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California Polytechnic State University

Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
March 30, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Homework 1 (Due 04-01-09)

(b)

5m

3m

(a)

3m

3m

Problem 1

(c)

5m

5m

For each of the frame structures shown, calculate the stiffness k of the frame in the direction of the force. Assume uniform
flexural stiffness EI and neglect axial deformation.
Solution:
Structure
(a)
(b)
(c)
k
1
[ ] 0.0417 0.121 0.538
EI m 3

Problem 2
EI =

7 ft

20, 000 k-ft2


15 ft

EI = 20, 000 k-ft2

EA = 5000 k
8 ft

EA = 5000 k
(b)

(a)

6 ft

6 ft

moment connection!

For the two structures above, calculate the lateral stiffness k .


Solution:
Structure
(a)
(b)
k [k/ft] 31.46 60.46

3/30/2009 12:43 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw1.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 1, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Homework 1-Solution

(b)

5m

3m

(a)

3m

3m

Problem 1

(c)

5m

5m

For each of the frame structures shown, calculate the stiffness k of the frame in the direction of the force. Assume uniform
flexural stiffness EI and neglect axial deformation.
Moment Diagrams for Unit Force

1.500
1.500

3.00
(a)

0.5870
0.5870

(b)

(c)
0.9130

0.9130

Displacement Calculation
1 2
3 (3.00 + 5.00) = 24
3
1
(b) EI = 1.52 2 (3.00 + 2.50) = 8.25
3
1
1
(c) EI = (0.9132 + 0.5872 0.587 0.913) 2 3.00 + 0.5872 2 2.50 = 1.86
3
3

(a) EI =

1
= 0.0417 EI

1
k =
= 0.1212 EI

1
k =
= 0.538 EI

k =

Deflected Shape (for illustration only)

(a)

4/1/2009 7:00 AM

(b)

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw1_sol.doc

(c)

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2

EI =

7 ft

20, 000 k-ft2


15 ft

EI = 20, 000 k-ft2

EA = 5000 k
8 ft

EA = 5000 k
(a)
6 ft

(b)

6 ft

moment connection!

For the two structures above, calculate the lateral stiffness k .


7

(a)
=

1
1
1
7 2 (7 + 8) +
3.1252 10 = 0.01225 + 0.01953 = 0.03178 ft/k
20000 3
5000

1
= 31.46 k/ft(ans )
0.03178

N = 3.125

(b)

15
= tan -1 = 68.2D cos = 0.3714 cos2 = 0.1379
6
3 EI EA
3 20000
5000
cos2 =
=
+
+
0.1379 = 17.78 + 42.69 = 60.46 k/ft(ans )
L13
L2
153
16.155

4/1/2009 7:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw1_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 1, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Homework 2 (Due 04-06-09)

Reading: Chopra Sections 2.1 and 2.2, Review mass moment of inertia
Problem 1

(b)

(a)

(d)

(c)
W

EI

u
20 ft

(e)

4 ft 6 ft

6 ft 4 ft

20 ft

(g)

(f)

W = 10.35 k

6 ft

EI = 20, 000 k-ft2

EI

EA = 5000 k

(j)

u
6 ft

10 ft

10 ft

(i)

(h)

D
8 ft

Find the natural circular frequency = k / m of the above systems/structures.


Comments:
(d) For torsional vibration of the disk of mass m (circular shaft massless). The shear modulus of the shaft is G .
(h) For vibration in the x -or y direction. The platform of weightW is braced laterally in each side by two steel cables. The
cables have axial stiffness EA . Due to high prestressing, the compression cables contribute to the structural stiffness.
(i) Consider axial deformation only in cable BD .
(j) Use both a flexibility (apply unit force in direction of u ) and a stiffness approach. In the stiffness approach, start with a
3x3 stiffness matrix corresponding to the three dofs B or u, B , C , then eliminate the two rotations to get a scalar stiffness
relation involving u only (this is the static condensation technique learned in ARCE 306).
Solution:
Structure
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
4
k
+
k
k
(
)
G d
k1 + k2
k1k2
48EI
192EI
EI
1
2
3
[rad/sec]
0.100
m
m
16mLR2
L3 m
L3 m
(k1 + k2 ) m
(k1 + k2 + k3 ) m
(h)
[rad/sec] 1.189 EA
hm

(i)

(j)

12.57 0.1171

EI
m

Note: m = W / g

4/1/2009 7:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2
(a) Plot three cycles of a free vibration response of a SDF system with a mass of 1.0 k-s2 /in and a stiffness of 5 k/in
subjected to an initial displacement of 2 inches and zero initial velocity. LabelT , f , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .
(b) Double the stiffness of the SDF system in (a) and replot the response. LabelT , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .
(c) Plot the response of the system in (b) for an initial displacement of 2inches and an initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Label
T , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

4/1/2009 7:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 6, 2009
ARCE 412: Structural Dynamics
Homework 2-Solution

(b)

(a)

(d)

(c)

EI

u
20 ft

(e)

4 ft 6 ft

6 ft 4 ft

20 ft

(g)

(f)

W = 10.35 k

6 ft

EI = 20, 000 k-ft2

EI

EA = 5000 k

(j)

6 ft

u
10 ft

10 ft

(i)

(h)

D
8 ft

Find the natural circular frequency of the above systems/structures.


Comments:
(d) For torsional vibration of the disk of mass m (circular shaft massless). The shear modulus of the shaft is G .
(h) For vibration in the x -or y direction. The platform of weightW is braced laterally in each side by two steel cables. The
cables have axial stiffness EA . Due to high prestressing, the compression cables contribute to the structural stiffness.
(i) Consider axial deformation only in cable DE .
(j) Use both a flexibility (apply unit force in direction of u ) and a stiffness approach. In the stiffness approach, start with a
3x3 stiffness matrix corresponding to the three dofs B or u, B , C , then eliminate the two rotations to get a scalar stiffness
relation involving u only.

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 1
=

k1 + k 2
(ans )
m

k1k2
(ans )
(k1 + k2 ) m

(a)

k = k1 + k 2

(b)

k =

(c)

k =

(d)

k =

GJ
G d 4
1
=
, MMI = mR 2
L
32L
2

k
=
MMI

(e)

k =

48EI
L3

48EI
(ans )
L3m

(f)

k =

192EI
(ans )
L3m

(g)

EI
1
1
1

EI = 22 20 + 22 4 + 32 6 2 = 100 k =
= 0.01 EI
3

3
3
100

(h)

k =

(i)

(j)

k k
1
= 1 2
1
1
k
1 + k2
+
k1 k 2

k1 + k 2 k 3
1
1
1
=
=
=
1
1
1
1
k1 + k 2 + k 3
(k1 + k2 + k 3 )
+
+
k12 k 3
k1 + k 2 k 3
(k1 + k2 ) k 3

2 12EI
192EI
=
3
L
L3

2

EA
cos2 (stiffness of each of the 4 cables)
L
EA
EA
EA
k =4
cos2 45D = 4
0.5 = 2
2h
2h
h
=

1
1
1
62 12 +
2.52 10 = 0.01970 ft/k k =
= 50.76 k/ft
20,000
5,000
0.01970

1
1
(3.752 + 3.1252 3.75 3.125) 10 + 3.1252 10 = 72.917
3
3
EI
k =
= 0.01371 k/ft
72.917

(k

+ k2 k 3

(k1 + k2 + k 3 ) m

(ans )

G d 4
(ans )
16LmR 2

EI
(ans )
m

= 0.1

EA
EA
= 1.189
(ans )
hm
hm

50.76 32.2
= 12.57 rad/sec (ans )
10.35

EI
0.01371EI
= 0.1171
(ans )
m
m

EI =

work for g,i,j shown on next page

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009
g

i
P =1

P =1

C
6 ft

work for

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

EI = 20, 000 k-ft2

B
EA = 5000 k
6 ft

N BD =2.5

D
[k-ft]

8 ft

work for j
A

P =1
B

10 ft

10 ft

3.75

M
+

[k-ft]

3.125

stiffness approach for j


stiffness matrix
0.024 0

K
= 0
0.800
0.060 0.200

= [2 3](eliminate)

0.060
0.200
0.400

use EI = 1

dofs are 1,2,3 = A, A, B

r = 1(retain)

stiffness submatrices correspoding to 2 dofs to be eliminated and single


0.20
0.80

=0.0240
Kee = 0.20
Krr
0.40

= [0 0.06]
Ker = 0.06
Kre

-0.7143
1.4286

K1ee = -0.7143
2.8571

-0.7143
1.4286

Kcon = Krr Kre Kee 1 Ker = 0.024 [0 0.06] -0.7143


2.8571

k
= 0.0137 EI

dof to be retained

= 0.0137
0.06

Flexibility and stiffness approaches lead to the same scalar stiffness k and hence to the same natural frequency.

