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structural dynamics exercices for student at university.

© All Rights Reserved

186 views

structural dynamics exercices for student at university.

© All Rights Reserved

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Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

March 30, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 1 (Due 04-01-09)

(b)

5m

3m

(a)

3m

3m

Problem 1

(c)

5m

5m

For each of the frame structures shown, calculate the stiffness k of the frame in the direction of the force. Assume uniform

flexural stiffness EI and neglect axial deformation.

Solution:

Structure

(a)

(b)

(c)

k

1

[ ] 0.0417 0.121 0.538

EI m 3

Problem 2

EI =

7 ft

15 ft

EA = 5000 k

8 ft

EA = 5000 k

(b)

(a)

6 ft

6 ft

moment connection!

Solution:

Structure

(a)

(b)

k [k/ft] 31.46 60.46

3/30/2009 12:43 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw1.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 1, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 1-Solution

(b)

5m

3m

(a)

3m

3m

Problem 1

(c)

5m

5m

For each of the frame structures shown, calculate the stiffness k of the frame in the direction of the force. Assume uniform

flexural stiffness EI and neglect axial deformation.

Moment Diagrams for Unit Force

1.500

1.500

3.00

(a)

0.5870

0.5870

(b)

(c)

0.9130

0.9130

Displacement Calculation

1 2

3 (3.00 + 5.00) = 24

3

1

(b) EI = 1.52 2 (3.00 + 2.50) = 8.25

3

1

1

(c) EI = (0.9132 + 0.5872 0.587 0.913) 2 3.00 + 0.5872 2 2.50 = 1.86

3

3

(a) EI =

1

= 0.0417 EI

1

k =

= 0.1212 EI

1

k =

= 0.538 EI

k =

(a)

4/1/2009 7:00 AM

(b)

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw1_sol.doc

(c)

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2

EI =

7 ft

15 ft

EA = 5000 k

8 ft

EA = 5000 k

(a)

6 ft

(b)

6 ft

moment connection!

7

(a)

=

1

1

1

7 2 (7 + 8) +

3.1252 10 = 0.01225 + 0.01953 = 0.03178 ft/k

20000 3

5000

1

= 31.46 k/ft(ans )

0.03178

N = 3.125

(b)

15

= tan -1 = 68.2D cos = 0.3714 cos2 = 0.1379

6

3 EI EA

3 20000

5000

cos2 =

=

+

+

0.1379 = 17.78 + 42.69 = 60.46 k/ft(ans )

L13

L2

153

16.155

4/1/2009 7:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw1_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 1, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 2 (Due 04-06-09)

Reading: Chopra Sections 2.1 and 2.2, Review mass moment of inertia

Problem 1

(b)

(a)

(d)

(c)

W

EI

u

20 ft

(e)

4 ft 6 ft

6 ft 4 ft

20 ft

(g)

(f)

W = 10.35 k

6 ft

EI

EA = 5000 k

(j)

u

6 ft

10 ft

10 ft

(i)

(h)

D

8 ft

Comments:

(d) For torsional vibration of the disk of mass m (circular shaft massless). The shear modulus of the shaft is G .

(h) For vibration in the x -or y direction. The platform of weightW is braced laterally in each side by two steel cables. The

cables have axial stiffness EA . Due to high prestressing, the compression cables contribute to the structural stiffness.

(i) Consider axial deformation only in cable BD .

(j) Use both a flexibility (apply unit force in direction of u ) and a stiffness approach. In the stiffness approach, start with a

3x3 stiffness matrix corresponding to the three dofs B or u, B , C , then eliminate the two rotations to get a scalar stiffness

relation involving u only (this is the static condensation technique learned in ARCE 306).

Solution:

Structure

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

4

k

+

k

k

(

)

G d

k1 + k2

k1k2

48EI

192EI

EI

1

2

3

[rad/sec]

0.100

m

m

16mLR2

L3 m

L3 m

(k1 + k2 ) m

(k1 + k2 + k3 ) m

(h)

[rad/sec] 1.189 EA

hm

(i)

(j)

12.57 0.1171

EI

m

Note: m = W / g

4/1/2009 7:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2

(a) Plot three cycles of a free vibration response of a SDF system with a mass of 1.0 k-s2 /in and a stiffness of 5 k/in

subjected to an initial displacement of 2 inches and zero initial velocity. LabelT , f , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

(b) Double the stiffness of the SDF system in (a) and replot the response. LabelT , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

(c) Plot the response of the system in (b) for an initial displacement of 2inches and an initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Label

T , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

4/1/2009 7:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 6, 2009

ARCE 412: Structural Dynamics

Homework 2-Solution

(b)

(a)

(d)

(c)

EI

u

20 ft

(e)

4 ft 6 ft

6 ft 4 ft

20 ft

(g)

(f)

W = 10.35 k

6 ft

EI

EA = 5000 k

(j)

6 ft

u

10 ft

10 ft

(i)

(h)

D

8 ft

Comments:

(d) For torsional vibration of the disk of mass m (circular shaft massless). The shear modulus of the shaft is G .

(h) For vibration in the x -or y direction. The platform of weightW is braced laterally in each side by two steel cables. The

cables have axial stiffness EA . Due to high prestressing, the compression cables contribute to the structural stiffness.

(i) Consider axial deformation only in cable DE .

(j) Use both a flexibility (apply unit force in direction of u ) and a stiffness approach. In the stiffness approach, start with a

3x3 stiffness matrix corresponding to the three dofs B or u, B , C , then eliminate the two rotations to get a scalar stiffness

relation involving u only.

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 1

=

k1 + k 2

(ans )

m

k1k2

(ans )

(k1 + k2 ) m

(a)

k = k1 + k 2

(b)

k =

(c)

k =

(d)

k =

GJ

G d 4

1

=

, MMI = mR 2

L

32L

2

k

=

MMI

(e)

k =

48EI

L3

48EI

(ans )

L3m

(f)

k =

192EI

(ans )

L3m

(g)

EI

1

1

1

EI = 22 20 + 22 4 + 32 6 2 = 100 k =

= 0.01 EI

3

3

3

100

(h)

k =

(i)

(j)

k k

1

= 1 2

1

1

k

1 + k2

+

k1 k 2

k1 + k 2 k 3

1

1

1

=

=

=

1

1

1

1

k1 + k 2 + k 3

(k1 + k2 + k 3 )

+

+

k12 k 3

k1 + k 2 k 3

(k1 + k2 ) k 3

2 12EI

192EI

=

3

L

L3

2

EA

cos2 (stiffness of each of the 4 cables)

L

EA

EA

EA

k =4

cos2 45D = 4

0.5 = 2

2h

2h

h

=

1

1

1

62 12 +

2.52 10 = 0.01970 ft/k k =

= 50.76 k/ft

20,000

5,000

0.01970

1

1

(3.752 + 3.1252 3.75 3.125) 10 + 3.1252 10 = 72.917

3

3

EI

k =

= 0.01371 k/ft

72.917

(k

+ k2 k 3

(k1 + k2 + k 3 ) m

(ans )

G d 4

(ans )

16LmR 2

EI

(ans )

m

= 0.1

EA

EA

= 1.189

(ans )

hm

hm

50.76 32.2

= 12.57 rad/sec (ans )

10.35

EI

0.01371EI

= 0.1171

(ans )

m

m

EI =

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

g

i

P =1

P =1

C

6 ft

work for

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

B

EA = 5000 k

6 ft

N BD =2.5

D

[k-ft]

8 ft

work for j

A

P =1

B

10 ft

10 ft

3.75

M

+

[k-ft]

3.125

stiffness matrix

0.024 0

K

= 0

0.800

0.060 0.200

= [2 3](eliminate)

0.060

0.200

0.400

use EI = 1

r = 1(retain)

0.20

0.80

=0.0240

Kee = 0.20

Krr

0.40

= [0 0.06]

Ker = 0.06

Kre

-0.7143

1.4286

K1ee = -0.7143

2.8571

-0.7143

1.4286

2.8571

k

= 0.0137 EI

dof to be retained

= 0.0137

0.06

Flexibility and stiffness approaches lead to the same scalar stiffness k and hence to the same natural frequency.

