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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Importance of study
1.6 Assumptions
1.7 Delimitations
1.8 Limitations
1.9 Definition of terms
1.10 Chapter summary

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter will introduce the background of study, statement of the problem,
objectives, research questions, assumptions, delimitations, limitations and the importance
of the study.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


The timber industry is an oligopoly dominated by five players which are the Wattle
Company Limited, Mutare Board and Paper Mills, Allied Timbers, Boarder Timbers
Limited and Forest Company of Zimbabwe. These companies have been experiencing a
decline in production since 2005 due to the damages on their plantations.

1.1.1 Decline in timber output


According to Mahonye and Makate (2008), timber production declined from a peak of
four hundred thousand cubic meters to less than three hundred and fifty thousand cubic
meters due to: influx of illegal settlers who are building houses in plantations, power
outages and collapse of cluster industries, prevented foresters from accessing plantations
to replant or carry out other forestry operations, and fire outbreaks. The table below
illustrates how forest production have been declining since 2005.

Table 2.3 (a) forestry production output between 2005 and 2008
Type of plant No of plants Production Production Production Production
2005 2006 2007 2008
Processed timber 41 400000m3 390000m3 370000m3 360000m3
Treated poles 6 95000m3 92000m3 90000m3 85500m3
Wattle extract 1 4500tonnes 4480tonnes 4460tonnes 4455tonnes
Charcoal 1 9200tonnes 9190tonnes 9180tonnes 9178tonnes
Source: Mabugu (2008), Accounting for forestry resources.

Muchinguri (2007), also added that timber exports during the 2006/07 season declined by
15.2%, against a backdrop of mounting challenges in the sector. A total of nine thousand
six hundred and twenty cubic meters of sawn timber was exported during the period
under review, the bulk of it to the grossly under supplied South African market.

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Mahonye and Makate stated that the timber output dropped from 400000m3 to less than
350000m3. This is a 12.5% decrease. According to Muchinguri the decline was 15% in
2007. And Mabugu recorded a decrease of 10% (from 400000m3 to 360000m3). From
these statistics we can come up with an average of 12.5% decrease in timber output in
the year 2008. Currently low production is evidenced by the failure of local companies to
meet the demands of their foreign markets especially the South African market.

Forest production output is being affected by the damages caused by fire, animals, theft
and pests. Nicolas and Beebe (1999), explained that once a plantation has been
established it will be necessary to protect it against weather, fire, pests and animals. This
calls for the implementation of security systems to protect the plantations.

1.1.2 Challenges in managing security systems


Forestry companies in Zimbabwe do have their security systems to protect their
plantations from dangers but the systems are becoming very inefficient. Its not that the
security systems were inefficient from the beginning but because of changes that are
taking place in the country some of the strategies that were being used to protect the
plantations are becoming obsolete.

O’Brien (2005) defined a security system as a device or multiple devices designed,


installed and operated to monitor detect or communicate about activity that may pose a
security threat in a location or locations on a vessel or facility. The security systems need
to be effectively managed so as to reduce the lose of forestry resources. However
managers are facing many challenges in the process of managing these security systems.
These challenges include economic, political, environmental, social and legal challenges.

• Social challenges - Social challenges include land conflicts, farming activities,


hunting activities, playing children, domestic animals and timber poaching.
According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), many plantation fires arise from disputes
over land ownership. They also added that burning by farmers in preparation of

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land for farming usually results in wild fires. Hirst (2007) also added that hunting
activities may damage plantations.

• Economic challenges – Due to economic challenges many households have


become relatively poor. Because of poverty people are doing whatever it takes to
live and this is the reason why some of the individuals have turned to timber
poaching. Some who are desperately looking for employment deliberately burn
plantations to create employment.

• Environmental challenges - The unpredictable weather and climatic conditions


impose a great threat on the plantations. The location and terrain of the
plantations make it difficult to protect them from fire, animals and poachers.

• Political challenges - In many cases political violence poses great threat on the
security of the plantation. Political activists sometimes burn plantations for
political reasons.

• Legal challenges - Changes in rules and regulations have a negative impact on


the production of forest products. The policies that are operating currently to
protect plantations are doing very little if any to protect them from damages.

As mentioned above that managers face some challenges in the process of managing the
security systems, these challenges will create loopholes through which the plantation
threats (fire, animals and poachers) take advantage of to attack plantations. Security
systems are designed and operated in plantations to protect them from threats.
Uncontrollable damages simply means that the security systems are failing to protect the
plantations.

Does that mean that the managers are not doing their jobs properly? No. The issue is that
managers are trying their best to reduce the damages on pine plantations but they are
facing some challenges in their endeavor to protect the plantations. These challenges

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which include political, economic, legal and social, create some loopholes in the security
systems making them less effective. So it can be concluded that low timber output is a
result of challenges that the managers are facing in their management process.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Companies in the timber industry have been adjusting their security systems to control
the problem of low production but significant losses are still recorded in the industry. The
problem is attributed to the challenges faced by managers in managing the plantation
security systems. The researcher seeks to evaluate the challenges that are being faced by
the management in their endeavor to protect the plantations.

1.3 OBJECTIVES
• To identify challenges faced on managing plantation security systems of a timber
producing company.
• To investigate how the plantation security system of a timber producing company
is being managed.
• To identify major threats on plantation security of a timber producing company.
• To identify the loopholes of the systems and come up with recommendations.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS


• What are the challenges faced in managing plantation security systems of a timber
producing company?
• How does the plantation security system of a timber producing company
operates?
• What are the major threats on plantation security of a timber producing company?
• What are the loopholes of the systems in place and what could be done to
overcome the challenges?

1.5 IMPORTANCE OF STUDY

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This research is important as it seeks to give knowledge and crucial ideas to different
users which are the researcher, Midlands State University and the companies in the
timber industry

The researcher
• This research was conducted in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Commerce
Degree in Business Management.
• The researcher gained a great deal of knowledge and important ideas in the field
of study.
• The research assisted the researcher in sharpening and improving his skills and
abilities in research and all other academic fields.

Midlands State University


• The research will form part of the literature and research material for the
University library to be used by other students and academics. This research also
lays a platform for debate and further research in the area of study.

Forest companies
• The research will form a basis on how security systems can be effectively
managed to improve output in the timber industry.
• The companies will be able to identify the challenges in managing the security
systems and how to manage them.
• Forestry companies will be able to increase production by dealing with the
challenges involved in managing the security systems.

1.6 ASSUMPTIONS
• The Wattle Company limited used as a case study is assumed to be a fair
representation of the forestry industry.
• The information collected is adequate to make the research credible.
• The respondents interviewed are assumed to be cooperative.

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1.7 DELIMITATIONS
• The research focuses on the Wattle Company limited in the eastern highlands of
Zimbabwe.
• The research is limited to the study of security systems of a forestry company.
• The research will cover a period between 2005 and 2010
• The respondents of the research are the managers and employees in the security
department.

1.8 LIMITATIONS
• The research focused only on one forestry company as the researcher had limited
time to take into account all players.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS


A fire break is a bulldozer-made discontinuity in abed of fuel and is used to segregate,
stop and control the spread of fire; or to provide a control line from which to suppress a
fire. fire breaks differ from fuel breaks in that they have a complete lack of combustibles
down to mineral soils (Abberger 2009).

A lookout tower provides housing and protection for a person whose duty is to search
for wildfires. The fire lookout tower is a small building usually located on the summit of
a mountain, or other high vantage point in order to maximize the viewing distance and
range. From this vantage point the fire lookout can see any trace of smoke that may
develop, determine the location and call fire suppression personnel to the fire (Nicolas
and Beebe 1999)

Fuelbreak is a generally wide strip of land on which the native vegetation has been
permanently modified so that fires that burn into them can be more readily controlled.
Some fuelbreaks contains fire lines (for example roads , land lines) which can be quickly
widened with hand tools or by burning out. The breaks will not in themselves stop a fire

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from entering a protected area but they do provide a site from which to more easily stop
an advancing fire (Lara 1993)

Security system is a device or multiple devices designed, installed and operated to


monitor, detect or communicates about activity or activities that may pose a security
threat in a location or locations on a vessel or facility.

