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j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / c o m p fl u i d

Mohamed Menaa, Aouni A. Lakis

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, Succursale Centre-ville, Montral H3C 3A7, Canada

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 20 May 2013

Received in revised form 13 August 2014

Accepted 19 November 2014

Available online 29 November 2014

Keywords:

Spherical shell

Fluid structure interaction

Hybrid nite element method

a b s t r a c t

In present study, a hybrid nite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical

shell lled with uid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical

nite element method. It is assumed that the uid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid

is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is

expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the uidstructure interface. Numerical simulation

is done and vibration frequencies for different lling ratios are obtained and compared with existing

experimental and theoretical results. The dynamic behavior for different shell geometries, lling ratios

and boundary conditions with different radius to thickness ratios is summarized. This proposed hybrid

nite element method can be used efciently for analyzing the dynamic behavior of aerospace structures

at less computational cost than other commercial FEM software.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Shells of revolution, particularly spherical shells are one of the

primary structural elements in high speed aircraft. Their applications include the propellant tank or gas-deployed skirt of space

crafts. Space shuttles need a large thrust within a short time interval; thus a large propellant tank is required. Dynamic behavior in

the lightweight, thin-walled tank is an important aspect in its

design. These liquid propelled space launch vehicles experience a

signicant longitudinal disturbance during thrust build up and also

due to the effect of launch mechanism. Dynamic analysis of such a

problem in the presence of uidstructure interaction is one of the

challenging subjects in aerospace engineering. Great care must be

taken during the design of spacecraft vehicles to prevent dynamic

instability.

Free vibration of spherical shell containing a uid has been

investigated by numerous researchers experimentally and analytically. Rayleigh [1] solved the problem of axisymmetric vibrations

of a uid in a rigid spherical shell. The solution for vibrations of

the uid-lled spherical membrane appears in the work of Morse

and Feshbach [2].

The uid movement on the surface of uid (sloshing) in

non-deformable spherical shell has been investigated by few

researchers as Budiansky [3], Stofan and Armsted [4], Chu [5],

Karamanos et al. [6]. The oscillations of the uid masses result

from the lateral displacement or angular rotation of the spherical

shell. Others researchers have studied particular cases like the case

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: aouni.lakis@polymtl.ca (A.A. Lakis).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2014.11.023

0045-7930/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

of a sphere lled with uid. Rand and Dimaggio [7] considered the

free vibrations for axisymmetric, extensional, non-torsional of

uid-lled elastic spherical shells. Motivated by the fact that

human head can be represented as a spherical shell lled by uid,

Engin and Liu [8] considered the free vibration of a thin homogenous spherical shell containing an inviscid irrotational uid.

Advani and Lee [9] investigated the vibration of the uid-lled

shell using higher-order shell theory including transverse shear

and rotational inertia. Guarino and Elger [11] have looked at the

frequency spectra of a uid-lled sphere, both with and without

a central solid sphere, in order to explore the use of auscultatory

percussion as a clinical diagnostic tool. Free vibration of a thin

spherical shell lled with a compressible uid is investigated by

Bai and Wu [12]. The general non-axisymmetric free vibration of

a spherically isotropic elastic spherical shell lled with a compressible uid medium has been investigated by Chen and Ding [13].

Young [14] studied the free vibration of spheres composed of

inviscid compressible liquid cores surrounded by spherical layers

of linear elastic, homogeneous and isotropic materials.

The case of hemispherical shells lled with uid was studied

experimentally by Samoilov and Pavlov [15]. Hwang [16] investigated the case of the longitudinal sloshing of liquid in a exible

hemispherical tank supported along the edge. Chung and Rush

[17] presented a rigorous and consistent formulation of dynamically coupled problems dealing with motion of a surface-uid-shell

system. A numerical example of a hemispherical bulkhead lled

with uid is modeled.

Komatsu [18,19] used a hybrid method with a uid mass

coefcient added to his system of equations. He also validated

his model with experiments on hemispherical shells partially lled

68

condition and a free boundary condition. Recently, Ventsel et al.

[20] used a combined formulation of the boundary elements

method and nite elements method to study the free vibration of

an isotropic simply supported hemispherical shell with different

circumferential mode numbers.

For a spherical shell that is partially liquid-lled, if one wishes

to consider the hydroelastic vibration developed as consequence

of interaction between hydrodynamic pressure of liquid and elastic

deformation of the shell, this is a complex problem. Numerical

method such as the nite element method (FEM) are therefore

used since they are powerful tools that can adequately describe

the dynamic behavior of such system which contains complex

structures, boundary conditions, materials and loadings. Some

powerful commercial FEM software exists, such as ANSYS, ABAQUS

and NASTRAN. When using these tools to model such a complex FSI

problem, a large numbers of elements are required in order to get

good convergence. The hybrid approach presented in this study

provides very fast and precise convergence with less numerical

cost compared to these commercial software packages.

In this work a combined formulation of shell theory and the

hybrid nite element method (FEM) is applied to model the shell

structure. Nodal displacements are found from exact solution of

shell theory. This hybrid FEM has been applied to produce efcient

and robust models during analysis of both cylindrical and conical

shells. A spherical shell which has been lled partially with incompressible and inviscid is modeled in this study. The uid is characterized as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell

nite element mesh; then uid and structures are coupled through

the linearized Bernoullis equation and impermeable boundary

condition at the uidstructure interface. Dynamic analysis of

the structure under various geometries, boundary conditions and

lling ratios is analyzed.

Strains and displacements for three displacements in meridional U/, radial W and circumferential Uh are related as follows:

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

e/ 9

>

>

>

>

eh >

>

>

>

2e/h =

feg

>

>

j/ >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

j

h

>

>

>

>

> >

:

>

;

>

>

2j/h

>

>

>

>

:1

R2

1

R2

@U h

@/

1 @U h

sin / @h

@U h

@/

sin1 /

@U /

@h

U / cot / W

sin1 /

1

R2

1 @U h

sin / @h

@U /

@/

@U /

@h

U h cot /

2

@U /

@@/W2

@/

2

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

=

@/

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

@2 W ;

2 sin1 / @/@h

@h

system are related to displacements U/i, Wi and Uhi indicated in

Fig. 3. by:

8 9 2

sin /i

>

<U >

=

6

W 4 cos /i

>

: >

;

V

0

9

38

0 <

> U /i >

=

7

0 5 Wi

>

>

:

;