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2

(a) Plot three cycles of a free vibration response of a SDF system with a mass of 1.0 k-s2 /in and a stiffness of 5 k/in

subjected to an initial displacement of 2 inches and zero initial velocity. LabelT , f , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

(b) Double the stiffness of the SDF system in (a) and replot the response. LabelT , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

(c) Plot the response of the system in (b) for an initial displacement of 2inches and an initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Label

T , u(0), u(0) and u 0 .

u(0) = slope of

u(t ) at t = 0

4

u0

u0 u0

Displacement [in]

u(0)

(a)

1

0

(b)

1

2

(c)

3

4

0

4/1/2009 7:21 AM

T

2

4

6

Time [sec]

10

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw2_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 6, 2009

ARCE 412: Structural Dynamics

Homework 3 (Due 04-10-09)

Reading:

m=2 k sec2/in

Problem 1:

u(t )

k =50 k/in

The structure above with given lateral stiffness k is set into free vibration with an initial displacement of 0.5 in. and an

initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Make the following assumptions regarding damping:

(a) undamped

(b) 1% damped ( =0.01 )

(c) 20% damped ( =0.20 )

Find the solution for the displacement u(t ) and use MATLAB to plot three cycles of vibration.

Problem 2:

(a) What is the amplitude of motion of the system in Problem 1 for the undamped case?

(b) What is the maximum displacement of the system in Problem 1 for the damped cases?

(c) What is the required damping ratio to reduce the displacement at 1.5 sec to 1?

For (b) and (c) use MATLAB to calculate the response u(t ) for closely spaced time points. Then use the max command for

(b) and trial and error for (c).

Problem 3 (Chopra 2.11):

For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.

Solution: j10% =

ln(10) 0.366

=

2

The vertical suspension system of an automobile is idealized as a viscously damped SDF system. Under the 3000-lb weight

of the car the suspension system deflects 2 in. The suspension is designed to be critically damped.

Solution:

(a) Calculate the damping and stiffness coefficients of the suspension.

(b) With four l60lb passengers in the car, what is the effective damping ratio?

k = 1500 lb/in

(a )

(c) Calculate the natural vibration frequency for case (b).

c = ccr = 215.9 lb-sec/in

= 0.908

(b)

Problem 5 (Chopra 2.15):

D = 5.28 rad/sec

(c)

The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the mass

is given as m = 0.1 lb-sec2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly released. At

the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and damping coefficients.

Solution:

k = 175.5 lb/in, c = 0.107 lb-sec/in

4/3/2009 12:54 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw3.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 6, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 3-Solution

Problem 1

Use MATLAB to plot three cycles of displacement response u(t ) of the structure above (rigid girder, column fixed at the

base). The structure is set into free vibration with an initial displacement of 0.5 in. and an initial velocity of 10 in/sec. Make

the following assumptions regarding damping:

m=2 k sec2/in

u(t )

(a) undamped

(b) 1% damped ( =0.01 )

(c) 20% damped ( =0.20 )

k=50 k/in

2.5

2

=0

= 0.01

1.5

Displacement [in]

1

0.5

0

= 0.20

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0.5

1.5

2

Time [sec]

2.5

3.5

Problem 2:

(a) What is the amplitude of motion of the system in Problem 1 for the undamped case?

(b) What is the maximum displacement of the system in Problem 1 for the damped cases?

(c) What is the required damping ratio to reduce the displacement at 1.5 sec to 1?

2

(a) u 0

2

u(0)

= 0.52 + 10 = 2.06 "

= [u(0)] +

5

n

2

u max = 1.71 " at t = 0.24 sec ( = 0.20)

(c)

(good enough)

For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.

1 u1

1

1

ln

ln = 2

= 2

j u j +1

j10% 0.1

4/10/2009 1:04 PM

j10% =

ln(10) 0.366

=

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw3_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

The vertical suspension system of an automobile is idealized as a viscously damped SDF system. Under the 3000-lb weight

of the car the suspension system deflects 2 in. The suspension is designed to be critically damped.

(a) Calculate the damping and stiffness coefficients of the suspension.

(b) With four l60lb passengers in the car, what is the effective damping ratio?

(c) Calculate the natural vibration frequency for case (b).

(a) The stiffness coefficient is

k=

3000

= 1500 lb/in

2

c = ccr = 2 km = 2 1500

3000

= 215.9 lb-sec/in

386

=

c

c

=

=

ccr

2 km

215.9

= 0.908

3640

2 1500

386

D = n 1 2 =

1500 386

1 0.9082 = 5.28 rad/sec

3640

The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the mass

is given as m m = 0.1 lb-sec 2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly released. At

the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and damping coefficients.

(1) Determine and n

=

u

1

1

1

ln 1 =

ln = 0.0128 = 1.28%

2 j u j +1 2 20 0.2

TD =

3

= 0.15 sec

20

Tn TD = 0.15 sec

n =

2

= 41.89 rad/sec

0.15

k = n2 m = 41.892 0.1 = 175.5 lb/in

ccr = 2m n = 2 0.1 41.89 = 8.377 lb-sec/in

4/10/2009 1:04 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw3_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 10, 2009

Homework 4 (Due 04-17-09)

Reading:

For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement

amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.

Solution:

j10% =

ln(10) 0.366

=

2

The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the

mass is given as m = 0.1 lb-sec2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly released. At the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and damping coefficients.

Solution:

k = 175.5 lb/in, c = 0.107 lb-sec/in

Problem 3: An SDF structure is excited by a sinusoidal force. At resonance the amplitude of displacement was measured to be 2 in. At an exciting frequency of one-tenth the natural frequency of the system, the displacement amplitude

was measured to be 0.2 in. Estimate the damping ratio of the system.

Problem 4: In a forced vibration test under harmonic excitation it was noted that the amplitude of motion at resonance

was exactly four times the amplitude at an excitation frequency 20% higher than the resonant frequency. Determine the

damping ratio of the system.

Problem 5: The displacement response of a SDF structure to harmonic excitation and initial conditions u(0) and u(0) is

given by

n t

u(t ) = e

[A cos D t + B sin D t

] +C

sin t

+ D cos

t

transient vibration

steady-stae vibration

Find expressions for the constants of integration A and B in terms of C , D, u(0), u(0), n , D , , and .

Solution:

A = u(0) D

u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C

B=

D

4/10/2009 7:29 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2006\hw4.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Problem 6:

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

W =40 k

E = 29000 ksi

I = 175 in 4

15 ft

20 ft

Determine and plot the response of the frame above ( 0 t 5 sec ). Assume the girder is rigid and neglect the mass of

the columns.

(a) Assume at rest initial conditions and zero damping.

(b) Assume 5% damping and initial conditions u(0)=1 in and u(0)=50 in/sec .

Submit two figures, one for (a) and one for (b), containing three plots each (the transient, stead-state and total

responses). Write the numerical values for constants A, B, C , D on the figures.

Problem 7:

k = 20 k/in

W = 50 k

p(t ) = p0 sin(t )

(a) Calculate the vertical displacement of the cantilever tip due to gravity.

Assume 5% damping and consider steady state motion only:

(b) For p0 =10 k and = 5, 10,15 rad/sec calculate the amplitude of motion. Which of the three forcing frequencies

causes the largest displacement? Explain.

(c) For = 15 rad/sec calculate the maximum allowable amplitude p0 of the forcing function such that the deflection of

the cantilever due to gravity plus dynamic action is downward at all times.

