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Research Proposal

In the recent past, cloud computing has emerged as a new model suitable for the
provision of on-demand Information Technology resources. The use of cloud computing is
rapidly revolutionizing the manner in which Information Technology is managed and delivered
to the intended users. The increase in the adoption of cloud computing fosters cooperation among
the cloud providers and has over time increased the complexity of the needs of the users. The
cloud-computing users need to spread their services and resources beyond certain geographical
boundaries. Furthermore, cloud-computing users are interested in distributing their services to a
heterogeneous population rather than a homogenous one. It is now possible for cloud users to
rent resources such as Virtual Machines on a pay-per-use basis in order to avoid additional
operational and capital expenses. However, the choice of the cloud model to be used by the
clients is influenced by the ability of the system to scale the available resources and provide
flexible payment options.
A cloud computing environment allows an infrastructure provider (InP) to divide the
physical resources that are available inside each data center into what is commonly referred to as
virtual resources. In most cases, virtual resources constitute virtual machine (VMs) which are
rented to the service providers using an on-demand system. Once the resources have been shared,
the service providers use them to organize Information Technology applications with the
objective of serving a wider number of customers through the Internet. One setback of using a
cloud computing environment in the provision of IT services is that most infrastructure providers
do not provide performance guarantees concerning propagation and bandwidth delays. Lack of
such guarantees has a huge impact on the process of deploying virtual services and applications.

Recent research studies have made numerous efforts to address these shortcomings by proposing
the use of virtual data centers (VDCs) while offering IT resources.
For the purpose of this research, virtual data centers are defined as a collection of virtual
machines, routers, and switches that are interconnected through virtual links. Each virtual link in
a virtual data center is characterized by its propagation delay and bandwidth capacity. When
VDCs are used, cloud computing users are able to enjoy better capabilities to isolate network
resources and improve the performance of the service applications. Though beneficial than using
traditional virtual machines, the use of VDCs exposes cloud providers with a new set of
challenges referred to as the VDC embedding problem. The problem aims at mapping virtual
machines, routers, and switches onto the physical infrastructure. In this context, Virtual network
mapping (VNM) refers to finding optimal techniques to handle the requests received from clients
on a continuous basis. VNM is done by developing virtual networks that have multiple Virtual
Machine instances that run on servers in various data centers distributed geographically.
The research paper aims at proposing a management framework that is able to coordinate
the distribution of virtual data centers across a geographically distributed infrastructure. The
paper will add to previous research on virtual network mapping as well as introduce new
methodologies in the same niche to facilitate easier operating in cloud computing data centers.
New contributions in this research paper can be summarized as shown below:

Investigate the mathematical model of cloud computing data center based on OpenFlow

standard 1.0.
Implement efficient traffic routing schemes that localize data flows between the virtual
machines used within a cloud computing environment.

Decrease the network contention and increase overall energy efficiency of a cloud
computing system.

Research Problem 1:
Mathematical model of a cloud computing data center
In the first research model, the research paper will describe an adequate mathematical
model of cloud computing data center. The mathematical model is represented in terms of an
undirected graph whose vertices represent network devices. The network devices included in the
graphs include components such as the data storage devices, computing nodes, controllers, and
switches. The edges of the graphs represent the network links between the network devices. The
mathematical model proposed for use in a cloud computing data center can be useful in the
implementation of efficient traffic routing schemes. These traffic routing schemes are capable of
localizing data flows between the virtual machines that constitute a cloud computing data center.
If used appropriately, mathematical models are capable of decreasing the contention of the
virtual network as well as increase the overall efficiency of a cloud computing environment.
In this research, we aim to help cloud computing users solve the localization problem that
develops from traffic generated by geographically distributed cloud computing data centers. The
mathematical model is useful in scheduling groups of virtual machines before transmitting the
selected nodes and information about the group topology to the controller. The controller installs
the routing rules to the switches in order to localize the flow of data between the virtual
machines operating within the cloud computing data center. The topology leads to a decrease of
network contention as well as the response time of the software programs that are executed in the

virtual machines. In this research study, we use the mathematical model to build efficient data
flows to analyze the operations within a cloud computing data center environment.

Cloud computing system

2.1 Related Work
2.1.1 Network Virtual Systems
The proposal of virtualization opens up an opportunity for the evolution and
development of a path for the future Internet. Virtualization deploys different architectures and
protocols on a shared physical infrastructure [1]. In its capacity, it could also extenuate the
solidifying forces of the present day Internet and stimulate more innovation [2]. The notion
behind the use of many co-existing networks is a common technique that the current Internet
infrastructure has already been able to support [3]. Examples of already existing virtualization
within a network include Multipreprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), T-Mobile UK, and 3UK, as
well as Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) [4]. A Virtual Private Network can connect on

multiple distributed sites through a shared physical infrastructure. However, the connection is
restricted since all virtual networks are required to be based on a similar technology and protocol
stack [5]. Currently, network virtualization makes it easier for cloud computing users to achieve
independent programmability of virtual networks [6]. Also, it has the capability to handle multiprovider scenarios as well as hide the specificities of a network infrastructure.
2.1.2. Current Mapping Algorithms
Various mapping algorithms have been proposed by previous researchers to solve the
problems associated with network mapping. The primary goals of mapping algorithms include
making good use of the substrate network, increasing the amount of positive mapping, and taking
the least time in handling tasks [7]. Some of the challenges that still exist due to the mapping
problems include the constraints connected to the node and link. These constraints may include
bandwidth resources available on the links, link delays, processing computer resources on the
nodes, and establishing the location of the nodes [8]. Online requests are also still a practical
problem affecting the mapping of algorithms. The arrival of the online requests is based on a
distribution mechanism since the requests do not arrive once as a large collection [9].
Furthermore, the time taken to process each request is infinite. As such, the mapped requests do
stay in the substrate network at all times and will only be removed from the substrate network
once their time expires.
2.2 Motivation
The motivation behind this research study emanates from three major observations. First,
the cost of the inter-data center network is responsible for 15% of the cumulative cost that is
much costly than the cost of the intra-data center network. Secondly, the transit bandwidth covers

a much wider area, making it more expensive as compared to developing and maintaining an
internal network of the data center. Lastly, there are much worries that the inter-data center
network could easily turn into a bottleneck, reducing the probability of acceptance of VDC
requests. As such, it is importance to enhance a reduced reliance on inter-data center traffic to
reduce the operational costs as well.


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