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2
(a) Plot three cycles of a free vibration response of a SDF system with a mass of 1.0 k-s2 /in and a stiffness of 5 k/in
subjected to an initial displacement of 2 inches and zero initial velocity. LabelT , f , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .
(b) Double the stiffness of the SDF system in (a) and replot the response. LabelT , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .
(c) Plot the response of the system in (b) for an initial displacement of 2inches and an initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Label
T , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

u(0) = slope of
u(t ) at t = 0
4

u0

u0 u0

Displacement [in]

u(0)

(a)

1
0

(b)

1
2

(c)

3
4
0

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

T
2

4
6
Time [sec]

10

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 6, 2009
ARCE 412: Structural Dynamics
Homework 3 (Due 04-10-09)

Reading:

Chopra Section 2.2


m=2 k sec2/in

Problem 1:

u(t )

k =50 k/in

The structure above with given lateral stiffness k is set into free vibration with an initial displacement of 0.5 in. and an
initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Make the following assumptions regarding damping:
(a) undamped
(b) 1% damped ( =0.01 )
(c) 20% damped ( =0.20 )
Find the solution for the displacement u(t ) and use MATLAB to plot three cycles of vibration.
Problem 2:
(a) What is the amplitude of motion of the system in Problem 1 for the undamped case?
(b) What is the maximum displacement of the system in Problem 1 for the damped cases?
(c) What is the required damping ratio to reduce the displacement at 1.5 sec to 1?
For (b) and (c) use MATLAB to calculate the response u(t ) for closely spaced time points. Then use the max command for
(b) and trial and error for (c).
Problem 3 (Chopra 2.11):
For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.
Solution: j10% =

ln(10) 0.366
=
2

Problem 4 (Chopra 2.14):


The vertical suspension system of an automobile is idealized as a viscously damped SDF system. Under the 3000-lb weight
of the car the suspension system deflects 2 in. The suspension is designed to be critically damped.
Solution:
(a) Calculate the damping and stiffness coefficients of the suspension.
(b) With four l60lb passengers in the car, what is the effective damping ratio?
k = 1500 lb/in
(a )
(c) Calculate the natural vibration frequency for case (b).
c = ccr = 215.9 lb-sec/in
= 0.908
(b)
Problem 5 (Chopra 2.15):
D = 5.28 rad/sec
(c)
The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the mass
is given as m = 0.1 lb-sec2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly released. At
the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and damping coefficients.
Solution:
k = 175.5 lb/in, c = 0.107 lb-sec/in

4/3/2009 12:54 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw3.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 6, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 3-Solution
Problem 1
Use MATLAB to plot three cycles of displacement response u(t ) of the structure above (rigid girder, column fixed at the
base). The structure is set into free vibration with an initial displacement of 0.5 in. and an initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Make
the following assumptions regarding damping:
m=2 k sec2/in
u(t )
(a) undamped
(b) 1% damped ( =0.01 )
(c) 20% damped ( =0.20 )
k=50 k/in
2.5
2

=0
= 0.01

1.5

Displacement [in]

1
0.5
0

= 0.20

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

0.5

1.5

2
Time [sec]

2.5

3.5

Problem 2:
(a) What is the amplitude of motion of the system in Problem 1 for the undamped case?
(b) What is the maximum displacement of the system in Problem 1 for the damped cases?
(c) What is the required damping ratio to reduce the displacement at 1.5 sec to 1?
2

(a) u 0

2
u(0)
= 0.52 + 10 = 2.06 "
= [u(0)] +

5
n
2

(b)u max = 2.04 " at t = 0.27 sec ( = 0.01)


u max = 1.71 " at t = 0.24 sec ( = 0.20)
(c)

try = 0.1 u(t =1.5) = 0.989

(good enough)

Problem 3 (Chopra 2.11) MOVED TO HW #4


For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.
1 u1
1
1
ln
ln = 2
= 2

j u j +1
j10% 0.1

4/10/2009 1:04 PM

j10% =

ln(10) 0.366
=

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw3_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 4 (Chopra 2.14)


The vertical suspension system of an automobile is idealized as a viscously damped SDF system. Under the 3000-lb weight
of the car the suspension system deflects 2 in. The suspension is designed to be critically damped.
(a) Calculate the damping and stiffness coefficients of the suspension.
(b) With four l60lb passengers in the car, what is the effective damping ratio?
(c) Calculate the natural vibration frequency for case (b).
(a) The stiffness coefficient is
k=

3000
= 1500 lb/in
2

The damping coeffcient is


c = ccr = 2 km = 2 1500

3000
= 215.9 lb-sec/in
386

(b) With passengers, weight isW = 3640 lb . The damping ratio is


=

c
c
=
=
ccr
2 km

215.9
= 0.908
3640
2 1500
386

(c) The natural vibration frequency for case (b) is


D = n 1 2 =

1500 386
1 0.9082 = 5.28 rad/sec
3640

Problem 5 (Chopra 2.15) MOVED TO HW #4


The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the mass
is given as m m = 0.1 lb-sec 2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly released. At
the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and damping coefficients.
(1) Determine and n
=

u
1
1
1
ln 1 =
ln = 0.0128 = 1.28%
2 j u j +1 2 20 0.2

Therefore, assumption of small damping in the above equation is valid.


TD =

3
= 0.15 sec
20

Tn TD = 0.15 sec

n =

2
= 41.89 rad/sec
0.15

(2) The stiffness coefficient is


k = n2 m = 41.892 0.1 = 175.5 lb/in

(3) The damping coefficient is


ccr = 2m n = 2 0.1 41.89 = 8.377 lb-sec/in

4/10/2009 1:04 PM

c = ccr = 0.0128 8.377 = 0.107 lb-sec/in

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw3_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 10, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 4 (Due 04-17-09)
Reading:

Chopra Section 3.1, 3.2

Problem 1 (Chopra 2.11):


For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement
amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.
Solution:
j10% =

ln(10) 0.366
=
2

Problem 2 (Chopra 2.15):


The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the
mass is given as m = 0.1 lb-sec2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly released. At the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and damping coefficients.
Solution:
k = 175.5 lb/in, c = 0.107 lb-sec/in
Problem 3: An SDF structure is excited by a sinusoidal force. At resonance the amplitude of displacement was measured to be 2 in. At an exciting frequency of one-tenth the natural frequency of the system, the displacement amplitude
was measured to be 0.2 in. Estimate the damping ratio of the system.
Problem 4: In a forced vibration test under harmonic excitation it was noted that the amplitude of motion at resonance
was exactly four times the amplitude at an excitation frequency 20% higher than the resonant frequency. Determine the
damping ratio of the system.
Problem 5: The displacement response of a SDF structure to harmonic excitation and initial conditions u(0) and u(0) is
given by
n t
u(t ) = e
[A cos D t + B sin D t
] +C
sin t
+ D cos
t

transient vibration

steady-stae vibration

Find expressions for the constants of integration A and B in terms of C , D, u(0), u(0), n , D , , and .
Solution:
A = u(0) D
u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C
B=
D

4/10/2009 7:29 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2006\hw4.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009
Problem 6:

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
W =40 k

E = 29000 ksi
I = 175 in 4

p(t ) = 15 sin(10 t ) [k]

15 ft

20 ft

Determine and plot the response of the frame above ( 0 t 5 sec ). Assume the girder is rigid and neglect the mass of
the columns.
(a) Assume at rest initial conditions and zero damping.
(b) Assume 5% damping and initial conditions u(0)=1 in and u(0)=50 in/sec .
Submit two figures, one for (a) and one for (b), containing three plots each (the transient, stead-state and total
responses). Write the numerical values for constants A, B, C , D on the figures.

Problem 7:
k = 20 k/in

W = 50 k
p(t ) = p0 sin(t )

(a) Calculate the vertical displacement of the cantilever tip due to gravity.
Assume 5% damping and consider steady state motion only:
(b) For p0 =10 k and = 5, 10,15 rad/sec calculate the amplitude of motion. Which of the three forcing frequencies
causes the largest displacement? Explain.
(c) For = 15 rad/sec calculate the maximum allowable amplitude p0 of the forcing function such that the deflection of
the cantilever due to gravity plus dynamic action is downward at all times.

