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Oct 13, 2015

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School report.

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School report.

© All Rights Reserved

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Design

Assignment 2

Matric Number: U1122661G

Question i

transients caused by lightning or switching surges. Correct capacitance needs to

be selected so that the clip voltage can withstand the impulse voltage.

EC ( t ) =2 1e

t

ZC

( t )

ZC

) EU ( t )2 (1e ) EU (t )

For the 4/10 waveshape, the maximum point of the impulse wave occurs after

the period of the unit step and it is 4s.

Using the ECI equation and t value of 4 s , we obtain the desired capacitance

value.

EC ( t ) =2 1e

t

ZC

) EU ( t )2 (1e

( t4 s )

ZC

) EU ( t4 s)

Using

EC ( 4 s )=2 1e

10 kV =2 (1e

4 s

ZC

4 s

300C

) EU ( t ) 2 (1e

)15 kV

t

10 kV

=ln 1

300C

215 kV

C=32.884 nF

( 4 s4 s )

ZC

) EU ( 4 s4 s)

waveshape with T1 = 4 s

and T2 =

10 s

Question ii

IDMT relay is not preferred for busbar protection because a fault identified in one

area will cause operation to stop at other areas due to time discrimination of the

fault that occurred in the other area. Hence, an area without a fault will cease to

operate even though a fault has not been identified there.

mechanism of the relays. The Bucholz relay uses oil and gas to trip the relay.

When there is a fault, the transformer insulating oil will decompose producing

gas and this accumulated gas closes a switch which results in the circuit breaker

to trip. The operation of the differential relay on the other hand is based on

Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL). Based on the KCL, under normal operation the total

currents entering the protection unit is equal to the total current leaving the unit.

If there is any imbalance, it means there is a fault and detecting imbalance of

current and causing the circuit breaker to trip is faster than the gas accumulating

in the case of the Bucholz relay. Hence, the differential relay acts faster.

Question iii

To use an IDMT relay, we need to specify values for , , K and current ratio

I set . First we determine the current ratio by figuring out the maximum current

possible that can be flowing in the system.

It is given that impedence is 5% which means

X pu=0.05 pu

Let Vpu = 1

I max=

V pu

1

=

X pu 0.05

I max=20 pu

Hence, our current ratio setting should be 20.

The criteria for the relay is that we should get the fastest tripping time. The IDMT

relay tripping time is given by this equation

t=

I

( ) 1

I set

Hence, this means the value of the time multiplier K is 0.1 since t is proportional

to K and the smaller K value is 0.1.

Next our job is to select suitable values of and by choosing one of the four

sets of IDMT curve parameters as shown in the following table.

Since our current ratio has a high value of 20, we should use the Long time

inverse settings because at high current ratio values, the response of the circuit

breaker is faster than the other settings. A comparison can be seen from the

IDMT curves for a chosen value of K.

Long Time

Inverse

Normal Inverse

Very Inverse

Extremely

The pink curve shows the time of operation for a IDMT relay with Extremely

Inverse characteristics. For current ratio values higher than 5, we observe that

the fastest response is given by the Extremely Inverse characteristics and hence

our chosen value of = 2.0 and = 80.

Based on these settings our tripping time is

t=

K

0.180

=

=0.02005 seconds

I

( 20 )21

( ) 1

I set

Slower tripping time would mean the overcurrent would pass through the

transformer equipment for a longer duration and this would cause more damage

as the transformer circuit is experiencing an overcurrent for a long duration.

Hence, fastest tripping time would minimize this overcurrent exposure and

minimize damage.

Question iv

When a motor is turned on it requires a large amount of current. In this case it is

10 times the nominal current and this current is called the locked rotor current. In

our case the locked rotor time is 0.6 seconds. During this period, the IDMT

protection system should not mistake this overcurrent as a fault and trip the

circuit breaker. Hence the response time of the IDMT protection should be more

than 0.6 seconds for a current ratio value of 10.

t=

I

( ) 1

I set

Our job is to determine the time multiplier for each type of IDMT curve.

By manipulation of the previous equation we obtain

t (

K=

I

I set

) 1

We solve for K for each IDMT curve type by substituting the following values of

and . The current ratio value is 10 and t is 0.6.

IDMT setting

Normal Inverse

Very Inverse

Extremely

0.02

1.0

2.0

0.14

13.5

80

Calculated

K

0.202

0.4

0.7425

K value to be

used

0.3

0.5

0.8

Inverse

Long Time

Inverse

1.0

120

0.045

0.1

For each calculated value of K, we need to choose the next higher value of K

available because t is proportional to K and we want our tripping time to faster

than 0.6 seconds.

Question v

Voltage imbalance occurs when voltage magnitude of each phase differs or when

phase angle is not the nominal value of 120 of each other. This imbalance

causes winding temperature to increase and may lead to damage of insulation.

To prevent excessive damage, the voltage imbalance factor should not be more

than 6%.

( ) ( )[

][ ]

2

Vp

1 R R V1

1

Vn =

1 R2 R V 2

3

1 1 1 V3

V0

R=e

2

j

3

=1120

VUF=

100|V n|

|V p|

[ ][ ]

V1

1 0

V 2 = 1 120

1

V3

[ ][

V1

230 0

V 2 = 230 120

V 3 230 130.29

[ ][

V 1 230 10.29

V 2 = 230 120

230 120

V3

Conclusion

After trying several values of the phase angle, I obtained that the phase angle

imbalance has to be within 10.29 to ensure the VUF does not exceed 6%.

magnitude equally in the 3 phases.

[ ][

V1

4000

V 2 = 400120

400 120

V3

Conclusion

From the pasted MATLAB code, we see the VUF value to be close to zero. Hence,

equal change in voltage magnitude in all the phases does not affect the VUF.

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