Volunteer firefighter is an irregular, legally enrolled firefighter under the fire


management organization regulations who devotes time to community fire service for
monetary compensation (Nicolas and Beebe 1999)

1.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY


In this chapter the researcher gave the background of study, statement of the problem,
objectives, research questions, importance of study, assumptions, delimitations and
limitations. The following chapter will highlight the relevant literature used to carry out
this research.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER OUTLINE
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Plantation security system
2.2 Distribution of plantations in Zimbabwe
2.3 Decline in timber production in Zimbabwe
2.4 Major threats on plantations
2.5 Challenges on managing security system
2.6 Relationship among security systems, threats and challenges
2.7 Empirical evidence: Case of Indonesia
2.8 Chapter summary

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2.0 INTRODUCTION
The Zimbabwean primary wood processing industry is an oligopoly dominated by five
players namely: Wattle Company Limited, Border Timbers Limited, Allied Timbers,
Mutare Board and Paper Mills, and Forest Company of Zimbabwe (Mushongahande
2007). Each of these companies has its own timber processing facilities and plantations.

Mushongahande pointed that, the Wattle Company Limited is the third largest producer
of pine-sawn timber in Zimbabwe. It produces approximately twenty percent of
Zimbabwe's total annual timber output. Pine plantations are located at Nyanga,
Chimanimani, Vumba, Silverstream, Chipinge and Dunsinane Estates. Logs from these
plantations are supplied to the Nyanga estates to be processed.

Pine-sawn timber comes from pine trees. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), pine
trees take twenty years to mature and that’s when they are harvested. So pine trees are
planted every year so that there will be a continuous harvest and a continuous supply of
timber in the future. Any failure to replant in one year will mean that there will be a year
in the future when the company will not harvest anything. Replanting each year is done
after some projections of future demand of timber in twenty years to come. That means
the pine plantations that are being harvested currently were planted twenty years ago.

Timber can be categorized as processed or unprocessed timber that is sawn timber or raw
timber. Sawn timber has to be processed at the sawmill (in case of the Wattle Company
the sawmill is at Nyanga estates). At the sawmill timber is cut into pieces of different
length width and thickness.

Processed timber output is determined by two factors:


(1) The effectiveness of the processing system (the sawmilling) that is, how efficient
is the machinery and the production personnel. If there are some inefficiencies in
the sawmill then that means there will be more wastes and as a result the sawn
timber output will decrease.

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(2) The output of sawn timber is also determined by the quantity of raw timber from
the plantations. Fewer raw timber brought to the sawmill means the processed
timber will be few as well.

Raw timber are the logs that are harvested from the plantations before they are cut into
pieces of different length, width and thickness (Evans 1992). The output of raw timber is
directly affected by:
(1) The security systems that are put in place to protect the plantations from damages
caused by animals, pests, poachers, fire, weather and diseases. Nicolas and Beebe
(1999), explained that, the more effective the system is, the less the plantations
are likely to face the unnecessary damages.
(2) Another factor that affect the output of raw timber is the size of pine plantation
harvested on a specified year. If the plantation is small that means the raw timber
output will be low as well.

Mushongahande (2007), stated that, the raw timber harvested each year is far below the
expected output. The output projected during the time of replanting is very different from
what is actually harvested. From the argument it can be discovered that low output is not
a result of small area being harvested. But the plantations to be harvested, though large
enough to meet the current demand, faced a lot of damages which then result in low
yield.

Security systems are designed and operated in plantations to protect them from any
threat. Uncontrollable damages from fire, animals, poachers and pests simply means that
the security systems in place are failing to protect the plantations. Does that mean that the
managers are not doing their jobs properly? No. The issue is that managers are trying
their best to reduce the damages on pine plantations but they are facing some challenges
in their endeavor to protect the plantations. These challenges which include political,
economic, legal and social, create some loopholes in the security system making it
ineffective. So it can be concluded that low timber output is a result of challenges that the
managers are facing in their management process.

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2.1 PLANTATION SECURITY SYSTEM
“A forest of any kind commercial, amenity or village woodlot, is a considerable
investment and an accumulating asset of raw material. Its protection is an essential part of
sivilculture. But the nature of a plantation, its uniformity in age and species often along
with the kind of site it occupies, renders it more susceptible to some forms of damage,
notably fire and climatic hazards. Nevertheless, successful plantation forestry is only
possible provided there is adequate protection,” (Evans 19992:267).

When a plantation is established it faces so many damages from fire, animals, weather,
pests and poachers. As a result there is need to protect these plantations if they are to
succeed. Damage is unpredictable, irregular, not always easily detected at first and varied
in severity, all of which often lead to its importance being under estimated. Nicolas and
Beebe (1999), explained that once a plantation has been established it will be necessary
to protect it against fire, thieves and animals. Evans argued that successful plantation is
only possible provided there is adequate protection.

2.1.1 Security.
According to O’Brien (2005), security is a condition that result from the establishment
and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile
acts or influence. Security measures should be implemented, monitored and maintained
to ensure that there is enough protection of the plantation from any hostile acts. The
hostile acts are the threats mentioned above.

2.1.2 A system.
O’Brien defined a system as a group of interrelated components working together toward
a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation
process. According to Schulthers and Summer, (1999), a system is an integrated set of
components or entities, that interact to achieve particular function or goal. A system has

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characteristics such as boundaries, outputs and inputs, methods of converting inputs into
outputs and system interfaces.

O’Brien explained that a system has three basic interacting components or functions
which are: inputs – which involve capturing and assembling elements that enter the
system to be processed; processing – which involve transformation processes that convert
input into out put; output – which involve transferring elements that have been produced
by a transformation process to their unlimited destination.

From the above authors it can be noted that a system consist of components. These
components should be related in one way or another. There should be inputs, processing
and outputs.
• Inputs – involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be
processed. For example raw material, energy, data and human effort must be
secured and organized for processing.
• Processing – involve transformation processes that convert input into output
• Output – involve transferring elements that have been produced by a
transformation process to their destination for example finished goods.

2.1.4 Security system.


Schulthers and Summer, (1999), defined a security system as a device or multiple
devices designed, installed and operated to monitor, detect and communicate about
activity that may pose a security threat in a location or locations on a vessel or facility.

Gordon (2007), refers security system to policies and procedures that reduce the
likelihood of a security breach and increases the likelihood of detecting security breaches
that occur.

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Fig 2.1.5 (a) a plantation security system.

Employees Community Machinery


&
equipment
Neighboring companies

inputs

Observations
Patrols, lookout
towers, cameras,
binoculars
Communicatio

sirens, bells,

chasing
Fire fighting,
Action
n. Radios,

phones

Processing

Protection
Firebreaks,
fence, guards,
repellent

Output
Output
Timber
Timber
production

Source: Nicolas and Beebe (1999).

2.1.5 Plantation security system.

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From the above definition one may have a clear view of what a plantation security system
is. It can be noted that a security system is a device or devices designed, installed and
operated to monitor, detect and communicate about activity or activities that may pose a
security threat in a location or locations.

On a plantation security system, the devices are the inputs of the system which include
the employees, community, neighboring companies, machinery and equipment. The
activities that may pose security threat on a plantation security system are fire, animals
and theft. These are the activities that the system has to monitor, detect and communicate.
The location on the plantation security system is the plantation.

2.1.5.1 Inputs.
According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), the inputs of the plantation security system
consist of employees, the community, neighboring companies, equipment and machinery.

• Employees - The security department should have enough employees who are
well trained and experienced in the field, (Nicolas and Beebe 1999). These
employees may consist of; foresters, fire fighters and guards. Foresters are
responsible for patrolling throughout the plantations during the day for early
detection of danger. Firefighters are those individuals who are trained to deal with
any kind of fire. Young plantations are usually guarded by some individuals who
will be chasing away animals from the plantation.

• The community - The community refers to those people who are close to the
plantations or those who benefit from the plantation resources. Nicolas and Beebe
(1999), suggested that, it is a major step forward if the forestry companies
integrate key communities into the protection management of forests. Key
communities are those with access to the area to hunt and collect forestry produce,
or simply because they are close to the plantations boundaries.

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• Neighboring companies - Most fires starts outside concessions and enter as
wildfires. It is essential if security management is to be successful, that
neighboring companies cooperate and coordinate to protect their areas. The
companies as suggested by Raymond (1999), need to discuss: communications to
coordinate protection operations, early warning and danger issues, plans for
patrolling along the borders of the plantations, approaches to and cooperation with
local communities, training and awareness campaigns; sharing of equipment and
personnel.

