12.4.3: Evolution Fill in the blank with the best term from the box below.

Name: __________________

In his book “On the ______________ of Species”, Charles Darwin described how species can change through the process of natural _________________. First, he noticed that all populations had _______________; there were many types of finches on the Galapagos Islands, for example. (Today, we know that differences in individuals or species are caused by _____________ in the genetic code.) Secondly, he believed that organisms must _____________ for limited resources of food and space. Individuals with the best traits would _______________ longer and __________________ more offspring, and the weakest would die early. Thus, the environment would ______________ the traits that best fit. This process is sometimes called “survival of the _____________”. Inherited traits that increase an organism’s survival advantage, like camouflage or thick fur, are called ________________________. Darwin believed that many small changes, spread out over millions of years, might produce whole new ____________ of plants and animals with traits that match their habitats. This process of slow, steady evolution is called _____________________. adaptations fittest select gradualism Attercop fossils selection mutations Beginning Genesis species equilibrium biggest Origin survive structures compete reproduce variety inherit

13. What was Darwin’s job on the HMS Beagle? a) he collected specimens of plants, animals and fossils b) he was the ship’s doctor c) he was the minister on the ship 14. Darwin’s observations led him to _______ that species were always constant (never change). a) believe b) doubt c) speculate d) discover 15. In addition to Darwin’s ideas, what is the other dominant concept in modern evolutionary theory? a) energetics b) intelligent design c) genetics d) proteomics

16. The change in a species over a long time or many generations is called ____________. a) migration b) evolution c) inheritance d) habitation 17. The “Inheritance of ______ Characteristics” theory claims that animals with unique body parts—a giraffe’s neck or elephant’s trunk—grew these parts to help them survive, and then their offspring inherited them. a) Selected b) Acquired c) Designed d) Evolved

18. Which of these statements best summarizes Darwin’s ideas about evolution? a) Organisms with traits that best match their environment survive best. b) Nature is controlled by a “life force” that governs all living things c) Species remain constant for long periods of time, and then change quickly ____ 19. Evolutionists believe that similar organisms (like apes and humans) evolved from a single ancestor, and mutations and natural selection caused them to change into different species. What is this explanation commonly called? a. Intelligent design theory c. adaptive traits theory b. common descent with modification d. punctuated equilibrium ____ 20. What process is used to determine the age of fossils? a. radioactive dating b. mass spectometry c. homologous embryos d. DNA fingerprinting

____ 21. Which of these is NOT commonly used to support evolutionary theory? a. homologous body parts b. similar embryos c. organic molecules, like DNA d. stories from comic books

____ 22. Recent studies of the fossil record indicate that many species did not evolve slowly, but appeared quickly and then remained stable for millions of years. This process is called _________. a. gradualism b. adaptation c. punctuated equilibrium

____ 23. Some species have several varieties, like different types of seaside sparrows or different breeds of domestic dogs. What are these different varieties of a species called? a. species b. selections c. races d. adaptations

____ 24. Why are the principles of evolution hard to “prove” by the scientific method? a. the complexity of real nature is hard to recreate in a laboratory b. evolution in nature occurs very slowly and gradually, so its hard to observe

c. both a & b

____ 25. According to studies of ancient fossils, what were the first organisms to live on earth? a. Bacteria b. Humans c. Dinosaurs d. Insects

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