4/10/2009 7:29 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2006\hw4.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 17, 2009

Homework 4-Solution

Problem 1

For a system with damping ratio , determine the number of free vibration cycles required to reduce the displacement

amplitude to 10% of the initial amplitude; the initial velocity is zero.

ln(10) 0.366

1

1 u1

1

= 2

=

ln

ln = 2

j10% =

j u j +1

j10% 0.1

2

The stiffness and damping properties of a mass-spring-damper system are to be determined by a free vibration test; the

mass is given as m m = 0.1 lb-sec2/in . In this test the mass is displaced 1 in. by a hydraulic jack and then suddenly

released. At the end of 20 complete cycles, the time is 3 sec and the amplitude is 0.2 in. Determine the stiffness and

damping coefficients.

(1) Determine and n

u

1

1

1

ln 1 =

ln = 0.0128 = 1.28%

=

2 j u j +1 2 20 0.2

Therefore, assumption of small damping in the above equation is valid.

3

2

TD =

= 0.15 sec

Tn TD = 0.15 sec

n =

= 41.89 rad/sec

20

0.15

(2) The stiffness coefficient is

k = n2 m = 41.892 0.1 = 175.5 lb/in

(3) The damping coefficient is

ccr = 2m n = 2 0.1 41.89 = 8.377 lb-sec/in

Problem 3

A SDF system is excited by a sinusoidal force. At resonance, the amplitude of displacement was measured to be 2in. At

an exciting frequency of one-tenth the natural frequency of the system, the displacement amplitude was measured to be

0.2 in. estimate the damping ratio of the system.

At = n

(a) u 0 = (ust )0

1

=2

2

At = 0.1n

u 0 (ust )0 = 0.2

( = 0.1 excitation is so slow, that it can be considered static)

Substituting (ust )0 = 0.2 in (a) gives

= 0.05

If we dont want to make the assumption of static response for = 0.1 , we can use the approach followed in Problem 4

(see below).

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 4

In a forced vibration test under harmonic excitation it was noted that the amplitude of motion at resonance was exactly

four times the amplitude at an excitation frequency 20% higher than the resonant frequency. Determine the damping

ratio of the system.

We assume that damping is small enough to justify the approximation that the resonant frequency is n and the

resonance amplitude is 1 / 2 . The given data then implies:

1

(a) (u 0 )=n = (ust )0

2

(b) (u 0 )=1.2n = (ust )0

1

2

(1 2 )

+ 2

= (ust )0

1

2

(1 1.22 )

1 (u0 )=n

(2 )2 (u 0 )=1.2n

2

2

1

= 1 1 =

= 0.0576(ans )

2

2

(0.44) + (2.4 )2

(2 ) 4

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

+ 2 1.2

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 5

The displacement response of a SDF structure to harmonic excitation and initial conditions u(0) and u(0) is given by

n t

u(t ) = e

[A cos D t + B sin D t

] +C

sin t

+ D cos

t

steady-stae vibration

transient vibration

Find expressions for the constants of integration A and B in terms of C , D, u(0), u(0), n , D , , and .

u(0) = A + D

A = u(0) D (ans )

= e n t (AD sin D t + B D cos D t ) n e n t (A cos D t + B sin D t )

+ C cos t D sin t

u(0) = B D n A + C

u(0) + n A C u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C

(ans )

B=

=

D

D

u(t )

Problem 6

Determine and plot the response of the frame above ( 0 t 5 sec ). Assume the girder is rigid and neglect the mass of

the columns. Identify the steady state and the transient portion of the response (both in the equations and on the plot).

(a) Assume at rest initial conditions and zero damping.

(b) Assume 5% damping and initial conditions u(0)=1 in and u(0)=50 in/sec .

Submit two figures, one for (a) and one for (b), containing three plots each (the transient, stead-state and total

responses). Indicate the numerical values for constants A, B, C , D on the figures.

W =40 k

(a)

p(t ) = 15 sin(10 t ) [k]

24EI

24 29000 175

k = 3 =

= 20.88 k/in

3

L

(15 12)

20.88 386.4

= 14.20 rad/sec

40

p0 = 15 k

E = 29000 ksi

I = 175 in 4

n =

= 10 rad/sec

=

10

=

= 0.7042

14.20

n

C =

p0

1 2

k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2

20 ft

D=

p0

2

2

k (1 )2 + (2 )2

=0

C =

p0

k (1

15

20.88 (1 0.70422 )

= 1.425

D =0

A =0

B = C

n

u(t ) =

p0

k

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

p0 1

sin n t +

sin wt

2

2

k

1

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

15 ft

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

u(0) = 0, u(0) = 0, = 0

A = 0, B = 1.0036

C = 1.425

D=0

2.5

total

transient

steady-state

2

1.5

Displacement [in]

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time [sec]

3.5

4.5

(b)

n t

u(t ) = uc (t ) + u p (t ) = e

(A cos

sin t

+ D cos

t

D t + B sin D t

) + C

steady state response

transient response

p0

1 2

k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2

A = 1.195 in

B = 2.600 in

C =

p0

2

k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2

C = 1.397 in

D = 0.195 in

D=

u(0) = 1 "

A = 1.195

B = 2.600

C = 1.397

D = 0.195

Displacement [in]

total

transient

steady-state

0.5

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

1.5

2.5

Time [sec]

3.5

4.5

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

A = u(0) D

B=

u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C

D

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 7

k = 20 k/in

W = 50 k

p(t ) = p0 sin(t )

(a) Calculate the vertical displacement of the cantilever tip due to gravity.

Assume 5% damping and consider steady state motion only:

(b) For p0 =10 k and = 5, 10,15 rad/sec calculate the amplitude of motion. Which of the three forcing frequencies

causes the largest displacement? Explain.

(c) For = 15 rad/sec calculate the maximum allowable amplitude p0 of the forcing function such that the deflection of

the cantilever due to gravity plus dynamic action is downward at all times.

(a)

ust =

(b)

n =

W

50

=

= 2.5 "(ans )

k

20

20 386.4

= 12.43 rad/sec

50

5

1 = 5 rad/sec

1 =

= 0.402

12.43

u0 =

2 = 10 rad/sec

2 =

10

= 0.804

12.43

u0 =

3 = 15 rad/sec

3 =

15

= 1.206

12.43

u0 =

10 k

20 k/in

10 k

20 k/in

10 k

20 k/in

2.763 = 1.38 in (ans )

2.122 = 1.06 in (ans )

(c)

u = ust

4/17/2009 10:37 AM

p0

p

Rd = 2.5 0 2.122 > 0

20

k

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw4_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 17, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 5 (Due 04-20-09)

W = 400 k

W 36 x 135

W 36 x 170

W 36 x 170

u(t )

12 ft

Problem

=10 %

15 ft

ug (t )

The single bay/single story moment frame above with floor weight of 400 kips above is subject to ten cycles of harmonic

ground motion

2

0 < t < 10T

ug (t ) = 10 in sin t

T =

Determine the constants A1, B1,C , D in the expressions below for the displacement of the floor relative to the moving

ground

u(t ) = e nt (A1 cos D t + B1 sin D t ) + C sin t + D cos t

T =

After 10 cycles the ground motions stops and the structure vibrates freely. Determine the constants A2 , B2 in the expression

below for 2 seconds of free vibration after the ground has stopped moving.

u(t1 + 10T )

Partial solution:

= 0.351 sec

= 0.175 sec

A2 =

ground displacement ug (t )

displacement u(t ) of floor (mass) relative to ground

20

Displacement [in]

Tn

30

10

0

10

20

30

0

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5.doc

2

Time [sec]

4/17/2009

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 20, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 5-Solution

Problem

W = 400 k

u(t )

12 ft

W 36 x 135

W 36 x 170

W 36 x 170

=10 %

15 ft

ug (t )

The single bay/single story moment frame above with floor weight of 400 kips above is subject to harmonic ground motion

2

0 < t < 10T

ug (t ) = 10 in sin t

T =

Determine the constants A1, B1,C , D in the expressions below for the displacement of the floor relative to the moving

ground for 10 cycles of ground motion

u(t ) = e nt (A1 cos D t + B1 sin D t ) + C sin t + D cos t

T =

After 10 cycles the ground motions stops and the structure vibrates freely. Determine the constants A2 , B2 in the expression

below for 2 seconds of free vibration after the ground has stopped moving.

