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EE4503 Power Engineering

Design
Assignment 2

Name: Swagato Sen


Matric Number: U1122661G

Question i

Surge Arrester is used to protect electrical equipment from overvoltage


transients caused by lightning or switching surges. Correct capacitance needs to
be selected so that the clip voltage can withstand the impulse voltage.

Characteristics of ECI Waveshape

EC ( t ) =2 1e

t
ZC

( t )
ZC

) EU ( t )2 (1e ) EU (t )

Exponential Current Impulse Equation

For the 4/10 waveshape, the maximum point of the impulse wave occurs after
the period of the unit step and it is 4s.

Using the ECI equation and t value of 4 s , we obtain the desired capacitance
value.

EC ( t ) =2 1e

t
ZC

) EU ( t )2 (1e

( t4 s )
ZC

) EU ( t4 s)

Using

t=4 s E c ( 4 s )=10 kV Z o=300

EC ( 4 s )=2 1e

10 kV =2 (1e

4 s
ZC

4 s
300C

) EU ( t ) 2 (1e

)15 kV

t
10 kV
=ln 1
300C
215 kV

C=32.884 nF

Using MATLAB to solve:

( 4 s4 s )
ZC

) EU ( 4 s4 s)

Plotting the ECI system with this value of capacitance

4/10 ECI Waveshape

It can be seen that the waveform shown is an approximate of the 4/10


waveshape with T1 = 4 s

and T2 =

10 s

(approximate 50% of Ec(max)).

The minimum capacitance is 32.884nF

Question ii
IDMT relay is not preferred for busbar protection because a fault identified in one
area will cause operation to stop at other areas due to time discrimination of the
fault that occurred in the other area. Hence, an area without a fault will cease to
operate even though a fault has not been identified there.

To determine which relay acts faster, we need to examine the underlying


mechanism of the relays. The Bucholz relay uses oil and gas to trip the relay.
When there is a fault, the transformer insulating oil will decompose producing
gas and this accumulated gas closes a switch which results in the circuit breaker
to trip. The operation of the differential relay on the other hand is based on
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL). Based on the KCL, under normal operation the total
currents entering the protection unit is equal to the total current leaving the unit.
If there is any imbalance, it means there is a fault and detecting imbalance of
current and causing the circuit breaker to trip is faster than the gas accumulating
in the case of the Bucholz relay. Hence, the differential relay acts faster.

Question iii
To use an IDMT relay, we need to specify values for , , K and current ratio

I set . First we determine the current ratio by figuring out the maximum current
possible that can be flowing in the system.
It is given that impedence is 5% which means

X pu=0.05 pu

Let Vpu = 1

I max=

V pu
1
=
X pu 0.05

I max=20 pu
Hence, our current ratio setting should be 20.
The criteria for the relay is that we should get the fastest tripping time. The IDMT
relay tripping time is given by this equation

t=

I
( ) 1
I set

Hence, this means the value of the time multiplier K is 0.1 since t is proportional
to K and the smaller K value is 0.1.
Next our job is to select suitable values of and by choosing one of the four
sets of IDMT curve parameters as shown in the following table.

Since our current ratio has a high value of 20, we should use the Long time
inverse settings because at high current ratio values, the response of the circuit
breaker is faster than the other settings. A comparison can be seen from the
IDMT curves for a chosen value of K.

Long Time
Inverse
Normal Inverse
Very Inverse
Extremely
The pink curve shows the time of operation for a IDMT relay with Extremely
Inverse characteristics. For current ratio values higher than 5, we observe that
the fastest response is given by the Extremely Inverse characteristics and hence
our chosen value of = 2.0 and = 80.
Based on these settings our tripping time is

t=

K
0.180
=
=0.02005 seconds

I
( 20 )21
( ) 1
I set

Fastest time is preferred because transformers are very expensive equipment.


Slower tripping time would mean the overcurrent would pass through the
transformer equipment for a longer duration and this would cause more damage
as the transformer circuit is experiencing an overcurrent for a long duration.
Hence, fastest tripping time would minimize this overcurrent exposure and
minimize damage.

Question iv
When a motor is turned on it requires a large amount of current. In this case it is
10 times the nominal current and this current is called the locked rotor current. In
our case the locked rotor time is 0.6 seconds. During this period, the IDMT
protection system should not mistake this overcurrent as a fault and trip the
circuit breaker. Hence the response time of the IDMT protection should be more
than 0.6 seconds for a current ratio value of 10.

The IDMT relay tripping time is given by this equation

t=

I
( ) 1
I set

Our job is to determine the time multiplier for each type of IDMT curve.
By manipulation of the previous equation we obtain

t (
K=

I
I set

) 1

We solve for K for each IDMT curve type by substituting the following values of
and . The current ratio value is 10 and t is 0.6.
IDMT setting
Normal Inverse
Very Inverse
Extremely

0.02
1.0
2.0

0.14
13.5
80

Calculated
K
0.202
0.4
0.7425

K value to be
used
0.3
0.5
0.8

Inverse
Long Time
Inverse

1.0

120

0.045

0.1

For each calculated value of K, we need to choose the next higher value of K
available because t is proportional to K and we want our tripping time to faster
than 0.6 seconds.

Question v
Voltage imbalance occurs when voltage magnitude of each phase differs or when
phase angle is not the nominal value of 120 of each other. This imbalance
causes winding temperature to increase and may lead to damage of insulation.
To prevent excessive damage, the voltage imbalance factor should not be more
than 6%.

Obtain the sequence voltage

( ) ( )[

][ ]

2
Vp
1 R R V1
1
Vn =
1 R2 R V 2
3
1 1 1 V3
V0

R=e

2
j
3

=1120

For a given VUF value of 6%, calculate phase angle of V3.

VUF=

100|V n|

|V p|

[ ][ ]
V1
1 0
V 2 = 1 120
1
V3

Case 1 : V3 with phase shift of -130.29

[ ][

V1
230 0
V 2 = 230 120
V 3 230 130.29

Case 2 : V1 with phase angle shift of -10.29

[ ][

V 1 230 10.29
V 2 = 230 120
230 120
V3

Conclusion
After trying several values of the phase angle, I obtained that the phase angle
imbalance has to be within 10.29 to ensure the VUF does not exceed 6%.

In the following case, we investigate what happens if we change the voltage


magnitude equally in the 3 phases.

Case 3 : Equal Voltage Magnitude Change

[ ][

V1
4000
V 2 = 400120
400 120
V3

Conclusion
From the pasted MATLAB code, we see the VUF value to be close to zero. Hence,
equal change in voltage magnitude in all the phases does not affect the VUF.