4/10/2009 7:29 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2006\hw4.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 17, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 4-Solution
Problem 1
For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement
amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.
ln(10) 0.366
1
1 u1
1
= 2
=
ln
ln = 2
j10% =

j u j +1
j10% 0.1
2

Problem 2 (Chopra 2.15)


The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the
mass is given as m m = 0.1 lb-sec2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly
released. At the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and
damping coefficients.
(1) Determine and n
u
1
1
1
ln 1 =
ln = 0.0128 = 1.28%
=

2 j u j +1 2 20 0.2
Therefore, assumption of small damping in the above equation is valid.
3
2
TD =
= 0.15 sec
Tn TD = 0.15 sec
n =
= 41.89 rad/sec
20
0.15
(2) The stiffness coefficient is
k = n2 m = 41.892 0.1 = 175.5 lb/in
(3) The damping coefficient is
ccr = 2m n = 2 0.1 41.89 = 8.377 lb-sec/in

c = ccr = 0.0128 8.377 = 0.107 lb-sec/in

Problem 3
A SDF system is excited by a sinusoidal force. At resonance, the amplitude of displacement was measured to be 2in. At
an exciting frequency of one-tenth the natural frequency of the system, the displacement amplitude was measured to be
0.2 in. estimate the damping ratio of the system.
At = n
(a) u 0 = (ust )0

1
=2
2

At = 0.1n
u 0 (ust )0 = 0.2
( = 0.1 excitation is so slow, that it can be considered static)
Substituting (ust )0 = 0.2 in (a) gives
= 0.05
If we dont want to make the assumption of static response for = 0.1 , we can use the approach followed in Problem 4
(see below).

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 4
In a forced vibration test under harmonic excitation it was noted that the amplitude of motion at resonance was exactly
four times the amplitude at an excitation frequency 20% higher than the resonant frequency. Determine the damping
ratio of the system.
We assume that damping is small enough to justify the approximation that the resonant frequency is n and the
resonance amplitude is 1 / 2 . The given data then implies:
1
(a) (u 0 )=n = (ust )0
2
(b) (u 0 )=1.2n = (ust )0

1
2

(1 2 )

+ 2

= (ust )0

1
2

(1 1.22 )

Combining Eqs. (a) and (b)

1 (u0 )=n

(2 )2 (u 0 )=1.2n

2
2
1
= 1 1 =
= 0.0576(ans )

2
2

(0.44) + (2.4 )2
(2 ) 4

Assumption of small damping is reasonable.

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

+ 2 1.2

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 5
The displacement response of a SDF structure to harmonic excitation and initial conditions u(0) and u(0) is given by
n t
u(t ) = e
[A cos D t + B sin D t
] +C
sin t
+ D cos
t

steady-stae vibration

transient vibration

Find expressions for the constants of integration A and B in terms of C , D, u(0), u(0), n , D , , and .
u(0) = A + D
A = u(0) D (ans )
= e n t (AD sin D t + B D cos D t ) n e n t (A cos D t + B sin D t )
+ C cos t D sin t
u(0) = B D n A + C
u(0) + n A C u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C
(ans )
B=
=
D
D
u(t )

Problem 6
Determine and plot the response of the frame above ( 0 t 5 sec ). Assume the girder is rigid and neglect the mass of
the columns. Identify the steady state and the transient portion of the response (both in the equations and on the plot).
(a) Assume at rest initial conditions and zero damping.
(b) Assume 5% damping and initial conditions u(0)=1 in and u(0)=50 in/sec .
Submit two figures, one for (a) and one for (b), containing three plots each (the transient, stead-state and total
responses). Indicate the numerical values for constants A, B, C , D on the figures.
W =40 k
(a)
p(t ) = 15 sin(10 t ) [k]
24EI
24 29000 175
k = 3 =
= 20.88 k/in
3
L
(15 12)
20.88 386.4
= 14.20 rad/sec
40
p0 = 15 k

E = 29000 ksi
I = 175 in 4

n =

= 10 rad/sec
=

10

=
= 0.7042
14.20
n

C =

p0
1 2
k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2

20 ft

D=

p0
2
2
k (1 )2 + (2 )2

=0

C =

p0

k (1

15
20.88 (1 0.70422 )

= 1.425

D =0
A =0
B = C

= C = 1.425 0.7042 = 1.0036


n

u(t ) =

p0
k

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

p0 1

sin n t +
sin wt
2
2
k
1

transient response steady state response


C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

15 ft

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

u(0) = 0, u(0) = 0, = 0
A = 0, B = 1.0036
C = 1.425

D=0

2.5

total
transient
steady-state

2
1.5

Displacement [in]

1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
Time [sec]

3.5

4.5

(b)
n t
u(t ) = uc (t ) + u p (t ) = e
(A cos
sin t
+ D cos
t
D t + B sin D t
) + C

steady state response
transient response
p0
1 2
k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2
A = 1.195 in
B = 2.600 in

C =

p0
2
k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2
C = 1.397 in
D = 0.195 in
D=

u(0) = 1 "
A = 1.195

u(0) = 50 "/ sec = 5%


B = 2.600
C = 1.397

D = 0.195

Displacement [in]

total
transient
steady-state

0.5

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

1.5

2.5
Time [sec]

3.5

4.5

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

A = u(0) D

B=

u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C
D

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 7
k = 20 k/in

W = 50 k
p(t ) = p0 sin(t )

(a) Calculate the vertical displacement of the cantilever tip due to gravity.
Assume 5% damping and consider steady state motion only:
(b) For p0 =10 k and = 5, 10,15 rad/sec calculate the amplitude of motion. Which of the three forcing frequencies
causes the largest displacement? Explain.
(c) For = 15 rad/sec calculate the maximum allowable amplitude p0 of the forcing function such that the deflection of
the cantilever due to gravity plus dynamic action is downward at all times.

(a)

ust =

(b)

n =

W
50
=
= 2.5 "(ans )
k
20

20 386.4
= 12.43 rad/sec
50
5
1 = 5 rad/sec
1 =
= 0.402
12.43

u0 =

2 = 10 rad/sec

2 =

10
= 0.804
12.43

u0 =

3 = 15 rad/sec

3 =

15
= 1.206
12.43

u0 =

10 k
20 k/in
10 k
20 k/in
10 k
20 k/in

1.192 = 0.596 in (ans )


2.763 = 1.38 in (ans )
2.122 = 1.06 in (ans )

Excitation frequency 2 is closest to resonance largest amplitude


(c)

u = ust

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

p0
p
Rd = 2.5 0 2.122 > 0
20
k

p0 < 23.6 k (ans )

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 17, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Homework 5 (Due 04-20-09)
W = 400 k

W 36 x 135

W 36 x 170

W 36 x 170

u(t )

12 ft

Problem

=10 %

15 ft

ug (t )

The single bay/single story moment frame above with floor weight of 400 kips above is subject to ten cycles of harmonic
ground motion
2
0 < t < 10T
ug (t ) = 10 in sin t
T =

whose frequency is twice that of the natural frequency n .


Determine the constants A1, B1,C , D in the expressions below for the displacement of the floor relative to the moving
ground
u(t ) = e nt (A1 cos D t + B1 sin D t ) + C sin t + D cos t

0 < t < 10T

T =

After 10 cycles the ground motions stops and the structure vibrates freely. Determine the constants A2 , B2 in the expression
below for 2 seconds of free vibration after the ground has stopped moving.
u(t1 + 10T )

= e nt1 (A2 cos D t1 + B2 sin D t1 )

0 < t1 < 2 sec

Plot u(t ) and ug (t ) as a function of time.


Partial solution:
= 0.351 sec

= 0.175 sec

A1 = 1.747 in, B1 = 26.51 in, C = 13.10 in, D = 1.747 in


A2 =

1.852 in, B2 = 25.36 in

ground displacement ug (t )
displacement u(t ) of floor (mass) relative to ground

20

Displacement [in]

Tn

30

10
0
10
20
30
0

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5.doc

2
Time [sec]
4/17/2009

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 20, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Homework 5-Solution

Problem

W = 400 k

u(t )

12 ft

W 36 x 135

W 36 x 170

W 36 x 170

=10 %

15 ft

ug (t )

The single bay/single story moment frame above with floor weight of 400 kips above is subject to harmonic ground motion
2
0 < t < 10T
ug (t ) = 10 in sin t
T =

whose frequency is twice that of the natural frequency n .


