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172 views9 pagesComparison between Neuber and Equivalent Strain Energy Density theories for durability assesments

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Comparison between Neuber and Equivalent Strain Energy Density theories for durability assesments

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Comparison between Neuber and Equivalent Strain Energy Density theories for durability assesments

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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijfatigue

energy density (ESED) method

Duyi Ye a,b,, Saburo Matsuoka a, Naoyuki Suzuki a, Yosho Maeda a

a

Materials Reliability Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba-Shi, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan

b

Department of Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Received 10 May 2003; received in revised form 9 September 2003; accepted 20 October 2003

Abstract

On the basis of the analysis of energy of elastic-plastic body subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading, a physical relationship

between Neuber s rule and the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) method is found. It is shown that Neubers rule is actually a particular case of ESED method, namely when the dissipation of the plastic strain energy at the notch root is neglected in

ESED method. The reason for the overestimation of the local strains using Neubers rule is thus explained essentially and the

physical meaning of ESED method in both monotonic and cyclic form is further dened. In terms of the real physical behavior

occurring at the notch root during cyclic plastic deformation, a modied version of ESED method, in which only the heat energy

is considered as a dissipation and the stored energy is regarded as a contribution to local stress and strain ranges, has been

developed in this paper. It is shown that, for the case of cyclic loading, the modied ESED method further improves the accuracy

of the original ESED method in prediction of the nonlinear stress/strain behavior of notches. It is also shown that the relation

developed in this paper can easily be used for a simulation of the local strain-stress history near a notch root.

# 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Local stress and strain; Neubers rule; The equivalent strain energy density (ESED) method; Energy dissipation; Cyclic loading

1. Introduction

Fatigue life prediction of notched components in

complex service conditions requires the local stressstrain history of a material element at the notch root to

be known. Although accurate calculations of these

strains are not intractable, they are dicult and lengthy

especially for a long arbitrary cyclic loading history.

Therefore, approximate methods are widely used in

engineering practice. So far, a few approximate methods [18] for description of the nonlinear stress/strain

behaviour of notches have been developed. Among

these, the most popular and frequently used relations

are Neubers rule and its modied version [14].

Another frequently used relation is the equivalent

strain energy density (ESED) method proposed by

Molski and Glinka [5], Glinka [6,7] and Ellyin and

Corresponding author. Tel.: +81-0298-2511; fax: +81-0298-592501.

E-mail address: duyi.ye@nims.go.jp (D. Ye).

0142-1123/$ - see front matter # 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2003.10.002

eort [513] has been devoted to the evaluation of the

predictive capacity of Neubers rule and ESED method

in notch strain analysis for various notch geometries,

materials and types of load. It has been found that in

the case of elastic range both Neubers rule and ESED

method get the same estimation of the local strains,

whereas in the case of elastic-plastic range, Neubers

rule normally overestimates the notch root strains,

while ESED method tends to underestimate the notch

root strains. Molski and Glinka [5] gave out a qualitative relationship between Neubers rule and ESED

method by the aid of graphical interpretation, but did

not further establish the physical relationship between

these two methods in a quantitatively accurate way.

The latter will be of important meaning to substantially

evaluate the predictive capability of Neubers rule and

ESED method as well as to seek for a further improvement of these approximate methods in practical application.

448

Nomenclature

E

K

K0

Kr

S

r

ee

WS

Wr

Wp

Ws

Wq

DS

Dr

Dee

WDS

WDr

DWp

DWs

DWq

n

n0

Kt

Ke

e

e

ep

De

De

Dep

modulus of elasticity

strength coecient

cyclic strength coecient

elastic-plastic stress concentration factor

nominal stress

local stress

local elastic strain

strain energy density due to the nominal stress S

strain energy density due to the local elastic-plastic stress-strain eld

plastic strain energy per unit volume in monotonic loading

stored energy per unit volume in monotonic loading

heat energy dissipated per unit volume in monotonic loading

nominal stress range

local stress range

local elastic strain range

strain energy density due to the nominal stress range DS

strain energy density due to the local cyclic elastic-plastic stress-strain eld

plastic strain energy per unit volume in cyclic loading

stored energy per unit volume in cyclic loading

heat energy dissipated per unit volume in cyclic loading

strain hardening exponent

cyclic strain hardening exponent

theoretical elastic stress concentration factor

elastic-plastic strain concentration factor

nominal strain

local strain

local plastic strain

nominal strain range

local strain range

local plastic strain range

In this paper, an inherent relationship between Neubers rule and ESED method is found on the basis of the

