You are on page 1of 12

Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Computers & Fluids


j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / c o m p fl u i d

Dynamic analysis of spherical shell partially lled with uid


Mohamed Menaa, Aouni A. Lakis
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, Succursale Centre-ville, Montral H3C 3A7, Canada

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 20 May 2013
Received in revised form 13 August 2014
Accepted 19 November 2014
Available online 29 November 2014
Keywords:
Spherical shell
Fluid structure interaction
Hybrid nite element method

a b s t r a c t
In present study, a hybrid nite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical
shell lled with uid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical
nite element method. It is assumed that the uid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid
is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is
expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the uidstructure interface. Numerical simulation
is done and vibration frequencies for different lling ratios are obtained and compared with existing
experimental and theoretical results. The dynamic behavior for different shell geometries, lling ratios
and boundary conditions with different radius to thickness ratios is summarized. This proposed hybrid
nite element method can be used efciently for analyzing the dynamic behavior of aerospace structures
at less computational cost than other commercial FEM software.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Shells of revolution, particularly spherical shells are one of the
primary structural elements in high speed aircraft. Their applications include the propellant tank or gas-deployed skirt of space
crafts. Space shuttles need a large thrust within a short time interval; thus a large propellant tank is required. Dynamic behavior in
the lightweight, thin-walled tank is an important aspect in its
design. These liquid propelled space launch vehicles experience a
signicant longitudinal disturbance during thrust build up and also
due to the effect of launch mechanism. Dynamic analysis of such a
problem in the presence of uidstructure interaction is one of the
challenging subjects in aerospace engineering. Great care must be
taken during the design of spacecraft vehicles to prevent dynamic
instability.
Free vibration of spherical shell containing a uid has been
investigated by numerous researchers experimentally and analytically. Rayleigh [1] solved the problem of axisymmetric vibrations
of a uid in a rigid spherical shell. The solution for vibrations of
the uid-lled spherical membrane appears in the work of Morse
and Feshbach [2].
The uid movement on the surface of uid (sloshing) in
non-deformable spherical shell has been investigated by few
researchers as Budiansky [3], Stofan and Armsted [4], Chu [5],
Karamanos et al. [6]. The oscillations of the uid masses result
from the lateral displacement or angular rotation of the spherical
shell. Others researchers have studied particular cases like the case
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: aouni.lakis@polymtl.ca (A.A. Lakis).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2014.11.023
0045-7930/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

of a sphere lled with uid. Rand and Dimaggio [7] considered the
free vibrations for axisymmetric, extensional, non-torsional of
uid-lled elastic spherical shells. Motivated by the fact that
human head can be represented as a spherical shell lled by uid,
Engin and Liu [8] considered the free vibration of a thin homogenous spherical shell containing an inviscid irrotational uid.
Advani and Lee [9] investigated the vibration of the uid-lled
shell using higher-order shell theory including transverse shear
and rotational inertia. Guarino and Elger [11] have looked at the
frequency spectra of a uid-lled sphere, both with and without
a central solid sphere, in order to explore the use of auscultatory
percussion as a clinical diagnostic tool. Free vibration of a thin
spherical shell lled with a compressible uid is investigated by
Bai and Wu [12]. The general non-axisymmetric free vibration of
a spherically isotropic elastic spherical shell lled with a compressible uid medium has been investigated by Chen and Ding [13].
Young [14] studied the free vibration of spheres composed of
inviscid compressible liquid cores surrounded by spherical layers
of linear elastic, homogeneous and isotropic materials.
The case of hemispherical shells lled with uid was studied
experimentally by Samoilov and Pavlov [15]. Hwang [16] investigated the case of the longitudinal sloshing of liquid in a exible
hemispherical tank supported along the edge. Chung and Rush
[17] presented a rigorous and consistent formulation of dynamically coupled problems dealing with motion of a surface-uid-shell
system. A numerical example of a hemispherical bulkhead lled
with uid is modeled.
Komatsu [18,19] used a hybrid method with a uid mass
coefcient added to his system of equations. He also validated
his model with experiments on hemispherical shells partially lled

68

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

with uid under two boundary conditions: a clamped boundary


condition and a free boundary condition. Recently, Ventsel et al.
[20] used a combined formulation of the boundary elements
method and nite elements method to study the free vibration of
an isotropic simply supported hemispherical shell with different
circumferential mode numbers.
For a spherical shell that is partially liquid-lled, if one wishes
to consider the hydroelastic vibration developed as consequence
of interaction between hydrodynamic pressure of liquid and elastic
deformation of the shell, this is a complex problem. Numerical
method such as the nite element method (FEM) are therefore
used since they are powerful tools that can adequately describe
the dynamic behavior of such system which contains complex
structures, boundary conditions, materials and loadings. Some
powerful commercial FEM software exists, such as ANSYS, ABAQUS
and NASTRAN. When using these tools to model such a complex FSI
problem, a large numbers of elements are required in order to get
good convergence. The hybrid approach presented in this study
provides very fast and precise convergence with less numerical
cost compared to these commercial software packages.
In this work a combined formulation of shell theory and the
hybrid nite element method (FEM) is applied to model the shell
structure. Nodal displacements are found from exact solution of
shell theory. This hybrid FEM has been applied to produce efcient
and robust models during analysis of both cylindrical and conical
shells. A spherical shell which has been lled partially with incompressible and inviscid is modeled in this study. The uid is characterized as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell
nite element mesh; then uid and structures are coupled through
the linearized Bernoullis equation and impermeable boundary
condition at the uidstructure interface. Dynamic analysis of
the structure under various geometries, boundary conditions and
lling ratios is analyzed.

Strains and displacements for three displacements in meridional U/, radial W and circumferential Uh are related as follows:
8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<

8
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
<

e/ 9
>
>
>
>
eh >
>
>
>
2e/h =
feg

>
>
j/ >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
j
h
>
>
>
>
> >
:
>
;
>
>
2j/h
>
> 
>
>
:1

R2

1
R2

@U h
@/

1 @U h
sin / @h

@U h
@/

sin1 /

@U /
@h

U / cot / W

sin1 /

1
R2

1 @U h
sin / @h

@U /
@/

@U /
@h

 U h cot /

2
@U /
 @@/W2
@/
2

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=

U / cot /  sin12 / @@hW2  cot/ @W


@/

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

>
>
@2 W ;

 U h cot/ 2 sin1 / cot/ @W


 2 sin1 / @/@h
@h

The displacements U, W and V in the global Cartesian coordinate


system are related to displacements U/i, Wi and Uhi indicated in
Fig. 3. by:

8 9 2
sin /i
>
<U >
=
6
W 4 cos /i
>
: >
;
V
0

9
38
0 <
> U /i >
=
7
0 5 Wi
>
>
:
;
U hi
1

 cos /i
sin /i
0

The membrane stress resultants and bending stress resultants


T
vector frg f N / N h N /h M / M h M /h g is expressed as
function of strain {e} by

frg Pfeg

where [P] is the elasticity matrix for an anisotropic shell given by:

P11
6P
6 21
6
6 0
P 6
6P
6 41
6
4 P51

P12

P14

P15

P22

P24

P25

0
P42

P33
0

0
P44

0
P45

P52

P54

P55

P63

0 7
7
7
P36 7
7
0 7
7
7
0 5

P66

Upon substitution of Eqs. (2), (4) and (5) into Eq. (1), a system of equilibrium equations can be obtained as a function of displacements:

2.1. Structural modeling

L1 U / ; W; U h ; Pij 0

In this study the structure is modeled using hybrid nite element method which is a combination of spherical shell theory
and classical nite element method. In this hybrid nite element
method, the displacement functions are found from exact solution
of spherical shell theory rather approximated by polynomial functions as is done in classical nite element method. In the spherical
coordinate system (R, h, /) shown in Fig. 1, ve out of the six equations of equilibrium derived in reference for spherical shells are
written as follows:

@N/
1 @N/h

N/  Nh cot / Q / 0
@/ sin / @h
@N/h
1 @N/

2N/h cot / Q h 0
sin / @h
@/
@Q /
1 @Q /

Q / cot /  N/ Nh 0
sin / @h
@/
@M/
1 @M /h

M /  M h cot / RQ / 0
sin / @h
@/
@M/h
1 @M /

2M /h cot / RQ h 0
sin / @h
@/

1
R

0
2. Formulation

1
R

1
R

L2 U / ; W; U h ; Pij 0

L3 U / ; W; U h ; Pij 0
These three linear partial differentials operators L1, L2 and L3 are
given in Appendix A, and Pij are elements of the elasticity matrix
which, for an isotropic thin shell with thickness h is given by:

X3

U
U

X2

where N/, Nh, N/h are membrane stress resultants (forces per unit of
length of the middle surface); M/, Mh, M/h the bending stress
resultants(moments per unit of length of the middle surface) and
Q/, Qh the shear forces(forces per unit of length of the middle
surface) (Fig. 2). The sixth equation, which is an identity equation
for spherical shells, is not presented here.

X1
Fig. 1. Geometry of spherical shell.

69

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

Q
M

Fig. 2. Stress resultants and stress couples.

Wi
dW

d i
Ui

U i

Fig. 3. Spherical frustum element.

mD

6 mD
6
6
6 0
P 6
6 0
6
6
4 0

0
0

1mD
2

0
K

0
mK

mK

0 7
7
7
0 7
7
0 7
7
7
0 5

1mK
2

Eh
where D 1Ehm2 is the membrane stiffness and K 121
m2 is the
bending stiffness.

The element is a circumferential spherical frustum shown in


Fig. 3. It has two nodal circles with four degrees of freedom;
meridional, radial, circumferential and rotation at each node. This
element type makes it possible to use thin shell equations easily
to nd the exact solution of displacement functions rather than
an approximation with polynomial functions as is done in classical
nite element method.
For motions associated with the nth circumferential wave number we may write:

70

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

8
8
9 2
9
9
38
cos nh
0
0
>
>
>
< U / /; h >
< u/n / >
< u/n / >
=
=
=
6
7
W/; h 4 0
cos nh
0 5 wn / T wn /
>
>
>
>
>
>
:
:
:
;
;
;
uhn /
uhn /
U h /; h
0
0
sin nh

Setting
8

n  l2  1n l2 c2 ic3

The transversal displacement wn(/) can be expressed as:

wn /

3
X
wni

10

and where Pli cos /; Q li cos / are the associated Legendre functions of the rst and second kinds respectively of order n and degree
li.
The expression of the meridional displacement u/n(/) is:
n
3
X
dwi
n2
Ei

w/
d/
2
sin
/
i1

11

where the coefcient Ei is given by:

ki k1 m  1  m
1 kki  1 m

12

The auxiliary function w is given by the expression:

w/ A4 Pn1 cos / B4 Q n1 cos /

13

Finally the circumferential displacement uhn (/) can be


expressed as:
3
X
1
n dw
uhn / n
Ei wni
sin /
2 d/
i1

14

The degree li is obtained from the expression


1=2
1
1
ki

4
2

15

where ki is one the roots of the cubic equation:

k3  h1 k2 h2 k  h3 0

16

and where

h1 4
h2 4 1 k1  m2

17

h3 21 k1  m
2

with k 12 Rh2 .
The above equation has three roots with one real root and the
two other are complex conjugates.
n
n1
The Legendre functions Pnl1 ; Pn1
are a real
l1 ; Q l1 and Q l1
n

n1

n1

functions, whereas P li ; P li ; Q li and Q li i 2; 3 are complex

 
P l2 Re Pl2 i Im Pnl2
 
 
P nl3 Re Pnl2  i Im Pnl2




Q nl2 Re Q nl2 i Im Q nl2




Q nl3 Re Q nl2  i Im Q nl2




n1
i Im Pn1
P n1
l2 Re P l2
l2




n1
P n1
 i Im Pn1
l3 Re P l2
l2




n1
Q n1
i Im Q n1
l2 Re Q l2
l2




n1
 i Im Q n1
Q n1
l3 Re P l2
l2
n

Substituting Eqs. (18)(20) in Eqs. (9), (11) and (14) we have:




un/ / ne1 cot/Pnl1 e1 c1 Pn1
l1 A1
h
 
 


ne2 cot/Re Pnl2  ne3 cot/ Im Pnl2 e2 c2 e3 c3 Re Pn1
l2

i
h
 
 
e3 c2  e2 c3 Im Pn1
A2 A3 ne3 cot/Re Pnl2  ne2 cot/ Im Pnl2
l2



i
e3 c2  e2 c3 Re Pn1
e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Pn1
iA2  A3
l2
l2




n2
n
n1
n

P A4 ne1 cot/Q l1 e1 c1 Q l1 B1
2 sin/ 1
h






ne2 cot/Re Q nl2  ne3 cot/ Im Q nl2 e2 c2 e3 c3 Re Q n1
l2

i
h




e3 c2  e2 c3 Im Q n1
B2 B3 ne3 cot/Re Q nl2  ne2 cot/ Im Q nl2
l2



i
e3 c2  e2 c3 Re Q n1
e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Q n1
iB2  B3
l2
l2


n2
n
Q B4
21

2 sin/ 1

 
 
wn / Pnl1 A1 Re P nl2 A2 A3 Im P nl2 iA2  A3 Q nl1 B1




Re Q nl2 B2 B3 Im Q nl2 iB2  B3
1
unh / ne1 Pnl1
A1
sin/

 
 
1
1
 ne2
Re Pnl2 ne3
Im Pnl2 A2 A3
sin/
sin/

 
 
1
1
n
ne3
Re Pl2  ne2
Im Pnl2 iA2  A3
sin/
sin/
 2

n
n
1
n
A4  ne1 Q nl1
B1
 cot/P1 n  2n 1P n1
1
2
sin/
2





1
1
 ne2
Re Q nl2 ne3
Im Q nl2 B2 B3
sin/
sin/





1
1
ne3
Re Q nl2  ne2
Im Q nl2 iB2  B3
sin/
sin/
 2

n
n
B4
 cot/Q n1 n  2n 1Q n1
1
2
2
In deriving the preceding relation we used the recursive
relations:
n

dPli

functions. Thus, we can put:


n

20

E3 e2 ie3

wni Ai Pnli cos / Bi Q nli cos /

li

E1 e 1
E2 e2  ie3

where

Ei

19

n  l3  1n l3 c2  ic3

i1

u/n /

n  l1  1n l1 c1

d/
n
dQ li
d/

n cot /Pnli n  li  1n li Pn1


li

22

n cot /Q nli n  li  1n li Q n1


li

Using matrix formulation, the displacement functions can be


expressed as follows:

18

8
9
8
9
>
>
< U / /; h >
=
< u/n / >
=
W/; h T wn /
TRfCg
>
>
>
>
:
;
:
;
U h /; h
uhn /

23

The vector {C} is given by the expression:

fCgT f A1 A2 A3 iA2  A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 iB2  B3 B4 g


The elements of matrix [R] are given in Appendix A.