Determine the constants A1, B1,C , D in the expressions below for the displacement of the floor relative to the moving
ground for 10 cycles of ground motion
u(t ) = e nt (A1 cos D t + B1 sin D t ) + C sin t + D cos t

0 < t < 10T

T =

After 10 cycles the ground motions stops and the structure vibrates freely. Determine the constants A2 , B2 in the expression
below for 2 seconds of free vibration after the ground has stopped moving.
u(t1 + 10T )

= e nt1 (A2 cos D t1 + B2 sin D t1 )

0 < t1 < 2 sec

Plot u(t ) and ug (t ) as a function of time.

30

ground displacement ug (t )
displacement u(t ) of floor (mass) relative to ground

Displacement [in]

20
10
0
10
20
30
0

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5_sol.doc

2
Time [sec]
4/17/2009 7:19 AM

-1-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Vibration properties

M for unit lateral load


72 k"

72 k"

EIC = 10, 500 29, 000

= 304.5 106 k-in2

EIG = 7, 800 29, 000

=
n

= 226.2 106 k-in2


=2

1
1
1
1
722 144 2 +
722 180 = 3.0094 103 in/k
304.5 106 3
226.2 106 3

1
1
=
3.0094 103 in/k
f

Tn
n

= 332.29 k/in

400 / 386.4
m
= 2
332.29
k
2
2
=
=
Tn
0.351
= 2

= 0.351 sec
= 17.92 rad/sec

1
Tn = 0.5 0.351

= 0.1753 sec

2
2
=
0.1753
T

= 35.84 rad/sec

ug

= 10 in sin 35.84 t

ug

= 35.832 10 sin 35.84 t = 12, 840 in/sec2 sin 35.83 t

p0

= m ug 0 = 400 k / 386.4 in/sec2 12, 840 in/sec2 = 13292 k

)
)

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5_sol.doc

4/17/2009 7:19 AM

-2-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Constants in response equation (see Hw #4)


u(t )

n t
= uc (t ) + u p (t ) = e
(A1 cos
)+ C
sin t
+ D cos
t
D t + B1 sin D t


steady state response
transient response

p0
1 2
k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2

p0
2
2
k (1 )2 + (2 )2

A1

= u(0) D

B1

13292
1 22

332.29 (1 22 )2 + (2 0.1 2)2

= 13.01 in

13292
2 0.1 2

2
332.29 (1 2 )2 + (2 0.1 2)2

= 1.747 in

= 0 1.747

u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C
D

= 1.747 in

0 + 17.92 0.1 1.747 13.01 35.84

= 26.51 in

17.92 1 0.12

In order to describe the free vibration response after the ground motion has stopped, we need to find the
displacement u(t = 10T ) and the velocity u(t = 10T ) at the end of the ground excitation. These values serve as initial
conditions for the free vibration.
u(t )
u(t = 10T )

= e nt (A1 cos D t + B1 sin D t ) + C sin t + D cos t


= 1.852 in

u(t )
u(t = 10T )

= e n t (AD sin D t + B D cos D t ) n e n t (A cos D t + B sin D t ) + C cos t D sin t


= 448.8 in/sec

A2

= u(0) = 1.852 in

B2

u(t + 10T )

= e nt (A2 cos D t + B2 sin D t )

0 < t < 10T = 1.753 sec

u(0) + n u(0) 448.8 + 17.92 0.1 1.852


=
= 25.36 in
D
17.92 1 0.12
0 < t < 2 sec

plot see page 1

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5_sol.doc

4/17/2009 7:19 AM

-3-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 20, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 6 (Due 04-24-09)
Reading:

Chopra Sections 5.1, 5.4

Problem 1
An SDF system has the following properties: m =0.2533 k sec2 /in, k =10 k/in, =0.05 . Use the NEWMARK average
acceleration method to calculate and plot the displacement response u(t ) of this system to a force p(t ) = 10 sin(t ) (at
rest initial conditions).
(a) Use hand calculation with t = 0.1 sec for as many times ti that you need to understand the procedure.
(b) Implement the NEWMARK average acceleration method for a SDF system in MATLAB by writing a function
function u = newmark(m,c,k,p,delt)
where m, c, k are the mass, viscous damping coefficient, and stiffness, respectively of the SDF structure, p is a row vector
containing the loading function and t is the time step. The output argument u is a vector (say row vector) containing
the displacement response of the SDF system.
(c) Test your algorithm by calculating the displacement response u(t ) for 0 t 10 sec . Use time
steps t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec . Also plot the exact solution. The exact solution is (see HW 4)
u(t )

= exp(nt ) (A cos Dt + B sin Dt ) + C sin t + D cos t

Submit: (a) Hand calculations. (b) A single plot containing the solution with t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec and the exact
solution. Use different colors or different linestyles to distinguish solutions for different t .
Problem 2
Use the NEWMARK average acceleration method to calculate and plot the displacement response (the lateral
deformation) of two SDF systems with natural periodsTn = 2 sec andTn = 0.5 sec , respectively to the 1989 Loma
Prieta earthquake (recorded at Gilroy). Assume 5% damping. The record lomaprieta.dat (on blackboard) contains
1001ground acceleration data points in cm/sec2 at a spacing of 0.02 sec.
600

Acceleration [cm/s2]

400
200
0
200

Loma Prieta Ground Acceleration

400
600
0

10
Time [s]

12

14

16

18

20

Submit: Single page with two plots (ground acceleration in units of g and relative displacement response in [in] (the
output of the NEWMARK function), single plot for the two periods).

4/20/2009 8:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw6.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 22, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 6-Solution
Problem 1
An SDF system has the following properties: m =0.2533 k sec2 /in, k =10 k/in, =0.05 . Use the NEWMARK average
acceleration method to calculate and plot the displacement response u(t ) of this system to a force p(t ) = 10 sin(t ) (at rest
initial conditions).
(a) Use hand calculation with t = 0.1 sec for as many times ti that you need to understand the procedure.
(b) Implement the NEWMARK average acceleration method for a SDF system in MATLAB by writing a function
function u = newmark(m,c,k,p,delt)
where m, c, k are the mass, viscous damping coefficient, and stiffness, respectively of the SDF structure, p is a row vector
containing the loading function and t is the time step. The output argument u is a vector (say row vector) containing the
displacement response of the SDF system.
(c) Test your algorithm by calculating the displacement response u(t ) for 0 t 10 sec . Use time
steps t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec . Also plot the exact solution. The exact solution is (see HW 4)
u(t )

= exp(nt ) (A cos Dt + B sin Dt ) + C sin t + D cos t

Submit: (a) Hand calculations. (b) A single plot containing the solution with t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec and the exact solution.
t = 0.5

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

t
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00

p(t )
0.0000
3.0902
5.8779
8.0902
9.5106
10.0000
9.5106
8.0902
5.8779
3.0902
0.0000

u(t )
0.0000
10.7951
16.1621
13.5749
3.6228
-10.2937
-23.2601
-30.6321
-29.6599
-20.3904
-5.5699

u(t )
0.0000
0.5398
1.8876
3.3745
4.2343
3.9008
2.2231
-0.4715
-3.4861
-5.9886
-7.2866

u(t )
0.0000
0.0270
0.1484
0.4115
0.7919
1.1987
1.5049
1.5924
1.3946
0.9208
0.2571

t = 0.10
t = 0.02, exact(virtually identical)

Displacement [in]

1
0
1
2
3
0

Time [sec]

10

Numerical (Newmark Average Acceleration Method


using different time steps) and analytical response.

4/29/2009 10:58 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw6_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2
Use the NEWMARK average acceleration method to calculate and plot the acceleration, velocity and displacement response
of two SDF systems with natural periodsTn = 2 sec andTn = 0.5 sec , respectively to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
(recorded at Gilroy). Assume 5% damping. The record (\ansgar\lomaprieta.dat on the ARCE shared drive) contains
1001ground acceleration data points in cm/sec2 at a spacing of 0.02 sec.
600

Acceleration [cm/s2]

400
200
0
200

Loma Prieta Ground Acceleration

400
600
0

10
Time [s]

12

14

16

18

20

Submit: Single page with two plots (ground acceleration in units of g and relative displacement response in [in] (the output
of the NEWMARK function), single plot for the two periods).

Ground Acceleration [g]

0.8
0.6

max ug = 0.665 g

0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6

Displacement [in]

0.8
0

20

10

t [sec]

15

20

Tn = 2 sec
Tn = 0.5 sec

= 0.05

10
0
10

u max = 20.6 in
u max = 3.35 in

20
0

10
Time [s]

15

20

Loma Prieta ground acceleration and displacement response of two SDF structures (displacement is relative to the ground)
with 5% damping.