u(t1 + 10T )

30

ground displacement ug (t )

displacement u(t ) of floor (mass) relative to ground

Displacement [in]

20

10

0

10

20

30

0

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5_sol.doc

2

Time [sec]

4/17/2009 7:19 AM

-1-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Vibration properties

72 k"

72 k"

=

n

=2

1

1

1

1

722 144 2 +

722 180 = 3.0094 103 in/k

304.5 106 3

226.2 106 3

1

1

=

3.0094 103 in/k

f

Tn

n

= 332.29 k/in

400 / 386.4

m

= 2

332.29

k

2

2

=

=

Tn

0.351

= 2

= 0.351 sec

= 17.92 rad/sec

1

Tn = 0.5 0.351

= 0.1753 sec

2

2

=

0.1753

T

= 35.84 rad/sec

ug

= 10 in sin 35.84 t

ug

p0

)

)

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5_sol.doc

4/17/2009 7:19 AM

-2-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

u(t )

n t

= uc (t ) + u p (t ) = e

(A1 cos

)+ C

sin t

+ D cos

t

D t + B1 sin D t

steady state response

transient response

p0

1 2

k (1 2 )2 + (2 )2

p0

2

2

k (1 )2 + (2 )2

A1

= u(0) D

B1

13292

1 22

= 13.01 in

13292

2 0.1 2

2

332.29 (1 2 )2 + (2 0.1 2)2

= 1.747 in

= 0 1.747

u(0) + n [u(0) D ] C

D

= 1.747 in

= 26.51 in

17.92 1 0.12

In order to describe the free vibration response after the ground motion has stopped, we need to find the

displacement u(t = 10T ) and the velocity u(t = 10T ) at the end of the ground excitation. These values serve as initial

conditions for the free vibration.

u(t )

u(t = 10T )

= 1.852 in

u(t )

u(t = 10T )

= 448.8 in/sec

A2

= u(0) = 1.852 in

B2

u(t + 10T )

=

= 25.36 in

D

17.92 1 0.12

0 < t < 2 sec

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw5_sol.doc

4/17/2009 7:19 AM

-3-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 20, 2009

Homework 6 (Due 04-24-09)

Reading:

Problem 1

An SDF system has the following properties: m =0.2533 k sec2 /in, k =10 k/in, =0.05 . Use the NEWMARK average

acceleration method to calculate and plot the displacement response u(t ) of this system to a force p(t ) = 10 sin(t ) (at

rest initial conditions).

(a) Use hand calculation with t = 0.1 sec for as many times ti that you need to understand the procedure.

(b) Implement the NEWMARK average acceleration method for a SDF system in MATLAB by writing a function

function u = newmark(m,c,k,p,delt)

where m, c, k are the mass, viscous damping coefficient, and stiffness, respectively of the SDF structure, p is a row vector

containing the loading function and t is the time step. The output argument u is a vector (say row vector) containing

the displacement response of the SDF system.

(c) Test your algorithm by calculating the displacement response u(t ) for 0 t 10 sec . Use time

steps t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec . Also plot the exact solution. The exact solution is (see HW 4)

u(t )

Submit: (a) Hand calculations. (b) A single plot containing the solution with t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec and the exact

solution. Use different colors or different linestyles to distinguish solutions for different t .

Problem 2

Use the NEWMARK average acceleration method to calculate and plot the displacement response (the lateral

deformation) of two SDF systems with natural periodsTn = 2 sec andTn = 0.5 sec , respectively to the 1989 Loma

Prieta earthquake (recorded at Gilroy). Assume 5% damping. The record lomaprieta.dat (on blackboard) contains

1001ground acceleration data points in cm/sec2 at a spacing of 0.02 sec.

600

Acceleration [cm/s2]

400

200

0

200

400

600

0

10

Time [s]

12

14

16

18

20

Submit: Single page with two plots (ground acceleration in units of g and relative displacement response in [in] (the

output of the NEWMARK function), single plot for the two periods).

4/20/2009 8:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw6.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 22, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 6-Solution

Problem 1

An SDF system has the following properties: m =0.2533 k sec2 /in, k =10 k/in, =0.05 . Use the NEWMARK average

acceleration method to calculate and plot the displacement response u(t ) of this system to a force p(t ) = 10 sin(t ) (at rest

initial conditions).

(a) Use hand calculation with t = 0.1 sec for as many times ti that you need to understand the procedure.

(b) Implement the NEWMARK average acceleration method for a SDF system in MATLAB by writing a function

function u = newmark(m,c,k,p,delt)

where m, c, k are the mass, viscous damping coefficient, and stiffness, respectively of the SDF structure, p is a row vector

containing the loading function and t is the time step. The output argument u is a vector (say row vector) containing the

displacement response of the SDF system.

(c) Test your algorithm by calculating the displacement response u(t ) for 0 t 10 sec . Use time

steps t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec . Also plot the exact solution. The exact solution is (see HW 4)

u(t )

Submit: (a) Hand calculations. (b) A single plot containing the solution with t = 0.5, 0.1, 0.02 sec and the exact solution.

t = 0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

t

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

p(t )

0.0000

3.0902

5.8779

8.0902

9.5106

10.0000

9.5106

8.0902

5.8779

3.0902

0.0000

u(t )

0.0000

10.7951

16.1621

13.5749

3.6228

-10.2937

-23.2601

-30.6321

-29.6599

-20.3904

-5.5699

u(t )

0.0000

0.5398

1.8876

3.3745

4.2343

3.9008

2.2231

-0.4715

-3.4861

-5.9886

-7.2866

u(t )

0.0000

0.0270

0.1484

0.4115

0.7919

1.1987

1.5049

1.5924

1.3946

0.9208

0.2571

t = 0.10

t = 0.02, exact(virtually identical)

Displacement [in]

1

0

1

2

3

0

Time [sec]

10

using different time steps) and analytical response.

4/29/2009 10:58 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw6_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2

Use the NEWMARK average acceleration method to calculate and plot the acceleration, velocity and displacement response

of two SDF systems with natural periodsTn = 2 sec andTn = 0.5 sec , respectively to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

(recorded at Gilroy). Assume 5% damping. The record (\ansgar\lomaprieta.dat on the ARCE shared drive) contains

1001ground acceleration data points in cm/sec2 at a spacing of 0.02 sec.

600

Acceleration [cm/s2]

400

200

0

200

400

600

0

10

Time [s]

12

14

16

18

20

Submit: Single page with two plots (ground acceleration in units of g and relative displacement response in [in] (the output

of the NEWMARK function), single plot for the two periods).

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Displacement [in]

0.8

0

20

10

t [sec]

15

20

Tn = 2 sec

Tn = 0.5 sec

= 0.05

10

0

10

u max = 20.6 in

u max = 3.35 in

20

0

10

Time [s]

15

20

Loma Prieta ground acceleration and displacement response of two SDF structures (displacement is relative to the ground)

with 5% damping.

4/29/2009 10:58 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw6_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

nstructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 24, 2009

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Reading: Chopra, Chapter 6

Problem 1

Calculate the 5% damped displacement (in cm) and acceleration response spectra (in g) (also called the spectral

displacement and spectral acceleration, respectively) of the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes (on Blackboard). Consider 51 natural periodsTn equally spaced between Tn = 0.2 sec and Tn = 3 sec .

Submit: Two plots (spectral displacement and acceleration), single plot for the two EQ motions and table with spectral

values (see below) Hint: Cut and paste spectral values A and D from MATLAB into EXCEL

Solution:

Northridge

60

= 0.05

50

Loma Prieta

40

30

20

10

0

0

2.5

70

80

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

Tn [sec]

D [cm] LP

2.5

= 0.05

1.5

Loma Prieta

0.5

Northridge

0

0

A [g] LP

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

D [cm] NR

2.5

A [g] NR

1

0.2

...

...