24

71

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

In the nite element method, the vector C is eliminated in favor


of displacements at elements nodes. At each nite element node,
the three displacements (meridional, transversal and circumferential) and the rotation are applied. The displacement of node i are
dened by the vector:


fdi g

ui/n

dwn
d/

win

i

25

uihn

dj

ui/n win

dwn
d/

i

uihn

uj/n

wjn

dwn
d/

j

ujhn

26

AfCg


dwn 
n cot/P nl1 c1 P n1
l1 A1
d/
h
 



i
n cot / Re P nl2 c2 Re P n1
 c3 Im P n1
A2 A3
l2
l2
h
 



i
n
n1
n1
n cot / Im P l2 c3 Re P l2 c2 Im P l2
iA2  A3


n cot /Q nl1 c1 Q n1
l1 B1
h





i
n
n cot / Re Q l2 c2 Re Q n1
 c3 Im Q n1
B2 B3
l2
l2
h





i
n
n1
n1
n cot / Im Q l2 c3 Re Q l2 c2 Im Q l2
iB2  B3 27

The terms of matrix [A], obtained from the values of matrix [R]
n
and dw
, are given in Appendix A. Now, pre-multiplying by [A]1
d/
Eq. (26) one obtains the matrix of the constant Ci as a function of
the degree of freedom:

fCg A1

di


28

dj

Finally, one substitutes the vector {C} into Eq. (23) and obtains
the displacement functions as follows:

8
9
>


< U / /; h >
=
di
di
W/; h TRA1
N
>
>
dj
dj
:
;
U h /; h

29

The strain vector {e} can be determined from the displacement


functions U/, Uh, W and the deformationdisplacement as:

feg

T 0
0

T


Q fCg

T 0
0

T

QA1

di
dj


B

di

dj
30

where matrix [Q] is given in Appendix A.


This relation can be used to nd the stress vector, Eq. (4), in
terms of the nodal degrees of freedom vector:

frg PB

di

dj

mloc

/j

pR2

Q T PQ sin /d/ A1  A1  GA1 

/j

!
T

1 T

1

1

R Rsin /d/ A  qhA  SA 

33

/i

In the global system the element stiffness and mass matrices


are

k LGT A1  GA1 LG


T

m qhLGT A1  SA1 LG

sin /i

6 cos /
i
6
6
6 0
6
6 0
6
LG 6
6 0
6
6 0
6
6
4 0

32

where q is the density and h is the thickness of shell.


The surface element of the shell wall is dA = R2 sin /d/ dh. After
integrating over h, the preceding equations become

 cos /i

sin /i

0
0

1 0
0 1

0
0

0
0

sin /j

 cos /j

0 cos /j

07
7
7
0 07
7
0 07
7
7
0 07
7
0 07
7
7
1 05

0 1

sin /j

35

From these equations, one can assemble the mass and stiffness
matrices for each element to obtain the mass and stiffness matrices
for the whole shell: [M] and [K]. Each elementary matrix is 8  8,
therefore the nal dimensions of [M] and [K] will be 4(N + 1) where
N is the number of elements of the shell.
2.2. Fluid modeling
The Laplace equation satised by velocity potential for inviscid,
incompressible and irrotational uid in the spherical system is
written as:




1 @
@u
1
@
@u
1
@2u
r2
r2 u 2
sin /
0
36
2

2
2
2
r @r
r sin / @/
@r
@/
r sin / @h
The velocity components in the meridional, radial and circumferential directions are:

V / Uf

1 @u
r @/

Vr

@u
@r

Vh

1 @u
r sin / @h

37

where Uf is the free stream velocity; for quiescent uid Uf = 0.


For partially uid-lled shell, the uid boundaries are divided
into two parts, such as free surface boundary and uidstructure
interaction boundary. The uid free surface effect or sloshing is
not considered here since in Refs. [2123] results proved that in
general the free surface oscillation frequencies can be neglected
compared to the natural frequencies of the system. Therefore the
coupling between the uid sloshing mode and dynamic elastic of
the shell is weak and has no effect.
Using the Bernoulli equation, hydrodynamic pressure in terms
of velocity potential / and uid density qf is found as:



@u Uf @u

@t
r @ u rR

38

The impermeability condition, which ensures contact between


the shell surface and the peripheral uid, is written as:

V r jrR

34

where

Pf qf

ZZ

BT PBdA
A
ZZ
qh
NT NdA

1 T

mloc qhA 

31

Based on the nite element formulation, the local stiffness and


mass matrices are:

kloc

pR2

/i

with

The nite element shown in Fig. 3 with two nodal lines (i and j)
and eight degrees of freedom will have the following nodal displacement vector:


di

kloc A1 




@ u

@W U f @W

@t
@r rR
r @/
rR

39

with

3 

X
Aj Pnlj cos / Bj Q nlj cos / cos nheixt
j1

40

72

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

Method of separation of variables for the velocity potential


solution can be done as follows:

u/; r; h

3
X
Rj rSj /; h; t

h i
The matrix Rf2 is given by:
h

Rf2

3
0
0 
0  0 0
0 
0  0
n
n
n
n
6 P n Re Pn
Im P l2 0 Q l1 Re Q l2 Im Q l2 0 7
ncot /4 l1
5F
l2
2

j1

6 n1
4 Pl1

Placing this relation into the impermeability condition (39), we


can nd the function Sj(/, h, t) in term of radial displacement:




1
@W U f @W

Sj /; h; t ;

Rj R @t
r @/
rR

41

Hence the equation becomes

u/; r; h




3
X
Rj r @W U f @W

R ; R @t
r @/
rR
j1 j

42

With substitution of the above equation into Laplace Eq. (36),


the following second order equation in terms of Rj(r) is obtained

lj lj 1
2
R00j r R;j r 
Rj r 0
r
r2

44

For internal ow Bj = 0.
Finally, the hydrodynamic pressure in terms of radial displacement is written:

"

j1

lj

U2
j 2 Uf W
_ 0 f W 00
W
j
j
R
R2

l1
R

l2
R

l3

2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
C 6
6
6
6
6
6
4

c2

c3

c3

c2

0 c1

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

c2
c3

c3
c2

07
7
7
07
7
07
7
7
07
7
07
7
7
05

Rf3

51

is given by:
!