• Equipment and machinery - Lara (1993), noted that, the company should buy
the necessary equipment and machinery to be used in the protection program.
Firefighting vehicles, motor bikes, bulldozers, surveillance cameras, two way
radios, chainsaws, rakes, and so on are very important in the system. the available
equipment must be kept serviceable and operated by people who know how to use
it. Without enough equipment and machinery the security system will have a lot
of loopholes with which the threats can use to damage the plantations.

2.1.5.2 Processing.
All the inputs are put together at the processing for different functions. Processing
functions include observations, communication, protection and action.

• Observations - The functions of the process as stated by Nicolas and Beebe starts
by observations which is meant to detect threats on plantation security. Rapid
detection and quick movement of the security teams to the scene will greatly
reduce damage. For large plantations detection is usually by watchers posted at
times of high danger in lookout towers. Where there are no towers observers can
be posted at good vantage points with views over the plantation. From the
diagram it can be seen that observation is done through patrols, lookout towers,
surveillance cameras or binoculars. The community, employees or workers from
neighbor companies should be equipped with the necessary skills and equipment
to do some observations in the plantations.

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• Communication - Communication is the second function of the system. If there
is any threat detected, it should be communicated immediately to everyone
involved in the security system. Communication can be done through two way
radios, sirens, bells or phones. Rapid detection is the first step, the alarm must be
raised and information about a threat, its location and possible size, relayed to the
security department, (Lara 1993). Rapid detection of fire and raising the alarm are
first two essentials of good communication, the third is enabling the firefighting
teams to reach the scene quickly. Thus a plantation requires at least a rudimentary
system of roads and tracks passable by vehicles.

• Protection - The third function is protection. According to Abberger (2009), as


the managers anticipate damage from any of the discussed threats at any time,
they are then forced to put some protection measures to reduce the effects of the
threats. Protecting a plantation in anticipation of danger is only meant to reduce
the effects that may be caused by any threat but does not completely get rid of the
threat. For example firebreaks may only prevent an outside fire but is of no value
to the internally started fires. Firebreaks, fuelbreaks, security fence, guards and
repellents can be used as protection measures.

• Action - When the threat is detected and all the people are informed, the
necessary action should be taken. If it is the fire outbreak, people should fight the
fire; wild animals must be chased away from plantation and thieves arrested.

2.1.5.3 Output.
If our security was very effective the result will be that at the end of the period the
company will harvest the same number of trees as it planted. Inputs will be equal to
outputs. This however is not applicable in real life situations. No matter how effective the
system is there will be some loses at the end of the period. Loses are expected but the
security system is meant to reduce loses.

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For the system to operate efficiently it should have all the necessary resources. For
firefighting purposes water is the major resource required. Roads leading to the plantation
boundary are of special value as is a track running along a boundary so that access is
gained to where the danger may be approaching. When everything is in place the
management are then required to effectively manage the system so as to yield good
results. The main objective of designing a plantation security system is to reduce the
damages caused by humans and animals so as to increase timber output.

2.2 DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTATIONS IN ZIMBABWE


Mushongahande (2007), pointed out that, Zimbabwe is a land locked country in
Southern Africa covering more than thirty nine million hectares. Of the thirty nine
million hectares, one hundred and eight thousand two hundred and fourteen or (three
percent) of the total area is under commercial plantations which are mainly found in the
eastern highlands. The distribution of commercial tree species, is as follows: pines
occupies seventy one thousand seven hundred and seventy one hectares (66.32%),
eucalyptus occupies twenty six thousand two hundred and seventy four hectares
(24.28%), wattle have ten thousand and nine (9.25%) and popular has one hundred and
sixty hectares (0.15%).

As noted by Kammen (2001), Zimbabwe’s economy depends heavily on natural


resources for employment creation, generation of foreign currency and sustenance of
livelihoods. The forestry sector contributes about three percent of the gross domestic
product largely from exotic plantations and commercial indigenous timber. The formal
forestry sector in Zimbabwe employed a total of fourteen thousand two hundred and fifty
three people in the year 2005.

2.3 DECLINE IN TIMBER PRODUCTION


According to Mahonye and Makate (2008), timber production declined from a peak of
four hundred thousand cubic meters to less than three hundred and fifty thousand cubic
meters due to: influx of illegal settlers in Chimanimani plantations who are building
houses in plantations, power outages and collapse of cluster industries, prevented

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foresters from accessing plantations to replant or carry out other forestry operations, and
fire outbreaks

Muchinguri (2007), also added that timber exports during the 2006/07 season declined by
15.2%, against a backdrop of mounting challenges in the sector. A total of nine thousand
six hundred and twenty cubic meters of sawn timber was exported during the period
under review, the bulk of it to the grossly under supplied South African market. As a
result of veld fires the timber industry had lost a lot of man hours in terms of production
as more time was being committed to fighting the fires. Production had nearly grounded
to a halt from the ten to thirty percent capacity that the industry was operating (Gonad
2008).

The table below illustrates how production have been declining since 2005.

Table 2.3 (a) forestry production output between 2005 and 2008
Type of plant No of plants Production Production Production Production
2005 2006 2007 2008
Processed timber 41 400000m3 390000m3 370000m3 360000m3
Treated poles 6 95000m3 92000m3 90000m3 85500m3
Wattle extract 1 4500tonnes 4480tonnes 4460tonnes 4455tonnes
Charcoal 1 9200tonnes 9190tonnes 9180tonnes 9178tonnes
Source: Mabugu, (2008), Accounting for forestry resources.

Mahonye and Makate pointed out that the timber output dropped from 400000m3 to less
than 350000m3. this is 12.5% decrease. Muchinguri stated that the decline was 15% in
2007. And Mabugu recorded a decrease of 10% from 400000m3 to 360000m3. from
these statistics we can come up with an average of 12.5% decrease in timber output in
the year 2008. Currently there is low production due to the failure of local companies to
meet the demands of their foreign markets.

It can be noted from the above argument that the timber producing companies in
Zimbabwe were experiencing a decline in timber output since the year 2005. The Wattle
Company Limited is failing to meet the demands of the customers especially the South

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African market which is the major importer of Zimbabwean timber. Failure to meet
demands may result in the company loosing its customers.

2.4 MAJOR THREATS ON PLANTATIONS


According to Bryant (2004), low timber production in Indonesia in 2004 was a result of
damages caused by fire, animals and timber poaching. Nicolas and Beebe, (1999),
explained that once a plantation has been established it will be necessary to protect it
against fire, animals and thieves. Evans, (1992), pointed out that the nature of a
plantation, its uniformity in age and species, often along with the kind of site it occupies,
renders it more susceptible to some forms of damage.

The above authors considers fire, theft and animals as the major threats on plantations
hence plantations managers are required to take considerable measures to protect their
plantations from the damage caused by these threats. These threats are the major reason
why the management design plantation security systems to protect their plantations from
any danger.

2.4.1 Fire
Abberger (2009), cited that fire is often the most important danger facing Indonesian
plantations in the Sumatra and the Kalimantan provinces. He pointed out that the greatest
danger of fire is when the plantation is young before the canopy have closed and
suppressed the ground vegetation, though in dry conditions with strong winds, mature
plantations can also be destroyed. Many plantations suffer from fires every year in the
dry season though how much is burnt can vary enormously. Damage by fire impose a
serious threat to plantations. According to Lara (1993), though some forest fires are
caused by lightning, the sad fact is that most are caused by people, both accidentally and
deliberately. Plantation fires can start from fires spreading from farmland on the
perimeter, from activities of hunters or from burning by herdsman to improve livestock
grazing.

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It is not possible to prevent a climatic build up of fire hazard condition, but much can be
done to minimize the risk of fire through public education and involving local people in
forestry (Arisman 2001). The main principle in protecting plantations against fire is that,
where there is insufficient combustible material to allow a ground fire to develop, there is
little or no fire risk. Dangerous and damaging plantation fires can only develop when fire
is able to occur at the ground level.

Table 2.4.1 (a) causes of fire.