51

3

Problem 2

A 10-ft-long vertical cantilever made of a steel pipe supports a 3000-lb weight attached at the tip as shown. The properties

of the pipe are: outside diameter=6.625, inside diameter=6.065 in. Find (1) the peak deformation, (2) the equivalent static

force and (3) the bending stress resulting from the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes. Ignore the weight of the pipe

and assume 5% damping. CAUTION: Earthquake records are in cm/sec 2

Partial Solution:

4/27/2009 7:39 AM

Loma Prieta:

= 50.0 ksi(ans )

Northridge:

= 36.2 ksi(ans )

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 29, 2009

Homework 7-Solution

Problem 1

Calculate the 5% damped displacement (in cm) and acceleration response spectra (in g) for the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes (in directory ansgar on the ARCE shared drive). Consider 51 natural periodsTn equally spaced between Tn = 0.2 sec and Tn = 3 sec .

Submit: Two plots (spectral displacement and acceleration), single plot for the two motions. Table (see below) with

spectral values. Hint: Cut and paste spectral values A and D from MATLAB into EXCEL

80

70

60

= 0.05

50

40

30

20

Northridge

10

Loma Prieta

0

0

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

2.5

2.5

= 0.05

1.5

Northridge

1

Loma Prieta

0.5

0

0

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

0.5

1.5

Tn [sec]

2.5

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

MATLAB statements

%HW 7, NEWMARK METHOD, ground acceleration, response spectrum

clear all

close('all')

width = 1.5;

width1 = 1.0

size1=16;

size2=20;

load c:\calpoly\arce412\eqrecords\lomaprieta.dat;

load c:\calpoly\arce412\eqrecords\northridge.dat;

input = [lomaprieta northridge];

t = [0:0.02:20]; zeta

= 0.05; m=1;delt

= 0.02;

delT = (3 - 0.2)/50;

T

= [0.2:delT:3];

for i=1:2

for j=1:length(T);

j

TT = T(j);

k

= 4*pi^2 ./ TT^2;

c

= zeta * 2 * sqrt( k * m);

[u,udot,uddot] = newmark(m,c,k,-input(:,i)'*m,delt);

dis(i,j) = max(abs(u));

acc(i,j) = dis(i,j) .* k / 981;

end

end

col = ['b';'r'];

st=['- ';'--']

figure(1)

hold on

for i=1:2

plot(T,dis(i,:),col(i,:),'linewidth',width,'linestyle',st(i,:));

ty = [col(i,:) '*']

plot(T,dis(i,:),ty,'linewidth',width1);

end

xlabel('\itT_n \rm[sec]','fontsize',size2);

ylabel('Spectral Displacement [cm]','fontsize',size2);

set(gca,'plotboxaspectratio',[1.5 1 1]);

set(gca,'fontsize',size1);

print -depsc -r1200 -tiff c:\calpoly

figure(2)

hold on

for i=1:2

plot(T,acc(i,:),col(i,:),'linewidth',width,'linestyle',st(i,:));

ty = [col(i,:) '*']

plot(T,acc(i,:),ty,'linewidth',width1);

end

xlabel('\itT_n \rm [sec]','fontsize',size2);

ylabel('Spectral Acceleration [g]','fontsize',size2);

set(gca,'plotboxaspectratio',[1.5 1 1]);

set(gca,'fontsize',size1);

stop

%build table

res(:,[1 2 4 3 5]) = [ T' dis' acc'];

%print -depsc -r1200 -tiff c:\calpoly

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Numerical results

Tn [sec]

D [cm] LP

A [g] LP

D [cm] NR

A [g] NR

0.20

0.26

0.31

0.37

0.42

0.48

0.54

0.59

0.65

0.70

0.76

0.82

0.87

0.93

0.98

1.04

1.10

1.15

1.21

1.26

1.32

1.38

1.43

1.49

1.54

1.60

1.66

1.71

1.77

1.82

1.88

1.94

1.99

2.05

2.10

2.16

2.22

2.27

2.33

2.38

2.44

2.50

2.55

2.61

2.66

2.72

2.78

2.83

2.89

2.94

3.00

2.54

1.98

4.73

3.15

4.08

7.37

9.15

8.25

7.57

9.91

11.94

13.11

14.16

15.32

17.00

19.10

21.30

23.52

25.75

27.95

30.07

32.14

33.96

35.51

37.48

40.05

41.92

43.82

45.37

46.45

48.94

50.91

52.19

52.60

52.73

53.21

54.83

56.25

57.33

58.01

58.25

58.08

57.58

56.94

56.22

55.38

54.38

53.22

51.96

50.63

49.24

2.55

1.22

1.96

0.94

0.91

1.29

1.28

0.95

0.73

0.80

0.83

0.79

0.75

0.72

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.70

0.69

0.68

0.67

0.65

0.63

0.63

0.62

0.60

0.58

0.56

0.56

0.55

0.53

0.50

0.48

0.46

0.45

0.44

0.43

0.41

0.39

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.30

0.28

0.27

0.25

0.24

0.22

0.65

1.51

2.83

2.56

4.27

5.33

7.42

8.72

8.97

8.71

12.13

18.02

20.94

19.72

15.70

12.83

14.06

15.43

20.51

24.87

27.32

28.16

27.81

25.87

26.17

27.17

28.05

28.79

29.43

32.01

37.64

43.14

48.10

53.08

57.91

61.66

65.75

69.01

71.14

72.36

72.62

73.39

74.55

75.03

74.80

73.86

72.30

70.33

69.56

70.16

70.40

0.65

0.93

1.17

0.76

0.96

0.93

1.04

1.00

0.86

0.71

0.84

1.09

1.11

0.92

0.65

0.48

0.47

0.47

0.57

0.63

0.63

0.60

0.55

0.47

0.44

0.43

0.41

0.40

0.38

0.39

0.43

0.46

0.49

0.51

0.53

0.53

0.54

0.54

0.53

0.51

0.49

0.47

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.40

0.38

0.35

0.34

0.33

0.31

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2

A 10-ft-long vertical cantilever made of a 6-in nominal-diameter standard steel pipe supports a 3000-lb weight attached

at the tip as shown. The properties of the pipe are: outside diameter=6.625, inside diameter=6.6065 in. Find (1) the peak

deformation, (2) the equivalent static force and (3) the bending stress resulting from the Northridge and Loma Prieta

earthquakes. Ignore the weight of the pipe.

64

3EI

3 29, 000 28.14

= 1.417 k/in

k = 3 =

L

1203

W = 3000 lbs

I

Tn = 2

3000

= 0.465 sec

1.417 103 386.4

Loma Prieta:

6.34cm

from Newmark

2.54 cm/in

= 2.50 in (ans )

M = 3.54 120 = 424 k-in

=

Northridge:

424

6.625 / 2 = 50.0 ksi (ans )

28.14

4.59cm

= 1.81 in (ans )

2.54 cm/in

M = 2.56 120 = 307 k-in

307

6.625 / 2 = 36.2 ksi (ans )

28.14

Note: Section properties are calculated based on nominal dimensions. Use of steel manual results in smaller section

properties and correspondingly larger stresses. The results are

= 58.1 ksi (Loma Prieta)

= 42.0 ksi (Northridge)

4/29/2009 11:35 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw7_sol.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

April 29, 2009

Homework 8 (Due 05-04-09)

Reading:

Problem 1

A uniform rigid bar of total mass m is supported on two springs k1 and k2 at the two ends and

subjected to dynamic forces as shown in the figure. Formulate the equations of motion with

respect to the two DOFs defined at the left end of the bar.

Partial Solution:

mL

m

k1 + k2 k2L

k =

m

=

k2L2

mL mL2

k2L

3

2

Problem 2

Find the 2x2

(a) mass,

(b) flexibility (using PVF hand calculation)

(c) stiffness (use beam element in MATLAB, eliminate unwanted DOFs)

matrices of the beam for the two DOFs shown. Check whether the stiffness and

flexibility matrices are the inverse of each other.

