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# MAGLEV SYSTEM

Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation), is a system of transportation that suspends, guides
and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number
of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and
smoother than wheeled mass transit systems. The power needed for levitation is usually not a
particularly large percentage of the overall consumption; most of the power used is needed to
overcome air drag, as with any other high speed train.

## Cross section view of maglev train

The highest recorded speed of a Maglev train is 581 kilometres per hour (361 mph), achieved in
Japan in 2003,[1] only 6 kilometres per hour (3.7 mph) faster than the conventional TGV wheelrail speed record.
The first commercial maglev people mover was simply called "MAGLEV" and officially opened
in 1984 near Birmingham, England. It operated on an elevated 600-metre (2,000 ft.) section of
monorail track between Birmingham International Airport and Birmingham International railway

station, running at speeds up to 42 km/h (26 mph); the system was eventually closed in 1995 due
to reliability problems.[2]
Perhaps the most well-known implementation of high-speed maglev technology currently
operating commercially is the Shanghai Maglev Train, an IOS (initial operating segment)
demonstration line of the German-built Transrapid train in Shanghai, China that transports
people 30 km (19 mi) to the airport in just 7 minutes 20 seconds, achieving a top speed of
431 km/h (268 mph), averaging 250 km/h (160 mph).

PROJECT WORK
SELECTION OF SYSTEM
Selection of system of system is primary step for making a maglev project. After a brief analysis
and discussion we decided to work on Inductrack system.

## Why Inductrack system?

Since, there are three available systems for maglev EMS EDS& Inductrack. EMS is based on
attraction property of magnet while EDS & Inductrack is based on repulsion property. Now if we
have two magnets then we can realize that levitation of any system is much easier by repulsion
than attraction as repulsion between magnets increases with decrease in distance between them.
So we decide to use repulsion property. And the choice between EDS and Inductrack is made on
the basis of complication & economic facts. EDS system require costly and complicated system
for current and flux control while Inductrack system will need only permanent magnets, which
are cost less and no complicated circuit required for them. So, on the basis of above facts, we
choose Inductrack system.

## TRACK & TRAIN

When we talk about anything that run, then we give priority to the speed. So similarly in this
case we tried to achieve maximum speed that we can achieve at a college level project.

## Basic specification of Track& Train

The one special quality of MAGLEV system is that either the train holds the track (as in EMS)
with the help of C-shaped arms or the track holds the train. The one big problem of traditional is
that they could be derailed but by using the above concept (concept of holding the track or
train)the MAGLEV system become free form this problem and thus become much safer than
As we discussed earlier we are using the Inductrack system, which means we are using
permanent magnets for levitation purpose. The magnets need to be fix on the track & train by
using some adhesive. The position of magnets should be accurate as any deviation may lead to
variation in flux and may cause problem in balancing of train.
As speed is one of our priorities we need to choose the shape of track which can provide
maximum speed. The maximum speed can be achieved easily on a straight track than on any
curved shape track. The only problem with straight track is that it should be long so that it train
can get sufficient time to achieve the maximum speed, but we cannot make such long track at
college level project. Now this problem can be solved if we choosing circular track. By being
circular in shape, the track providesany amount of time which we need for maximum speed of
train. Althoughthis speed on circular track would be lesser than that on straight track but it can
give an idea of speed on straight track.

## ADVANTAGES OF TRAINS USING MAGLEV:

Maintenance Requirements: - Maglev trains currently in operation have demonstrated the need
for nearly insignificant guideway maintenance. Their electronic vehicle maintenance is minimal
and more closely aligned with aircraft maintenance schedules based on hours of operation, rather
than on speed or distance travelled. Traditional rail is subject to the wear and tear of miles of
friction on mechanical systems and increases exponentially with speed, unlike maglev systems.
This basic difference is the huge cost difference between the two modes and also directly affects
system reliability, availability and sustainability.
All-Weather Operations: - Maglev trains currently in operation are not stopped, slowed, or have
their schedules affected by snow, ice, severe cold, and rain or high winds. This cannot be said for
traditional friction-based rail systems. Also, maglev vehicles accelerate and decelerate faster than
mechanical systems regardless of the slickness of the guideway or the slope of the grade because
they are non-contact systems.
Backwards Compatibility: Maglev trains currently in operation are not compatible with
conventional track, and therefore require all new infrastructures for their entire route, but this is
not a negative if high levels of reliability and low operational costs are the goal.
Efficiency: Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, maglev trains
experience no rolling resistance, leaving only air resistance and electromagnetic drag, potentially
improving power efficiency.
Noise: Because the major source of noise of a maglev train comes from displaced air, maglev
trains produce less noise than a conventional train at equivalent speeds. However, the
psychoacoustic profile of the maglev may reduce this benefit: a study concluded that maglev

noise should be rated like road traffic while conventional trains have a 5-10 dB "bonus" as they
are found less annoying at the same loudness level.

Design Comparisons: Braking and overhead wire wear have caused problems for the Fastech
360 railed Shinkansen. Maglev would eliminate these issues. Magnet reliability at higher
temperatures is a countervailing comparative disadvantage (see suspension types), but new
alloys and manufacturing techniques have resulted in magnets that maintain their levitational
force at higher temperatures.

## CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE

CONCLUSIONFor the purpose of understanding the concept of maglev system a maglev train is designed.
While working the priorities were given to the efficiency as well as to economy. While working
with maglev model project we go through the various minute details of system which make a big
difference

FUTURE SCOPE
The scope of maglev in future is very wide. The few examples given below may give some idea.
a. Most of the developed and developing countries are interested in using maglev
system.
b. In USA a upgraded version of maglev is on planning table.
c. NASA is discussing about the use of maglev system for launching of space vehicle as
it will decrease the cost of transportation.

## d. Countries like India are starting projects of maglev.

Thus we can see that maglev technology is going to have a part in each type of transport system.
It is fast, comfortable, safe, and most importantly economic.

REFERENCES