analysis of energy of elastic-plastic body subjected to

monotonic and cyclic loading. The physical meaning of

these two methods is then analyzed in a quantitative

way. In terms of the real physical behavior occurring at

the notch root during cyclic plastic deformation, a

modied version of ESED method, in which only the

heat energy is considered as a dissipation and the stored

energy is regarded as a contribution to local stress and

strain ranges, has been developed for the case of cyclic

loading. The predictive capacity of the modied ESED

method is further examined for several dierent materials and notches in the case of cyclic loading.

2. Analysis of energy of elastic-plastic body

subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading

Consider the monotonic tension deformation of an

elastic-plastic body (Fig. 1). Loading occurs along the

BC. The area OABC represents the plastic strain

energy lost in monotonic tension deformation. The

plastic strain energy per unit volume is easily obtained

in terms of integrating area OABC, i.e.

e

1

1

Wp rde ree

2

0

where Wp denotes the plastic strain energy, r and e are

the true stress and strain, respectively, and ee the elastic

part of the total strain.

It has been experimentally proven that, when a metallic specimen is deformed plastically, the bulk of the

irreversible plastic strain energy is dissipated in the

form of heat and the remaining part of it is consumed

by the change in the materials stored energy [14]. The

stored energy is mainly associated with residual stresses

generated in the metal after unloading [14,15]. A

method for the calculation of the stored energy from

the true stress-strain curve of an elastic-plastic body

monotonic loading.

Fig. 1 by the shaded area. Thus the stored energy Ws

can be expressed as

r

1

2

Ws edr ree

2

0

The heat energy Wq dissipated during monotonic

tension deformation can be obtained according to the

First Law of Thermodynamics [16]

Wq Wp W s

response can be described by the well-known RambergOsgood equation [14]

e ee ep r=E r=K 1=n

449

Fig. 2. Stored energy and plastic strain energy expended during cyclic loading.

1n

rep

7

1n

We now consider the generalized stress-strain

response of an elastic-plastic body subjected to a cyclic

loading (Fig. 2). The branches of the loading path

O0 AO00 in Fig. 2 are generally assumed to have the

similar shape with the unloading path O00 CO0 . Thus the

relations for the loading case can also be applied for

the unloading case when the origin of the coordinate

system for unloading path is placed at O00 . The plastic

strain hysteresis energy per cycle, namely the area

enclosed by the loop O0 AO00 CO0 , can be given in terms

of Fig. 2 [17]

Dr

8

DWp DrDe 2 e0 dr0

W q Wp Ws

total strain e, respectively, E is the elastic modulus and

K and n are the strength coecient and the strain

hardening exponent, respectively.

Substituting Eq. (4) into Eqs. (1) and (2), respectively, gives

Wp

1

rep

1n

n

rep

1n

and

Ws

and Dr and De are the true stress and strain ranges,

respectively.

It is indicated that, during one loading cycle, the

hysteresis energy is mainly transformed into heat

energy, and a very small part of it into stored energy

[14]. Moreover, in each closed loop only the tension

half-cycle value of the stored energy is conserved [18].

The stored energy DWs in one cyclic loading, shown in

Fig. 2 by the shaded area, can thus be expressed as

Dr

1

e0 dr0 DrDee

9

DWs

2

0

where Dee is the elastic part of the total strain range De.

450

can also be obtained according to the First Law of

Thermodynamics [16]

DWq DWp DWs

10

Masing-type behavior, the relation between stress and

strain ranges can be described by Morrows equation

[14],

0

De Dee Dep Dr

Dr 1=n

11

2

2E

2K 0

2

2

where Dee and Dep are the elastic and plastic part of the

total strain range De, respectively, E is the elastic

modulus and K 0 and n0 are the cyclic strength coefcient and the cyclic strain hardening exponent,

respectively.