Rf3 n

ncot2 /

sin /
3
0
0 
0  0 0
0 
0  0
n
n
n
n
6 P n Re Pn
7
Re
Q
Im
P
0
Q
Im
Q
0
4 l1
5F
l2
l2
l1
l2
l2
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
2
3
0
0 
0  0 0
0 
0  0
n
n
n
n
6 Pn Re Pn
7
Re
Q
Im
P
0
Q
Im
Q
0
4 l1
5FC
l2
l2
l1
l2
l2
2

6 n1
 cot /4 P l1
0

0
0 0
0
0
0
3
0 
0  0 0
0 
0  0
n1
n1
n1
n1
7
Re P n1
Re
Q
Im
P
0
Q
Im
Q
0
5FC
l2
l2
l1
l2
l2
0
0
0 0
0
0
0

52

f1
f 2  if3

46

f 2 if3

cf loc

0
48

where [F] is expressed as:

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
F 6
6
6
6
6
6
4

f1

f2

f 3

0
0

f3
0

f2
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0 f1

f2

f 3

f3

f2

0 7
7
7
0 7
7
0 7
7
07
0 7
7
0 7
7
7
0 5

pR2

/j

/i

!
h i
T
RT Rf1 sin/d/ A1  qf A1  Sf A1 

54

The local damping matrix is given by:

3
0 
0  0 0
0 
0  0
n
n
n
n
n
6 n
7
4 Pl1 Re P l2 Im P l2 0 Q l1 Re Q l2 Im Q l2 0 5F

53

After substituting for pressure eld vector and matrix [N] in the
above equation, the local matrix [mf] can be found from the
following:

47

NT fPgdA

mf loc qf A1 

where matrix Rf1 is given by:

ZZ
A

The general force vector due the uid pressure loading is given
by:

fF p g

8 9
( )
( )
>
<0 >
=
h i
i d_
di
U f h ih
i
 2qf T Rf2 A1
fPg P f qf T Rf1 A1 
dj
>
R
d_ j
: >
;
0

U 2f h i
di
 2qf 2 T Rf3 A1 
dj
R

Rf1

c1

45

And the pressure loading in terms of nodal degrees of freedom


is written as:

where matrix [C] is given by:

We put:

The matrix

Bj
Rj r Aj r lj lj
r

3
X
R

0
0
0 0
0
0
0
3
0 
0  0 0
0 
0  0
n1
n1
n1
n1
n1
Re Pl2
Im Pl2
0 Q l1 Re Q l2
Im Q l2
07
5FC 50

43

Solution of the above differential equation yields the following:

Pf qf

U f 1 T
2qf
A 
R
2qf

pR

/j

R

/i

Rf2

!
sin /d/ A1 

U f 1 T
A  Df A1 
R

55

Finally the local stiffness matrix is given by:

kf loc qf
qf

U 2f
R2
U 2f
R2

1 T

A 

pR

/j

R

/i

Rf3

A1  Gf A1 

!
sin /d/ A1 

56

In the global system the element stiffness and mass matrices are

49

mf  qf LGT A1  Sf A1 LG


T
Uf
LGT A1  Df A1 LG
R
U 2f
T
kf  qf 2 LGT A1  Gf A1 LG
R

cf  2qf

57

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

From these equations, one can assemble the mass and stiffness
matrix for each element to obtain the mass and stiffness matrices
for the whole shell: [Mf] and [Kf].
The governing equation which accounts for uid-shell interaction in the presence of axial internal pressure is derived as:

(
M s   Mf 

di
dj

( )

d_ i

di
0
 Cf
K s   K f 
dj
d_ j

where subscripts s and f refer to shells in vacuum and uid


respectively.
The global uid matrices mentioned in the above equation may
be obtained, respectively by superimposing the damping and
stiffness matrices for each individual uid nite element. After
applying the boundary conditions the global matrices are reduced
to squares matrices of order 4(N + 1)  J, where N is the number of
nite elements in the shell and J is the number of constraints
applied. Finally, the eigenvalue problem is solved by means of
the equation reduction technique. Equation may be rewritten as
follows:

8n o9
> > 
( n _ o )
Ms  < d =
Ms  0
d
n o
f0g
>
M s  C f  >
0
K
_
: d ;
fdg
0

where

K K s   K f 
{d} is the global displacement vector. [Cf] and [Kf] represent the
Coriolis and centrifugal forces induced by the owing uid. The
eigenvalue problem is given by:

DD  KI 0
where

"
DD

I

K1 Ms  K1 C f 

K x12 and [I] is the identity matrix.


An in house computer code was developed as part of this work
to establish the structural matrices of each element based on equations developed using the theoretical approach. The calculations
for each nite element are performed in two stages: the rst dealing with solid shell and the second with the effect of the owing
uid.

73

Results for different lling ratios and modes numbers compared


to experimental, theoretical and numerical analyses are presented.
3.2. Case of a spherical shell with /0 = 60
The case considered here is a simply supported spherical shell
with /0 = 60 (the opening angle /0 is the angle between the center
line joining the apex of the spherical shell with the center of shell
and the radius of spherical shell) with the following characteristics
and studied by Komatsu [18]: the material density q = 2270 kg/m3,
the Poisson coefcient m = 0.3, Young modulus of elasticity:
E = 70 GPa, the radius to thickness ratio R/h = 243 (see Fig. 4).
Fig. 5 shows that when the shell is partially lled, the dimensionless frequency initially drops sharply, and then as the shell
becomes fuller, the frequency drops less quickly. Free-surface
effects of the liquid surface and sloshing of the uid are not taken
into account in this study. This assumption relies on the fact that
the sloshing frequencies have a period of vibration that is much
longer than the period of vibration of the spherical shell. As can
be seen, there is perfect agreement between both methods.
The comparatively good accuracy of our method can be
explained by that fact that the formulation used is a combination
of the nite element method and classical shell theory where the
displacement functions are derived from exact solutions of shell
equations. On the other hand, integrations of all matrices (solid
and uid) are calculated numerically over the soliduid element.
This numerical model can easily be used to study partially lled
spherical shells by imposing a null density of uid for the circumferential nite elements which are not submerged.
The third study we carried out is on the effect of radius to thickness ratio R/h on the natural frequencies in both the case where the
shell is empty or full. Fig. 6 shows as the mass of shell is greater
when the shell is thick, the effect of uid is less important in a thick
shell than for a thin shell. The same gure shows that ratio of
natural frequencies of an empty shell and full shell is of order 10
for R/h = 1000. But this ratio was 3 for R/h = 243.
The natural modes corresponding to the lowest shell natural
frequencies under the two boundary conditions are illustrated in
Figs. 7 and 8. They reveal that at the lowest natural frequency,
spherical shell motion is radial. It is easy to see that all displacements U/, W and Uh are all zero at the top (/ = 0) of the spherical
shell.
3.3. Case of a hemispherical shell

3. Results and discussion


In this section numerical results are presented and compared
with existing experimental, analytical and numerical data.
3.1. Validation and comparison
The main advantages of this proposed hybrid is its fast and precise convergence; 12 elements were required for the convergence
of the frequency for a clamped spherical shell.
For the cases investigated in the present paper, the predicted
dimensionless frequencies are expressed by the following relation:

X xR

q12
E

where

x is the natural angular frequency,


R is the radius of the reference surface,
q is the density,
E is the modulus of elasticity.