Original cause 2005-2009
Percentage
Forestry work 3.7
Farming work 2.5
Sport and recreation 1.3
Children’s play 1.1
Transit and transport 19.3
Other activities 1.1
Intentional 60.3
Other causes 1.5
Unknown 9.5
Total 100
Source: Hammond (2006)

According to Evans (1992), effective plans can be prepared to protect a plantation against
fire or at least limit the damage caused. In protecting any plantation there are three aims.
• Preventing outside fires from spreading in
• Preventing fires being ignited inside
• Limiting the spread of fire once alight

Fire danger is most high when the plantation is young and in the dry season as mentioned
by the above authors meaning that the security managers should implement tight security
strategies during this period of time when the risk is very high. It can also be noted that
fire can originate either from natural causes such lighting or from human activities such
as farming, hunting, transportation and children play. Human causes can either be
deliberate or by mistake.

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2.4.2 Animals
Animal damages can be in form of wild animals (baboons, deer, rabbits, hare) or
domestic animals (horses, donkeys, sheep, goats, cattle).

2.4.2.1 Wild animals.


Evans (1992), pointed out that, there are three orders of wild animals responsible for
damage; rodents (rats, mice, moles and squirrels); lagomorphs (hares and rabbits); and
artiodactyls (deer, antelopes, pigs and buffaloes). Damage from wild animals can threaten
the quality of the trees.

• Artiodactyls – According to Rathfon and Farlee (2002), deer feed on new growth
during the growing season and nip branches and terminal shoots during the
winter. Deer browsing is characterized by torn or irregular cuts on twigs and can
kill conifers. Young trees are favored by bucks for rubbing. Damage appears as
long strips of torn and shredded bark, and the tree may entirely girdled. Damaged
trees may overgrow the wound but these wounds provide openings for wood
rooting organisms.

• Rodents – McKenna and Woeste (2008) stated that rodents do not directly feed
on tree roots, but belong to a group of mammals that feed primarily on grubs,
earthworms, beetles, ants and other small soil dwelling organisms. Moles can
cause problems when they tunnel near young trees. Mole tunnels create air
pockets that can dry out and stress the root system of young trees. If meadow
voles are also present, mole tunnels can serve as runways for voles and aggravate
a vole problem for young trees.

• Lagomorphs – rabbits can cause serious damage to young trees. Rabbits can
chew off the stems of newly planted trees, small dormant seedlings and some
species they will scrape off and eat substantial patches of bark, (Bowen 2008).
Once trees resume active growth in the spring, rabbit damage is rare

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The principal methods of controlling damage by wild animals involves the use of fences,
hedges or ditches, trapping and removal and poison baits.

2.4.2.2 Domestic animals.


“Grazing domestic animals has and continues to be a most destructive agent of forest,
both natural and plantations. Because cattle, sheep, goats and camels, eat tree foliage,
they must be excluded from a plantation while it is young”, (Evans 1992:152). Inevitably
this means that a young plantation often has dense ground vegetation growing between
the trees, which further increases the attractiveness for grazing. Cattle, sheep and horses
tend to congregate beneath certain trees for shade and to rest, a behavior that causes both
direct and indirect injuries to trees.

According to McKenna and Woeste (2008), the buttress roots and butt log of a tree are
often injured directly when animals step on them or scratch themselves against the bark,
leaving wounds that are susceptible to diseases such as butt roots. Animals can indirectly
injure trees by compacting and continuously disturbing the soil at the base of a tree,
restricting growth and function of small feeder roots.

Both wild and domestic wild animals have some effects on the timber production. As
mentioned by the authors above they affect both quality and quantity of timber to be
harvested. Baboons tend to be the most dangerous wild animals that affect the Wattle
Company’s timber plantations. Domestic animals like goats, cattle and sheep eat the tree
foliage of young plantations.

2.4.3 Timber poaching.


In 2004 more than one million cubic meters of timber about 95% of Burma’s total timber
exports to China were illegally logged and illegally exported from northern Burma to
Yunnan province. This trade amounted to $250 million loss for Burmese people every
year (Buckrell 2005).

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Abberger (2009), noted that, in areas where there are shortages of firewood for cooking
and heating, stealing from a nearby plantation is almost inevitable. In some cases the
right to collect firewood is granted but often the villagers demand outstrips supply.
Sometimes villagers cut trees for poles used for the construction of houses, kraals and
fencing. Zaikowski (2007), stated that, resettled farmers in Zimbabwe are illegally
cutting down timber from plantations in the process of clearing land for farming.

People poach timber from plantations for different reasons as suggested by the above
authors. Some people are engaged in timber poaching as way to make money; others for
the construction of their houses, kraals and fencing; and others illegally harvest timber as
they will be clearing land for farming.

2.5 CHALLENGES ON MANGING SECURITY SYSTEMS


Nicolas and Beebe (1999), noted that, once the security system is designed, it needs to be
effectively managed so as to reduce damages. However managers are facing many
challenges in the process of managing these security systems. These challenges include
economic, political, environmental, social and legal challenges.

2.5.1 Physical environmental challenges.


The physical environment seem to be a continuous challenge faced by the management in
their protection programme. Physical environment include weather, climate, terrain and
geographical location.

2.5.1.1 Unpredictable weather


According to Abberger (2009), the occurrence of damaging weather phenomena in is
usually unpredictable. In 1973 one twenty minute hailstorm killed several hundred
hectares of twenty year old plantations in northern Swaziland. In 1985 cyclone Nigel,
during a six hour period, irreparably damaged one third of all Cordia Alliodora trees in
450ha of plantations in Vanuatu. In 1988 hurricane Gilbert destroyed a quota of all
Jamaica’s pine plantations.

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Gonda (2008), also added that, Zimbabwe’s timber industry is under threat amid
projections that the country could face shortages in the next fifteen years as a result of the
tropical cyclones of 2000 and 2002. High cyclone induced rainfall caused severe
destruction of forests, particularly in the eastern highlands.

Little can be done to protect timber plantations against the damage caused by weather,
except to grow tree species known to be resistant to the detrimental effects of local
weather patterns, or locating the stands of trees in sheltered areas. High winds, rainfalls,
temperatures, and so on are some of the weather phenomena which causes damages to
plantations.

2.5.1.2 Climatic changes.


The impacts of global climate change on forest distribution was evaluated using the
Holdridge life zone and Goddard Institute of Space studies (GISS) general circulation
model scenarios, Matarira and Mwamuka (1996). Across Zimbabwe, seventeen to
eighteen percent of the total land area is projected to shift from subtropical thorn
woodland and subtropical dry forest to tropical very dry forest under the Goddard
Institute of Space Studies scenario. The projected shift in forest distribution is attributable
to a future decline in precipitation patterns and an increase in ambient temperatures.

According to Evans (1992), some climatic damage if serious and destructive not only
directly influences the growth of trees but, because of its social consequences, can affect
forest growth and tree planting activities. Drought will reduce growth and even kill trees
and if prolonged, other destructive influences on plantations begin to take place. Such
effects were seen in the Sahel drought of 1970-76, 1983-86 and again 1990-91. though
herds of domestic animals declined and many people became refugees and dependent on
famine relief for food, the shortage of grass let to acute overgrazing and many trees were
cut to provide material for cattle stockages, hut construction, fodder and fuel wood.

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Climatic changes may have a long term effect to plantation. The recurring droughts in
Zimbabwe is a sign of changes in climate. Such a change in climate will mean destruction
of plantations in the future.

2.5.1.3 Geographical location.


The Papua province of Indonesia was the major target of timber poachers in 2005
because of its location (Butler 2005). The plantations are located at the island of New
Guinea and there is easy access of poachers through the waters of Indonesia. This
resulted in the plantations loosing around 300000m3 every month through timber
poachers.

According to Hammond (2006), most of the timber plantations in Zimbabwe are located
in the eastern highlands. Plantations are at the exit points to Mozambique and as a result
they are used by the border jumpers going to Mozambique. Cooking fires, smoking stubs
and other activities left by these people sometimes result in wild fires. Being at exit
points plantations in the eastern district of Zimbabwe are experiencing heavy destructions
from fires by careless border jumpers.

Ninety percent of the timber plantations in Indonesia are in rural remote areas where
there are no telephone facilities, electricity nor good roads. This makes communication
very difficult. Communication is very important for the security of plantations. according
to Lara (1993), if any threat is detected on the plantation it should be communicated
quickly. Without good roads the movement of vehicles is very slow, however the security
is advised to reach the scene of danger very quickly.

