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including the co-polarization and cross-polarization in the H-plane

(xz plane) and E-plane (yz plane). The main purpose of the radiation patterns is to demonstrate that the antenna actually radiates over
a wide frequency band. It can be seen that the radiation patterns in x
z plane are nearly omni-directional for the two frequencies.
4. CONCLUSION

In this article, we propose a novel design of UWB slot antenna


with multi-resonance and dual band-notch function. The presented antenna can operate from 2.43 to 15.03 GHz with two
rejection bands around 3.264.16 and 5.16.05 GHz. The
designed antenna has a small size of 20  20  0.8 m3. The
size of the designed antenna is smaller than the UWB antennas
with band-notched function reported recently. Simulated and experimental results show that the proposed antenna could be a
good candidate for UWB applications.

Two rectangular slots are introduced at the left and right side of the
patch to reduce the resonant frequency. The widths of the rectangular
slots are different to improve the gain bandwidth performance of the
antenna. The antenna size has been reduced by 73.9% when compared
to a conventional rectangular microstrip patch antenna. The
characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using
Method of Moment-based electromagnetic solver, IE3D. There is a
reasonable agreement between these simulated data and measured
values. An extensive analysis of the return loss, radiation pattern, gain,
and efficiency of the proposed antenna is shown in this paper. The
simple configuration and low profile nature of the proposed antenna
leads to easy fabrication and make it suitable for the applications in
Wireless communication system. Mainly, it is developed to operate in
C 2013 Wiley
the mobile communication range of 900 MHz1.8 GHz. V
Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 55:954957, 2013; View
this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.27517
Key words: compact; patch; slot; resonant frequency; mobile
communication

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are thankful to Microwave Technology (MWT) Company staff for their beneficial and professional help (www.microwave-technology.com).
REFERENCES
1. M. Ojaroudi and A. Faramarzi, Multi-resonance small square slot antenna
for ultra-wideband applications, Microwave Opt Tech Lett 53 (2011).
2. J.Y. Sze and K.L. Wong, Bandwidth enhancement of a microstrip
line-fed printed wide-slot antenna, IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 49
(2001), 10201024.
3. Y.W. Jang, Experimental study of large bandwidth three-offset
microstrip line-fed slot antenna, IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon Lett 11 (2001), 425426.
4. A. Dastranj, A. Imani, and M. Naser-Moghaddasi, Printed wideslot antenna for wideband applications, IEEE Trans Antennas
Propag 56 (2008), 30973102.
5. R. Rouhi, Ch. Ghobadi, J. Nourinia, and M. Ojaroudi, Ultrawideband small square monopole antenna with band notched function, Microwave Opt Tech Lett 52 (2010), 20652069.
6. S. Yzadanifard, R.A. Sadeghzadeh, and M. Ojaroudi, Ultra-wideband small square monopole antenna with variable frequency
band-notch function, Prog Electromagn Res C 15 (2010), 133144.
7. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS), version 13,
Ansoft Corporation, Canonsburg, PA, 2010.
C 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
V

COMPACT MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR


MOBILE COMMUNICATION
Samiran Chatterjee,1 Kalyanbrata Ghosh,2 Joydeep Paul,2
S. K. Chowdhury,3 Debasree Chanda (Sarkar),4
and P.P. Sarkar4
1
Department of ECE, Brainware Group of Institutions, Barasat,
West Bengal, India; Corresponding author:
samiranengineer@gmail.com
2
Department of ECE, Aryabhatta Institute for Engineering and
Management, Durgapur, Panagarh, West Bengal, India
3
Department of ECE, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, Nadia,
West Bengal, India
4
USIC Department, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, West
Bengal, India
Received 16 August 2012
ABSTRACT: A single layer, single feed compact rectangular
microstrip antenna is proposed. Resonant frequency has been reduced
drastically by cutting unequal rectangular slots at the edge of the patch.

954

1. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, demand for small antennas in wireless communication has increased the interest of research work on compact
microstrip antenna design among microwaves and wireless engineers [1]. To support the high mobility necessary for a wireless
telecommunication device, a small and light weight antenna is
likely to be preferred. For this purpose, compact microstrip
antenna is one of the most suitable devices. The development of
antenna for wireless communication also requires an antenna
with more than one operating frequency. This is due to many
reasons, mainly because there are various wireless communication systems and many telecommunication operators using various frequencies. Therefore, one antenna that has multiband characteristic is more desirable than having one antenna for each
frequency band. To reduce the size of the antenna, one of the
effective techniques is cutting slot in proper position on the
microstrip patch [24]. There are so many antennas which
are used to reduce the size of the antenna. Reducing the size of
the antenna means the resonant frequency of slotted antenna is
drastically reduced compared to conventional antenna [57].
Other than slotted antenna, there are antennas like Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA), Fractal Antenna, etc. [813]. Fractal
antennas are difficult to design, and DRA requires high dielectric
constant substrates which are not readily available.
Compact microstrip antenna is a topic of intensive research
in recent years because of increasing demand for small antennas
used in various types of communications including mobile communication [14, 15]. The size of the antenna may be effectively
reduced by cutting rectangular slots on printed antennas. The
work to be presented in this paper is also a compact printed
antenna obtained by cutting rectangular slots which gave a resonant frequency much lower than the resonant frequency of the
conventional printed antenna with the same patch area. The
work to be presented in this paper is also a compact microstrip
antenna design obtained by cutting rectangular slots on the patch
to increase the return loss and gain bandwidth performance of
the antenna. To reduce the size of the antenna, substrates are
chosen with higher value of dielectric constant [1619]. Our aim
is to reduce the size of the antenna as well as increase the operating bandwidth. The proposed antenna (substrate with er 4.4)
presents a size reduction of 73.9% when compared to a conventional rectangular microstrip patch. The simulation has been carried out by IE3D [20] software which uses the Method of
Moment (MOM) method and verified by measurements. Due to