Partial Solution:

L3 8 7

f =

486EI 7 8

Problem 3

A rigid bar is supported by a weightless column as shown. Find the 2x2

(a) mass

(b) flexibility (using PVF hand calculation)

(c) stiffness (by inverting the flexibility matrix)

matrices of the system defined for the two DOFs shown.

Find the stiffness matrix by inverting the flexibility matrix.

f =

L3

6EI

2 5

5 14

4/29/2009 8:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 4

6

K = k 0

M = 0

6 b , with

b 3b 2

k=

12EI

h3

0

0

m

0

b2

0 m

6

The figure shows a uniform slab supported on four columns rigidly attached to the slab and clamped at the base. The

slab has a total mass m and is rigid in plane and out of plane. Each column is of circular cross section with moment of

inertia I or 2I . With the DOFs selected as ux , uy , u

(1) at the center of mass of the slab (as shown)

(2) at the center of stiffness of the slab (not shown)

find the mass and stiffness matrices in terms of m and the lateral stiffness k = 12 EI / h 3 of the smaller column.

Problem 5

Solution

= 0.5 ft

C = 150 #/ft3

z

12 '

16 '

EA

12 '

16 '

12 '

Wslab

16 '

0.064

0

0

= EA 0

0

0.7071 26.19

2.683

0

0

2.683

0 [ft, k, sec]

= 0

0

0

644.0

= 86.4 k

Find the mass and stiffness matrices with respect to the three in plane degrees-of-freedom ux , uy , z . In-plane stiffness is

provided by the three diagonal braces.

4/29/2009 8:01 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 6, 2009

Homework 8-Solution

Relative displacement, velocity and acceleration response time history for Loma Prieta Earthquake ( = 5%) .

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Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

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Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

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4/28/2009 8:29 PM

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Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

-4-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 2c

Using the beam element with four degrees-of-freedom the stiffness matrix with respect to the 8 free degrees-of-freedom

(4 rotations and 2 translations) is

54

6

0

0

0

12

54

648

0 324

54

0

6

54

0

24

6

0

Kfree =

use E = 1, I = 1, L = 1

324

54

648

0

53

0

54

6

0

24

6

0

0

0

53

6

12

0

Since zero mass is associated with the rotations, we eliminate the four rotations to generate a stiffness matrix with

respect to the two translations only.

EI 259.2 - 226.8

K final = 3

(ans )

259.2

L - 226.8

free = [2 3 4 5 6 8];

Kfree

= K(free,free);

r

= [2 4];

e

= [1 3 5 6];

Krr = Kfree(r,r);

Kre = Kfree (r,e);

Ker = Kfree (e,r);

Kee = Kfree (e,e);

%Final 2x2 st. matrix

Kfinal = Krr - Kre*inv(Kee) * Ker

Problem 4.2

When we apply the degrees-of-freedom at the center of rigidity all off-diagonal terms of the stiffness matrix a zero (that

is the definition of the center of rigidity). Furthermore, the diagonal elements related to the displacements are the same

as before. Hence we only need to calculate element K 33 of the stiffness matrix. The mass matrix is no longer diagonal,

coupling exists between the acceleration in the y -direction and the moment (and also, by symmetry) between the angular

acceleration and the y -force). Element M 33 of the mass matrix also changes.

d1 =

13

b, d2 =

36

25

b

36

13 2

25 2

17 2

b + 2k

b =

bk

36

36

6

2

1

1

7

M 33 =

m (b 2 + b 2 ) + m b 2 =

mb 2

6

12

36

0

0

6 0

6 0

12EI

K = k 0 6

0 = k 0 6

0 (ans ), with k = 3

0 0 2.833b 2

0 0 17 b 2

1 0

0

0

0

1

M = 0 1

b m = 0

1

0.1667b m (ans )

0 0.1667b 0.1944b 2

1

7b 2

b

0

6

36

K 33 = 2 2 kd12 + 2 kd22 = 4k

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

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-5-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 5

= 0.5 ft

C = 150 #/ft3

z

12 '

16 '

EA

12 '

16 '

12 '

16 '

Find the mass and stiffness matrices with respect to the three in plane degrees-of-freedom ux , uy , z . In-plane stiffness is

provided by the three diagonal braces.

EA

EA

cos2 = 2

0.82

L

20

k21 = k12 = 0

k11 = 2

= 0.0640 EA

k 31 = k13 = 0

EA

EA

cos2 =

0.7072

L

16.971

= k23 = 0.02950 EA 24

k22 =

= 0.02950 EA

k 32

= 0.7071 EA

1

1

k 33 = EA 2 0.802 122 +

20

16.971

0.0640

0

0

K = EA 0

0.0295 0.7071 k, ft(ans )

0

0.7071 26.19

86.4

k-sec2

= 2.683

32.2

ft

1

2

2

MMI =

(24 + 48 ) 2.683 = 643.9k-sec2 -ft

12

2.683

0

0

2.683

0 [ft, k, sec](ans )

M

= 0

0

0

644.0

k 31

0.032 EA

16 ft

16 ft

EA

0.707 2 24

16.971

= 0.7071 EA

k 32

k11

16 ft

16 ft

EA

0.82 12

20

= 0.384 EA

k23

k 33

12 ft

12 ft

0.032 EA

k12

12 ft

k21

0.0295 EA u1 = 0, u2 = 1, u 3 = 0

k22

16 ft

12 ft

u1 = 1, u2 = 0, u 3 = 0

16 ft

12 ft

u1 = 0, u2 = 0, u 3 = 1

12 ft

k13

0.384 EA

16 ft

4/28/2009 8:29 PM

16 ft

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw8_sol.doc

16 ft

-6-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 8, 2009

Homework 9 (Due 05-13-09)

Reading:

Problem 1

Determine the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes

of the structure for k1 =k and k2 =2k . Sketch the mode shapes.

Use the mass and stiffness matrices determined in HW 8.

m (total mass)

Solution:

1 = 1.592

k

m

1 =

0.634

/

L

k

m

2 = 3.076

2 =

2.366

/

L

Problem 2

Determine the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes of the structure

in terms of m, EI and L . Sketch the mode shapes.

Use the mass and stiffness matrices determined in HW 8.

Solution:

1 = 9.859

EI

mL4

2 = 38.184

EI

mL4

1

1 =

1

1

2 =

1

Problem 3:

Determine the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes of the structure (rigid beams) in terms of m, EI and h .

Sketch the mode shapes. Use MATLABs eig function to calculate the eigenvalues (natural frequencies) and

eigenvectors (mode shapes). Normalize the mode shapes such that the value at the roof level has unit value. In Matlab,

use E = 1, I = 1, h = 1, m = 1 . Model the frame in RISA or ETABS, perform a frequency analysis to find the mode

shapes and frequencies. Compare the results. A correct model should give you the exact same frequencies and mode

shapes.

Solution:

1 = 2.241

5/8/2009 7:53 AM

EI

mh 3

2 = 4.899

EI

mh 3

3 = 7.140

EI

mh 3

0.314

1 = 0.686

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_9.doc

0.5

2 = 0.5

3.186

3 = 2.186

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

ARCE 412: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Homework 9-Solution

5/14/2009 2:37 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw9_sol.doc

-1-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Problem 10.12

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Spring Quarter 2009

5/14/2009 2:37 PM

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Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

-3-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 15, 2009

Homework 10 (Due 05-20-09)

Reading:

Problem 1

For the structure of HW 8, P 4 (rigid slab on four columns), find the three natural periods Tn and corresponding mode

shapes for in-plane vibrations. Define the degrees-of-freedom

(1) at the center of mass of the slab (as shown)

(2) at the center of stiffness of the slab (not shown)

and show that both frequencies and mode shapes are independent of where we apply the degrees-of-freedom. Order the

periods in descending order and sketch the mode shapes. Use MATLAB.

(3) Model the structure in ETABS or RISA 3D and calculate natural periods and mode shapes. Include plots of the mode

shapes in your submittal. Model the columns as fixed-fixed.