4/29/2009 10:58 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw6_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


nstructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 24, 2009
ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 7 (Due 04-29-09)


Reading: Chopra, Chapter 6
Problem 1
Calculate the 5% damped displacement (in cm) and acceleration response spectra (in g) (also called the spectral
displacement and spectral acceleration, respectively) of the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes (on Blackboard). Consider 51 natural periodsTn equally spaced between Tn = 0.2 sec and Tn = 3 sec .
Submit: Two plots (spectral displacement and acceleration), single plot for the two EQ motions and table with spectral
values (see below) Hint: Cut and paste spectral values A and D from MATLAB into EXCEL
Solution:
Northridge

60

= 0.05

50

Loma Prieta

40
30
20
10
0
0

2.5

70

Spectral Acceleration [g]

Spectral Displacement [cm]

80

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

Tn [sec]

D [cm] LP

2.5

= 0.05

1.5

Loma Prieta

0.5

Northridge
0
0

A [g] LP

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

D [cm] NR

2.5

A [g] NR

1
0.2
...
...
51
3
Problem 2
A 10-ft-long vertical cantilever made of a steel pipe supports a 3000-lb weight attached at the tip as shown. The properties
of the pipe are: outside diameter=6.625, inside diameter=6.065 in. Find (1) the peak deformation, (2) the equivalent static
force and (3) the bending stress resulting from the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes. Ignore the weight of the pipe
and assume 5% damping. CAUTION: Earthquake records are in cm/sec 2

Partial Solution:

4/27/2009 7:39 AM

Loma Prieta:

= 50.0 ksi(ans )

Northridge:

= 36.2 ksi(ans )

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 29, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 7-Solution
Problem 1
Calculate the 5% damped displacement (in cm) and acceleration response spectra (in g) for the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes (in directory ansgar on the ARCE shared drive). Consider 51 natural periodsTn equally spaced between Tn = 0.2 sec and Tn = 3 sec .
Submit: Two plots (spectral displacement and acceleration), single plot for the two motions. Table (see below) with
spectral values. Hint: Cut and paste spectral values A and D from MATLAB into EXCEL

Spectral Displacement [cm]

80
70
60

= 0.05

50
40
30
20

Northridge

10

Loma Prieta

0
0

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

2.5

Spectral Acceleration [g]

2.5

= 0.05

1.5

Northridge
1

Loma Prieta

0.5

0
0

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

2.5

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

MATLAB statements
%HW 7, NEWMARK METHOD, ground acceleration, response spectrum
clear all
close('all')
width = 1.5;
width1 = 1.0
size1=16;
size2=20;
load c:\calpoly\arce412\eqrecords\lomaprieta.dat;
load c:\calpoly\arce412\eqrecords\northridge.dat;
input = [lomaprieta northridge];
t = [0:0.02:20]; zeta

= 0.05; m=1;delt

= 0.02;

delT = (3 - 0.2)/50;
T
= [0.2:delT:3];
for i=1:2
for j=1:length(T);
j
TT = T(j);
k
= 4*pi^2 ./ TT^2;
c
= zeta * 2 * sqrt( k * m);
[u,udot,uddot] = newmark(m,c,k,-input(:,i)'*m,delt);
dis(i,j) = max(abs(u));
acc(i,j) = dis(i,j) .* k / 981;
end
end
col = ['b';'r'];
st=['- ';'--']
figure(1)
hold on
for i=1:2
plot(T,dis(i,:),col(i,:),'linewidth',width,'linestyle',st(i,:));
ty = [col(i,:) '*']
plot(T,dis(i,:),ty,'linewidth',width1);
end
xlabel('\itT_n \rm[sec]','fontsize',size2);
ylabel('Spectral Displacement [cm]','fontsize',size2);
set(gca,'plotboxaspectratio',[1.5 1 1]);
set(gca,'fontsize',size1);
print -depsc -r1200 -tiff c:\calpoly
figure(2)
hold on
for i=1:2
plot(T,acc(i,:),col(i,:),'linewidth',width,'linestyle',st(i,:));
ty = [col(i,:) '*']
plot(T,acc(i,:),ty,'linewidth',width1);
end
xlabel('\itT_n \rm [sec]','fontsize',size2);
ylabel('Spectral Acceleration [g]','fontsize',size2);
set(gca,'plotboxaspectratio',[1.5 1 1]);
set(gca,'fontsize',size1);
stop
%build table
res(:,[1 2 4 3 5]) = [ T' dis' acc'];
%print -depsc -r1200 -tiff c:\calpoly

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Numerical results
Tn [sec]

D [cm] LP

A [g] LP

D [cm] NR

A [g] NR

0.20
0.26
0.31
0.37
0.42
0.48
0.54
0.59
0.65
0.70
0.76
0.82
0.87
0.93
0.98
1.04
1.10
1.15
1.21
1.26
1.32
1.38
1.43
1.49
1.54
1.60
1.66
1.71
1.77
1.82
1.88
1.94
1.99
2.05
2.10
2.16
2.22
2.27
2.33
2.38
2.44
2.50
2.55
2.61
2.66
2.72
2.78
2.83
2.89
2.94
3.00

2.54
1.98
4.73
3.15
4.08
7.37
9.15
8.25
7.57
9.91
11.94
13.11
14.16
15.32
17.00
19.10
21.30
23.52
25.75
27.95
30.07
32.14
33.96
35.51
37.48
40.05
41.92
43.82
45.37
46.45
48.94
50.91
52.19
52.60
52.73
53.21
54.83
56.25
57.33
58.01
58.25
58.08
57.58
56.94
56.22
55.38
54.38
53.22
51.96
50.63
49.24

2.55
1.22
1.96
0.94
0.91
1.29
1.28
0.95
0.73
0.80
0.83
0.79
0.75
0.72
0.71
0.71
0.71
0.71
0.71
0.70
0.69
0.68
0.67
0.65
0.63
0.63
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.53
0.50
0.48
0.46
0.45
0.44
0.43
0.41
0.39
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.27
0.25
0.24
0.22

0.65
1.51
2.83
2.56
4.27
5.33
7.42
8.72
8.97
8.71
12.13
18.02
20.94
19.72
15.70
12.83
14.06
15.43
20.51
24.87
27.32
28.16
27.81
25.87
26.17
27.17
28.05
28.79
29.43
32.01
37.64
43.14
48.10
53.08
57.91
61.66
65.75
69.01
71.14
72.36
72.62
73.39
74.55
75.03
74.80
73.86
72.30
70.33
69.56
70.16
70.40

0.65
0.93
1.17
0.76
0.96
0.93
1.04
1.00
0.86
0.71
0.84
1.09
1.11
0.92
0.65
0.48
0.47
0.47
0.57
0.63
0.63
0.60
0.55
0.47
0.44
0.43
0.41
0.40
0.38
0.39
0.43
0.46
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.53
0.54
0.54
0.53
0.51
0.49
0.47
0.46
0.44
0.42
0.40
0.38
0.35
0.34
0.33
0.31

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2
A 10-ft-long vertical cantilever made of a 6-in nominal-diameter standard steel pipe supports a 3000-lb weight attached
at the tip as shown. The properties of the pipe are: outside diameter=6.625, inside diameter=6.6065 in. Find (1) the peak
deformation, (2) the equivalent static force and (3) the bending stress resulting from the Northridge and Loma Prieta
earthquakes. Ignore the weight of the pipe.

(6.6254 6.0654 ) = 28.14 in 4


64
3EI
3 29, 000 28.14
= 1.417 k/in
k = 3 =
L
1203
W = 3000 lbs
I

Tn = 2

3000
= 0.465 sec
1.417 103 386.4

Spectral displacement,force, moment,stress


Loma Prieta:

D(Tn = 0.465, = 0.05) =

6.34cm


from Newmark

2.54 cm/in

= 2.50 in (ans )

F = 2.50 1.417 = 3.54 k (ans )


M = 3.54 120 = 424 k-in
=

Northridge:

424
6.625 / 2 = 50.0 ksi (ans )
28.14

D(Tn = 0.465, = 0.05) =

4.59cm
= 1.81 in (ans )
2.54 cm/in

F = 1.81 1.417 = 2.56 k (ans )


M = 2.56 120 = 307 k-in

307
6.625 / 2 = 36.2 ksi (ans )
28.14

Note: Section properties are calculated based on nominal dimensions. Use of steel manual results in smaller section
properties and correspondingly larger stresses. The results are
= 58.1 ksi (Loma Prieta)
= 42.0 ksi (Northridge)

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
April 29, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 8 (Due 05-04-09)
Reading:

Chopra Section 9.1, 9.2

Problem 1
A uniform rigid bar of total mass m is supported on two springs k1 and k2 at the two ends and
subjected to dynamic forces as shown in the figure. Formulate the equations of motion with
respect to the two DOFs defined at the left end of the bar.
Partial Solution:

mL
m

k1 + k2 k2L

k =
m
=

k2L2
mL mL2
k2L

3
2
Problem 2
Find the 2x2
(a) mass,
(b) flexibility (using PVF hand calculation)
(c) stiffness (use beam element in MATLAB, eliminate unwanted DOFs)
matrices of the beam for the two DOFs shown. Check whether the stiffness and
flexibility matrices are the inverse of each other.
Partial Solution:
L3 8 7
f =
486EI 7 8
Problem 3
A rigid bar is supported by a weightless column as shown. Find the 2x2
(a) mass
(b) flexibility (using PVF hand calculation)
(c) stiffness (by inverting the flexibility matrix)
matrices of the system defined for the two DOFs shown.
Find the stiffness matrix by inverting the flexibility matrix.
f =

L3
6EI

2 5

5 14

4/29/2009 8:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 4

Solution for (4.1)


6

K = k 0

M = 0

6 b , with

b 3b 2

k=

12EI
h3

0
0

m
0

b2
0 m
6

The figure shows a uniform slab supported on four columns rigidly attached to the slab and clamped at the base. The
slab has a total mass m and is rigid in plane and out of plane. Each column is of circular cross section with moment of
inertia I or 2I . With the DOFs selected as ux , uy , u
(1) at the center of mass of the slab (as shown)
(2) at the center of stiffness of the slab (not shown)
find the mass and stiffness matrices in terms of m and the lateral stiffness k = 12 EI / h 3 of the smaller column.
Problem 5

Solution

= 0.5 ft

C = 150 #/ft3
z

12 '

16 '

EA

12 '

16 '
12 '

Wslab

16 '

0.064
0
0

0.0295 0.7071 [ft,k]


= EA 0

0
0.7071 26.19

2.683

0
0

2.683
0 [ft, k, sec]
= 0

0
0
644.0

= 86.4 k

Find the mass and stiffness matrices with respect to the three in plane degrees-of-freedom ux , uy , z . In-plane stiffness is
provided by the three diagonal braces.

4/29/2009 8:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
May 6, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 8-Solution

Relative displacement, velocity and acceleration response time history for Loma Prieta Earthquake ( = 5%) .

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

-1-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

-2-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

-3-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

-4-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2c
Using the beam element with four degrees-of-freedom the stiffness matrix with respect to the 8 free degrees-of-freedom
(4 rotations and 2 translations) is
54
6
0
0
0
12

54
648
0 324
54
0

6
54
0
24
6
0

Kfree =
use E = 1, I = 1, L = 1
324
54
648
0
53
0

54
6
0
24
6
0

0
0
53
6
12
0

Since zero mass is associated with the rotations, we eliminate the four rotations to generate a stiffness matrix with
respect to the two translations only.
EI 259.2 - 226.8
K final = 3
(ans )
259.2
L - 226.8

Below are the corresponding MATLAB statements


free = [2 3 4 5 6 8];
Kfree
= K(free,free);
r
= [2 4];
e
= [1 3 5 6];
Krr = Kfree(r,r);
Kre = Kfree (r,e);
Ker = Kfree (e,r);
Kee = Kfree (e,e);
%Final 2x2 st. matrix
Kfinal = Krr - Kre*inv(Kee) * Ker
Problem 4.2
When we apply the degrees-of-freedom at the center of rigidity all off-diagonal terms of the stiffness matrix a zero (that
is the definition of the center of rigidity). Furthermore, the diagonal elements related to the displacements are the same
as before. Hence we only need to calculate element K 33 of the stiffness matrix. The mass matrix is no longer diagonal,
coupling exists between the acceleration in the y -direction and the moment (and also, by symmetry) between the angular
acceleration and the y -force). Element M 33 of the mass matrix also changes.
d1 =

13
b, d2 =
36

25
b
36

13 2
25 2
17 2
b + 2k
b =
bk
36
36
6
2
1
1
7
M 33 =
m (b 2 + b 2 ) + m b 2 =
mb 2
6
12
36

0
0
6 0
6 0

12EI
K = k 0 6
0 = k 0 6
0 (ans ), with k = 3

0 0 2.833b 2
0 0 17 b 2

1 0
0

0
0
1

M = 0 1
b m = 0
1
0.1667b m (ans )

0 0.1667b 0.1944b 2

1
7b 2

b
0

6
36

K 33 = 2 2 kd12 + 2 kd22 = 4k

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

-5-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 5

= 0.5 ft

C = 150 #/ft3
z

12 '

16 '

EA

12 '

16 '
12 '

16 '

Find the mass and stiffness matrices with respect to the three in plane degrees-of-freedom ux , uy , z . In-plane stiffness is
provided by the three diagonal braces.
EA
EA
cos2 = 2
0.82
L
20
k21 = k12 = 0
k11 = 2

= 0.0640 EA

k 31 = k13 = 0
EA
EA
cos2 =
0.7072
L
16.971
= k23 = 0.02950 EA 24

k22 =

= 0.02950 EA

k 32

= 0.7071 EA

1
1

0.70712 242 = 26.19 EA


k 33 = EA 2 0.802 122 +
20

16.971
0.0640

0
0

K = EA 0
0.0295 0.7071 k, ft(ans )

0
0.7071 26.19

Wslab = 48 ' 24 ' 0.5 ' 0.150 k/ft3 = 86.4 k


86.4
k-sec2
= 2.683
32.2
ft
1
2
2
MMI =
(24 + 48 ) 2.683 = 643.9k-sec2 -ft
12
2.683
0
0

2.683
0 [ft, k, sec](ans )
M
= 0

0
0
644.0

k 31

0.032 EA
16 ft

16 ft

EA
0.707 2 24
16.971
= 0.7071 EA

k 32

k11

16 ft

16 ft

EA
0.82 12
20
= 0.384 EA
k23

k 33

12 ft

12 ft

0.032 EA

k12

12 ft

k21

0.0295 EA u1 = 0, u2 = 1, u 3 = 0
k22

16 ft

12 ft

u1 = 1, u2 = 0, u 3 = 0

16 ft

12 ft

u1 = 0, u2 = 0, u 3 = 1
12 ft

k13

0.384 EA
16 ft

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

16 ft

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

16 ft

-6-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
May 8, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 9 (Due 05-13-09)
Reading:

Chopra Section 10.1, 10.2, 10.3

Problem 1
Determine the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes
of the structure for k1 =k and k2 =2k . Sketch the mode shapes.
Use the mass and stiffness matrices determined in HW 8.

m (total mass)

Solution:
1 = 1.592

k
m

1 =

0.634
/
L

k
m

2 = 3.076

2 =

2.366
/
L

Problem 2
Determine the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes of the structure
in terms of m, EI and L . Sketch the mode shapes.
Use the mass and stiffness matrices determined in HW 8.

Solution:
1 = 9.859

EI
mL4

2 = 38.184

EI
mL4

1
1 =
1

1
2 =
1

Problem 3:

Determine the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes of the structure (rigid beams) in terms of m, EI and h .
Sketch the mode shapes. Use MATLABs eig function to calculate the eigenvalues (natural frequencies) and
eigenvectors (mode shapes). Normalize the mode shapes such that the value at the roof level has unit value. In Matlab,
use E = 1, I = 1, h = 1, m = 1 . Model the frame in RISA or ETABS, perform a frequency analysis to find the mode
shapes and frequencies. Compare the results. A correct model should give you the exact same frequencies and mode
shapes.
Solution:
1 = 2.241

5/8/2009 7:53 AM

EI
mh 3

2 = 4.899

EI
mh 3

3 = 7.140

EI
mh 3

0.314

1 = 0.686

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_9.doc

0.5

2 = 0.5

3.186

3 = 2.186

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 14, 2009


ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Homework 9-Solution

5/14/2009 2:37 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw9_sol.doc

-1-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
Problem 10.12

5/14/2009 2:37 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw9_sol.doc

-2-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

5/14/2009 2:37 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw9_sol.doc

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

-3-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
May 15, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 10 (Due 05-20-09)
Reading:

Chopra Sections 10.7-10.8

Problem 1

For the structure of HW 8, P 4 (rigid slab on four columns), find the three natural periods Tn and corresponding mode
shapes for in-plane vibrations. Define the degrees-of-freedom
(1) at the center of mass of the slab (as shown)
(2) at the center of stiffness of the slab (not shown)
and show that both frequencies and mode shapes are independent of where we apply the degrees-of-freedom. Order the
periods in descending order and sketch the mode shapes. Use MATLAB.
(3) Model the structure in ETABS or RISA 3D and calculate natural periods and mode shapes. Include plots of the mode
shapes in your submittal. Model the columns as fixed-fixed.
UseW = 32.2 k (total weight of slab), b = 30 ft, k = 12EI / h 3 = 100 k/ft .
Solution: T1 = 0.267 sec,T2 = 0.256 sec T3 = 0.146 sec
Problem 2

u3
12 ft

25 k

W 14 x 48

u2
12 ft

50 k
W 14 x 90

u1
12 ft

50 k
W 14 x 120

girders assumed rigid

Shape

I [in 4 ]

W 14x48
W 14x90

485
999

5/15/2009 10:15 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_10.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

W 14x120
1380
(1) Determine the natural periods Tn and modes n of the three-story frame above. Sketch the mode shapes and
identify the associated natural frequencies. Normalize each mode so that the modal mass M n = Tn m n has
unit value.
Solution:
0.2554
0.4103
0.6407

= 0.5313
0.3876
-0.4600
for m in k, sec, ft

-0.8068
0.2097
0.7701

T = [ 0.270 0.124 0.084 ] sec


0.885

1.421
2.219

1.840
=
1.343
-1.593
for m in k, sec, in

- 2.795
0.726
2.668

(2) Determine the free vibration response of the frame for the following three vectors of initial displacements (the
initial velocity is zero). Neglect damping. Consider 0 t 1.0 sec .
T
T
T
[in]
u I = 1 2 3
u II = 1 0.25 1
u III = 1 1 1

Comment on the relative contribution of the three vibration modes to the response produced by the three initial displacements.
Submit:
(1) Summary of analysis. Sketch of mode shapes.
(2) One plot for each vector of initial displacements showing the roof response in modes 1, 2, and 3 and the total
roof response (i.e. 4 lines per plot).
(3) Use hand calculation to calculate at t = 1 sec for the three initial conditions:
3.1 The total (all modes combined) first floor displacement.
3.2 The roof displacement in mode 2.
3.3 The second floor displacement in mode 1.
Roof displacement for IC 2
mode 1
mode 2
mode 3
total

Partial Solution

displacement in [in]
3.1

3.2

3.3

IC 1

0.26

0.026

0.57

IC 2

0.90

0.75

0.061

IC 3

0.69

0.40

0.025

Important arrays and their dimensions:


N
number of degrees of freedom (dof) =number of modes
NT

number of time points

structure response (N x NT matrix)

modal response (N x NT matrix)

mode shapes (N x N matrix)

(i, j )

value of mode shape j at dof i

= q

5/15/2009 10:15 AM

matrix product = row times column = modal supoerposition

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_10.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
May 20, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 10-Solution
Problem 1

For the structure of HW 8, P 4 (rigid slab on four columns) find the three natural periods Tn and corresponding mode
shapes for in-plane vibrations. Define the degrees-of-freedom
(1) at the center of mass of the slab (as shown)
(2) at the center of stiffness of the slab (not shown)
and show that both frequencies and mode shapes are independent of where we apply the degrees-of-freedom.
Order the periods in descending order and sketch the mode shapes.
UseW = 32.2 k (total weight of slab), b = 30 ft, k = 12EI / h 3 = 100 k/ft .
Center of mass (compare HW 8 solution)

1 0 0
1 0

M = m 0 1 0 = 1 0 1

b2
0 0

0 0
6

0
0
0 600
0
0
6 0
6

6
600
K = k 0 6 b = 100 0
30 = 0
3, 000

0 b 3b 2
0 30 3 302 0 3, 000 270, 000

0 1 0 0

0 = 0 1 0

302 0 0 150

Center of stiffness (compare HW 8 solution)

1 0

M = m 0 1

1
b
0

0
0 600 0
0
6 0
6 0

K = k 0 6
0 = 100 0 6
0 = 0 600
0


0 255, 000
0 0 17 b 2
0 0 17 302 0

6
6

MATLAB statemenets
[phi lam] = eig(K,M);

CM

%frequencies
omega = sqrt(diag(lam))

= 0.9813

0.0157

1.000
0
0

1
0
0
0

1 0 0

1
1


1
b = 1 0
30 = 0 1 5

6
6


0 5 175

7b 2
1
7 302
30

36
6
36

0.1926

0.0801

2
3
CR

%sort
[omega j] = sort(omega);
phi
= phi(:,j);
T
= 2*pi ./ omega

CR

1.0000

0.5932

0.0801

2
1

3
1

CM

0.9027

0.0157

Mode 2

Mode 3

T1 = 0.267 sec,T2 = 0.256 sec T3 = 0.146 sec

Since 0.9813 = 0.9027 + 5 0.0157 and 0.1926 = 0.5932 + 5 0.0801 , the two mode shape describe identical
motions.

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-1-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Sketch of mode shapes


Mode 1

Mode 2

25 k

Problem 2

Mode 3

u3

W 14 x 48
50 k

u2

W 14 x 90
50 k

u1

W 14 x 120

girders assumed rigid


Shape

I [in 4 ]

W 14x48
W 14x90
W 14x120

485
999
1380

(1) Determine the natural periods Tn and modes n of the three-story frame above. Sketch the mode shapes and
identify the associated natural frequencies. Normalize each mode so that the modal mass M n = Tn m n has
unit value.
Solution:
0.885
1.421
2.219

T = [ 0.270 0.124 0.084 ] sec =


1.840
1.343
-1.593

- 2.795
0.726
2.668

(2) Determine the free vibration response of the frame for the following three vectors of initial displacements (the
initial velocity is zero). Neglect damping. Consider 0 t 1.0 sec .
T
T
T
u I = 1 2 3
u II = 1 0.25 1
u III = 1 1 1
[in]

Comment on the relative contribution of the three vibration modes to the response produced by the three initial displacements.

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-2-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Submit:
(1) Summary of analysis. Sketch of mode shapes.
(2) One plot for each vector of initial displacements showing the roof response in modes 1, 2, and 3 and the total
roof response (i.e. 4 lines per plot).
(3) Use hand calculation to calculate at t = 1 sec for the three initial conditions:
3.1 The total (all modes combined) first floor displacement.
3.2 The roof displacement in mode 2.
3.3 The second floor displacement in mode 1.
MATLAB code
%3-story frame (rigid girders)
clear all
close('all')
%story mass and stiffnesses
m = 50/386.4;
E = 29000;
k1 = 24*E*1380 /144/12^3;
k2 = 24*E* 999 /144/12^3;
k3 = 24*E* 485 /144/12^3;
K = [k1+k2 -k2 0; -k2 k2+k3 -k3; 0 -k3 k3]/12;
M = [m 0 0; 0 m 0; 0 0 m/2];
%frequencies
[phi lam] = eig(K,M); omega = sqrt(diag(lam))
%sort frequencies and modes
[omega j] = sort(omega); phi= phi(:,j);T= 2*pi ./ omega
N = length(T);
%normalize phi
for i=1:N
Mn(i)
= phi(:,i)' * M * phi(:,i);
phi(:,i) = phi(:,i) ./ sqrt(Mn(i));
end
%initial conditions
%u0
= [1 2 3]';
u0
= [-1 0.25 1]';
%u0
= [1 -1 1]';
q0
= inv(phi) * u0;
t

= [0:0.001:1]; NT= length(t); umode=zeros(N,NT,N);

%modal displacements
for i=1:3
q(i,:) = q0(i) .* cos(omega(i) .* t);
end
%structure displacements in individual modes
for i=1:N
umode(:,:,i) = phi(:,i) * q(i,:);
end
%total structure displacements (all modes combined)
utot = phi * q;
col = ['r';'g';'b';'k'];
figure
hold on
for i=1:3
plot(t,umode(3,:,i),col(i,:));
end
plot(t,utot(3,:),col(4,:));
axis([0 1 -3 3]);

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-3-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Summary of matrices and hand calculations


554.5 - 232.8
0

K = - 232.8
345.9 -113.0 k/in

0
-113.0
113.0

0.885
1.421
2.219

1.343
-1.593
=
1.840

2.668
- 2.795
0.726

q0

q 0,1

q 0,2

q 0,3

-1

0.1294

= 0

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0
0.1294
0
0.2381
0.1737
-0.2062

2
0
k sec /in

0.0647

0.1726

-0.1808

0.0470

= -1u 0
= -1u 0,1

= -1u 0,2

-1

= u 0,3

cos 1 1

cos 2 1 =

cos 3 1

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0.2381
0.1737
-0.2062
0.2381
0.1737
-0.2062
0.2381
0.1737
-0.2062