U hi

1

cos /i

sin /i

0

T

vector frg f N / N h N /h M / M h M /h g is expressed as

function of strain {e} by

frg Pfeg

where [P] is the elasticity matrix for an anisotropic shell given by:

P11

6P

6 21

6

6 0

P 6

6P

6 41

6

4 P51

P12

P14

P15

P22

P24

P25

0

P42

P33

0

0

P44

0

P45

P52

P54

P55

P63

0 7

7

7

P36 7

7

0 7

7

7

0 5

P66

Upon substitution of Eqs. (2), (4) and (5) into Eq. (1), a system of equilibrium equations can be obtained as a function of displacements:

L1 U / ; W; U h ; Pij 0

In this study the structure is modeled using hybrid nite element method which is a combination of spherical shell theory

and classical nite element method. In this hybrid nite element

method, the displacement functions are found from exact solution

of spherical shell theory rather approximated by polynomial functions as is done in classical nite element method. In the spherical

coordinate system (R, h, /) shown in Fig. 1, ve out of the six equations of equilibrium derived in reference for spherical shells are

written as follows:

@N/

1 @N/h

N/ Nh cot / Q / 0

@/ sin / @h

@N/h

1 @N/

2N/h cot / Q h 0

sin / @h

@/

@Q /

1 @Q /

Q / cot / N/ Nh 0

sin / @h

@/

@M/

1 @M /h

M / M h cot / RQ / 0

sin / @h

@/

@M/h

1 @M /

2M /h cot / RQ h 0

sin / @h

@/

1

R

0

2. Formulation

1

R

1

R

L2 U / ; W; U h ; Pij 0

L3 U / ; W; U h ; Pij 0

These three linear partial differentials operators L1, L2 and L3 are

given in Appendix A, and Pij are elements of the elasticity matrix

which, for an isotropic thin shell with thickness h is given by:

X3

U

U

X2

where N/, Nh, N/h are membrane stress resultants (forces per unit of

length of the middle surface); M/, Mh, M/h the bending stress

resultants(moments per unit of length of the middle surface) and

Q/, Qh the shear forces(forces per unit of length of the middle

surface) (Fig. 2). The sixth equation, which is an identity equation

for spherical shells, is not presented here.

X1

Fig. 1. Geometry of spherical shell.

69

Q

M

Wi

dW

d i

Ui

U i

mD

6 mD

6

6

6 0

P 6

6 0

6

6

4 0

0

0

1mD

2

0

K

0

mK

mK

0 7

7

7

0 7

7

0 7

7

7

0 5

1mK

2

Eh

where D 1Ehm2 is the membrane stiffness and K 121

m2 is the

bending stiffness.

Fig. 3. It has two nodal circles with four degrees of freedom;

meridional, radial, circumferential and rotation at each node. This

element type makes it possible to use thin shell equations easily

to nd the exact solution of displacement functions rather than

an approximation with polynomial functions as is done in classical

nite element method.

For motions associated with the nth circumferential wave number we may write:

70

8

8

9 2

9

9

38

cos nh

0

0

>

>

>

< U / /; h >

< u/n / >

< u/n / >

=

=

=

6

7

W/; h 4 0

cos nh

0 5 wn / T wn /

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

:

:

;

;

;

uhn /

uhn /

U h /; h

0

0

sin nh

Setting

8

n l2 1n l2 c2 ic3

wn /

3

X

wni

10

and where Pli cos /; Q li cos / are the associated Legendre functions of the rst and second kinds respectively of order n and degree

li.

The expression of the meridional displacement u/n(/) is:

n

3

X

dwi

n2

Ei

w/

d/

2

sin

/

i1

11

ki k1 m 1 m

1 kki 1 m

12

13

expressed as:

3

X

1

n dw

uhn / n

Ei wni

sin /

2 d/

i1

14

1=2

1

1

ki

4

2

15

k3 h1 k2 h2 k h3 0

16

and where

h1 4

h2 4 1 k1 m2

17

h3 21 k1 m

2

with k 12 Rh2 .

The above equation has three roots with one real root and the

two other are complex conjugates.

n

n1

The Legendre functions Pnl1 ; Pn1

are a real

l1 ; Q l1 and Q l1

n

n1

n1

P l2 Re Pl2 i Im Pnl2

P nl3 Re Pnl2 i Im Pnl2

Q nl2 Re Q nl2 i Im Q nl2

Q nl3 Re Q nl2 i Im Q nl2

n1

i Im Pn1

P n1

l2 Re P l2

l2

n1

P n1

i Im Pn1

l3 Re P l2

l2

n1

Q n1

i Im Q n1

l2 Re Q l2

l2

n1

i Im Q n1

Q n1

l3 Re P l2

l2

n

un/ / ne1 cot/Pnl1 e1 c1 Pn1

l1 A1

h

ne2 cot/Re Pnl2 ne3 cot/ Im Pnl2 e2 c2 e3 c3 Re Pn1

l2

i

h

e3 c2 e2 c3 Im Pn1

A2 A3 ne3 cot/Re Pnl2 ne2 cot/ Im Pnl2

l2

i

e3 c2 e2 c3 Re Pn1

e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Pn1

iA2 A3

l2

l2

n2

n

n1

n

P A4 ne1 cot/Q l1 e1 c1 Q l1 B1

2 sin/ 1

h

ne2 cot/Re Q nl2 ne3 cot/ Im Q nl2 e2 c2 e3 c3 Re Q n1

l2

i

h

e3 c2 e2 c3 Im Q n1

B2 B3 ne3 cot/Re Q nl2 ne2 cot/ Im Q nl2

l2

i

e3 c2 e2 c3 Re Q n1

e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Q n1

iB2 B3

l2

l2

n2

n

Q B4

21

2 sin/ 1

wn / Pnl1 A1 Re P nl2 A2 A3 Im P nl2 iA2 A3 Q nl1 B1

Re Q nl2 B2 B3 Im Q nl2 iB2 B3

1

unh / ne1 Pnl1

A1

sin/

1

1

ne2

Re Pnl2 ne3

Im Pnl2 A2 A3

sin/

sin/

1

1

n

ne3

Re Pl2 ne2

Im Pnl2 iA2 A3

sin/

sin/

2

n

n

1

n

A4 ne1 Q nl1

B1

cot/P1 n 2n 1P n1

1

2

sin/

2

1

1

ne2

Re Q nl2 ne3

Im Q nl2 B2 B3

sin/

sin/

1

1

ne3

Re Q nl2 ne2

Im Q nl2 iB2 B3

sin/

sin/

2

n

n

B4

cot/Q n1 n 2n 1Q n1

1

2

2

In deriving the preceding relation we used the recursive

relations:

n

dPli

n

20

E3 e2 ie3

li

E1 e 1

E2 e2 ie3

where

Ei

19

n l3 1n l3 c2 ic3

i1

u/n /

n l1 1n l1 c1

d/

n

dQ li

d/

li

22

li

expressed as follows:

18

8

9

8

9

>

>

< U / /; h >

=

< u/n / >

=

W/; h T wn /

TRfCg

>

>

>

>

:

;

:

;

U h /; h

uhn /

23

The elements of matrix [R] are given in Appendix A.