UseW = 32.2 k (total weight of slab), b = 30 ft, k = 12EI / h 3 = 100 k/ft .

Solution: T1 = 0.267 sec,T2 = 0.256 sec T3 = 0.146 sec

Problem 2

u3

12 ft

25 k

W 14 x 48

u2

12 ft

50 k

W 14 x 90

u1

12 ft

50 k

W 14 x 120

Shape

I [in 4 ]

W 14x48

W 14x90

485

999

5/15/2009 10:15 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_10.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

W 14x120

1380

(1) Determine the natural periods Tn and modes n of the three-story frame above. Sketch the mode shapes and

identify the associated natural frequencies. Normalize each mode so that the modal mass M n = Tn m n has

unit value.

Solution:

0.2554

0.4103

0.6407

= 0.5313

0.3876

-0.4600

for m in k, sec, ft

-0.8068

0.2097

0.7701

0.885

1.421

2.219

1.840

=

1.343

-1.593

for m in k, sec, in

- 2.795

0.726

2.668

(2) Determine the free vibration response of the frame for the following three vectors of initial displacements (the

initial velocity is zero). Neglect damping. Consider 0 t 1.0 sec .

T

T

T

[in]

u I = 1 2 3

u II = 1 0.25 1

u III = 1 1 1

Comment on the relative contribution of the three vibration modes to the response produced by the three initial displacements.

Submit:

(1) Summary of analysis. Sketch of mode shapes.

(2) One plot for each vector of initial displacements showing the roof response in modes 1, 2, and 3 and the total

roof response (i.e. 4 lines per plot).

(3) Use hand calculation to calculate at t = 1 sec for the three initial conditions:

3.1 The total (all modes combined) first floor displacement.

3.2 The roof displacement in mode 2.

3.3 The second floor displacement in mode 1.

Roof displacement for IC 2

mode 1

mode 2

mode 3

total

Partial Solution

displacement in [in]

3.1

3.2

3.3

IC 1

0.26

0.026

0.57

IC 2

0.90

0.75

0.061

IC 3

0.69

0.40

0.025

N

number of degrees of freedom (dof) =number of modes

NT

(i, j )

= q

5/15/2009 10:15 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_10.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 20, 2009

Homework 10-Solution

Problem 1

For the structure of HW 8, P 4 (rigid slab on four columns) find the three natural periods Tn and corresponding mode

shapes for in-plane vibrations. Define the degrees-of-freedom

(1) at the center of mass of the slab (as shown)

(2) at the center of stiffness of the slab (not shown)

and show that both frequencies and mode shapes are independent of where we apply the degrees-of-freedom.

Order the periods in descending order and sketch the mode shapes.

UseW = 32.2 k (total weight of slab), b = 30 ft, k = 12EI / h 3 = 100 k/ft .

Center of mass (compare HW 8 solution)

1 0 0

1 0

M = m 0 1 0 = 1 0 1

b2

0 0

0 0

6

0

0

0 600

0

0

6 0

6

6

600

K = k 0 6 b = 100 0

30 = 0

3, 000

0 b 3b 2

0 30 3 302 0 3, 000 270, 000

0 1 0 0

0 = 0 1 0

302 0 0 150

1 0

M = m 0 1

1

b

0

0

0 600 0

0

6 0

6 0

K = k 0 6

0 = 100 0 6

0 = 0 600

0

0 255, 000

0 0 17 b 2

0 0 17 302 0

6

6

MATLAB statemenets

[phi lam] = eig(K,M);

CM

%frequencies

omega = sqrt(diag(lam))

= 0.9813

0.0157

1.000

0

0

1

0

0

0

1 0 0

1

1

1

b = 1 0

30 = 0 1 5

6

6

0 5 175

7b 2

1

7 302

30

36

6

36

0.1926

0.0801

2

3

CR

%sort

[omega j] = sort(omega);

phi

= phi(:,j);

T

= 2*pi ./ omega

CR

1.0000

0.5932

0.0801

2

1

3

1

CM

0.9027

0.0157

Mode 2

Mode 3

Since 0.9813 = 0.9027 + 5 0.0157 and 0.1926 = 0.5932 + 5 0.0801 , the two mode shape describe identical

motions.

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-1-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Mode 1

Mode 2

25 k

Problem 2

Mode 3

u3

W 14 x 48

50 k

u2

W 14 x 90

50 k

u1

W 14 x 120

Shape

I [in 4 ]

W 14x48

W 14x90

W 14x120

485

999

1380

(1) Determine the natural periods Tn and modes n of the three-story frame above. Sketch the mode shapes and

identify the associated natural frequencies. Normalize each mode so that the modal mass M n = Tn m n has

unit value.

Solution:

0.885

1.421

2.219

1.840

1.343

-1.593

- 2.795

0.726

2.668

(2) Determine the free vibration response of the frame for the following three vectors of initial displacements (the

initial velocity is zero). Neglect damping. Consider 0 t 1.0 sec .

T

T

T

u I = 1 2 3

u II = 1 0.25 1

u III = 1 1 1

[in]

Comment on the relative contribution of the three vibration modes to the response produced by the three initial displacements.

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-2-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Submit:

(1) Summary of analysis. Sketch of mode shapes.

(2) One plot for each vector of initial displacements showing the roof response in modes 1, 2, and 3 and the total

roof response (i.e. 4 lines per plot).

(3) Use hand calculation to calculate at t = 1 sec for the three initial conditions:

3.1 The total (all modes combined) first floor displacement.

3.2 The roof displacement in mode 2.

3.3 The second floor displacement in mode 1.

MATLAB code

%3-story frame (rigid girders)

clear all

close('all')

%story mass and stiffnesses

m = 50/386.4;

E = 29000;

k1 = 24*E*1380 /144/12^3;

k2 = 24*E* 999 /144/12^3;

k3 = 24*E* 485 /144/12^3;

K = [k1+k2 -k2 0; -k2 k2+k3 -k3; 0 -k3 k3]/12;

M = [m 0 0; 0 m 0; 0 0 m/2];

%frequencies

[phi lam] = eig(K,M); omega = sqrt(diag(lam))

%sort frequencies and modes

[omega j] = sort(omega); phi= phi(:,j);T= 2*pi ./ omega

N = length(T);

%normalize phi

for i=1:N

Mn(i)

= phi(:,i)' * M * phi(:,i);

phi(:,i) = phi(:,i) ./ sqrt(Mn(i));

end

%initial conditions

%u0

= [1 2 3]';

u0

= [-1 0.25 1]';

%u0

= [1 -1 1]';

q0

= inv(phi) * u0;

t

%modal displacements

for i=1:3

q(i,:) = q0(i) .* cos(omega(i) .* t);

end

%structure displacements in individual modes

for i=1:N

umode(:,:,i) = phi(:,i) * q(i,:);

end

%total structure displacements (all modes combined)

utot = phi * q;

col = ['r';'g';'b';'k'];

figure

hold on

for i=1:3

plot(t,umode(3,:,i),col(i,:));

end

plot(t,utot(3,:),col(4,:));

axis([0 1 -3 3]);

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-3-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

554.5 - 232.8

0

K = - 232.8

345.9 -113.0 k/in

0

-113.0

113.0

0.885

1.421

2.219

1.343

-1.593

=

1.840

2.668

- 2.795

0.726

q0

q 0,1

q 0,2

q 0,3

-1

0.1294

= 0

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0

0.1294

0

0.2381

0.1737

-0.2062

2

0

k sec /in

0.0647

0.1726

-0.1808

0.0470

= -1u 0

= -1u 0,1

= -1u 0,2

-1

= u 0,3

cos 1 1

cos 2 1 =

cos 3 1

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0.1145

= 0.1839

0.2872

0.2381

0.1737

-0.2062

0.2381

0.1737

-0.2062

0.2381

0.1737

-0.2062

0.1726 1

-0.1808 2

0.0470 3

0.1726 1

-0.1808 0.25

0.0470 1

0.1726 1

-0.1808 1

0.0470 1

1.1086

= -0.0111

0.0158

0.1177

= -0.3213

-0.2917

0.0489

= -0.1706

0.5404

-0.2812

0.8305

0.7550

For IC 1

= 0.885 1.1086 (0.2812) + 1.421 (0.0111) 0.8305 + 2.219 0.0158 0.7550 = 0.263 in

3.1

u1

3.2

3.3

other IC analogous

Summary

displacement in [in]