0.1726 1

-0.1808 2

0.0470 3

0.1726 1

-0.1808 0.25

0.0470 1

0.1726 1

-0.1808 1

0.0470 1

1.1086

= -0.0111

0.0158

0.1177

= -0.3213

-0.2917

0.0489

= -0.1706

0.5404

-0.2812

0.8305

0.7550

For IC 1

= 0.885 1.1086 (0.2812) + 1.421 (0.0111) 0.8305 + 2.219 0.0158 0.7550 = 0.263 in

3.1

u1

3.2

u3,2 = 2.795 (0.0111) 0.8305 = 0.026 in

3.3

u2,1 = 1.840 1.1086 (0.2812) = 0.574 in

other IC analogous

Summary

displacement in [in]
3.1

3.2

3.3

IC 1

0.26

0.026

0.57

IC 2

0.90

0.75

0.061

IC 3

0.69

0.40

0.025

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-4-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Plots

roof displacement [in]

Roof displacement for IC 1


mode 1
mode 2
mode 3
total

1
0
1
2
3
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

time [sec]

0.8

Sketch of mode shapes


3

roof displacement [in]

2
1

Roof displacement for IC 2


mode 1
mode 2
mode 3
total

0
1
2
3
0

roof displacement [in]

2
1

0.2

0.4

0.6

time [sec]

0.8

0.8

Roof displacement for IC 3


mode 1
mode 2
mode 3
total

0
1
2
3
0

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

0.2

0.4

0.6

time [sec]

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-5-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
May 22, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 11 (Due 05-29-09)
48.3 k

u3

96.6 k

u2

96.6 k

u1

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 1500 k/ft

18 f

girders assumed rigid


k = story stiffness

Calculate the response of the three-story frame above to the Loma Prieta ground motion. Select 5% damping.
Response quantities of interest are:
(1-3) The inter-story drift ratio in % for the three stories. Story heights are 12 ft for stories 2 and 3 and 15 ft for story 1.
(4) The overturning moment in k-ft.
Plot the response in modes 1 and 2 and the total response for 0 < t < 12 sec . Don't include the third mode (its
contribution is virtually zero and the plots would become too busy). Distinguish the three lines by color or line-style. On
your plot, clearly mark the maximum absolute value of the response in each mode as well as the maximum of the total
response. Why is the maximum value of the sum (sum of all modes) not equal to the sum of the maximum modal
values? Develop a table summarizing the maximum value of each result quantity in the first mode and the total maximum value. Comment on the effects of the second mode on the total maximum. Which of the four response quantities
is most affected by the second mode?
Some help on MATAB implementation
%Total structure response
u = phi * q
%Structure response (floor displacements) in individual modes
u1 = phi(:,1) * q(1,:)
u2 = phi(:,2) * q(2,:)
u2 = phi(:,3) * q(3,:)
%1st story drift in three modes and total
d1 = u(1,:);
d11 = u1(1,:);
d12 = u2(1,:);
d13 = u3(1,:);
%2nd story drift in three modes and total
5/22/2009 1:12 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11.doc

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009
d2
d21
d22
d23

=
=
=
=

u(1,:) - u(2,:);
u1(1,:)- u1(2,:);
u2(1,:)-u2(2,:);
u3(1,:)-u3(2,:);

%don't forget to convert drift into drift ratio


%3rd story drift in three modes and total
your turn...
%forces acting at floor level (three modes and total)
F = K * u;
F1 = K * u1;
F2 = K * u2;
F3 = K * u3;
%overturning moment(three modes and total)
your turn...
Some Solutions:
T1 = 0.500 sec
T2 = 0.162 sec
T3 = 0.111 sec
1 = 2.6980
2 = 0.4606
3 = 0.09207

Note:
's are obtained with mass-orthonormal mode shape using units of feet.

5/22/2009 1:12 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11.doc

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Interstory 1 Drift [%]


0.4

4
6
8
10
12
C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11.doc

0.3

2
5/22/2009 1:12 PM

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0

t [s]
Mode 1
Mode 2
Total

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer
May 22, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


Homework 11-Solution
48.3 k

u3

96.6 k

u2

96.6 k

u1

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 1500 k/ft

18 f

girders assumed rigid


k = story stiffness

Calculate the response of the three-story frame above to the Loma Prieta ground motion. Select 5% damping.
Response quantities of interest are:
(1-3) The inter-story drift ratio in % for the three stories. Story heights are 12 ft for stories 2 and 3 and 15 ft for story 1.
(4) The overturning moment in k-ft.
Plot the response in modes 1 and 2 and the total response for 0 < t < 12 sec . Don't include the third mode (its
contribution is virtually zero and the plots would become too busy). Distinguish the three lines by color or line-style. On
your plot, clearly mark the maximum absolute value of the response in each mode as well as the maximum of the total
response. Why is the maximum value of the sum (sum of all modes) not equal to the sum of the maximum modal
values? Develop a table summarizing the maximum value of each result quantity in the first mode and the total maximum value. Comment on the effects of the second mode on the total maximum. Which of the four response quantities
is most affected by the second mode?
Some help on MATAB implementation
%Total structure response
u = phi * q
%Structure response (floor displacements) in individual modes
u1 = phi(:,1) * q(1,:)
u2 = phi(:,2) * q(2,:)
u3 = phi(:,3) * q(3,:)
%1st story drift in three modes and total
d1 = u(1,:);
d11 = u1(1,:);
d12 = u2(1,:);
d13 = u3(1,:);
%2nd story drift in three modes and total
6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-1-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009
d2
d21
d22
d23

=
=
=
=

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

u(1,:) - u(2,:);
u1(1,:)- u1(2,:);
u2(1,:)-u2(2,:);
u3(1,:)-u3(2,:);

%don't forget to convert drift into drift ratio


%3rd story drift in three modes and total
your turn...
%forces acting at floor level (three modes and total)
F = K * u;
F1 = K * u1;
F2 = K * u2;
F3 = K * u3;
%overturning moment(three modes and total)
your turn...
Some Solutions:
T1 = 0.500 sec
T2 = 0.162 sec
T3 = 0.111 sec
1 = 2.6980
2 = 0.4606
3 = 0.09207

Note:
's are obtained with mass-orthonormal mode shape using units of feet.

Solution:
Table 1: Modal and combined maximum values of four response quantities considered.
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Total
DR 1 [%]
0.3341 0.0389 0.0012 0.3143
DR 2 [%]
0.1630 0.0558 0.0048 0.2072
DR 3 [%]
0.0578 0.0435 0.0071 0.0961
OTM [k-ft] 1962
244
13
2116
Note: Mode 2 and Mode 3 columns not required in HW.
In time history analysis we first calculate the sum of the individual modal time histories and then take the maximum of
this summation. We thus calculate the maximum of the sum. Since the modal maximum values usually occur at different
time, the maximum of the sum is commonly smaller than the sum of the maximum values. The sum of the maximum
values gives us an overly conservative estimate of the maximum response. The maximum of the sum over all modes can
also be smaller than the maximum in mode 1, since higher modes may contribute with different signs. The combined
drift ratio in story 1 (0.3143), for example, is smaller than that in mode 1 (0.3341%) since the effects of modes 2 and 3 is
negative. Higher modes increase the drift ratio in story 2 by about 27% (0.2072/0.1630=1.27) and the drift ratio in story
3 by about 66%. As already mentioned higher modes reduce the drift ration in story 1. Higher modes only have a small
effect on the overturning moment, which is clearly dominated by mode 1 (2116/1962=1.08).

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-2-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Interstory 1 Drift [%]


0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0
2
4
6

t [s]

8
10
12
Mode 1
Mode 2
Total
6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-3-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Interstory 2 Drift [%]


0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0
2
4
6

t [s]

8
10
12
Mode 1
Mode 2
Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-4-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Interstory 3 Drift [%]


0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0
2
4
6

t [s]

8
10
12
Mode 1
Mode 2
Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-5-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Overturning Moment [kft]


2500

2000

1500

1000

500

500

1000

1500

2000

2500
0
2
4
6

t [s]

8
10
12
Mode 1
Mode 2
Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-6-

California Polytechnic State University


Spring Quarter 2009

Department of Architectural Engineering


Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

ETABS model:
A frequency analysis in ETABS yields the following results:

MATLAB
0.4991 sec
0.1620 sec
0.1108 sec
A time history analysis in ETABS yields the following results for the inter-story drift ratio (MATLAB results are from
Table 1):

MATLAB
0.000961
0.00207
0.00314

The results are reasonably close to those from MATLAB.`

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-7-