Using relationship (11), Eqs. (8) and (9) can further

be written in the following forms

DWp

1 n0

DrDep

1 n0

12

n0

DrDep

13

1 n0

Thus the heat energy DWq dissipated in one loading

cycle is easily obtained by subtracting Eqs. (12) and

(13) from Eq. (10)

DWs

DWq

1 2n0

DrDep

1 n0

14

ESED method

3.1. Neubers rule and ESED method

Neuber rule was initially derived in the case of antiplane shearing [1]. On the basis of experimental

measurement of strain at the notch root, it is further

found that Neubers rule is of more general validity

and can also be used for other types of loading [2]. In

the case of simple uniaxial tension, Neubers rule can

be written in the following general form

Kt2 Kr Ke

15

factor, Kr r=S and Ke e=e are the stress and strain

concentration factor, respectively, where S and e are

the nominal remote stress and strain, and r and e are

the local stress and strain at the notch root.

Consequently, Neubers rule can also be written by

the following alternative form

Kt2 Se re

16

notch and using Eq. (4), Eq. (16) is further written by

r 1=n

Kt S2 r2

r

17

K

E

E

Given the geometry Kt , material properties E, K and

n, and the applied nominal stress S, the local stress r

and strain e can be solved by combining Eq. (17) with

Eq. (4).

For the case of cyclic loading, Eq. (16) was modied

by Topper et al.[14] and was used to relate the nominal

remote stress and strain ranges DS and De to the product of the local (notch) stress and strain ranges Dr

and De. Neubers rule in the cyclic form can thus be

written in the form

Kt2 DSDe DrDe

18

region, the above equation can be written, by expressing the local strain range with Morrows Eq. (11), in

the following form,

0

Kt DS2 Dr2 Dr Dr 1=n

19

2 2K 0

4E

4E

The solution for Dr and De at a notch root can be

obtained from Eq. (19) in combination with Eq. (11)

when the theoretical stress concentration factor Kt and

the applied nominal stress range DS are given.

Based on the assumption that the strain energy density distribution in the plastic zone ahead of a notch tip

is the same as that determined on the basis of the pure

elastic stress-strain solution, Molski, Glinka et al.[57]

developed a similar local elastic-plastic stress and strain

calculation method called the equivalent strain energy

density (ESED) method. In the case of monotonic

loading and uniaxial stress condition at the notch root,

ESED method can be expressed in the form

Kt2 WS Wr

20

e

local stress and strain at the notch root, Wr 0 rde,

and WS is the strain energy per unit volume due to the

e

nominal remote stress, WS 0 Sde.

Assuming the elastic stress and strain behavior away

from the notch, namely WS 12 Se, Eq. (20) is further

written by

Kt2 Se 2Wr

21

the strain energy density Wr in Eq. (20) should be calculated in respect to relation (4) and Eq. (21) takes the

form

Kt S2 r2

2r r 1=n

22

E

E n1 K

stress concentration Kt , the local stress r and the local

strain e at the notch root can be calculated by combining Eq. (22) with (4).

In the case of cyclic loading, the variables r, e and S,

e in Eq. (20) or Eq. (21) should be replaced by representative ranges Dr, De and DS, De [5]. Assuming the

elastic stress and strain ranges remote from a notch,

ESED method in the cyclic form can be written, from

Eq. (21), as follows

Kt2 DSDe

2WDr

23

local strain range, Eq. (23) can be nally written in the

following form,

0

Kt DS2 Dr2

Dr

Dr 1=n

0

24

n 1 2K 0

4E

4E

Combining Eq. (23) with Eq. (11) makes it possible

to calculate the local stress and strain ranges Dr and De

at the notch tip for a given nominal stress range DS

and theoretical stress concentration Kt .

3.2. A physical relationship between Neubers rule and

ESED method

Molski and Glinka [5] gave out a relationship

between Neubers rule and ESED method in a qualitative way by the aid of the graphical interpretation, as

shown in Fig. 3. It is easily obtained that, in the case of

elastic range, the local strains and stresses calculated

according to Neubers rule are equal to those according

to ESED method (Fig. 3(a)), while in the case of localized plasticity the local strains and stresses calculated

according to Neubers rule are always higher than

Fig. 3.