24

71

of displacements at elements nodes. At each nite element node,

the three displacements (meridional, transversal and circumferential) and the rotation are applied. The displacement of node i are

dened by the vector:

fdi g

ui/n

dwn

d/

win

i

25

uihn

dj

ui/n win

dwn

d/

i

uihn

uj/n

wjn

dwn

d/

j

ujhn

26

AfCg

dwn

n cot/P nl1 c1 P n1

l1 A1

d/

h

i

n cot / Re P nl2 c2 Re P n1

c3 Im P n1

A2 A3

l2

l2

h

i

n

n1

n1

n cot / Im P l2 c3 Re P l2 c2 Im P l2

iA2 A3

n cot /Q nl1 c1 Q n1

l1 B1

h

i

n

n cot / Re Q l2 c2 Re Q n1

c3 Im Q n1

B2 B3

l2

l2

h

i

n

n1

n1

n cot / Im Q l2 c3 Re Q l2 c2 Im Q l2

iB2 B3 27

The terms of matrix [A], obtained from the values of matrix [R]

n

and dw

, are given in Appendix A. Now, pre-multiplying by [A]1

d/

Eq. (26) one obtains the matrix of the constant Ci as a function of

the degree of freedom:

fCg A1

di

28

dj

Finally, one substitutes the vector {C} into Eq. (23) and obtains

the displacement functions as follows:

8

9

>

< U / /; h >

=

di

di

W/; h TRA1

N

>

>

dj

dj

:

;

U h /; h

29

functions U/, Uh, W and the deformationdisplacement as:

feg

T 0

0

T

Q fCg

T 0

0

T

QA1

di

dj

B

di

dj

30

This relation can be used to nd the stress vector, Eq. (4), in

terms of the nodal degrees of freedom vector:

frg PB

di

dj

mloc

/j

pR2

/j

!

T

1 T

1

1

33

/i

are

T

sin /i

6 cos /

i

6

6

6 0

6

6 0

6

LG 6

6 0

6

6 0

6

6

4 0

32

The surface element of the shell wall is dA = R2 sin /d/ dh. After

integrating over h, the preceding equations become

cos /i

sin /i

0

0

1 0

0 1

0

0

0

0

sin /j

cos /j

0 cos /j

07

7

7

0 07

7

0 07

7

7

0 07

7

0 07

7

7

1 05

0 1

sin /j

35

From these equations, one can assemble the mass and stiffness

matrices for each element to obtain the mass and stiffness matrices

for the whole shell: [M] and [K]. Each elementary matrix is 8 8,

therefore the nal dimensions of [M] and [K] will be 4(N + 1) where

N is the number of elements of the shell.

2.2. Fluid modeling

The Laplace equation satised by velocity potential for inviscid,

incompressible and irrotational uid in the spherical system is

written as:

1 @

@u

1

@

@u

1

@2u

r2

r2 u 2

sin /

0

36

2

2

2

2

r @r

r sin / @/

@r

@/

r sin / @h

The velocity components in the meridional, radial and circumferential directions are:

V / Uf

1 @u

r @/

Vr

@u

@r

Vh

1 @u

r sin / @h

37

For partially uid-lled shell, the uid boundaries are divided

into two parts, such as free surface boundary and uidstructure

interaction boundary. The uid free surface effect or sloshing is

not considered here since in Refs. [2123] results proved that in

general the free surface oscillation frequencies can be neglected

compared to the natural frequencies of the system. Therefore the

coupling between the uid sloshing mode and dynamic elastic of

the shell is weak and has no effect.

Using the Bernoulli equation, hydrodynamic pressure in terms

of velocity potential / and uid density qf is found as:

@u Uf @u

@t

r @ u rR

38

the shell surface and the peripheral uid, is written as:

V r jrR

34

where

Pf qf

ZZ

BT PBdA

A

ZZ

qh

NT NdA

1 T

mloc qhA

31

mass matrices are:

kloc

pR2

/i

with

The nite element shown in Fig. 3 with two nodal lines (i and j)

and eight degrees of freedom will have the following nodal displacement vector:

di

kloc A1

@ u

@W U f @W

@t

@r rR

r @/

rR

39

with

3

X

Aj Pnlj cos / Bj Q nlj cos / cos nheixt

j1

40

72

solution can be done as follows:

u/; r; h

3

X

Rj rSj /; h; t

h i

The matrix Rf2 is given by:

h

Rf2

3

0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

n

n

n

n

6 P n Re Pn

Im P l2 0 Q l1 Re Q l2 Im Q l2 0 7

ncot /4 l1

5F

l2

2

j1

6 n1

4 Pl1

can nd the function Sj(/, h, t) in term of radial displacement:

1

@W U f @W

Sj /; h; t ;

Rj R @t

r @/

rR

41

u/; r; h

3

X

Rj r @W U f @W

R ; R @t

r @/

rR

j1 j

42

the following second order equation in terms of Rj(r) is obtained

lj lj 1

2

R00j r R;j r

Rj r 0

r

r2

44

For internal ow Bj = 0.

Finally, the hydrodynamic pressure in terms of radial displacement is written:

"

j1

lj

U2

j 2 Uf W

_ 0 f W 00

W

j

j

R

R2

l1

R

l2

R

l3

2

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

C 6

6

6

6

6

6

4

c2

c3

c3

c2

0 c1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

c2

c3

c3

c2

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

07

7

07

7

7

05

Rf3

51

is given by:

!