58

This case was investigated by many authors. The problem of a


hemispherical shell completely lled with water was investigated
by Ventsel et al. [20]. The solution of the problem of hydroelastic
vibrations has been obtained using the methods of the boundary
element (BEM) and the nite element (FEM). These data are
obtained by applying the simply supported condition which is an
adequate condition for liquid storage tanks. The hemispherical
shell is considered empty or lled with uid and having the following parameters: the shell radius R = 5.08 m, the thickness
h = 0.0254 m, the modulus of elasticity E = 70 GPa, Poisson ratio
m = 0.3, the material density q = 2270 kg/m3, the uid density
qf = 1000 kg/m3. Very good agreement can be seen. The ratio of
empty shell frequency and completely lled shell frequency is
4.5 for the rst axial mode (see Table 1).
The case of a hemispherical shell completely lled with
water clamped along equator was investigated experimentally by
Samoilov and Pavlov. The characteristics of the shell were as follows: the shell radius R = 0.133 m, the thickness h = 0.0007 m, the
modulus of elasticity E = 4.016 GPa, Poisson ratio m = 0.4, the
material density q = 1180 kg/m3. Table 2 shows the dimensionless

74

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

0.4
0.3
0.2

U
W

0.1

10

20

30

40

50

-0.1

60

-0.2
-0.3

Fig. 4. Denition of angle /0 (0 6 /0 6 90).

-0.4
Fig. 7. Displacements versus / coordinate for clamped spherical shell /0 = 60.

Our Model

0.4

Komatsu [17]

0.3

0.2

W
V

0.1

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

-0.1
0

0.2

0.4

H/R

0.6

0.8

Fig. 5. Dimensionless frequency as function H/R, where H is the height of the uid
and R is the shell radius, in simply supported spherical shell of with /0 = 60.

-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
Fig. 8. Displacements versus / coordinate for simply supported spherical shell
/0 = 60.

Full shell

Table 1
Dimensionless frequencies for a simply supported hemispherical shell.

Empty shell

(n, m)

2,1
2,2
2,3

Ventsel et al. [20]

Present theory

H/R = 0

H/R = 1

H/R = 0

H/R = 1

0.8987
0.9611
0.9838

0.2004
0.2579
0.3020

0.9057
0.9658
0.9901

0.2134
0.2604
0.3102

0.5

Table 2
Dimensionless frequencies for a clamped hemispherical shell completely lled with
uid.

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

R/h
Fig. 6. Dimensionless frequency as function of radius to thickness ratio R/h in
simply supported spherical shell of with /0 = 60.

Samoilov and Pavlov [15]

Present theory

1
2
3

0.0978
0.1382
0.1676

0.1038
0.1451
0.1789

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778


Table 3
Dimensionless frequencies for a clamped hemispherical shell completely lled with
uid.
m

Kana and Nagy [10]

Present theory

1
2
3

0.1199
0.1919
0.2398

0.1239
0.2036
0.2436

Table 4
Dimensionless frequencies for a clamped hemispherical shell completely lled with
liquid oxygen.
Present model

Hwang [14]

Chung and Rush [15]

Komatsu [17]

0.066

0.0689

0.0625

0.065

frequencies obtained by these authors and compared to the frequencies obtained by our model. Data resulting from experiments
conducted by Kana and Nagy [10] on a clamped hemispherical shell
lled with water are shown in Table 3. The shell has a density of
2.59 104 lb-s2/in4 and has a radius 5 in and a thickness of 0.03
in. The elastic modulus is 107 lb/in2 and the Poisson coefcient
is 0.3.
The fourth example is the case of a clamped hemispherical shell
that was studied experimentally by Hwang [16]. The shell is made
of aluminum with density of 2.59 104 lb s2/in4 and has a radius
200 in and a thickness of 0.1 in. The elastic modulus is 107 lb/in2
and the Poisson coefcient is 0.3. The uid inside the shell is liquid
oxygen with a density of 1.06 104 lb-s2/in4. This example of a
hemispherical bulkhead lled with liquid oxygen was modeled
by Chung and Rush [17] and investigated numerically. The same
study was conducted by Komatsu and Matsuhima [19] experimentally. The results are presented in Table 4.
4. Conclusion
The problem of free vibration of a partially liquid-lled spherical
shell under different shell geometries, lling ratios and boundary
conditions with different radius to thickness ratios is investigated.
An efcient hybrid nite element method is presented to analyze
the dynamic behavior of liquid-lled spherical shell. Shell theory
of spherical shell is coupled Laplace equation of an inviscid uid
to account for hydrodynamic pressure of an internal uid. This theoretical approach is much more precise than usual nite element
methods because the displacement functions are derived from
exact solutions of shell equilibrium equations for spherical shells.
The mass and stiffness matrices are determined by numerical integration. The velocity potential and Bernoullis equation are adopted
to express the uid pressure acting on the structure which yields
three forces (inertial, centrifugal Coriolis) in the case of owing
uid.
The results obtained for spherical shells with various geometric
congurations and different boundary conditions are compared
with results available in the literature. Very good agreement was
found. This approach resulted in a very precise element that leads
to fast convergence and less numerical difculties from the computational point of view.
To the best of the authors knowledge, this paper reports the
rst comparison made between works which deal with spherical
shells subjected to internal uid effects. The proposed hybrid nite
element method provides the capability to analyze cases involving
application of different complex boundaries and loading patterns
for spherical shells.

75

Appendix A
 
 


P11 P 41
@ @U /
@U /
2
W
W cot/
@/
R
@/
@/
R

 

P12 P 42
@
1 @U h

2
U / cot/ W
@/ sin/ @h
R
R



1 @U h

U / cot/ W cot/
sin/ @h
!
!
#

"
1 P 14 P44
@ @U / @ 2 W
@U / @ 2 W

cot/
2


2
2
R R
@/ @/
@/
@/
@/
R

 
1 P 15 P45
@
1 @U h

2
U / cot/
R R
@/ sin/ @h
R
!
1
@ 2 W @W
 2

cot/
2
@/
sin / @h
!
#
1 @U h
1
@ 2 W @W

U / cot/  2

cot/ cot/
2
sin/ @h
@/
sin / @h



P21 P 51
@U /
2
W cot/

R
@/
R



P22 P 52
1 @U h

2
U / cot/ W cot/
R
sin/ @h
R
!


1 P 24 P54
@U / @ 2 W
cot/
2


2
R R
@/
@/
R


1 P 25 P55
1 @U h

2
U / cot/
R R
sin/ @h
R
!
1
@ 2 W @W
 2

cot/ cot/
2
@/
sin / @h




P33 P 63
1
@ @U h
1 @U u

 U h cot/
sin/
@h
sin/
R
@/
@h
R



1 P 36 P66
1
@ @U h
1 @U u

 U h cot/
R R
R sin/ @h @/ sin/ @h
!
cot/ @W
2 @2W
2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

