You are on page 1of 9


1. CINNAMON. Perhaps one of the most popular spices used, cinnamon has been
brought up in the media recently for its potential ability to regulate blood sugar levels,
lowering the risk for diabetes. In addition, as little as 1 teaspoon has been shown to
have the antioxidant power of cup of blueberries! Try topping your oatmeal or
smoothies with a generous sprinkle of cinnamon to reap these benefits

2. GARLIC. Although its effects on our breath are widely known, less is known
about the potential health benefits of garlic consumption. Garlic is rich in a variety of
powerful sulfur-containing compounds, the most notable one being allicin. Studies
have linked allicin to potential benefits in antibacterial and antiviral activity, as well as
possible decreases in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Try
roasting a head of garlic with a drizzle of olive oil for a creamy spread or topping for
meats and vegetables.

3. TURMERIC. It is responsible for the deep yellow colour of mustards and curry
powders, and is currently being extensively researched as an anti-cancer food. Rich
in antioxidants, it has been studied as a treatment for depression, arthritis, cancer,
and psoriasis, with promising results. Those with gallstones or bile obstructions
should exercise caution however, as turmeric can increase the production of bile. Try
adding it to egg salad for a nice yellow hue and pinch of flavor.

4. CAYENNE PEPPER. Used to spice up all kinds of meals, cayenne pepper is a













compound capsaicin. Capsaicin has been studied for its anti-inflammatory effects
related to treating aching pain associated with headaches or osteoarthritis. It may

also help control hunger pangs and boost the metabolism due to its spicy nature,
which can aid those trying to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Try sprinkling cayenne
pepper and cinnamon on sweet potato fries for the perfect sweet-spicy combination.

5. GINGER. Ginger has long been used as a traditional natural remedy for many
different ailments, and is being researched further in hopes of discovering other
optimal health advantages. It is an excellent treatment for nausea and vomiting
associated with travel sickness, pregnancy, and even hangovers! Gingers other
health benefits include pain relief, cholesterol decreases and as a powerful
decongestant. Try adding fresh grated ginger to sauted vegetables, bread stuffings
or salad dressings.

an alluvial plain in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, between the Himalayas in the no
rth and the Deccan plateau in the south, approximately3,000 km long and 250-350 k
m wide.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain is an alpine piedmont depression, filled with fragmented pro
ducts from the contiguous Himalayan slopes andcovered with old and recent alluvia.
The plain has a flat surface, gently descending from a divide (at a height of 270 m) to
the Indus andGanges deltas. The plained relief is broken by protrusions of crystalline
rock in the west and scarps of river terraces with heights of up to 60m divided by ravi
nes. The climate of the eastern part (Ganges and Brahmaputra basins) is subequato
rial monsoon. A tropical climate prevailsin the western region (Indus basin). Monsoo
n circulation weakens toward the west, and there is an increase in aridity of climate.
Over largeareas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, average temperatures in July range from
30 to 36C. Temperatures in January are approximately 20C (inthe northwest, 12
C). Temperature drops to 0C occur. Annual totals of precipitation decline from 1,500
mm in the southeast to 100-150 mmin the southwest.
The river system is dense. Rivers are deep-water, especially in the east. The largest
rivers are the Indus with its tributary the Sutlej (knownas the Panjnad in its lower cou
rse), which collects waters from the Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, and Ravi rivers (in Punja
b); the Ganges with theJamuna and its powerful left tributaries the Gomati, Ghaghar
a, and Gandak; and the Brahmaputra. The rivers are characterized byconsiderable fl
uctuations in water discharge. Runoffs are greatest in the summer as a result of the i

mpact of monsoons and thawing ofmountain snows; destructive flooding is frequent.

Alluvial soils with various textures predominate.
An increase in climate aridity from east to west has an effect on the nature of terrain.
Thick mangrove and evergreen forests grow in the eastin the Ganges and Brahmapu
tra deltas. Deciduous forests and savannas are found in central plain areas; in the w
est there are salt marshesand sandy deserts. Practically nothing remains of natural v
egetation in central areas and in the east. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of theoldes
t centers of world civilization. Terrains of cultivated savannas prevail (fields of rice, w
heat, millet, corn, cotton, and other crops) withseparate groves of palms and fruit tre
es. Two natural regions are identified within its limits, the arid Indus Valley and the m
oister GangesPlain.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as Indus-Ganga and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million
hectare (630 million acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts
of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh.[1] The region is named after the Indus and the Ganga, and
encompasses a number of large urban areas.
The Prinsep Ghat which is located on the bank of the Hooghly River in the city of Kolkata, West Bengal
Boatmen row between Barrackporeand Serampore on the Hooghly river. A photograph shot in 2006

The Indus-Ganga plain is bound on the north by the Himalayas which feed its numerous rivers and are the
source of the fertile alluvium deposited across the region by the two river systems. The southern edge of the plain
is marked by the Chota Nagpur Plateau. On the west rises the Iranian Plateau.