2.5.1.4 Terrain.
Abberger (2009) stated that plantations in the Kalimantan region faced heavy damage
from fires which originated from El Nino in 1998. Because of the slopes in this area the
fires were very difficult to control. The area is characterized by a range of mountains.
Hirst (2007), explained that, fire spreads far more quickly uphill than along flatland or

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downhill. For every increase in slope a fire will double its rate of speed traveling
upslope. Northerly aspects receive the sun’s greatest intensity and therefore fuels on these
slopes are likely to be drier and more combustible than those on south or east-facing
slopes. In addition the north west aspect is likely to experience the hottest and driest
winds of summer, drying fuels out even further.

Slope greatly influence speed of fire spread. Fuel breaks planted on hillsides are much
more quickly burned through than those on the flat ground. If it is an economic necessity
to make narrower fuel breaks, these should be restricted to flat areas. Width must not be
compromised where the ground next to the road is steep. For the same reason cleaning of
the fuel breaks should be most thorough where they are on slope.

Table 2.5.1.4(a) Rates of spread and flame lengths for fire on a flat ground
Fuel moisture Wind at level of fire (km-h)
0 3 6 9 12 15
Speed of fire (m-h)
Dry 0 20 40 60 100 140
Wet 0 0 20 20 40 40
Flame length (mm)
Dry 150 250 400 450 550 650
Wet 100 120 180 250 270 270
Source: Abberger (2009)

Table 2.5.1.4(b) Rates of spread and flame lengths for fire on a slope ground
Fuel moisture Wind at level of fire (km-h)
0 3 6 9 12 15
Speed of fire (m-h)
Dry 40 60 80 100 140 160
Wet 20 20 20 40 40 40
Flame length (mm)
Dry 370 400 460 550 640 670
Wet 180 210 240 270 270 270
Source: Abberger (2009)

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Fuel breaks 100meters wide can be burned across in half an hour under dry, windy
conditions. This short time underscores the need for: frequent patrols when fire danger is
high, a dependable communication system, and initial attack crews and equipment to be
ready to respond when a patrol spots fire approaching a fuel break. Slopes also affect the
speed of the fire fighting team. Uphill movement of the vehicles is very slow and due to
the steepness of the ground roads are sometimes affected by erosion during the rain
season.

Zimbabwean plantations are in the eastern highlands where the area is mountainous. This
means the forest companies are facing challenges of slopes. As noted by the above
authors slopes affect the speed of fire. it takes lesser time to destroy a plantation on a
slope ground than what would be taken to destroy a plantation of same size on a flat
ground.

2.5.1.5 Limited sources of water


According to Bowen (2008), water problems within the plantation contributed to the
damages of timber plantations caused by fire in the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions in
Indonesia. Fire has a high capacity to absorb heat and is therefore a very efficient agent to
extinguish forest fires. Ready supplies from river, lakes or dams are needed to fill tanks,
trunks and sources for pumps. Quantity and the accessibility are points to consider. The
installation of man made sources and access are a part of fire management planning
where natural sources of water within a concession are limited.

In the south Sumatra coastal swamps, holes (2*2*2 meters) are dug before the dry season
to help ensure a water supply in drought years. For example Sribunian has installed eight
water tanks of 10000litres along the light railway, (Bowen 2008). Dams and fixed water
tanks were also constructed in Sumatra . in the dry season these dams are used by a local
community to bathe and wash clothes as well as fishing; a mutually beneficial happy
relationship exists between company and villagers.

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Mushongahande (2007), also stated that natural sources of water are very limited within
the Zimbabwean plantations in the eastern highlands. Because of the slopes in the eastern
highlands, water from the rains usually run downhill to the river. The sources of water for
fire suppression are therefore limited to rivers and dams. Evans (1992), argued that it is
very important for the plantations to have some sources of water inside the plantations.

2.5.2 Social challenges.


There neighboring communities are a threat to pine plantations. There are always some
conflicts between the community and the forestry companies. Key communities are those
with access to the area to hunt and collect forestry produce, or simply because they are
close to the plantation boundaries (Maunati 2005).

2.5.2.1 Land conflicts.


As noted by Maunati (2005), rapid changes in production patterns from agriculture and
livestock rearing to forestry, causing displacement of the traditional peasants in Indonesia
left many people with a feeling of rejection towards forestry plantations. land ownership
concentrated into major timber product companies who did not allow neighboring
communities access to their estates, or only a number of these provided this type of
benefit. Thus recreational, fishing and hunting areas are lost, as well as grazing land, the
possibility of fuel removal and the use of other forest products. There are conflicts with
rural communities over water supply, due to the fact that the plantations demand more
water as a result of their rapid growth. This causes a drop in the flow of springs and
streams.

The timber plantations in the Sumatra and Kalimantan provinces were under threat from
the community who claimed the land to belong to their ancestors. Raymond (1999) added
that many concession fires in these provinces arise from disputes over land ownership
when arson is seen by the villagers as a ready revenge for land unfairly taken by
concessions.

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In an attempt to reduce the conflicts on land many companies have engaged in
participatory land use planning followed by participatory boundary mapping. Abberger
(2009) recognize that if this is to work, concession companies must demonstrate goodwill
and be prepared to concede more land than they would readily wish. But their alternative
may be uncontrolled fires in every dry season. In addition the concession companies are
allowing access of villagers to plantations for hunting, fishing and collection of firewood,
this has created a good relationship between the companies and the villagers.

The villagers from the Nyaruwa and Chinyai clans in Chimanimani, as stated by Sifile
(2008), resettled themselves on the timber plantations of Border Timbers Limited (BTL)
at the height of the land invasions, arguing that the plantation was situated on land that
used to belong to their ancestors. Repeated attempts including a high court order- to have
the estimated five hundred families evicted have been in vain.

Land conflicts can be viewed as a threat to timber plantations as mentioned by Maunati


many plantations in Indonesia experienced great damages from the villagers who were
against the forestry laws. Taking those people to court may be of no use just like the
example of the villagers from the Nyaruwa and Chinyai. For this reason the concession
companies in Indonesia decided to create better relationships with the community
through participatory land use and allowing villagers access into the plantations for
hunting and recreational purposes.

2.5.2.2 Activities by the community


Sometimes the activities by the community in their daily life may pose dangers on the
plantations. It is true that most of the human causes of fire is deliberate, but it can also be
argued that in some cases it result from mistakes and carelessness. Plantation fires can
start from farmland on the perimeter from activities of hunters or from burning by
herdsman to improve livestock grazing.

• Farming activities - Evans (1992), pointed out that, sometimes fires occur as a
result of the carelessness of the villagers. Farmers usually burn their farms in

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preparation for the farming season or to improve their grazing pastures and such
burning usually end up in wild fires.

• Hunting activities - Hunting in plantations by the society also put the plantation
at a risk of fire. Hunters may leave their hunting fires burning, their smoking stubs
and they sometimes cut the young trees as they will be hunting thereby disturbing
the growth of the trees, (Abberger 2009). Villagers sometimes burn plantations in
their process of searching mice and small animals to avert pervasive hunger.
Restricting villagers from entering plantations may result in unwelcome reactions
by the villagers and on the other hand allowing them to have access into the
plantation is putting the plantation at risk.

• Timber poaching - Evans (1992), pointed out that, in areas where there are
shortages of firewood for cooking and heating, stealing from a nearby plantation
is almost inevitable. In some cases the right to collect firewood is granted but the
villagers often demand outstrips supply. Sometimes villagers cut trees for poles to
construct houses, kraals and fencing. Because of poverty many households have
turned to timber poaching as a way of survival. Bowen (2008), stated that there is
no straight forward solution to theft when hunger and cold are real causes.

• Playing children - Nicolas and Beebe (1999), also talked of the children from the
village who start some plantation fires as they will be playing in the plantations.
Since the communities are located at the boundaries of the timber plantations the
children have easy access to the plantations and in most cases they find
plantations a good playing area.

To reduce damage by community activities in the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions, the
concessions encouraged the communities to participate in fire prevention. This involved
the employment of local villagers as prevention aides. Local communities are
compensated to prevent fires as well as paid to form volunteers fire crews. Arisman

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(2007), suggested that, it is a major step forward if the concessions and plantations
integrate key communities into the protection management of forests.