Rf3 n

ncot2 /

sin /

3

0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

n

n

n

n

6 P n Re Pn

7

Re

Q

Im

P

0

Q

Im

Q

0

4 l1

5F

l2

l2

l1

l2

l2

0

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

2

3

0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

n

n

n

n

6 Pn Re Pn

7

Re

Q

Im

P

0

Q

Im

Q

0

4 l1

5FC

l2

l2

l1

l2

l2

2

6 n1

cot /4 P l1

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

3

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

n1

n1

n1

n1

7

Re P n1

Re

Q

Im

P

0

Q

Im

Q

0

5FC

l2

l2

l1

l2

l2

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

52

f1

f 2 if3

46

f 2 if3

cf loc

0

48

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

F 6

6

6

6

6

6

4

f1

f2

f 3

0

0

f3

0

f2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 f1

f2

f 3

f3

f2

0 7

7

7

0 7

7

0 7

7

07

0 7

7

0 7

7

7

0 5

pR2

/j

/i

!

h i

T

RT Rf1 sin/d/ A1 qf A1 Sf A1

54

3

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

n

n

n

n

n

6 n

7

4 Pl1 Re P l2 Im P l2 0 Q l1 Re Q l2 Im Q l2 0 5F

53

After substituting for pressure eld vector and matrix [N] in the

above equation, the local matrix [mf] can be found from the

following:

47

NT fPgdA

ZZ

A

The general force vector due the uid pressure loading is given

by:

fF p g

8 9

( )

( )

>

<0 >

=

h i

i d_

di

U f h ih

i

2qf T Rf2 A1

fPg P f qf T Rf1 A1

dj

>

R

d_ j

: >

;

0

U 2f h i

di

2qf 2 T Rf3 A1

dj

R

Rf1

c1

45

is written as:

We put:

The matrix

Bj

Rj r Aj r lj lj

r

3

X

R

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

3

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

n1

n1

n1

n1

n1

Re Pl2

Im Pl2

0 Q l1 Re Q l2

Im Q l2

07

5FC 50

43

Pf qf

U f 1 T

2qf

A

R

2qf

pR

/j

R

/i

Rf2

!

sin /d/ A1

U f 1 T

A Df A1

R

55

kf loc qf

qf

U 2f

R2

U 2f

R2

1 T

A

pR

/j

R

/i

Rf3

A1 Gf A1

!

sin /d/ A1

56

In the global system the element stiffness and mass matrices are

49

T

Uf

LGT A1 Df A1 LG

R

U 2f

T

kf qf 2 LGT A1 Gf A1 LG

R

cf 2qf

57

From these equations, one can assemble the mass and stiffness

matrix for each element to obtain the mass and stiffness matrices

for the whole shell: [Mf] and [Kf].

The governing equation which accounts for uid-shell interaction in the presence of axial internal pressure is derived as:

(

M s Mf

di

dj

( )

d_ i

di

0

Cf

K s K f

dj

d_ j

respectively.

The global uid matrices mentioned in the above equation may

be obtained, respectively by superimposing the damping and

stiffness matrices for each individual uid nite element. After

applying the boundary conditions the global matrices are reduced

to squares matrices of order 4(N + 1) J, where N is the number of

nite elements in the shell and J is the number of constraints

applied. Finally, the eigenvalue problem is solved by means of

the equation reduction technique. Equation may be rewritten as

follows:

8n o9

> >

( n _ o )

Ms < d =

Ms 0

d

n o

f0g

>

M s C f >

0

K

_

: d ;

fdg

0

where

K K s K f

{d} is the global displacement vector. [Cf] and [Kf] represent the

Coriolis and centrifugal forces induced by the owing uid. The

eigenvalue problem is given by:

DD KI 0

where

"

DD

I

K1 Ms K1 C f

An in house computer code was developed as part of this work

to establish the structural matrices of each element based on equations developed using the theoretical approach. The calculations

for each nite element are performed in two stages: the rst dealing with solid shell and the second with the effect of the owing

uid.

73

to experimental, theoretical and numerical analyses are presented.

3.2. Case of a spherical shell with /0 = 60

The case considered here is a simply supported spherical shell

with /0 = 60 (the opening angle /0 is the angle between the center

line joining the apex of the spherical shell with the center of shell

and the radius of spherical shell) with the following characteristics

and studied by Komatsu [18]: the material density q = 2270 kg/m3,

the Poisson coefcient m = 0.3, Young modulus of elasticity:

E = 70 GPa, the radius to thickness ratio R/h = 243 (see Fig. 4).

Fig. 5 shows that when the shell is partially lled, the dimensionless frequency initially drops sharply, and then as the shell

becomes fuller, the frequency drops less quickly. Free-surface

effects of the liquid surface and sloshing of the uid are not taken

into account in this study. This assumption relies on the fact that

the sloshing frequencies have a period of vibration that is much

longer than the period of vibration of the spherical shell. As can

be seen, there is perfect agreement between both methods.

The comparatively good accuracy of our method can be

explained by that fact that the formulation used is a combination

of the nite element method and classical shell theory where the

displacement functions are derived from exact solutions of shell

equations. On the other hand, integrations of all matrices (solid

and uid) are calculated numerically over the soliduid element.

This numerical model can easily be used to study partially lled

spherical shells by imposing a null density of uid for the circumferential nite elements which are not submerged.

The third study we carried out is on the effect of radius to thickness ratio R/h on the natural frequencies in both the case where the

shell is empty or full. Fig. 6 shows as the mass of shell is greater

when the shell is thick, the effect of uid is less important in a thick

shell than for a thin shell. The same gure shows that ratio of

natural frequencies of an empty shell and full shell is of order 10

for R/h = 1000. But this ratio was 3 for R/h = 243.

The natural modes corresponding to the lowest shell natural

frequencies under the two boundary conditions are illustrated in

Figs. 7 and 8. They reveal that at the lowest natural frequency,

spherical shell motion is radial. It is easy to see that all displacements U/, W and Uh are all zero at the top (/ = 0) of the spherical

shell.

3.3. Case of a hemispherical shell

In this section numerical results are presented and compared

with existing experimental, analytical and numerical data.

3.1. Validation and comparison

The main advantages of this proposed hybrid is its fast and precise convergence; 12 elements were required for the convergence

of the frequency for a clamped spherical shell.

For the cases investigated in the present paper, the predicted

dimensionless frequencies are expressed by the following relation:

X xR

q12

E

where

R is the radius of the reference surface,

q is the density,

E is the modulus of elasticity.

58

hemispherical shell completely lled with water was investigated

by Ventsel et al. [20]. The solution of the problem of hydroelastic

vibrations has been obtained using the methods of the boundary

element (BEM) and the nite element (FEM). These data are

obtained by applying the simply supported condition which is an

adequate condition for liquid storage tanks. The hemispherical

shell is considered empty or lled with uid and having the following parameters: the shell radius R = 5.08 m, the thickness

h = 0.0254 m, the modulus of elasticity E = 70 GPa, Poisson ratio

m = 0.3, the material density q = 2270 kg/m3, the uid density

qf = 1000 kg/m3. Very good agreement can be seen. The ratio of

empty shell frequency and completely lled shell frequency is

4.5 for the rst axial mode (see Table 1).

