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Feeder Workshop on

Knowledge Connectivity for PURA

(April 21, 2004)


Higher Education Unit

National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration

17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110 016

Edited for publication by Prof. Sudhanshu Bhushan

National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA)
17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg
New Delhi 110 016

First Published: May 2004 by NIEPA


Copies are available from:

Higher Education Unit
National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA)
17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg
New Delhi 110 016
Fax: 91-11-26856041, 26865180

Printed at: M/s Anil Offset & Packagings (P) Ltd. Delhi

The feeder workshop on Knowledge Connectivity for PURA was held in NIEPA on
21st April, 2004 on the request of Prof. (Dr.) B. H. Briz Kishore, Chairman, NCRI. The
workshop is in continuation of the two regional workshops held at Chennai and Bhopal. The
theme of the present workshop held at NIEPA is contextual in view of the commitment of
the Honble Prime Minister of India to provide urban amenities in rural areas built around
knowledge connectivity, which his Excellency the President of India also endorsed in his
address at the UGC Golden Jubilee function.
I am thankful to Prof. (Dr.) B. H. Briz Kishore for his initiative and his confidence
on NIEPA to hold the workshop on above-mentioned theme. Prof. T. Karunakaran, VC,
MGCGV, Chittrakoot provided academic support to the workshop for which he fully
deserves our commendation. Prof. V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai, Vice Chairman, UGC kindly
agreed to inaugurate and chair the Technical Session and Prof. R. Natarajan, Chairman,
AICTE provided very valuable inputs to the Knowledge Connectivity issues. I honour the
commitment to the cause that motivated them to spare some time for the workshop. Prof.
Prem Vrat, Director IIT Roorkee, chaired the Technical Session and Prof. M.
Anandkrishnan delivered a keynote address on the theme. Prof. P. V. Indiresan set the ball
rolling for discussion after he introduced PURA as a vision, mission and strategy. Prof. P. V.
Krishan Bhatt, Hony. Coordinator, IGNCA spared his valuable time to provide directions to
PURA strategy. I am thankful to all of them. Prof. H. Ramachandran, Director, IAMR, Prof.
S. Z. Haider, Sanjeev Kumar, Director, Ministry of HRD, Government of India and Prof.
Dayanand Dongaonkar, Secretary General, AIU made valuable contributions during
discussion. During discussion the representatives from IIT - Delhi, IIT - Roorkee, IIS,
Banglore, DST, KVIC, NIOS made significant contributions.
I acknowledge the
contributions of above noted persons.