Raymond (1999), suggested that, to gain involvement the concessions pay a sensible
wage to groups of villagers to man lookout positions every afternoon (the time of greater
risk than the morning). Equipped with radio they report every fire spotted. If a local fire
does start they fight it immediately and join concession crews who attend later. No
additional pay is given for fire fighting. The scheme has the merit that members of the
community are paid even if there are no fires and they thus do not have to work to earn.
As a further incentive to community involvement, properly trained and equipped village
fire crews are paid to patrol close to the village and to maintain the fuel breaks on the
plantation boundaries. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), the success of
community involvement schemes depend on mutual trust, a commodity that has been
singularly absent in the past and which will thus take time and patience to develop in the
future.

2.5.2.3 Domestic animals


The grazing domestic animals from the neighboring villages has been the most
destructive agent of forests both natural and plantations. Abberger (2009), pointed out
that a young plantation often has dense ground vegetation growing between the trees
which further increases the attractiveness for grazing. In Kalimantan in 1999 there were
some instances of grazers who prevented foresters from replanting in areas they used to
pasture their animals. In some areas, grazing by goats is a traditional land use. Extensive
enclosures of plantations can impose drastic changes in the habits of the rural
communities affected.

According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), before planting, land acquired for afforestation
may be casually grazed. This is of no direct concern to a forester and may even be
encouraged to keep down rank vegetation, but when planting begins, the curtailment of
this right may be deeply resented by grazers used to pasturing their animals on the land.

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The community will let their animals into the plantations to graze and sometimes they cut
the tree branches for fodder.

In Sahel countries both fencing and shepherding (employing watchmen) are essential for
establishment of plantations. in Ethiopia a low boundary wall is erected to demarcate the
plantation and shepherds are posted at intervals to keep out livestock. With plantation in
Nigerian savanna four measures are needed to combat damage from man and animals –
fencing, mass propaganda, complete cultivation (clean weeding so there is no grass for
grazing) and watchmen.

2.5.3 Economic challenges.


The hyper inflationary period and high levels of unemployment in Zimbabwe keep on
haunting the forestry companies affecting their security systems.

2.5.3.1 High level of inflation.


According to Gumede (2009), the hyper inflation in the recent years resulted in many
experienced workers leaving their employment in search for greener pastures. Forestry
companies in Chimanimani and Nyanga have been hit by a critical flight of workers who
abandoned their chainsaws for gold panning in nearby Mozambique. Currently the
companies are facing a shortage of skilled personnel such as telelogger operators.

Forestry companies experienced a critical shortage of skilled manpower. Unless


something is done to rectify the problem, production at most timber estates could be
affected. Over four million Zimbabweans have fled the country. This massive brain drain
of the most qualified Zimbabweans undermines any possibility of reversing the
catastrophic collapse of Zimbabwean economy, (Hammond 2006).

According to Abberger (2009), in order to attract skilled workers to work in remote


plantations, many companies in Indonesia are paying favorable wages and better
working conditions. Schools, hospitals, banking, transport and other services are

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provided by the concessions in these remote rural areas. The main objective is to make
the workers feel very comfortable with the environment they are working.

Inflationary period in the recent years kept on haunting the forest companies operations
including the Wattle Company Limited. During the period many of its experienced
workers left to seek for greener pastures in countries like South Africa and Botswana.
Among these individuals there were some professionals from the security department.
Because of this the company is facing a shortage of experienced personnel in the security
department. Nicolas and Beebe (1999), pointed out that well trained and experienced
workers are part of the plantation security system. Without one of the inputs the system
may not work properly. This is one the reasons why the systems are failing to produce
quality results.

2.5.3.2 High level of unemployment.


The peasants in Papua province of Indonesia turned to timber poaching because they had
failed to get any form of formal employment. They decided to poach timber and sell since
there was a ready market in Jakarta, Singapore and Hong Kong. The dealers demanded
large supplies of timber as they bought it from the villagers at very cheap prices of
$10/m3 which they sold at $270/m3 making huge amounts of profits. Ready market and
quick cash is attracting the people to illegal logging.

Hammond (2006), stated that, the increasing levels of unemployment and poverty in
Zimbabwe have led many households turning to timber poaching for survival. Zimbabwe
has a sixty percent unemployment rate. Many people in the nearby communities turn to
plantation burning as a way to create employment for themselves in the fire suppression
and subsequent replanting. He added that, sixty two percent of Zimbabwean households
are poor with forty six percent of them living in absolute poverty as they can hardly
afford basic food requirements some of these households are turning to timber poaching
for survival.

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As noted by Abberger the forestry companies in Kalimantan are paying sensible wages
to groups of villagers to assist in protecting plantations from danger. Villagers are
employed as prevention aides. This in simple terms means the villagers now getting
income from the concession companies reducing their poverty. Because of this the village
are becoming loyal to the companies and will protect the plantations from any danger
willingly. In addition whenever a vacancy exists the companies’ first preferences will be
people from the neighboring communities. In the future many people from the villages
will be formally employed and will be in a position to influence their colleagues not to
engage in timber poaching nor burning plantations thereby reducing damage of
plantations.

2.5.4 Political challenges.


Political challenges also have great impacts on the plantation security. Because of
political reasons people turn to plantation burning, timber poaching and other activities
that make plantations prone to damages.

2.5.4.1 Political violence.


Zaikowski (2008), stated that, political instability has forced many institutions to close
for long period. One consequence of this is that there is an acute shortage of trained
forestry practitioners. In many areas forestry management has been suspended and illegal
loggers have at times devastated forest resources. Post-conflict periods do not necessarily
lead to more sustainable systems. There may, for example, be an increased demand for
wood during post-conflict reconstruction which can worsen the situation.

Zaikowski added that, Zimbabwe’s commercial timber production has shrunk by fifty
percent, largely because of uncertainties caused by changes in land tenure legislation,
uncontrolled veld fires and increases in production costs. Uncertainty brought about by
the government’s chaotic land redistribution exercise has resulted in non expansion of
plantations.

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For political reasons sometimes political activists turn to plantation burning especially
when the plantations are believed to be owned by members of the opposing party.
Burning of plantations will be meant to fix the owners. In many cases political violence
disturbs replanting programs since some of the workers will be involved in politics.
Failures to replant will mean a shortage in the future of timber products. Workers may be
forced not to go to work for political reasons for example attending some meetings. There
are cases of people who die or injured because of political violence. For the safety of
their lives people always leave the country to seek refugee in other countries. This means
that there will be a gap being created which takes time to fill.

2.5.4.2 Illegal settlement.


Kanyekanye (2007), cited that, Zimbabwe’s timber industry was under threat from
resettled farmers who were causing fires when clearing land for farming or illegally
cutting down timber from plantations. During the year 2007 alone the resettled farmers
cost the nation above one trillion Zimbabwean dollars worth of timber through illegal
harvests or fires. Two hundred and fifty two fires occurred, damaging and destroying ten
thousand hectares. The national forest resource was diminished by ten percent. According
to Hammond (2006), due to fires resulting from arson attacks or land clearing activities
by unauthorized settlers in the plantations trees of all ages have been destroyed and
consequently log shortages will occur for many years. Added to that, the new farmers
were preventing foresters from replanting in the fire damaged areas.

Mahonye and Makate (2008), pointed out that the government was for political reasons
reluctant to act against the black farmers accused of causing fires. The author went on to
explain that many of the settlers occupying the plantations were settled there by the
government contrary to its earlier claims that it would not seize plantations for
redistribution to landless people. The damage caused to timber plantation could take up to
twenty years to correct. The damage caused by forestry fires since year 2000 when the
government began its land redistribution exercise was greater than damage incurred in
the previous thirty years.

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There was a time in Indonesia in early 1990s when people seize plantations for political
reasons (Raymond 1999). The government assisted the concession owners by sending
hundreds of police and paramilitaries with tear gas and guns to evict the illegal settlers
from timber plantations. the police and the army would guard the plantations during the
day and night to protect them from illegal loggers.

From the authors above it can be noted that, because of political reasons some people
seize some of the plantations that belonged to forestry companies. This is one of the
challenge that the Wattle Company Limited is facing. Some of its plantations were seized
by some political activists. Though the management went to court they were unable to
remove the settlers from plantations who claimed the land to be their ancestors’. Because
of politics the timber producing companies are not getting support from the government
to protect their plantations. Those plantations that were taken means that the will be a
period in the future where there will be some shortage of timber.