The case of a hemispherical shell completely lled with

water clamped along equator was investigated experimentally by

Samoilov and Pavlov. The characteristics of the shell were as follows: the shell radius R = 0.133 m, the thickness h = 0.0007 m, the

modulus of elasticity E = 4.016 GPa, Poisson ratio m = 0.4, the

material density q = 1180 kg/m3. Table 2 shows the dimensionless

74

0.4

0.3

0.2

U

W

0.1

10

20

30

40

50

-0.1

60

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

Fig. 7. Displacements versus / coordinate for clamped spherical shell /0 = 60.

Our Model

0.4

Komatsu [17]

0.3

0.2

W

V

0.1

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

-0.1

0

0.2

0.4

H/R

0.6

0.8

Fig. 5. Dimensionless frequency as function H/R, where H is the height of the uid

and R is the shell radius, in simply supported spherical shell of with /0 = 60.

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

Fig. 8. Displacements versus / coordinate for simply supported spherical shell

/0 = 60.

Full shell

Table 1

Dimensionless frequencies for a simply supported hemispherical shell.

Empty shell

(n, m)

2,1

2,2

2,3

Present theory

H/R = 0

H/R = 1

H/R = 0

H/R = 1

0.8987

0.9611

0.9838

0.2004

0.2579

0.3020

0.9057

0.9658

0.9901

0.2134

0.2604

0.3102

0.5

Table 2

Dimensionless frequencies for a clamped hemispherical shell completely lled with

uid.

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

R/h

Fig. 6. Dimensionless frequency as function of radius to thickness ratio R/h in

simply supported spherical shell of with /0 = 60.

Present theory

1

2

3

0.0978

0.1382

0.1676

0.1038

0.1451

0.1789

Table 3

Dimensionless frequencies for a clamped hemispherical shell completely lled with

uid.

m

Present theory

1

2

3

0.1199

0.1919

0.2398

0.1239

0.2036

0.2436

Table 4

Dimensionless frequencies for a clamped hemispherical shell completely lled with

liquid oxygen.

Present model

Hwang [14]

Komatsu [17]

0.066

0.0689

0.0625

0.065

frequencies obtained by these authors and compared to the frequencies obtained by our model. Data resulting from experiments

conducted by Kana and Nagy [10] on a clamped hemispherical shell

lled with water are shown in Table 3. The shell has a density of

2.59 104 lb-s2/in4 and has a radius 5 in and a thickness of 0.03

in. The elastic modulus is 107 lb/in2 and the Poisson coefcient

is 0.3.

The fourth example is the case of a clamped hemispherical shell

that was studied experimentally by Hwang [16]. The shell is made

of aluminum with density of 2.59 104 lb s2/in4 and has a radius

200 in and a thickness of 0.1 in. The elastic modulus is 107 lb/in2

and the Poisson coefcient is 0.3. The uid inside the shell is liquid

oxygen with a density of 1.06 104 lb-s2/in4. This example of a

hemispherical bulkhead lled with liquid oxygen was modeled

by Chung and Rush [17] and investigated numerically. The same

study was conducted by Komatsu and Matsuhima [19] experimentally. The results are presented in Table 4.

4. Conclusion

The problem of free vibration of a partially liquid-lled spherical

shell under different shell geometries, lling ratios and boundary

conditions with different radius to thickness ratios is investigated.

An efcient hybrid nite element method is presented to analyze

the dynamic behavior of liquid-lled spherical shell. Shell theory

of spherical shell is coupled Laplace equation of an inviscid uid

to account for hydrodynamic pressure of an internal uid. This theoretical approach is much more precise than usual nite element

methods because the displacement functions are derived from

exact solutions of shell equilibrium equations for spherical shells.

The mass and stiffness matrices are determined by numerical integration. The velocity potential and Bernoullis equation are adopted

to express the uid pressure acting on the structure which yields

three forces (inertial, centrifugal Coriolis) in the case of owing

uid.

The results obtained for spherical shells with various geometric

congurations and different boundary conditions are compared

with results available in the literature. Very good agreement was

found. This approach resulted in a very precise element that leads

to fast convergence and less numerical difculties from the computational point of view.

To the best of the authors knowledge, this paper reports the

rst comparison made between works which deal with spherical

shells subjected to internal uid effects. The proposed hybrid nite

element method provides the capability to analyze cases involving

application of different complex boundaries and loading patterns

for spherical shells.

75

Appendix A

P11 P 41

@ @U /

@U /

2

W

W cot/

@/

R

@/

@/

R

P12 P 42

@

1 @U h

2

U / cot/ W

@/ sin/ @h

R

R

1 @U h

U / cot/ W cot/

sin/ @h

!

!

#

"

1 P 14 P44

@ @U / @ 2 W

@U / @ 2 W

cot/

2

2

2

R R

@/ @/

@/

@/

@/

R

1 P 15 P45

@

1 @U h

2

U / cot/

R R

@/ sin/ @h

R

!

1

@ 2 W @W

2

cot/

2

@/

sin / @h

!

#

1 @U h

1

@ 2 W @W

U / cot/ 2

cot/ cot/

2

sin/ @h

@/

sin / @h

P21 P 51

@U /

2

W cot/

R

@/

R

P22 P 52

1 @U h

2

U / cot/ W cot/

R

sin/ @h

R

!

1 P 24 P54

@U / @ 2 W

cot/

2

2

R R

@/

@/

R

1 P 25 P55

1 @U h

2

U / cot/

R R

sin/ @h

R

!

1

@ 2 W @W

2

cot/ cot/

2

@/

sin / @h

P33 P 63

1

@ @U h

1 @U u

U h cot/

sin/

@h

sin/

R

@/

@h

R

1 P 36 P66

1

@ @U h

1 @U u

U h cot/

R R

R sin/ @h @/ sin/ @h

!

cot/ @W

2 @2W

2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

L1 U / ; U h ;W

P21 P 51

1

@ @U /

2

W

R

R sin/ @h @/

P22 P 52

1

@

1 @U h

2

U / cot/ W

R

R sin/ @h sin/ @h

!

1 P24 P 54

1

@ @U / @ 2 W

2

R R

R sin/ @h @/ @/2

1 P25 P 55

1

@

1 @U h

2

U / cot/

R R

sin/

@h

sin/

@h

R

!