L1 U / ; U h ;W





P21 P 51
1
@ @U /
2
W
R
R sin/ @h @/




P22 P 52
1
@
1 @U h

2
U / cot/ W
R
R sin/ @h sin/ @h
!


1 P24 P 54
1
@ @U / @ 2 W

2

R R
R sin/ @h @/ @/2



1 P25 P 55
1
@
1 @U h
2
U / cot/

R R
sin/
@h
sin/
@h
R
!
1 @ 2 W @W
 2

cot/
2
@/
sin / @h

 

P33 P 63
@ @U h
1 @U u
2

 U h cot/

@/ @/ sin/ @h
R
R



@U h
1 @U /

 U h cot/ cot/
2
@/ sin/ @h

 
1 P36 P 66
@ @U h
1 @U u
2

 U h cot/

R R
@/ @/ sin/ @h
R
!
cot/ @W
2 @2W
2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

@U h
1 @U u

 U h cot/
2
@/ sin/ @h
!
#
cot/ @W
2 @2W
2

cott/
sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

L2 U / ;U h ;W

76

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778




P 11 P21
@U /
L3 U / ;U h ; W 

W
R
R
@/



P 12 P 22
1 @U h


U / cot/ W
sin/ @h
R
R
!


P 14 P 24
@U / @ 2 W



@/
@/2
R2 R2


P 15 P 25
1 @U h


U / cot/
sin/ @h
R2 R2
!
1
@ 2 W @W

cot/
 2
2
@/
sin / @h


 

P 41  P 51
@ @U /
@U /

cot/
W 
W
2
@/ @/
@/
R




1
@
@ @U /
2
P 41
sin/
W
@/
@/
@/
R sin/


@ @U /
P 51
W
@h @/



P 42  P 52
@
1 @U h

cot/
U / cot/ W
2
@/
sin/
@h
R


1 @U h

U / cot/ W
sin/ @h




1
@
@
1 @U h
2
P 42
sin/
U / cot/ W
@/
@/ sin/ @h
R sin/


@
1 @U h
P 52
U / cot/ W
@h sin/ @h
!
!!
P 44  P 54
@ @U / @ 2 W
@U / @ 2 W

cot/



@/ @/
@/
@/2
@/2
R3
"
!!
1
@
@ @U / @ 2 W
P 44
sin/

3
@/
@/
@/
@/2
R sin/
!#
2
@ @U / @ W

P 54
@h @/
@/2


P 45  P 55
@
1 @U h

cot/
U / cot/
3
@/ sin/ @h
R
!
1
@ 2 W @W

cot/
 2
2
@/
sin / @h
!!
1 @U h
1
@ 2 W @W
U / cot/  2

cot/

2
sin/ @h
@/
sin / @h



1
@
@
1 @U h
3
P 45
sin/
@/
@/ sin/ @h
R sin/
!!
2
1
@ W @W

cot/
U / cot/  2
2
@/
sin / @h

@
1 @U h
P 55
U / cot/
@h sin/ @h
!#
1
@ 2 W @W

cot/
 2
2
@/
sin / @h
"

2 
P 63
@
@U h
1 @U u

 U h cot/
2
R sin/ @/@h @/ sin/ @h


@ @U h
1 @U u
3cot/

 U h cot/
@h @/ sin/ @h
"

P 66
@2
@U h
1 @U u

 U h cot/
3
@/@h
@/ sin/ @h
R sin/
!
cot/ @W
2 @2W
2

sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

@U h
1 @U u
3 cot/

 U h cot/
@/ sin/ @h
!
cot/ @W
2 @2W

2
sin/ @h sin/ @/@h

 
 
R1; 2 ne2 cot / Re Pnl2  ne3 cot / Im Pnl2




e3 c2  e2 c3 Im Pn1
e2 c2 e3 c3 Re Pn1
l2
l2



R1; 1 e1 n cot /Pnl1 e1 c1 Pn1
l1

R3; 7 ne3

 
 
R1; 3 ne3 cot / Re Pnl2  ne2 cot / Im P nl2




 e3 c2  e2 c3 Re Pn1
e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Pn1
l2
l2
R1; 4 

n2
Pn
2 sin / 1



R1; 5 e1 n cot /Q nl1 e1 c1 Q n1
l1




R1; 6 ne2 cot / Re Q nl2  ne3 cot / Im Q nl2 e2 c2




e3 c3 Re Q n1
e3 c2  e2 c3 Im Q n1
l2
l2




R1; 7 ne3 cot / Re Q nl2  ne2 cot / Im Q nl2  e3 c2




 e2 c3 Re Q n1
e2 c2 e3 c3 Im Q n1
l2
l2
R1; 8 

n2
Qn
2 sin / 1

R2; 1 P nl1
 
R2; 2 Re Pnl2
 
R2; 3 Im Pnl2
R2; 4 0
R2; 5 Q nl1


R2; 6 Re Q nl2


R2; 7 Im Q nl2
R2; 8 0
R3; 1 ne1

1
Pn
sin / l1

R3; 2 ne2

 
 
1
1
Re P nl2  ne3
Im P nl2
sin /
sin /

R3; 3 ne3

R3; 4 

 
 
1
1
Re Pnl2  ne2
Im Pnl2
sin /
sin /

n2
n
cot /Pn1 n  2n 1Pn1
1
2
2

R3; 5 ne1

1
Qn
sin / l1

R3; 6 ne2





1
1
Re Q nl2  ne3
Im Q nl2
sin /
sin /





1
1
Re Q nl2  ne2
Im Q nl2
sin /
sin /

77

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

R3; 8 

n2
n
cot/Q n1 n  2n 1Q n1
1
2
2

A1; j R1; j; A2; j R2; j; A3; j

A5; j R1; j;A6; j R2; j;A7;j

dwn
j; A4; j R3; j with / /i
d/

dwn
j; A8;j R3;j with / /j j 1; .. .;8
d/

"
!
#
1
1
e1
2

1
P nl1  c1 cot /P n1
e1 c1 ne1

ncot
/
l1
2
R
r
sin /
"
!
#


1
1

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2
ncot2 / 1 Re P nl2
2
R
sin /
"
!#
 
1
1
2

e3 c2  e2 c3 ne3
ncot / Im P nl2
2
R
sin /

 1


1
 e3 c2  e2 c3 cot / Im Pn1
 e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Re Pn1
l2
l2
R "
R
#
 
1
1
 e3 c2  e2 c3 ne3 2 ncot2 / Re P nl2
R
sin /
"
!
#
 
1
1
2

1
Im P nl2
e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2

ncot
/
2
R
sin /

 1


1
e3 c2  e2 c3 cot / Re Pn1
 e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Pn1
l2
l2
R
R
n2
1
n2
1

n 1
cot /Pn1 
n  2n 1
Pn1
sin /
sin / 1
2R"
2R !
#
1
1
e1
e1 c1 ne1

ncot2 / 1 Q nl1  c1 cot /Q n1


l1
2
R
r
sin /
"
!
#


1
1

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2
ncot2 / 1 Re Q nl2
2
R
sin /
"
!#