Pradeep Kumar Joshi

18th May 2004

New Delhi

Director, NIEPA


The report on the feeder workshop on Knowledge Connectivity for PURA is the
syntheses of the various views and opinions expressed in a one day workshop at NIEPA
organized in collaboration with NCRI, Hyderabad. Report is an analytical one and instead of
documenting various opinions effort has been made to produce a result-oriented analysis
through the synthesis of ideas and reflections expressed in the workshop. One important
objective in preparing the report was to suggest some of the initiatives to be undertaken
by various agencies to head start Knowledge Connectivity exercises for PURA.
Chapter-1 of the report is an introduction to PURA. In introducing the concept of
PURA we acknowledge that images and references to four connectivities with descriptions
have been taken from Envisioning an Empowered Nation Technology for Societal
Transformation authored by
Prof. A P J Abdul Kalam with Dr. A. Sivathanu Pillai. Prof.
P. V. Indiresans presentation on PURA during the workshop provided important inputs in
preparing the introductory chapter.
Chapter-2 is devoted to the analysis of the structure and scope of Knowledge
Connectivity. The inaugural address by Prof. V. N. Rajshekharan Pillai, Vice-chairman, UGC
provided valuable inputs in terms of understanding the role of rural colleges and also
clarifying UGCs initiatives in supporting PURA knowledge structures. Prof. R. Natarajan,
Chairman, AICTE put forth the suggestions respecting the role of rural engineering
colleges and the Polytechnics in supporting PURA. He also noted the National
Qualifications Framework initiative by AICTE that would help to provide sufficient
flexibility for the rural youth to join various vocations and increase the skill level. Prof.
(Dr.) B. H. Briz Kishore, Chairman, NCRI clarified the issue of the goal of Knowledge
Connectivity around the economic needs of the people. Prof. T Karunakaran, Vice
chancellor, MGCGV, Chitrakoot provided an important input in terms of the structure of
institutions and multi-collaborative framework for PURA and experiences of various
initiatives for rural development given in Chapter-3.
Prof. G. D. Sharma, Director, CEC noted the important way in which tele-education
can reach the rural masses. Prof. S. Z. Haider, Joint Director, PSSIVE highlighted the
role of vocational schools to meet the goal of Knowledge Connectivity. Prof. Prem Vrat,
Director, IIT, Roorkee and Prof. M. Anandkrishnan deliberating on the lead questions
relating to technical institutions proposed various suggestions, notably the need for
investment planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation framework in selected
PURAs. Prof. H. Ramachandran, Director, IAMR intervened to express the dilemma that
present model of development contains and the PURA model of development proposes in
the face of ongoing process. Prof. P. V. Krishan Bhatt Hony. Coordinator IGNCA , Sanjiv

Kumar, Director, MHRD, Government of India and Prof. Dayanand Dongaonkar, Secretary
General, AIU made valuable contributions during discussion.
During discussion the
representatives from IIT - Delhi, IIT - Roorkee, IIS - Banglore, DST, KVIC, NIOS made
significant contributions. I acknowledge the contributions of above noted persons in
shaping different chapters.
Chapter-3 is devoted to the analysis of the Role of Individual Institutions and Multi
Agency collaboration. This issue is the most complex one. Inter-institutional, intrainstitutional, public-private participation, rural-urban institutional linkages and civil
societys initiatives need a framework of networking. Examples of various initiatives are
given. The challenge is to achieve synergic outcomes. The possibilities may be explored in a
large workshop.
Chapter-4 is on suggestions and recommendations. Executive summary proposes the
road maps as it emerges from the feeder workshop. The framework of summary is in
terms of plan of action as a result of synthesis of ideas in the workshop.
An appendix on Agriculture and Knowledge Connectivity by Prof. I V Subba Rao is
reproduced as the economy of rural sector revolves around agriculture and the issue is
important in the context of PURA.

Sudhanshu Bhushan

18th May 2004

New Delhi

Senior Fellow & Head

Higher Education



Agricultural Information and Communication Centre

All India Council for Technical Education
All India Radio
Association of Indian Universities
Agricultural Market Committee
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
Agricultural Technology and Information Centre
Automatic Trailer Machine
Bangladesh Academy For Rural Development
Consortium for Education Communication
Centre of Training for Rural Professions
Confederation of Indian Industries
Centre of Regional Development
Centre of Regional Development for PURA
District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centres
Department of Agriculture
Department of Science and Technology
Gross Domestic Product
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of India
Institute of Applied Manpower Research
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Information and Communications Technology
Indian Institute of Management
Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Technological Institute
Institution Village Linkage Programme
Khadi & Village Industries Commission
Krishi Vigyan Kendras
Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya
Ministry of Human Resource Development
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council
National Council of Applied Economic Research
National Council of Rural Institutes
Non Government Organisation
National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration


Nation Institute of Open Schooling

National Qualifications Framework
Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education
Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas
Research and Development
Rural Agricultural Work Experience Program
Rural Home Science Work
Rejuvenate India Movement
Rural Development and Self-Employment Training
State Agricultural Universities
Self Employed Womens Association
Self Help Group
Technology Assessment and Refinement
Thana level Educational Officers
Teacher Resource Center
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
University Grants Commission
United Nations Development Programme
World Trade Organisation