451

above graphical interpretation, however, did not further give out the physical relationship between Neubers rule and ESED relation in a quantitatively

accurate way.

In fact, according to Fig. 1, the strain energy density

Wr in Eq. (21) can also be expressed in the following

an alternative form

Wr

1

1

re rep Ws

2

2

25

Using Eqs. (4) and (6), Eq. (25) can further be written by

Wr

1

1n

re

rep

2

21 n

26

Kt2 Se re

1n

rep

1n

27

Eq. (27) is just the heat energy dissipated in monotonic

tension deformation process as presented in Eq. (7).

Thus Eq. (27) can also be written by

Kt2 Se re Wq

28

method in monotonic loading, namely Eq. (21). The

meaning of Eq. (28) can be explained as that the theoretical work Kt2 Se applied to the material element at the

notch root due to the nominal remote stress is transformed into the real total strain energy (sum of the

strain energy and complementary strain energy) re

absorbed by the material element at the notch root and

452

plastic deformation.

Comparing ESED method Eq. (28) with Neubers

rule Eq. (16), we may easily nd that ESED method

yields Neubers rule when Wq in Eq. (28) equals zero.

In other words, Neubers rule is actually a particular

case of ESED method, namely when the dissipation of

the heat energy in ESED method is neglected. Since the

heat dissipation occurs unavoidably accompanied by

the plastic deformation at the notch root, i.e. Wq in

Eq. (28) is always larger than zero, Neubers rule will

inevitably overestimate the local stresses and strains in

the presence of localized plastic yielding at the notch

tip, which has been indicated by a great number of previous experimental results [57]. On the other hand, we

may also conclude from the above analysis that ESED

method well reveals the real physical behavior occurring at the notch root during plastic deformation. In

addition, in terms of the energy balance criteria [14], it

is also easily inferred from Eq. (28) that the stored

energy has been considered as a contribution to local

stress and strain at the notch root in ESED method.

We now try to establish the physical relationship

between Neubers rule and ESED method in the case

of cyclic loading. For a fully reversed cyclic loading

(Fig. 2), the term on the right hand side of Eq. (23) can

also be expressed as the sum of strain energy density

O0 AO00

for the loading path O0 AO00 with origin placed

WDr

O00 CO0

at O0 and strain energy density WDr

for the reversed

00

0

path O CO with origin placed at O00 , namely

O0 AO00

O00 CO0

O0 AO00

O00 CO0

2WDr WDr

WDr

, where WDr

WDr

.

Thus, from Eq. (23), one gets

0

00

00

O AO

O CO

WDr

29

Kt2 DSDe WDr

De

De

O0 AO00

O00 CO0

where WDr

0 r0 de0 and WDr

0 r00 de00 .

Using the strain energy interpretation shown in

Fig. 2, the above equation can be easily rewritten by

30

cycle (area of the hysteresis loop O0 AO00 CO0 ).

Eq. (30) is an alternative expression form of ESED

method in the case of cyclic loading, i.e. Eq. (23). The

meaning of Eq. (30) can also be explained as that the

theoretical work Kt2 DSDe applied to the material

element at the notch root due to the nominal remote

stress range is transformed into the real total strain

energy (sum of the strain energy and complementary

strain energy) DrDe absorbed by the material element

at the notch root and the hysteresis energy DWp dissipated at the notch root during cyclic plastic deformation.

It is also easily obtained, by comparing ESED

method Eq. (30) with Neubers rule Eq. (18), that

Eq. (30) equals zero. In other words, Neubers rule in

cyclic form is also a particular case of ESED method

in cyclic form, namely when the plastic strain hysteresis

energy in ESED method is neglected. Since the hysteresis energy unavoidably dissipates accompanied by the

cyclic plastic deformation at the notch root, i.e. DWp in

Eq. (30) is always greater than zero in the case of the

localized cyclic plasticity at the notch tip, Neuber rule

will inevitably overestimates the notch stress and strain

ranges in low cycle fatigue, as indicated by a great

number of the measured results [57].