1
1
2

Im Q nl2
e3 c2  e2 c3 ne3

ncot
/
2
R
sin /

 1


1
 e3 c2  e2 c3 cot / Im Q n1
 e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Re Q n1
l2
l2
R "
R
!#


1
1
2
Re Q nl2

ncot
/
 e3 c2  e2 c3 ne3
2
R
sin /
"
!
#


1
1
2

e2 c2 e3 c3 ne2
ncot / 1 Im Q nl2
2
R
sin /

 1


1
 e2 c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Q n1
e3 c2  e2 c3 cot / Re Q n1
l2
l2
R
R
n2
1
n2
1

n 1
cot /Q n1 
n  2n 1
Q n1
sin /
sin / 1
2R
2R

Q 1; 1
Q 1; 2

Q 1; 3

Q 1; 4
Q 1; 5
Q 1; 6

Q 1; 7

Q 1; 8

"
!#
1
1
e1
1  ne1 n 2 cot2 / P nl1 c1 cot/Pn1
l1
R
r
sin
/
"
!#
!


 
1
1
ne3
1
n 2 cot2 / Im Pnl2
Q2;2 1  ne2 n 2 cot2 / Re Pnl2 
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
e3 c2  e2 c3 cot/ Im P n1
e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Pn1
l2
l2
R
R"
!#
  1
 
ne3
1
1
Q2;3
n 2 cot2 / Re Pnl2 1  ne2 n 2 cot2 / Im Pnl2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im P n1
 e3 c2  e2 c3 cot/ Re Pn1
l2
l2
R
R
n2
1
n2
1 n1
Q2;4  n 1
cot/Pn1 n  2n 1
P
sin/
sin/ 1
2R
"2R
!#
1
1
e
1
Q2;5 1  ne1
ncot2 / Q nl1 c1 cot/Q n1
l1
2
R
r
sin /
"
!#

 ne


1
1
1
3
Q2;6 1  ne2 n 2 cot2 / Re Q nl2 
n 2 cot2 / Im Q nl2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
e3 c2  e2 c3 cot/ Im Q n1
e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Q n1
l2
l2
R
R"
!#

 1


ne3
1
1
Q2;7
n 2 cot2 / Re Q nl2 1  ne2 n 2 cot2 / Im Q nl2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
e2 c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im Q n1
 e3 c2  e2 c3 cot/ Re Q n1
l2
l2
R
R
n2
1
n2
1
Q2;8  n 1
cot/Q n1 n  2n 1
Q n1
sin/
sin/ 1
2R
2R
Q2;1

2n
1
2n
1 n1
e1 n 1
cot /P nl1  e1 c1
P
R
sin /
R
sin/ l1


 
2n
1
2n
1
Q 3;2 e2 n 1
cot / Re P nl2 e3 n 1
cot / Im P nl2
R
sin /
R
sin /

 2n


2n
1
1
n1
 e2 c2 e3 c3
Re Pl2  e3 c2  e2 c3
Im Pn1
l2
R
sin/
R
sin /
  2n
 
2n
1
1
Q 3;3  e3 n 1
cot/ Re P nl2 e2 n 1
cot/ Im P nl2
R
sin /
R
sin /

 2n


2n
1
1
e3 c2  e2 c3
 e2 c2 e3 c3
Re Pn1
Im Pn1
l2
l2
R
sin/
R
sin /
"
!#
n
1
n
2
P n1  n  2n 1cot /P n1

cot
/
Q 3;4 n 1 n  2 n
1
2
2R
R
sin /
Q 3;1

2n
1
2n
1
e1 n 1
cot /Q nl1  c1
Q n1
R
sin /
R sin/ l1

 2n


2n
1
1
Q 3;6 e2 n 1
cot / Re Q nl2 e3 n 1
cot / Im Q nl2
R
sin /
R
sin/

 2n


2n
1
1
 e2 c2 e3 c3
 e3 c2  e2 c3
Re Q n1
Im Q n1
l2
l2
R
sin/
R
sin /

 2n


2n
1
1
Q 3;7  e3 n 1
cot/ Re Q nl2 e2 n 1
cot/ Im Q nl2
R
sin /
R
sin /

 2n


2n
1
1
n1
e3 c2  e2 c3
Re Q l2  e2 c2 e3 c3
Im Q n1
l2
R
sin/
R
sin /
"
!#
n
1
n
2
cot / Q n1  n  2n 1 cot /Q n1
Q 3;8 n 1 n  2 n
1
2
2R
R
sin /
Q 3;5

Q4;1

Q4;2

1
R

1
R

"
e1  1c1 ne1  1

!#

1
2

sin /

"

e2  1c2 e3 c3 ne2  1

"

R2

e3 c2  e2  1c3 ne3

ncot2 /

sin /

1
2

P nl1 

e1  1

!#
ncot2 /
!#

ncot2 /

R2

c1 cot /P n1
l1

 
Re Pnl2

 
Im Pnl2

sin /

 1


 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3  cot / Re P n1
 2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 cot / Im Pn1
l2
l2
R
R
"
!#
 
1
1
2
Re Pnl2

ncot
/
Q4;3  2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 ne3
2
R
sin /
"
!#
 
1
1
ncot2 / Im P nl2
2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 ne2  1
2
R
sin /

 1


1
2 e3 c2  e2  1c3  cot / Re P n1
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Pn1
l2
l2
R
R
1

n2
1
n2
1 n1
n 1
cot/P n1  2 n  2n 1
P
sin /
sin / 1
2R2
2R
"
!#
1
1
e1  1
Q4;5 2 e1  1c1 ne1  1
ncot2 / Q nl1  2 c1 cot/Q n1
l1
2
R
R
sin /
"
!#


1
1
Q4;6 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 ne2  1
ncot2 / Re Q nl2
2
R
sin /
"
!#


1
1
2
Im Q nl2

ncot
/
2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 ne3
2
R
sin /

 1


1
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3  cot / Re Q n1
 2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 cot / Im Q n1
l2
l2
R
R
"
!#


1
1
2
Q4;7  2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 ne3
Re Q nl2

ncot
/
2
R
sin /
"
!#


1
1
ncot2 / Im Q nl2
2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 ne2  1
2
R
sin /

 1


1
2 e3 c2  e2  1c3  cot / Re Q n1
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 cot / Im Q n1
l2
l2
R
R
Q4;4