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 55, No. 5, May 2013

DOI 10.1002/mop

TABLE 1

Optimal Parameter Values of the Antenna

Parameter

Values (mm)

W
L1
L2

14
1
1.5

configuration of Antenna 2 designed with similar PTFE


substrate. Two unequal rectangular slots whose dimensions and
the location of coaxial probe-feed (radius 0.5 mm) are shown
in the Figure 2. The configuration of Antenna 2 is designed with
a similar substrate. The antenna is also a 30 mm  24 mm rectangular patch. The location of coaxial probe-feed (radius 0.5
mm) is also shown in Figure 2.
3. SIMULATED RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Figure 1 Antenna 1 configuration

the small size, low cost, and light weight, this antenna is a good
candidate for the application of mobile communication in the
frequency range of 900 MHz1.8 GHz.
2. ANTENNA STRUCTURE

The configuration of the conventional printed antenna is shown in


Figure 1 with L 24 mm, W 30 mm, substrate (PTFE) thickness h 1.5875 mm, and dielectric constant er 4.4. Coaxial
probe-feed (radius 0.5 mm) is located at W/2 and L/3.
The dielectric material selected for this design is an FR4 epoxy with dielectric constant (er) 4.4 and substrate height (h)
1.6 mm. Co-axial probe feed of radius 0.5 mm with a simple
ground plane arrangement is used at point (0,4) where the center of the patch is considered at point (0,0). Figure 2 shows the

Figure 2 Antenna 2 configuration

DOI 10.1002/mop

In this section, various parametric analysis of the proposed


antenna are carried out and presented.
Several parameters of the antenna have been investigated to
improve bandwidth as well as gain and return loss performance
of the antenna. Optimal parameter values of the antenna are
listed in Table 1. L1 is the left hand and L2 is the right hand
patch length.
The simulated return loss of the conventional antenna
(Antenna 1) and the proposed antenna (Antenna 2) is shown in
Figures 3 and 4, respectively.
In the conventional antenna, return loss of about 18.02 dB
is obtained at 2.840 GHz. Corresponding 10 dB bandwidth is
42.79 MHz. The second, third, and fourth resonant frequencies
are obtained at f2 4.65 GHz, f3 5.62 GHz, and f4 7.51
GHz with return losses 10.37 dB, 11.14 dB, and 17.30 dB,
respectively. Corresponding 10 dB bandwidth obtained for
Antenna 1 at f2, f3, and f4 are 27.44 MHz, 31.97 MHz, and
28.36 MHz, respectively. Comparing Figures 3 and 4, it may be
observed that for the conventional antenna (Fig. 3), there is
practically no resonant frequency at around 1.54 GHz with a
return loss of around 6 dB. For the proposed antenna, there is
a resonant frequency at around 1.54 GHz where the return loss
is as high as 12.1 dB. Due to the presence of slots in Antenna
2, resonant frequency operation is obtained with large values of
frequency ratio. The first resonant frequency is obtained at f1
1.540 GHz with return loss of about 12.1 dB. The second,
third, and fourth resonant frequencies are obtained at f2 4.66

Figure 3 Simulated return loss of the Antenna 1. [Color figure can be


viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 55, No. 5, May 2013

955

Figure 4 Simulated return loss of the Antenna 2. [Color figure can be


viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

GHz, f3 5.71 GHz, and f4 9.24 GHz with return losses


11.2 dB, 17.35 dB, and 11.8 dB, respectively. Corresponding 10-dB bandwidth obtained for Antenna 2 at f1, f2, f3, and f4
are 38.60 MHz, 72.50 MHz, 11.82 MHz, and 57.04 MHz,
respectively.

Figure 7 Top layer photograph of proposed antenna. [Color figure


can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com]

3.1. Simulated Radiation Pattern


The simulated E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns for
Antenna 1 at the first resonant frequency are shown in
Figure 5. Also the simulated E-plane and H-plane radiation

Figure 5 (a) Simulated E-field pattern radiation pattern at 2.84 GHz. (b) Simulated H-field pattern radiation pattern at 2.84 GHz. [Color figure can be
viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Figure 6 (a) Simulated E-field radiation pattern at 1.54 GHz. (b) Simulated H-field radiation pattern at 1.54 GHz. [Color figure can be viewed in the
online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

956

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 55, No. 5, May 2013

DOI 10.1002/mop

communication. The measurement facility provided by Prof. Santanu Das of BESU, Shibpur, Howrah, is gratefully acknowledged.
REFERENCES

Figure 8 Bottom layer photograph of proposed antenna. [Color figure


can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Figure 9 Comparison between simulated and measured data

patterns for Antenna 2 at the first resonant frequency are shown


in Figure 6.
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The prototype of the Antenna 2 (proposed antenna) was fabricated and tested, which are depicted in Figures 79. All the
measurements were carried out using Vector Network Analyzer
(VNA) Agilent N5 230A.
The comparisons of the measured return loss with the simulated ones are shown in Figure 9. The discrepancy between the
measured and simulated results is due to the effect of improper
soldering of SMA connector or fabrication tolerance.
5. CONCLUSION

Theoretical investigations of a single layer, single feed microstrip printed antennas have been carried out using MoM-based
software IE3D. Introducing slots at the edge of the patch, a size
reduction of about 73.9% has been achieved. This has been verified experimentally by VNA Agilent N5 230A. The 3-dB beamwidth of the radiation pattern is 89.17 which is sufficiently
broad beam for the applications for which it is intended.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors acknowledge gratefully the financial support provided


by AICTE (India) in the form of a project entitled Development
of compact, broadband and efficient patch antennas for mobile

DOI 10.1002/mop

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