2.5.5 Legal challenges.


Cambodian government facilitated illegal logging and export of illegally sourced timber
by its failure to implement rules and regulations to control this. To circumvent the
logging ban, harvesting operations were being disguised under a variety of illegal
permits, to meet the demand of illicit cross border timber trade with Thailand, Vietnam
and Laos. The documents were provided by senior officials in the ministry of commerce
and the forest administration, (Davis 2010).

Conversation of forest resources in Zimbabwe is responsibility of the Zimbabwe forestry


commission which was established by an act of parliament. The forestry commission has
four technical divisions namely research and development, indigenous resources,
commercial and forestry extension. These divisions implement the different aspects of
two acts (the forest act and the communal forest produce act)

2.5.5.1 The Forest Act

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According to Katerere (1996), the forestry act of 1996 forbids people from burning,
growing or standing vegetation on any land without prior notice to the occupants of all
adjourning land and the police. The act further stipulates that in the event that one is
found guilt in a court of law, the accused should be liable of either a fine or
imprisonment.

Katerere added that, the forestry act has been criticized as being inadequate. The fines
that the people are paying are very small that they can not stop people from poaching
timber or burning the plantations. the issue of Chimanimani settlers who were found guilt
of burning plantations as they were clearing land for farming and nothing was done to
those people, clearly shows that the laws are not functioning well. It seem laws and
politics are linked because the people in Chimanimani were let go because their issue was
politically based.

2.5.5.2 The Communal Land Forest Produce Act


The communal land forest produce act restricts the use of forest products in communal
areas by the local people to “own use”. It further states that communal people are not
allowed to enter the plantations or use plantation resources like dams, hunting, and so
forth without permission from the owners (Katerere 2006).

This act was criticized for being too restrictive. The act in its present form fails to
recognize the rights and interests of communities. The community is left with no
incentive to protect the plantations and sometimes they end up burning those plantations
because of frustration.

The government is always imposing new rules and regulations some of which directly or
indirectly affect the security of timber plantations. Katerere stated that, in the year 2000,
the Forest Act was sidelined in favour of the land reform programme. Since then , the
plantations have had little protection against fires. In many cases plantation managers
have reported the illegal settlers to the police for burning down plantations and illegally

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cutting down the trees but the police have shown unwillingness to arrest the farmers
because they considered the matter to be political.

2.5.6 Other challenges


Apart from the mentioned challenges there are some challenges that the managers are
facing in managing the security systems. These challenges include plantation size,
logging activities and access roads.

• The plantations size - Timber plantations covers a very large area of land, one
hundred and eight thousand two hundred and fourteen hectares, according to
Mushongahande. The size of the timber plantations make it very expensive to
enclose them using security fences or employing security guards to man around
the plantations. This means that though there is high risk of plantation damage by
both human and animals, plantations are left unclosed and unprotected.
Plantations size also makes it difficult to quickly detect a threat.

• Access roads – Nicolas and Beebe (1999), pointed out that, where roads
penetrates primary forest, fire danger is considerably increased. Humidity is
lower, wind speed increase and there is always a ready supply of drier fuel
available, both from dumping of debris during road construction and from the
grass and small shrubs that invade along the road line. Roads provide essential
access but fire danger is increased along the road line by debris from construction
and their conditions.

• Logging activities – Fire risks in logged-over forests are higher than in primary
forest. The extra degree of danger depends on the logging regime used and the
time that has passed since logging activities. A heavily logged forest with 50% of
the ground flattened by bulldozer extraction contains a considerable load of light
fuels that dry easily under the opened canopy. It is estimated that fire danger
increases ten fold shortly after logging. the use of low-impact logging techniques
is the key to minimize the danger.

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2.6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECURITY SYSTEMS, THREATS AND
CHALLENGES
It can be noted that plantation security system is directly related to the timber output. By
designing an effective system the management can reduce any losses thereby increasing
timber output (Nicolas and Beebe 1999). However the effectiveness of the plantation
security system can be affected by economic, political, environmental and social
challenges. All these challenges are the contributing factors to the weaknesses in the
plantation security systems for the Zimbabwean timber producing companies.

The loopholes created in the plantation security systems by political, economic,


environmental and social challenges will create lines of weaknesses through which the
threats passes through to damage the plantations. When the plantations are damaged this
means the future output of timber will decrease by the percentage damaged. This is the
reason why the Wattle Company Limited is experiencing a decline in timber output. If
this problem is to be solved first the management should deal with the discussed
challenges otherwise the problem will persist.

2.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY


In this chapter the researcher gave reference to articles and books that covered key factors
in the research. The researcher analyzed the challenges faced in the management of
plantation security systems and how these challenges can affect the effectiveness of a
security system in trying to protecting a plantation from the such threats as fire, animals
and theft. Solutions to the challenges are also highlighted in this chapter. Having
discussed the various approaches and variables that are available in the literature, the
following chapter presents the methodological approach to be used in this study.

CHAPTER THREE

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER OUTLINE
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research design
3.2 Sources of data
3.3 Data collection techniques
3.4 Reliability of techniques
3.5 Sampling
3.6 Data presentation analysis
3.7 Chapter summary

3.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter clearly defines the research methods used to conduct the study. The
researcher explains how the necessary data and information to address the research
objectives and questions was collected, presented and analyzed. Reasons and

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justifications for the research design, research instruments, data sources, data collection
techniques, data presentation techniques and analytical techniques used are given.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN


Heppner et al (1992:15) describe a research design as a plan or structure for an
investigation or a list of specifications and procedure for conducting and controlling a
research project. In other words it can be described as a master plan which indicates the
strategies for conducting a research. A research design serves as a master plan of the
methods and procedures that should be used to collect and analyze data needed by the
decision maker. The research design is a deliberately planned arrangement of conditions
for the analysis and collection of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to
research purpose with the economy procedure.
3.1.1 Descriptive research design
Saunders et al (2003) defines the descriptive survey method as one which looks with
intense accuracy at the phenomena of the moment and then describes precisely what the
researcher sees. Descriptive research design is concerned with describing characteristics
of a problem. Questionnaires and interviews are the two methods used to elicit
information in a descriptive research.
Justification
Descriptive research design helps portray an accurate profile of persons, events and
situations. A descriptive research design also allows for in-depth analysis of variables and
elements of the population to be studied and as well as collection of large amounts of data
in a highly economical way. It enables generation of factual information about the study.
This is so because the descriptive design relies much on secondary data which helps in
developing the case basing on facts, sustained by statistics and descriptive interpretations
from archival materials and data.

3.2 SOURCES OF DATA


The research relied on both primary and secondary data in order to come up with accurate
and objective findings.
3.2.1 Primary data

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Primary data refers to data collected foe the first time in the field. Jewel (2001), defines it
as data that has been collected for the purpose for which it is originally used. Primary
data for this particular research was collected using interviews and questionnaires.
Interviews were done to the security management personnel for the Wattle Company
Limited while questionnaires were given to the employees outside management.
Justification
Primary data collection was given the highest priority in this research as there was limited
published material on the subject under study. For a subjective study like this one
primary data is of prime importance because primary data draws information directly
from the field. Facts and figures should be drawn directly from people because culture
exists within a society of people.
3.2.2 Secondary data
According to Jewel (2001), secondary data is data that is collected for purposes other
than the original use. It is an analysis of data that have already been collected for some
other purpose. These may be contemporary or historical and the data may be qualitative
or quantitative and usually needs adjustments and validation before being put to use. This
data can include survey data and documentary data. Sources used to gather secondary
data were document analysis collected from published and unpublished company
documents and subject-relevant literature, internal company journals (monthly reports
and news letters) requested from the company understudy and frequent visits to related
websites became crucial in collecting up to date secondary data as well as publications by
renowned authors on security management.
Justification
Using secondary data saves time and money since the work has already been done to
collect the data. It avoids the problems associated with the data collection process. Unlike
primary data, secondary data generally provides a source of data that is both permanent
and available in a form that may be checked relatively easily by others. The published
documents gives the researcher extra information on the research problem. Some of the
information may not be found within the organization.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

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The study was carried out using questionnaires and interviews.
3.3.1 Interviews
An interview is an interactive forum involving two or more people engaged in a
conversation initiated and coordinated by the interviewer so as to get information specific
to a certain area of aspect.
Conducting the interviews
Face to face interviews were carried out at the Wattle Company Head Office in Mutare
and at the company’s estates at Chimanimani, Chipinge, Vumba, Nyanga and Dunsinane
with key respondents being the management team of the organization. All interviews
were carried out prior to setting of appointments with the concerned respondents. The
interviews had specified time limits of approximately 25 - 30 minutes. All interviews
were carried out with the help of already prepared interview guide question papers and
were recorded alongside the respective questions.

