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FEBRUARY 6, 2015 (FRIDAY)

TOPIC: CONCRETE

3. Drying/ shrinkage- water evaporates from


concrete (concrete shrinks slightly)

History
8th century BC
-Romans discovered concrete
Pozzolana- from Pozzouli (town in southern
Italy)

1. lime

Sources:
a. limestone
b. marble
c. marl
d. seashells

1824
-Joseph Aspidin patented Portland cement
after English Portland limestone
1850s
-reinforced concrete was developed
-Thaddeus Hyatt made and tested
reinforced concrete beams

2. iron
3. silica
4. alumina
Sources of 2-4:
a. clay
b. shale

Process of Making Concrete

1867
-Joseph Monier patented concrete flower
pots
1920s
-Eugene Freyssinet established scientific
design of pre-stressed concrete

Concrete

Aggregates

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Crushing, grinding, proportioning, grinding


Rotating kiln (1400-1600 0C
Clinker
Cooling
Pulverizing

Types of Cement

Composition of Concrete:

Cement
- fine gray
powder

Composition of Cement

Water

Fine
Aggregates
-sand
Coarse
Aggregates
- gravel or
crushed stone

Process of Curing (28 days)


1. Hydration- cement and water combine, forming
crystals
2. Heat of hydration- heat is produced

A. Type 1
- most widely used
- 28 days
- normal
- used for most practices f construction
B. Type 2
- combines type 4 and 5
- moderate resistance to sulfate attack
C. Type 3
- cures before 28 days
- ideal for cold weather
- high early strength (used in precast
elements and where high early strength is
required)
D. Type 4
- low heat of hydration used in massive
structures such as dams, where heat is
emitted may raise temperature
E. Type 5
- used when concrete will be in contact
with water that has high concentration of
sulfates.

Note:
Cement particle size affects performance.
The finer the particle, the shorter the curing
process is.

Approximate slump values:


Walls and columns: 4-5
Beams: 4-5
Slabs: 3-4

Hardened Concrete Properties


Aggregates
- 65%-80% volume of concrete
- must be well graded
1. Dusty, muddy aggregates
- contaminate cement paste with particles
that weaken strength
2. Chemicals
- corrosion of steel
- retardation of curing process
- weakening of concrete

Aggregate Sizing
Aggregates should be no larger than of
clear spacing between bars or 1/3 the depth of a
slab.
Fine aggregates (sand)
- passes through No. 4 sieve (1/4 in
center)
Coarse aggregates
-
Thick walls: 1.5
Dam: up to 6

Properties of Concrete
1. Fresh (plastic state) concrete properties
2. Hardened concrete properties

Fresh (plastic state) concrete properties


1. Workability
- able to retain homogeneity (nonsegregation of particles)
- ease with which concrete can be placed
and compacted in the form with the
minimum loss of consistency and
homogeneity.
Slump Test
- test concrete workability
- acceptable slump: 2 6

1. Durability
- test: cast test
cylinders
2. Strength

Determining Quality of Concrete


Required
Function
Columns, beams, slabs
Paving and floor slabs
Paving, exterior concrete walls
Tanks, dams, walls

Compressiv
Flatness, su
High degree
Watertightn

Cement- Water Ratio: 0.45- 0.60 by weight

Concret
e Class
AA
A
B
C
D

Ratio of
Concrete
Components
1:
1:
1:
1:
1:

: 3
2: 4
2 : 5
3: 6
3 : 7

Strength in
PSI (after 28
days)
4000300020001000<500

3500 PSI
2500 PSI
1000 PSI
500 PSI

Concrete Consolidation
- process of compacting concrete to avoid
voids and air pockets
- uses vibrator

Finishing
1. Strikeoff/ screeding
- level concrete surface (uses wood)
2. Floating
- hand float or bull float
3. Trowelling

Parts of Cold water Distribution System

1. Service Pipe
-street water main supply to the building
2. Water Meter
3. Horizontal Supply Main
-water meter to fixtures

Maximum and Probable Demand


Maximum demand
- maximum water discharge of plumbing
fixtures in terms of units
*One unit=5 gallons of water discharge per minute

Fixture Unit Values

4. Riser
-anything vertical
5. Fixture branch
-fixture supply and water distributing tank
6. Control valves
7. Storage tanks

Definitions
1. Air gap
2. Backflow
3. Battery of fixtures
-series of fixtures
4. Fixture branch
-distance between fixture and horizontal
main pipe
5. Flood level
-water begins to overflow over top or rim of
the fixture
6. Roughing-in

Types of Cold Water Distribution System


(within BLDGs)
1. Upfeed System
A. Direct Upfeed (pressure from source)
B. Air Pressure System (pneumatic system)
- use of water pumps
- used when water pressure from
supply is not strong enough
- every 10 floor levels
2. Downfeed (Overhead) or Gravity Feed
-water is pumped into large tanks on top of
the building and is distributed to the
fixtures

Floor drain
Lavatory/washbasin
Bath tub
Kitchen sink
Laundry tub
Shower bath
(
?
) sink
Urinal
Water Closet
Bathroom Group
(WC, Lav, tub, shower,
floor drain)

1
2
2
2
2
2
3
5
6
8

Probable demand
- probable amount of water discharged at
any given time
*Fewer fixtures=higher percentage of
probability of simultaneous load

Probability of Simultaneous Use (Pipe


Size)
1-5
6-50
> 50

50
25-50
10-25

Pipe Diameter
(mm)

Gallons of Water

13
20
25
32
38
50

20
38
80
110
170
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