1 @ 2 W @W

2

cot/

2

@/

sin / @h

P33 P 63

@ @U h

1 @U u

2

U h cot/

@/ @/ sin/ @h

R

R

@U h

1 @U /

U h cot/ cot/

2

@/ sin/ @h

1 P36 P 66

@ @U h

1 @U u

2

U h cot/

R R

@/ @/ sin/ @h

R

!

cot/ @W

2 @2W

2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

@U h

1 @U u

U h cot/

2

@/ sin/ @h

!

#

cot/ @W

2 @2W

2

cott/

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

L2 U / ;U h ;W

76

P 11 P21

@U /

L3 U / ;U h ; W

W

R

R

@/

P 12 P 22

1 @U h

U / cot/ W

sin/ @h

R

R

!

P 14 P 24

@U / @ 2 W

@/

@/2

R2 R2

P 15 P 25

1 @U h

U / cot/

sin/ @h

R2 R2

!

1

@ 2 W @W

cot/

2

2

@/

sin / @h

P 41 P 51

@ @U /

@U /

cot/

W

W

2

@/ @/

@/

R

1

@

@ @U /

2

P 41

sin/

W

@/

@/

@/

R sin/

@ @U /

P 51

W

@h @/

P 42 P 52

@

1 @U h

cot/

U / cot/ W

2

@/

sin/

@h

R

1 @U h

U / cot/ W

sin/ @h

1

@

@

1 @U h

2

P 42

sin/

U / cot/ W

@/

@/ sin/ @h

R sin/

@

1 @U h

P 52

U / cot/ W

@h sin/ @h

!

!!

P 44 P 54

@ @U / @ 2 W

@U / @ 2 W

cot/

@/ @/

@/

@/2

@/2

R3

"

!!

1

@

@ @U / @ 2 W

P 44

sin/

3

@/

@/

@/

@/2

R sin/

!#

2

@ @U / @ W

P 54

@h @/

@/2

P 45 P 55

@

1 @U h

cot/

U / cot/

3

@/ sin/ @h

R

!

1

@ 2 W @W

cot/

2

2

@/

sin / @h

!!

1 @U h

1

@ 2 W @W

U / cot/ 2

cot/

2

sin/ @h

@/

sin / @h

1

@

@

1 @U h

3

P 45

sin/

@/

@/ sin/ @h

R sin/

!!

2

1

@ W @W

cot/

U / cot/ 2

2

@/

sin / @h

@

1 @U h

P 55

U / cot/

@h sin/ @h

!#

1

@ 2 W @W

cot/

2

2

@/

sin / @h

"

2

P 63

@

@U h

1 @U u

U h cot/

2

R sin/ @/@h @/ sin/ @h

@ @U h

1 @U u

3cot/

U h cot/

@h @/ sin/ @h

"

P 66

@2

@U h

1 @U u

U h cot/

3

@/@h

@/ sin/ @h

R sin/

!

cot/ @W

2 @2W

2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

@U h

1 @U u

3 cot/

U h cot/

@/ sin/ @h

!

cot/ @W

2 @2W

2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

R1; 2 ne2 cot / Re Pnl2 ne3 cot / Im Pnl2

e3 c2 e2 c3 Im Pn1

e2 c2 e3 c3 Re Pn1

l2

l2

R1; 1 e1 n cot /Pnl1 e1 c1 Pn1

l1

R3; 7 ne3

R1; 3 ne3 cot / Re Pnl2 ne2 cot / Im P nl2

e3 c2 e2 c3 Re Pn1

e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Pn1

l2

l2

R1; 4

n2

Pn

2 sin / 1

R1; 5 e1 n cot /Q nl1 e1 c1 Q n1

l1

R1; 6 ne2 cot / Re Q nl2 ne3 cot / Im Q nl2 e2 c2

e3 c3 Re Q n1

e3 c2 e2 c3 Im Q n1

l2

l2

R1; 7 ne3 cot / Re Q nl2 ne2 cot / Im Q nl2 e3 c2

e2 c3 Re Q n1

e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Q n1

l2

l2

R1; 8

n2

Qn

2 sin / 1

R2; 1 P nl1

R2; 2 Re Pnl2

R2; 3 Im Pnl2

R2; 4 0

R2; 5 Q nl1

R2; 6 Re Q nl2

R2; 7 Im Q nl2

R2; 8 0

R3; 1 ne1

1

Pn

sin / l1

R3; 2 ne2

1

1

Re P nl2 ne3

Im P nl2

sin /

sin /

R3; 3 ne3

R3; 4

1

1

Re Pnl2 ne2

Im Pnl2

sin /

sin /

n2

n

cot /Pn1 n 2n 1Pn1

1

2

2

R3; 5 ne1

1

Qn

sin / l1

R3; 6 ne2

1

1

Re Q nl2 ne3

Im Q nl2

sin /

sin /

1

1

Re Q nl2 ne2

Im Q nl2

sin /

sin /

77

R3; 8

n2

n

cot/Q n1 n 2n 1Q n1

1

2

2

dwn

j; A4; j R3; j with / /i

d/

dwn

j; A8;j R3;j with / /j j 1; .. .;8

d/

"

!

#

1

1

e1

2

1

P nl1 c1 cot /P n1

e1 c1 ne1

ncot

/

l1

2

R

r

sin /

"

!

#

1

1

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2

ncot2 / 1 Re P nl2

2

R

sin /

"

!#

1

1

2

e3 c2 e2 c3 ne3

ncot / Im P nl2

2

R

sin /

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot / Im Pn1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Re Pn1

l2

l2

R "

R

#

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3 ne3 2 ncot2 / Re P nl2

R

sin /

"

!

#

1

1

2

1

Im P nl2

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2

ncot

/

2

R

sin /

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot / Re Pn1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Pn1

l2

l2

R

R

n2

1

n2

1

n 1

cot /Pn1

n 2n 1

Pn1

sin /

sin / 1

2R"

2R !

#

1

1

e1

e1 c1 ne1

l1

2

R

r

sin /

"

!

#

1

1

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2

ncot2 / 1 Re Q nl2

2

R

sin /

"

!#

1

1

2

Im Q nl2

e3 c2 e2 c3 ne3

ncot

/

2

R

sin /

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot / Im Q n1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Re Q n1

l2

l2

R "

R

!#

1

1

2

Re Q nl2

ncot

/

e3 c2 e2 c3 ne3

2

R

sin /

"

!