Some geographers subdivide the Indo-Gangetic Plain into several parts: the Indus Valley Plain,
the Punjab Plain, the Haryana Plain, and the middle and lowerGanges Plains. These regional
distinctions are based primarily on the availability of water.

By another definition, the Indus-Ganga Plain is divided into two drainage basins by the Delhi
Ridge; the western part consists of the Punjab Plain and the Haryana Plain, and the eastern part
consists of the GangaBrahmaputra drainage systems. This divide is only 300 metres above sea
level, causing the perception that the Indus-Ganga Plain appears to be continuous between the
two drainage basins.






are irrigated with



the Ravi, Beas,

and Sutlej rivers. The irrigation projects in progress on these rivers have led to a decrease in the
flow of water, which reaches the lower drainage areas in the state of Punjab in India and the
Indus Valley in Pakistan. The benefits that the increased irrigation has brought to Haryana
farmers are controversial due to the effects that irrigation has had on agricultural life in the
Punjab areas of both India and Pakistan.
The middle Ganga plain extends from the Yamuna River in the west to the state of West
Bengal in the east. The lower Ganges plain and the Assam Valley are more verdant than the
middle Ganga plain.
The lower Ganga is centered in West Bengal, from which it flows into Bangladesh. After joining
the Jamuna, a distributary of Brahmaputra, both rivers form theGanges Delta.
The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet as the Yarlung Zangbo River and flows through Arunachal
Pradesh and Assam, before crossing into Bangladesh.

A natural hazard[1] is a naturally occurring event that might have a negative effect on people or the environment.
Natural hazard events can be grouped into two broad categories. [2] Geophysical hazards[3] encompass geological
and meteorological phenomena such as earthquakes, coastal erosion, volcanic eruption, cyclonic storms,
and drought. Biological hazards can refer to a diverse array of disease and infestation. Other natural hazards
such as floods and wildfires can result from a combination of geological, hydrological, and climatic factors.
Many geophysical hazards are interrelated;[4] for example, submarine earthquakes can cause tsunamis,
and hurricanes can lead to coastal flooding and erosion. It is possible that some natural hazards are
intertemporally correlated as well.[5][6] A concrete example of the division between a natural hazard and a
natural disaster is that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was a disaster, whereas living on a fault line is a

Geological hazards
An avalanche occurs when a large snow (or rock) mass slides down a mountainside. [7] An avalanche is an
example of a gravity current consisting of granular material. In an avalanche, lots of material or mixtures of

different types of material fall or slide rapidly under the force of gravity. Avalanches are often classified by the size
or severity of consequences resulting from the event.[8]

An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from a sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic
waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes may manifest with a shaking or displacement of the ground; when
the earthquake occurs on the seafloor, the resulting displacement of water can sometimes result in a tsunami.
Most of the world's earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoeshaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most
part bounds the Pacific Plate.[9] Many earthquakes happen each day, few of which are large enough to cause
significant damage.

Coastal erosion
Coastal erosion is a physical process by which shorelines in coastal areas around the world shift and change,
primarily in response to waves and currents that can be influenced by tides and storm surge. [10] Coastal erosion
can result from long-term processes (see also beach evolution) as well as from episodic events such astropical
cyclones or other severe storm events.

A lahar is a type of natural event closely related to a volcanic eruption, and involves a large amount of material
originating from an eruption of a glaciated volcano, including mud from the melted ice,rock, and ash sliding down
the side of the volcano at a rapid pace. These flows can destroy entire towns in seconds and kill thousands of
people, and form flood basalt. This is based on natural events.

A landslide is a mass displacement of sediment, usually down a slope.[11]

A sinkhole is a localized depression in the surface topography, usually caused by the collapse of a subterranean
structure such as a cave. Although rare, large sinkholes that develop suddenly in populated areas can lead to the
collapse of buildings and other structures.