It has been pointed out previously that, during cyclic

plastic deformation, most of the hysterises energy is

converted into heat energy dissipated and the remainder is stored in the material as the stored energy that is

associated with the residual stress generated in the

metal after unloading. In other words, only one part of

DWp in Eq. (30), i.e. DWq , dissipates accompanied by

the cyclic plastic deformation at the notch root and the

reminder part of DWp , i.e. DWs , will contribute to the

local stress and strain ranges at the notch root. This

analysis implies that Eq. (30) may low-estimate the real

local stress and strain ranges as a result of the fact that

the whole plastic strain hysteresis energy has been considered as the dissipation in this relation. Therefore, a

modied version of ESED method in which only the

heat energy is considered as a dissipation and the

stored energy is regarded as a contribution to local

stress and strain ranges, can be developed on the basis

of Eq. (30), that is

Kt2 DSDe DrDe DWq

31

the physical meaning of the modied ESED method in

cyclic form becomes accordance with that of the ESED

method in monotonic form. Generally, in the presence

of cyclic plastic yielding at the notch tip, there exists

0 < DWq < DWp , thus the local stress and strain ranges

calculated according to modied ESED method

Eq. (31) will be greater than those according to ESED

method Eq. (30) and less than those calculated according to Neubers rule Eq. (18).

Using Morrow stress-strain relation (11) and the

expression of the heat energy dissipated in one cycle,

Eq. (14), Eq. (31) can further be written by

1

Kt DS2 Dr2 2 n0 Dr Dr n0

32

21 n0 2K 0

4E

4E

Thus, for a given nominal stress range DS and theoretical stress concentration Kt , the local stress range Dr

and the local strain range De at the notch root can be

calculated by combining Eq. (32) with Eq. (11).

For the case of monotonic loading, the comparisons

of the notch strains between the predictions of Neubers rule Eq. (17) and ESED method Eq. (22) and the

experimental data have been carried out for dierent

materials, notch geometries and types of load [5,6].

Thus, in this paper, the comparisons of the calculated

strains using Neubers rule Eq. (18), the original ESED

method Eq. (24) and the modied ESED method

Eq. (32) with the measured strains will only be conducted for the case of cyclic loading, in which the comparison will especially focus on the dierence of the

predictive accuracy of ESED method Eq. (24) and its

modied version Eq. (32).

Fig. 4 shows the plots of the calculated and measured local strain amplitude ea against the theoretical

notch stress amplitudes Kt Sa in the tip of a blunt notched compact specimen made of AISI 4340 steel [19]. It

is obvious from this gure that, for low values of Kt Sa ,

Neubers rule, ESED method and the modied ESED

method all gave results very close to the measured

strain amplitudes. For high Kt Sa values, both ESED

and the modied ESED method give good results even

for nominal stress amplitude Sa higher than the yield

strength ry , whereas Neubers rule obviously overestimates the local strain amplitudes. The agreement

between the modied ESED relation and the experiment is surprisingly good in almost the whole stress

range 0 Sa ry . For e 0:018 the strain amplitudes

calculated using the modied ESED relation did not

blunt notched compact tension specimen (AISI 4340 steel; Kt 2:63

[19]).

453

The strain amplitude calculated using ESED relation

was about 4% lower than the experimental strain

amplitude in this case.

Fig. 5 is the comparison of the local strain amplitudes calculated by the above three methods with those

measured for keyhole specimen made of Man-Ten steel

[20]. Similar results with those presented in Fig. 4 are

also observed in this gure, although a deviation of the

calculated strain amplitudes from the measured strain

amplitudes using ESED method and the modied

ESED method is found when the nominal stress amplitude Sa is greatly larger than the yielding strength ry .

For e 0:02 the dierence between the calculated and

measured strain amplitudes is smaller than 9% for the

modied ESED method and about 12% for ESED

method.