#

1

1

2

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2

ncot / 1 Im Q nl2

2

R

sin /

1

1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Q n1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot / Re Q n1

l2

l2

R

R

n2

1

n2

1

n 1

cot /Q n1

n 2n 1

Q n1

sin /

sin / 1

2R

2R

Q 1; 1

Q 1; 2

Q 1; 3

Q 1; 4

Q 1; 5

Q 1; 6

Q 1; 7

Q 1; 8

"

!#

1

1

e1

1 ne1 n 2 cot2 / P nl1 c1 cot/Pn1

l1

R

r

sin

/

"

!#

!

1

1

ne3

1

n 2 cot2 / Im Pnl2

Q2;2 1 ne2 n 2 cot2 / Re Pnl2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot/ Im P n1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Pn1

l2

l2

R

R"

!#

1

ne3

1

1

Q2;3

n 2 cot2 / Re Pnl2 1 ne2 n 2 cot2 / Im Pnl2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im P n1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot/ Re Pn1

l2

l2

R

R

n2

1

n2

1 n1

Q2;4 n 1

cot/Pn1 n 2n 1

P

sin/

sin/ 1

2R

"2R

!#

1

1

e

1

Q2;5 1 ne1

ncot2 / Q nl1 c1 cot/Q n1

l1

2

R

r

sin /

"

!#

ne

1

1

1

3

Q2;6 1 ne2 n 2 cot2 / Re Q nl2

n 2 cot2 / Im Q nl2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot/ Im Q n1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Q n1

l2

l2

R

R"

!#

1

ne3

1

1

Q2;7

n 2 cot2 / Re Q nl2 1 ne2 n 2 cot2 / Im Q nl2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im Q n1

e3 c2 e2 c3 cot/ Re Q n1

l2

l2

R

R

n2

1

n2

1

Q2;8 n 1

cot/Q n1 n 2n 1

Q n1

sin/

sin/ 1

2R

2R

Q2;1

2n

1

2n

1 n1

e1 n 1

cot /P nl1 e1 c1

P

R

sin /

R

sin/ l1

2n

1

2n

1

Q 3;2 e2 n 1

cot / Re P nl2 e3 n 1

cot / Im P nl2

R

sin /

R

sin /

2n

2n

1

1

n1

e2 c2 e3 c3

Re Pl2 e3 c2 e2 c3

Im Pn1

l2

R

sin/

R

sin /

2n

2n

1

1

Q 3;3 e3 n 1

cot/ Re P nl2 e2 n 1

cot/ Im P nl2

R

sin /

R

sin /

2n

2n

1

1

e3 c2 e2 c3

e2 c2 e3 c3

Re Pn1

Im Pn1

l2

l2

R

sin/

R

sin /

"

!#

n

1

n

2

P n1 n 2n 1cot /P n1

cot

/

Q 3;4 n 1 n 2 n

1

2

2R

R

sin /

Q 3;1

2n

1

2n

1

e1 n 1

cot /Q nl1 c1

Q n1

R

sin /

R sin/ l1

2n

2n

1

1

Q 3;6 e2 n 1

cot / Re Q nl2 e3 n 1

cot / Im Q nl2

R

sin /

R

sin/

2n

2n

1

1

e2 c2 e3 c3

e3 c2 e2 c3

Re Q n1

Im Q n1

l2

l2

R

sin/

R

sin /

2n

2n

1

1

Q 3;7 e3 n 1

cot/ Re Q nl2 e2 n 1

cot/ Im Q nl2

R

sin /

R

sin /

2n

2n

1

1

n1

e3 c2 e2 c3

Re Q l2 e2 c2 e3 c3

Im Q n1

l2

R

sin/

R

sin /

"

!#

n

1

n

2

cot / Q n1 n 2n 1 cot /Q n1

Q 3;8 n 1 n 2 n

1

2

2R

R

sin /

Q 3;5

Q4;1

Q4;2

1

R

1

R

"

e1 1c1 ne1 1

!#

1

2

sin /

"

e2 1c2 e3 c3 ne2 1

"

R2

e3 c2 e2 1c3 ne3

ncot2 /

sin /

1

2

P nl1

e1 1

!#

ncot2 /

!#

ncot2 /

R2

c1 cot /P n1

l1

Re Pnl2

Im Pnl2

sin /

1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot / Re P n1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot / Im Pn1

l2

l2

R

R

"

!#

1

1

2

Re Pnl2

ncot

/

Q4;3 2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 ne3

2

R

sin /

"

!#

1

1

ncot2 / Im P nl2

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 ne2 1

2

R

sin /

1

1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot / Re P n1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Pn1

l2

l2

R

R

1

n2

1

n2

1 n1

n 1

cot/P n1 2 n 2n 1

P

sin /

sin / 1

2R2

2R

"

!#

1

1

e1 1

Q4;5 2 e1 1c1 ne1 1

ncot2 / Q nl1 2 c1 cot/Q n1

l1

2

R

R

sin /

"

!#

1

1

Q4;6 2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 ne2 1

ncot2 / Re Q nl2

2

R

sin /

"

!#

1

1

2

Im Q nl2

ncot

/

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 ne3

2

R

sin /

1

1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot / Re Q n1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot / Im Q n1

l2

l2

R

R

"

!#

1

1

2

Q4;7 2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 ne3

Re Q nl2

ncot

/

2

R

sin /

"

!#

1

1

ncot2 / Im Q nl2

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 ne2 1

2

R

sin /

1

1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot / Re Q n1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Q n1

l2

l2

R

R

Q4;4

Q4;8

n2

2R2

n 1

1

n2

1

cot/Q n1 2 n 2n 1

Q n1

sin /

sin / 1

2R

78

1

e 1 1

P nl1

1 e1 cot2 / n 2

c1 cot/Pn1

l1

R2

R2

sin /

!

!

ne

n

1

1

3

Re P nl2 2 cot2 / n 2

Im Pnl2

2 1 e2 cot2 / n 2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Pn1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot/ Im Pn1

l2

l2

R

R

!

!

n

ne3

1

1

2 cot2 / n 2

Re Pnl2 2 1 e2 cot2 / n 2

Im Pnl2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot/ Re Pn1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im Pn1

l2

l2

R

R

n

1

n

1 n1

2 n 1

cot/P n1 2 n 2n 1

P

sin /

sin / 1

2R

2R

!

n

1

e

1

1

Q nl1

2 1 e1 cot2 / n 2

c1 cot/Q n1

l1

R

R2

sin /

!

