flight response) and
how the parasympathetic system brings things back to normal

Know the functions of the spinal cord

Know the functions of the following brain structures:
Medulla - life support
Thalamus - sorting and relay system (smell is the only sensory information that is not sent
through this structure)
Reticular formation arousal and focus (blocking irrelevant stimuli)
Cerebellum controls finely tuned and well rehearsed motor movements and balance (upset
by alcohol), grace, motor memories
Hypothalamus - regulating hunger, thirst, sex, body temperature linked to the pituitary
Hippocampus - setting down new memories, cognitive maps (navigation)
Amygdala emotion (especially fear and anger), learning fear responses
Corpus callosum - linking two hemispheres
Frontal lobe - planning, problem solving, motor cortex, Brocas area (know effects of damage
to Brocas area)
Temporal lobe - primary auditory cortex, Wernickes area (know effects of damage to
Wernickes area)
Parietal lobe - somatosensory cortex, spatial neglect syndrome
Occipital lobe - primary visual cortex