(Italian pronunciation: [benito mussolini];[1] 29 July 1883 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and
leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943. He
ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship.
Known as Il Duce ("the leader"), Mussolini was the founder of fascism.[2][3][4]
In 1912 Mussolini was the leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI).[5] Prior to
1914 he was a keen supporter of the Socialist International, starting the series of meetings in Switzerland [6] that
organised the communist revolutions and insurrections that swept through Europe from 1917. Mussolini was
expelled from the PSI due to his opposition to the party's stance on neutrality in World War I. Mussolini
denounced the PSI, and later founded the fascist movement. Following the March on Rome in October 1922 he
became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014.
After destroying all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes, [7] Mussolini and his
fascist followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party
dictatorship. Within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means,
aspiring to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor
Emmanuel III in 1943. A few months later, he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client
regime in northern Italy; he held this post until his death in 1945.[8]
Since 1939, Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe until at least 1942. Germany invaded Poland
on 1 September 1939, starting World War II. On 10 June 1940, Mussolini sided with Germany, though he was
aware that Italy did not have the military capacity in 1940 to carry out a long war with France and the United
Kingdom.[9] Mussolini believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions
from France and then he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in Egypt, where British and
Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces. [10] However the UK refused to accept German
proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Germany's victories in Eastern and Western Europe, plans for
a German invasion of the UK did not proceed, and the war continued.
On 24 July 1943, soon after the start of the Allied invasion of Italy, the Grand Council of Fascism voted against
him, and the King had him arrested the following day. On 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued from prison
in the Gran Sasso raid by German special forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini
attempted to escape north,[11] only to be quickly captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian
partisans. His body was then taken to Milan where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing
and to provide confirmation of his demise.[12]
Mussolini was born in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forl in Romagna on 29 July 1883. In
the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed "Duce's town", and Forl was "Duce's city". Pilgrims went to Predappio
and Forl, to see the birthplace of Mussolini. His father Alessandro Mussolini was a blacksmith and a socialist,
while his mother Rosa Mussolini (ne Maltoni) was a devoutly Catholic schoolteacher.[14] Owing to his father's
political leanings, Mussolini was named Benito after Mexican reformist President Benito Jurez, while his middle
names "Andrea" and "Amilcare" were from Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare Cipriani.[15] Benito was the
eldest of his parents' three children. His siblings Arnaldo and Edvige followed.[16]


Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of
the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germanyfrom 1933 to 1945, and Fhrer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from
1934 to 1945. As effective dictator of Nazi Germany, Hitler was at the centre of World War II in Europe and the
Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the precursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers'
Party, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power.
The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he dictated his autobiography and
political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by
attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism, and anti-communism with
charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism
as being part of a Jewish conspiracy.
Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as
chancellor in 1933. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which
began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a single-partydictatorship based on
the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and
establish a New Orderto counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order
dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great
Depression, the denunciation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of
territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germansactions which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to
be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1
September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany. In June 1941,
Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis
powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United
States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final
days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, Eva Braun. On 30 April
1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses
were burned.
Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at
least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen ("subhumans") and socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an
estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result
of military action in the European Theatre of World War II. The number of civilians killed during the Second World
War was unprecedented in warfare, and constitutes the deadliest conflict in human history.


Germany was totally defeated, and the Nazi regime brought down. Its leaders were tried for crimes
against humanity at Nuremberg, the former site of Nazi propaganda triumphs. Hitler escaped trial and
execution by committing suicide in his Berlin bunker at the end of the war. German cities were in ruins
from a massive bombing campaign.
Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, pending a more permanent
political settlement.
Japan also was in ruins from extensive bombing. Prominent military leaders were tried and convicted of
war crimes, but the emperor was allowed to retain his position.
Japan was temporarily placed under U.S. military rule.
England was devastated by the war, having experienced extensive bombing during the 1940 blitz by the
Germans. The economy depended for recovery upon aid from the United States. England rapidly phased
out most of its remaining imperial holdings in the years immediately following the war.
France had not experienced the enormous human losses sustained in the First World War, but would have
to recover from the effects of Nazi occupation. Retribution was taken upon collaborators. Like England,
France would be compelled to dismantle its colonial empire in the years following the war. This was a
particularly traumatic and drawn out process for the French, in Algeria and in Vietnam where they
fought prolonged and bitter wars in an attempt to maintain their colonial control.
England and France no longer held a status of power comparable either to the United States or the Soviet
The Russian people had suffered immeasurably during the war, and western Russia was devastated by
the land warfare which was primarily on Russian territory. But, in the process of defeating the Germans,
the Russians had built a large and powerful army, which occupied most of Eastern Europe at the end of
the war. The great resources and population of Russia assured that the Soviet Union would be, along with
the United
States, one of two super-powers.
The United States economy was greatly stimulated by the war, even more so than in World War I. The
depression was brought decisively to an end, and new industrial complexes were built all over the United
States. Spared the physical destruction of war, the U.S. economy dominated the world economy. After 4
years of military buildup, the U.S. had also become the leading military power. The position of the United
States as world leader was now more obvious than ever.

The struggle for national independence of non-European peoples was greatly enhanced and stimulated by
the war. The weakness of England and France, the two major European imperial powers, provided
opportunities. The stage was set for the collapse of European empires in the 3 decades following the war.
New technology, developed during the war to fight disease, would, when applied to the non-European
world, result in sharply lower mortality rates and soaring population growth.
Enormous technological progress was made during the war. The English developed radar which would be
the forerunner of television. Progress in electronics and computers, made during the war, provided a
foundation for further development which fundamentally transformed the postwar world.
The development of the atomic bomb by European and American scientists during the war, not only
transformed the nature of potential future wars, it marked the beginning of the nuclear power industry.
World War II had appeared to pose an unprecedented threat to human civilization and gave impetus to
the renewal of Wilson's vision of an international organization to keep the peace. Organizing efforts were
begun even while the war was on. In June, 1945, 51 nations were represented at the founding conference
in San Francisco. In October, 1945,
the United Nations was officially established. Unlike the League of Nations, the UN had the full support
and leadership of the United States.