The strain amplitudes calculated using three approximate methods and those measured at the notch root of

the specimen made of AL 2024-T3 with a circular hole

[21] are shown in Fig. 6. Good results are also

observed using ESED method and the modied ESED

method in the case of lower values of Kt Sa . However,

underestimation of the local strain amplitudes for these

two methods and obvious overestimation of the local

strain amplitudes for Neubers rule are observed in the

case of the nominal stress amplitude Sa greatly larger

than the yielding strength ry . It is also easily obtained

from this gure that for AL 2024-T3 with very small

strain hardening exponent n0 n0 0:065, accordingly

with very small stored energy during cyclic plastic

deformation, the dierence of the calculated local

keyhole notched specimen (Man-Ten steel; Kt 2:88 [20]).

454

specimen with a circular hole (Al 2024-T3 alloy; Kt 2:57[21]).

modied ESED method is inappreciable.

Thus it follows from the above presented three cases

that the modied ESED method Eq. (32) gives a better

prediction of the local strain amplitude than the original version of ESED method Eq. (24), as a whole. In

other words, the modied ESED method developed in

this paper further improves the prediction accuracy of

the original ESED method.

A physical relationship between Neubers rule and

the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) method in

both monotonic and cyclic form is established on the

basis of the analysis of the energy of the elastic-plastic

body subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading. It is

shown that Neubers rule is actually a particular case

of ESED method, namely when the energy dissipated

at the notch root during plastic deformation process is

neglected in ESED method. The reason for the overestimation of local strains and stresses using Neubers

rule is thus explained essentially and the physical

meaning of ESED method in both monotonic and cyclic form is further dened. According to the real physical behavior occurring at the notch root during cyclic

plastic deformation, a modied version of ESED

method, in which only the heat energy is considered as

a dissipation and the stored energy is regarded as a

contribution to local stress and strain ranges, is

developed for the case of cyclic loading. The physical

meaning of the modied ESED method in cyclic form

monotonic form. It is shown that, for the case of cyclic

loading, the modied ESED method predicts the local

strain amplitude more accurately than the use of the

original ESED method and Neubers rule. Since the

calculation of local stress and strain using the modied

ESED method needs the same amount of computation

time as the original ESED method, the relation

developed in this paper can be also acted as a replacement for the original ESED method in fatigue life predictions of notched components in engineering

application.

It should also be pointed out that, similar with the

original ESED method, the predictive accuracy of the

modied ESED method depends in general on

the extent of the plastic zone at the notch tip. It can be

expected that the smaller the plastic zone in the notch

tip, the more accurate is the relation. In addition, the

accuracy of the modied ESED method will depends

on the accuracy of the description of the hysteresis

loop or stress and strain curve. A Masing assumption

is generally adopted in the description of the hysteresis

loop in deriving this relation. This is correct when the

materials exhibits Masing type behaviour or approximate Masing type behaviour. Otherwise, some errors

will be produced in the calculation of the local stress

and strain amplitudes. The dierent accuracy between

the calculated stains and the measured values presented

in previous section for the dierent materials may be

more or less related with this description accuracy of

the hysteresis loop. Therefore, for the material exhibiting non-Masing property, the hysteresis loop curve in

Eq. (30) needs to be modied in terms of the approach

proposed by Jhansale and Topper [22]. All the calculations in this paper are carried out on the assumption of

uniaxial stress conditions at the notch root. It has been

proved that for moderate amounts of triaxiality or

biaxiality both elastic and inelastic strains can

be estimated with reasonable accuracy using uniaxial

stress-strain behaviour [57]. The comparisons of the

calculated strains with the measured strains presented

in this paper show that this assumption maybe reasonable for the present examined cases. However, when

the state of stress at the notch root is highly triaxial,

the modied ESED method Eq. (32) should be further

modied to the multiaxial stress state. In a limiting

case, i.e. plane strain, this modication can be carried

out by introducing Hencky ow rule and Misess yield

criterion into the uniaxial stress-strain relation [23].

Acknowledgements

The rst author would like to express his sincere

thanks to Dr. Akihiko OHTA, the former host

researcher of the rst author, who provided nancial

Thanks are also due to Dr. Lingxi Zhou for many

valuable discussions. The rst author wishes to

acknowledge the National Institute for Materials

Science (NIMS) of Japan for his appointment as a visiting researcher in Materials Reliability Group during

Feb. 1st, 2002 through Jan. 31st, 2004.

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