Table 3.3.1 (a) Interviews conducted


Security management team
Sample frame Population Sample size
Mutare head office 1 1
Chimanimani 2 1
Chipinge 2 1
Vumba 1 1
Nyanga 3 1
Dunsinane 1 1
Total 10 6

Justification
Interviews were used to gather data in this research because they allow for probing on
answers and questions that require further clarification. Unclear questions and answers
can be clarified in the dialogue between the interviewer and the interviewee. When
carrying out a research the researcher must be in control and interviews allow the
interviewer to be in control. The interviewer has control over he who is being
interviewed in comparison to the questionnaires which maybe passed from one person to
the other. Also this helped the researcher to obtain information that cannot be obtained by

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using questionnaires such as the technological jargon that required more clarification.
Face to face interviews enabled the researcher to build strong relationships with the
respondent because after or before the interview informal discussions could be held. This
helped both parties to demystify any fears and there was openness hence accurate
information was obtained.
3.3.2 Questionnaires
Reason (1985) defines a questionnaire as a formalized list of questions that are used to
solicit information from respondents. For this research the researcher made use of both
structured and unstructured questions to gather necessary data. Structured or closed
questions are meant to save the respondents’ time and get definite answers and
unstructured or open-ended questions are meant to ensure that respondents’ feelings are
not disregarded and further explanations are made.
Questionnaire distribution
The questionnaires were delivered in person. Questionnaires were distributed in after
initial communication with the respondents to seek consent. The respondents were given
one day to answer the questionnaires after which the questionnaires were collected for
analysis. No public postal service or email service was used to distribute questionnaires.
Table 3.3.2 (a) distribution of questionnaires
Security department employees
Sample frame Population Sample size
Chimanimani 10 3
Chipinge 9 3
Dunsinane 3 1
Nyanga 16 5
Mutare
Vumba 6 2
Total 44 14

Justification
Saunders et al (2003) argues that a reasonable and moderate high response rate (30-50%)
is guaranteed with self-administered questionnaires, hand delivered and collected
questionnaires. The questionnaire survey also provides greater uniformity across research
situations as respondents respond to the same standardized questions. At the same time
the questionnaire survey technique gives the respondents enough time to respond to the

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questions as they were given the whole day to answer the questionnaires. Finally the
element of anonymity associated with the questionnaire survey technique enhances the
chances of getting honest responses.

3.4 RELIABILITY OF TECHNIQUES


Peterson (1982) defines reliability as the extent to which measures are free from errors.
Thus the greater the reliability of an instrument, the less likely the errors of measurement
to occur. More than one data collection instrument was used in order to eliminate the
weaknesses inherent in each instrument.

3.5 SAMPLING
A sample is a group in a research study in which information is obtained. Or a population
selected for observation and analysis. It is a representative of a population taken to show
what the results are like. Sidhu (2003:67) stresses the importance of sampling and further
explains that if the population is very large, it can be satisfactorily covered through
sampling.
3.5.1 Sampling techniques
Sampling technique are categorized into two, that is probability and non- probability
sampling methods. Sampling procedures include random, judgmental, stratified and
systematic sampling. For the purpose of this research, judgmental and stratified random
sampling techniques were used to find the right sample size.
Stratified random sampling
The total population is divided into segments or strata. Individuals to be included in the
sample are then selected from these segments or strata. In this case the population was
divided as employees and management for the security department of the Wattle
Company Limited. They are then further grouped according to the estates that is Nyanga,
Vumba, Dunsinane, Chimanimani, Chipinge and the head office Mutare.
Justification
Stratified random sampling was used in this research because it ensures an equal
representation of each of the identified segments or strata.
Judgmental sampling

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According to Danks (1996), judgmental sampling occurs in a situation whereby the
interviewer selects respondents who are judged to be representative of the population in
the market. Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique based on
judgment. For the purposes of this research the researcher chose the participants who
were viewed as the best source of information as the sample was likely to bring out the
required data specific to the research problem through the experience with the
organization.
Justification
Judgmental sampling ensures optimization of time and resources since information is
sought from those people with valuable information and knowledge about the area under
study. This makes the technique cheaper and easier since a few individuals with relevant
information are chosen.
3.5.2 Population
Varden Bergh and Katz (1999) defined population as the group of people from which a
sample can be drawn for the purposes of a research. Population is the total collection of
elements about which we wish to make some inferences. The population of this research
consisted of the security management team for the Wattle Company Limited and all its
employees and they totaled 44.
3.5.3 Sample size
Deciding on a sample size for a qualitative enquiry can be more difficult than for a
quantitative one because there are no rules to follow. It all depends on what will be
useful, what will have credibility and what can be done within available time and
resources. A sample refers to a representative sub-group of the population. For the
purpose of this research the sample chosen comprises of randomly selected individuals
from the selected population and the information is tabulated below.

Table 3.5.3 (a): Research sample size


Sample Frame Sample Population Sample Size
Wattle Company security management team 10 6
Wattle Company security department employees 44 14
TOTALS 54 20

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A total of twenty respondents which constitutes 37% of the entire population was
selected to represent the whole population.
Justification
According to Fielding (2007), a sample size must be at least 30% of the total population
under research. The sample size from all respondents was 37% which is above 30%. The
researcher made the sample relatively smaller so as to cut down on costs and save time as
well.

3.6 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS


After data has been collected, it needs to be presented in a way that communicates the
information and enables conclusions to be drawn (Jewell, 2001). Data was collected from
both primary and secondary sources, processed, analyzed and presented.
3.6.1 Data presentation techniques
Clear, accurate and appropriate ways of presenting data were chosen out of the several
ways of data presentation. The several ways of presenting data include tables, pie charts,
bar graphs and line graphs. Only tables, pie charts and bar graphs were used in this
research.
Tables
Tables are used to present large quantities of data arranged in labeled rows and columns.
Justification
The researcher used tables to present data because measurement units are shown clearly.
Tables are also easy to refer and the data can be easily interpreted.
Pie charts
Pie charts are useful when presenting data which is to be compared.
Justification
Pie charts are easy to understand and quick to interpret.
Bar graphs
Bar graphs are one type of graphs that uses bands of standard width and varying length to
present magnitude. They are used to present data covering time.
Justification

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The researcher used bar charts to present data because they help facilitate comparisons by
virtue of their clear visual impact. They are also easy to use when presenting quantitative
data.
3.6.2 Data analysis techniques
The data collected by the researcher was analysed using the inductive analysis, regression
analysis and the deductive analysis techniques.
Inductive analysis
Analytical induction is an approach to the analysis of data in which the universal
explanation of phenomena by pursuing the collection of data until there is no consisted
with hypothetical explanation of phenomena (Bryman and bell, 2000). Unlike the
deductive analysis, inductive analysis moves from specific observations to broader
generalizations and theories. This analysis is also known as the “bottom up” approach.
Justification
This technique was used by the researcher because it does not construct a rigid
methodology but rather permits the researcher to explore alternative explanations and get
a feel of the situation on the ground and so understand the nature of the problem much
better.

Regression analysis
This technique is used to ascertain the linear relationship between two or more
quantitative variables. The relationship can either be positive or negative. A positive
relationship shows that the variables move in one direction and a negative relationship
shoes that the variables move in different directions. If variables are not related then they
can not be regressed.
Justification
The researcher used regression and correlation analysis was used because the researcher
wanted to establish the relationship between the management of cultural diversity and
organizational performance.
Deductive analysis

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According to Bryman and Bell (2000) deductive analysis represents the commonest of
the nature of the relationship between theory and research. It is referred to as the “top
down”.
Justification
Deductive analysis was used because it reconciles theory and research.

3.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY


This chapter looked at the research methodologies used in this research. Justifications on
why the researcher chose to use those methodologies were given. Interviews and
questionnaires were the main methods of data collection used to gather relevant data to
achieve the research objectives. In data presentation, both qualitative and quantitative
methods were used. Data was analysed using the inductive analysis, regression analysis
and the deductive analysis techniques.

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