3.1

3.2

3.3

IC 1

0.26

0.026

0.57

IC 2

0.90

0.75

0.061

IC 3

0.69

0.40

0.025

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-4-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Plots

mode 1

mode 2

mode 3

total

1

0

1

2

3

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

time [sec]

0.8

3

2

1

mode 1

mode 2

mode 3

total

0

1

2

3

0

2

1

0.2

0.4

0.6

time [sec]

0.8

0.8

mode 1

mode 2

mode 3

total

0

1

2

3

0

5/18/2009 10:00 AM

0.2

0.4

0.6

time [sec]

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw10_sol.doc

-5-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 22, 2009

Homework 11 (Due 05-29-09)

48.3 k

u3

96.6 k

u2

96.6 k

u1

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 1500 k/ft

18 f

k = story stiffness

Calculate the response of the three-story frame above to the Loma Prieta ground motion. Select 5% damping.

Response quantities of interest are:

(1-3) The inter-story drift ratio in % for the three stories. Story heights are 12 ft for stories 2 and 3 and 15 ft for story 1.

(4) The overturning moment in k-ft.

Plot the response in modes 1 and 2 and the total response for 0 < t < 12 sec . Don't include the third mode (its

contribution is virtually zero and the plots would become too busy). Distinguish the three lines by color or line-style. On

your plot, clearly mark the maximum absolute value of the response in each mode as well as the maximum of the total

response. Why is the maximum value of the sum (sum of all modes) not equal to the sum of the maximum modal

values? Develop a table summarizing the maximum value of each result quantity in the first mode and the total maximum value. Comment on the effects of the second mode on the total maximum. Which of the four response quantities

is most affected by the second mode?

Some help on MATAB implementation

%Total structure response

u = phi * q

%Structure response (floor displacements) in individual modes

u1 = phi(:,1) * q(1,:)

u2 = phi(:,2) * q(2,:)

u2 = phi(:,3) * q(3,:)

%1st story drift in three modes and total

d1 = u(1,:);

d11 = u1(1,:);

d12 = u2(1,:);

d13 = u3(1,:);

%2nd story drift in three modes and total

5/22/2009 1:12 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11.doc

Spring Quarter 2009

d2

d21

d22

d23

=

=

=

=

u(1,:) - u(2,:);

u1(1,:)- u1(2,:);

u2(1,:)-u2(2,:);

u3(1,:)-u3(2,:);

%3rd story drift in three modes and total

your turn...

%forces acting at floor level (three modes and total)

F = K * u;

F1 = K * u1;

F2 = K * u2;

F3 = K * u3;

%overturning moment(three modes and total)

your turn...

Some Solutions:

T1 = 0.500 sec

T2 = 0.162 sec

T3 = 0.111 sec

1 = 2.6980

2 = 0.4606

3 = 0.09207

Note:

's are obtained with mass-orthonormal mode shape using units of feet.

5/22/2009 1:12 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11.doc

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

0.4

4

6

8

10

12

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11.doc

0.3

2

5/22/2009 1:12 PM

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0

t [s]

Mode 1

Mode 2

Total

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

May 22, 2009

Homework 11-Solution

48.3 k

u3

96.6 k

u2

96.6 k

u1

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 2625 k/ft

k = 1500 k/ft

18 f

k = story stiffness

Calculate the response of the three-story frame above to the Loma Prieta ground motion. Select 5% damping.

Response quantities of interest are:

(1-3) The inter-story drift ratio in % for the three stories. Story heights are 12 ft for stories 2 and 3 and 15 ft for story 1.

(4) The overturning moment in k-ft.

Plot the response in modes 1 and 2 and the total response for 0 < t < 12 sec . Don't include the third mode (its

contribution is virtually zero and the plots would become too busy). Distinguish the three lines by color or line-style. On

your plot, clearly mark the maximum absolute value of the response in each mode as well as the maximum of the total

response. Why is the maximum value of the sum (sum of all modes) not equal to the sum of the maximum modal

values? Develop a table summarizing the maximum value of each result quantity in the first mode and the total maximum value. Comment on the effects of the second mode on the total maximum. Which of the four response quantities

is most affected by the second mode?

Some help on MATAB implementation

%Total structure response

u = phi * q

%Structure response (floor displacements) in individual modes

u1 = phi(:,1) * q(1,:)

u2 = phi(:,2) * q(2,:)

u3 = phi(:,3) * q(3,:)

%1st story drift in three modes and total

d1 = u(1,:);

d11 = u1(1,:);

d12 = u2(1,:);

d13 = u3(1,:);

%2nd story drift in three modes and total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-1-

Spring Quarter 2009

d2

d21

d22

d23

=

=

=

=

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

u(1,:) - u(2,:);

u1(1,:)- u1(2,:);

u2(1,:)-u2(2,:);

u3(1,:)-u3(2,:);

%3rd story drift in three modes and total

your turn...

%forces acting at floor level (three modes and total)

F = K * u;

F1 = K * u1;

F2 = K * u2;

F3 = K * u3;

%overturning moment(three modes and total)

your turn...

Some Solutions:

T1 = 0.500 sec

T2 = 0.162 sec

T3 = 0.111 sec

1 = 2.6980

2 = 0.4606

3 = 0.09207

Note:

's are obtained with mass-orthonormal mode shape using units of feet.

Solution:

Table 1: Modal and combined maximum values of four response quantities considered.

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Total

DR 1 [%]

0.3341 0.0389 0.0012 0.3143

DR 2 [%]

0.1630 0.0558 0.0048 0.2072

DR 3 [%]

0.0578 0.0435 0.0071 0.0961

OTM [k-ft] 1962

244

13

2116

Note: Mode 2 and Mode 3 columns not required in HW.

In time history analysis we first calculate the sum of the individual modal time histories and then take the maximum of

this summation. We thus calculate the maximum of the sum. Since the modal maximum values usually occur at different

time, the maximum of the sum is commonly smaller than the sum of the maximum values. The sum of the maximum

values gives us an overly conservative estimate of the maximum response. The maximum of the sum over all modes can

also be smaller than the maximum in mode 1, since higher modes may contribute with different signs. The combined

drift ratio in story 1 (0.3143), for example, is smaller than that in mode 1 (0.3341%) since the effects of modes 2 and 3 is

negative. Higher modes increase the drift ratio in story 2 by about 27% (0.2072/0.1630=1.27) and the drift ratio in story

3 by about 66%. As already mentioned higher modes reduce the drift ration in story 1. Higher modes only have a small

effect on the overturning moment, which is clearly dominated by mode 1 (2116/1962=1.08).

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-2-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0

2

4

6

t [s]

8

10

12

Mode 1

Mode 2

Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-3-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0

2

4

6

t [s]

8

10

12

Mode 1

Mode 2

Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-4-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0

2

4

6

t [s]

8

10

12

Mode 1

Mode 2

Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-5-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

0

2

4

6

t [s]

8

10

12

Mode 1

Mode 2

Total

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-6-

Spring Quarter 2009

Instructor: Ansgar Neuenhofer

ETABS model:

A frequency analysis in ETABS yields the following results:

MATLAB

0.4991 sec

0.1620 sec

0.1108 sec

A time history analysis in ETABS yields the following results for the inter-story drift ratio (MATLAB results are from

Table 1):

MATLAB

0.000961

0.00207

0.00314

6/1/2009 12:58 PM

C:\calpoly\arce412\homework\spring_2009\hw_11_sol.doc

-7-

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