Q4;8

n2
2R2

n 1

1
n2
1
cot/Q n1  2 n  2n 1
Q n1
sin /
sin / 1
2R

78

M. Menaa, A.A. Lakis / Computers & Fluids 108 (2015) 6778

1
e 1  1
P nl1
1  e1 cot2 / n 2
c1 cot/Pn1
l1
R2
R2
sin /
!
!
  ne
 
n
1
1
3
Re P nl2  2 cot2 / n 2
Im Pnl2
2 1  e2 cot2 / n 2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Pn1
2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 cot/ Im Pn1
l2
l2
R
R
!
!
  n
 
ne3
1
1
2 cot2 / n 2
Re Pnl2 2 1  e2 cot2 / n 2
Im Pnl2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
 2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 cot/ Re Pn1
2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im Pn1
l2
l2
R
R
n
1
n
1 n1
 2 n 1
cot/P n1 2 n  2n 1
P
sin /
sin / 1
2R
2R
!
n
1

e

1

1
Q nl1
2 1  e1 cot2 / n 2
c1 cot/Q n1
l1
R
R2
sin /
!
!




n
1
ne3
1
Re Q nl2  2 cot2 / n 2
Im Q nl2
2 1  e2 cot2 / n 2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
n1
2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Re Q n1

e
c


e

1
c

3
2
2
3 cot/ Im Q l2
l2
2
R
R
!
!

 n


ne3
1
1
2 cot2 / n 2
Re Q nl2 2 1  e2 cot2 / n 2
Im Q nl2
R
R
sin /
sin /

 1


1
 2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 cot/ Re Q n1
2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 cot/ Im Q n1
l2
l2
R
R
n
1
n
1
 2 n 1
cot/Q n1 2 n  2n 1
Q n1
sin /
sin / 1
2R
2R

Q 5;1
Q 5;2

Q 5;3

Q 5;4
Q 5;5
Q 5;6

Q 5;7

Q 5;8

1
2n
1 n1
n 1e1  1
cot /Pnl1 2 1  e1 c1
P
sin /
sin / l1
R2
R
  2nn 1
 
2nn 1
1
1

e2  1
cot / Re Pnl2
e3
cot / Im Pnl2
sin /
sin /
R2
R2

 2n


2n
1
1
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 
 2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 
Re P n1
Im Pn1
l2
l2
sin /
sin/
R
R
  2nn 1
 
2nn 1
1
1
e3
cot / Re Pnl2
e2  1
cot / Im P nl2

sin/
sin /
R2
R2

 2n


2n
1
1
Re P n1
Im Pn1
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 
2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 
l2
l2
sin /
sin/
R
R
"
!#
n
1
n
2
Pn1  2 n  2n 1cot /P n1
2 n 1 n  2 n

cot
/
1
2
2R
R
sin /
2n
1
2n
1
2 n 1e1  1
cot /Q nl1 2 1  e1 c1
Q n1
sin /
sin / l1
R
R

 2nn 1


2nn 1
1
1

e2  1
cot / Re Q nl2
e3
cot/ Im Q nl2
sin /
sin/
R2
R2

 2n


2n
1
1
 2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 
Re Q n1
Im Q n1
l2
l2
sin /
sin/
R
R

 2nn 1


2nn 1
1
1
e3
cot / Re Q nl2
e2  1
cot/ Im Q nl2

sin/
sin/
R2
R2

 2n


2n
1
1
 2 e2  1c2 e3 c3 
2 e3 c2  e2  1c3 
Re Q n1
Im Q n1
l2
l2
sin /
sin/
R
R
"
!#
n
1
n
2
2 n 1 n  2 n
Q n1  2 n  2n 1cot /Q 1n1

cot
/
2
2R
R
sin /

Q 6; 1
Q 6; 2

Q 6; 3

Q 6; 4
Q 6; 5
Q 6; 6

Q 6; 7

Q 6; 8

2n

In deriving the above relation we used the recursive relations:

d Pnl
d/2
2

d Q nl
d/2

"
n  l  1n l n
"
n  l  1n l n

1
2

sin /

!#
ncot2 /

1
2

sin /

Pnl  cot /n  l  1n lPn1


l
!#

ncot2 /

Q nl  cot /n  l  1n lQ n1
l

References
[1] Rayleigh L. On the vibrations of a gas contained within a rigid spherical
envelope. Proc Lond Math Soc 1872;4:93103.
[2] Morse PM, Feshbach H. Methods of theoretical physics Part II. New
York: McGraw-Hill; 1953.
[3] Budiansky B. Sloshing of liquids in circular canals an spherical tanks. J Aerosp
Sci 1960;27:16173.
[4] Stofan AJ, Armstead AL. Analytical and experimental investigation of forces
and frequencies resulting from liquid sloshing in a spherical tank. NASA TN D128; 1962.
[5] Chu WH. Fuel sloshing in a spherical tank lled to an arbitrarily depth. AIAA J
1964;2:19729.
[6] Karamanos SP, Patkas LA, Papaprokopiou D. Numerical analysis of externally
induced sloshing in spherical liquid containers. Comput Methods Appl Sci
2011;21:489512.
[7] Rand R, Dimaggio F. Vibrations of uidlled spherical and spheroidal shells. J
Acoust Soc Am 1967;42:127886.
[8] Engin AE, Liu YK. Axisymmetric response of a uid lled spherical shell in free
vibrations. J Biomech 1970;3:1122.
[9] Advani SH, Lee YC. Free vibrations of uid lled spherical shells. J Sound Vib
1970;12:45362.
[10] Kana DD, Nagy A. An experimental Study of axisymmetric modes in various
propellant tanks containing liquid N72-14782; 1971.
[11] Guarino JC, Elger DF. Modal analysis of uid lled elastic shell containing an
elastic sphere. J Sound Vib 1992;156:46179.
[12] Bai MR, Wu K. Free vibration of thin spherical shell containing a compressible
uid. J Acoust Soc Am 1994;95:330010.
[13] Chen WQ, Ding HJ. Natural frequencies of a uid lled anisotropic spherical
shell. J Acoust Soc Am 1999;105:17482.
[14] Young PG. A parametric study on the axisymmetric modes of vibrations of
multi layered spherical shells with liquid cores of relevance to head impact
modelling. J Sound Vib 2002;256:66580.
[15] Samoilov YA, Pavolv BS. The vibrations of a hemispherical shell lled with
liquid. J Izvestiya Vuzov Avias Tekh 1964;3:7986.
[16] Hwang C. Longitudinal sloshing of a liquid in exible hemispherical tank. J
Appl Mech 1965;32:66570.
[17] Chung TJ, Rush RH. Dynamically coupled motion of surface uid shell system. J
Appl Mech 1976;43:5078.
[18] Komatsu K. Vibration analysis of spherical shells partially lled with a liquid
using an added mass coefcient. Trans Jpn Soc Aeronaut Space Sci
1979;22:709.
[19] Komatsu K, Matsuhima M. Some experiments on the vibrations of
hemispherical shells partially lled with a liquid. J Sound Vib 1979;64:3544.
[20] Ventsel ES, Naumenko V, Strelnikova E, Yeseleva E. Free vibrations of shells of
revolution lled with uid. J Eng Anal Boundary Elements 2010;34:85662.
[21] Lakis AA, Neagu S. Free surface effects on the dynamics of spherical shells
partially lled with uid. J Sound Vib 1997;207:175205.
[22] McIver P. Sloshing frequencies for cylindrical and spherical containers lled to
an arbitrary depth. J Fluid Mech 1989;201:24357.
[23] Patkas LA, Karananos SA. Variational solutions of liquid sloshing in horizontal
cylindrical and spherical containers. J Eng Mech 2007;133:64155.