!

n

1

ne3

1

Re Q nl2 2 cot2 / n 2

Im Q nl2

2 1 e2 cot2 / n 2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

n1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Q n1

e

c

e

1

c

3

2

2

3 cot/ Im Q l2

l2

2

R

R

!

!

n

ne3

1

1

2 cot2 / n 2

Re Q nl2 2 1 e2 cot2 / n 2

Im Q nl2

R

R

sin /

sin /

1

1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3 cot/ Re Q n1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im Q n1

l2

l2

R

R

n

1

n

1

2 n 1

cot/Q n1 2 n 2n 1

Q n1

sin /

sin / 1

2R

2R

Q 5;1

Q 5;2

Q 5;3

Q 5;4

Q 5;5

Q 5;6

Q 5;7

Q 5;8

1

2n

1 n1

n 1e1 1

cot /Pnl1 2 1 e1 c1

P

sin /

sin / l1

R2

R

2nn 1

2nn 1

1

1

e2 1

cot / Re Pnl2

e3

cot / Im Pnl2

sin /

sin /

R2

R2

2n

2n

1

1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3

Re P n1

Im Pn1

l2

l2

sin /

sin/

R

R

2nn 1

2nn 1

1

1

e3

cot / Re Pnl2

e2 1

cot / Im P nl2

sin/

sin /

R2

R2

2n

2n

1

1

Re P n1

Im Pn1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3

l2

l2

sin /

sin/

R

R

"

!#

n

1

n

2

Pn1 2 n 2n 1cot /P n1

2 n 1 n 2 n

cot

/

1

2

2R

R

sin /

2n

1

2n

1

2 n 1e1 1

cot /Q nl1 2 1 e1 c1

Q n1

sin /

sin / l1

R

R

2nn 1

2nn 1

1

1

e2 1

cot / Re Q nl2

e3

cot/ Im Q nl2

sin /

sin/

R2

R2

2n

2n

1

1

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3

Re Q n1

Im Q n1

l2

l2

sin /

sin/

R

R

2nn 1

2nn 1

1

1

e3

cot / Re Q nl2

e2 1

cot/ Im Q nl2

sin/

sin/

R2

R2

2n

2n

1

1

2 e2 1c2 e3 c3

2 e3 c2 e2 1c3

Re Q n1

Im Q n1

l2

l2

sin /

sin/

R

R

"

!#

n

1

n

2

2 n 1 n 2 n

Q n1 2 n 2n 1cot /Q 1n1

cot

/

2

2R

R

sin /

Q 6; 1

Q 6; 2

Q 6; 3

Q 6; 4

Q 6; 5

Q 6; 6

Q 6; 7

Q 6; 8

2n

d Pnl

d/2

2

d Q nl

d/2

"

n l 1n l n

"

n l 1n l n

1

2

sin /

!#

ncot2 /

1

2

sin /

l

!#

ncot2 /

Q nl cot /n l 1n lQ n1

l

References

[1] Rayleigh L. On the vibrations of a gas contained within a rigid spherical

envelope. Proc Lond Math Soc 1872;4:93103.

[2] Morse PM, Feshbach H. Methods of theoretical physics Part II. New

York: McGraw-Hill; 1953.

[3] Budiansky B. Sloshing of liquids in circular canals an spherical tanks. J Aerosp

Sci 1960;27:16173.

[4] Stofan AJ, Armstead AL. Analytical and experimental investigation of forces

and frequencies resulting from liquid sloshing in a spherical tank. NASA TN D128; 1962.

[5] Chu WH. Fuel sloshing in a spherical tank lled to an arbitrarily depth. AIAA J

1964;2:19729.

[6] Karamanos SP, Patkas LA, Papaprokopiou D. Numerical analysis of externally

induced sloshing in spherical liquid containers. Comput Methods Appl Sci

2011;21:489512.

[7] Rand R, Dimaggio F. Vibrations of uidlled spherical and spheroidal shells. J

Acoust Soc Am 1967;42:127886.

[8] Engin AE, Liu YK. Axisymmetric response of a uid lled spherical shell in free

vibrations. J Biomech 1970;3:1122.

[9] Advani SH, Lee YC. Free vibrations of uid lled spherical shells. J Sound Vib

1970;12:45362.

[10] Kana DD, Nagy A. An experimental Study of axisymmetric modes in various

propellant tanks containing liquid N72-14782; 1971.

[11] Guarino JC, Elger DF. Modal analysis of uid lled elastic shell containing an

elastic sphere. J Sound Vib 1992;156:46179.

[12] Bai MR, Wu K. Free vibration of thin spherical shell containing a compressible

uid. J Acoust Soc Am 1994;95:330010.

[13] Chen WQ, Ding HJ. Natural frequencies of a uid lled anisotropic spherical

shell. J Acoust Soc Am 1999;105:17482.

[14] Young PG. A parametric study on the axisymmetric modes of vibrations of

multi layered spherical shells with liquid cores of relevance to head impact

modelling. J Sound Vib 2002;256:66580.

[15] Samoilov YA, Pavolv BS. The vibrations of a hemispherical shell lled with

liquid. J Izvestiya Vuzov Avias Tekh 1964;3:7986.

[16] Hwang C. Longitudinal sloshing of a liquid in exible hemispherical tank. J

Appl Mech 1965;32:66570.

[17] Chung TJ, Rush RH. Dynamically coupled motion of surface uid shell system. J

Appl Mech 1976;43:5078.

[18] Komatsu K. Vibration analysis of spherical shells partially lled with a liquid

using an added mass coefcient. Trans Jpn Soc Aeronaut Space Sci

1979;22:709.

[19] Komatsu K, Matsuhima M. Some experiments on the vibrations of

hemispherical shells partially lled with a liquid. J Sound Vib 1979;64:3544.

[20] Ventsel ES, Naumenko V, Strelnikova E, Yeseleva E. Free vibrations of shells of

revolution lled with uid. J Eng Anal Boundary Elements 2010;34:85662.

[21] Lakis AA, Neagu S. Free surface effects on the dynamics of spherical shells

partially lled with uid. J Sound Vib 1997;207:175205.

[22] McIver P. Sloshing frequencies for cylindrical and spherical containers lled to

an arbitrary depth. J Fluid Mech 1989;201:24357.

[23] Patkas LA, Karananos SA. Variational solutions of liquid sloshing in horizontal

cylindrical and spherical containers. J Eng Mech 2007;133:64155.

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