List of Abbreviations used in Report

Chapter One

Introduction: PURA
Rationale for PURA
Vision for PURA
Political Commitment for PURA


The first of these Connectivities is Physical Connectivity

Similarly PURA Needs to be provided with Electronic Connectivity
Knowledge Connectivity
Economic Connectivity
Societal Connectivity

Strategy for Providing Urban Amenities for Rural Areas

Some Central Points During Discussion
Chapter Two

Chapter Three

Structure and Scope for Knowledge Connectivity

Goal of Knowledge Connectivity
The Challenge of Knowledge Connectivity
Scope of Knowledge Connectivity
Who Will Take the Initiatives?
Models of Knowledge Connectivity
Centre of Regional Development for PURA (CRDP)
Coverage with Rural Colleges and Other Schemes
Role of AICTE
Role of Rural Engineering Colleges
Role of Central of Educational Consortium
Vocationalisation of School Level to be Integral Part of PURA
Role of IITs and Indian Institutes of Science
Some Central Points During Discussion
Role of Individual Institutions and Multi Agency Collaboration
Inter Institutional Collaboration
Intra Institutional Collaboration
Public Private Partnership
Rural Urban Institutional Linkages
Individual Initiative to Support Multi Agency Efforts
Knowledge Connectivity through Networking: A Case of
Society for Rural Industrialization, Bariatu, Ranchi




TECH NET: A Case of the Technocracy Project, Started in

Gandhigram Rural Institute
Knowledge Connectivity Through Human Netowrking: A Case of
Samaj Shilpi Modesl
Connectivity with Womens Groups: Gramin Bank and SEWA
Knowledge Connectivity for Entrepreneurs: A Case of Rural
Development Self Employment Training Institute
Knowledge Connectivity through Schools: A Case of Bangladesh
Academy for Rural Development (BARD)

Chapter Four Implementation Processes

Target Oriented Approach for Knowledge Connectivity
Issue of Awareness Among Youth
Manpower Planning in PURA
Enhance Participation of Unemployed Youth through Training
Road Map for Future Agenda



Agriculture Knowledge Connectivity for PURA



Session-wise Details


Dr. I.V. Subba Rao

Annexure-III List of Participants


Chapter One

Introduction: PURA
Long before western model of development the Indian villages present a picture of
self-sufficiency. The imposition of western model led to a rural-urban divide leading to the
neglect of villages. As majority of Indians live in villages the neglect of rural structure
would amount to the impoverishment of the poor. The vision to the rural centric
development and supportive educational structure is now considered an important agenda
for rural development. As such the clarion calls of the President of India and the Prime
Minister of India to provide urban amenities in rural area through the PURA scheme set a
new priority to the agenda of rural construction. In the post independence era Dr.
Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) provides an eminent example of such vision. Many
roadblocks in the path of its realization exist. Globalization hastens the process of divide
although ICT revolution permits a favorable ambience as faster connectivities to the rural
setup could be achieved at a much lower cost. Individuals and institutions have so far
exhibited various models of rural development. What lacks, however, is the multilateral
framework and synergies of co-operative and participative efforts. Most important is the
commitment of political leaders, policy makers, development activists, social scientists and
practitioners of rural development. It is time to consolidate the different initiatives and
provide a clear vision for knowledge connectivity under PURA.
Rationale for PURA
At present rural income is 1/3rd of the urban income. Slums are expanding at the
rate of 9% per annum in the towns and 30% of the city is slum. As the investment in rural
sector is not in accordance with the requirement the sector is under developed and largescale migration is taking place from villages to towns. To overcome this rural urban divide

the concept of PURA has to attract large-scale public and private investment and all the
basic amenities and all the urban amenities in the rural area for the investment has to take
place. This will stop migration and lead to the sustainable development of rural areas.
Vision for PURA

It is estimated that in the 10th plan for the all round development of block with
population of 1 lakh and at an estimated investment of Rs. 20000/- per capita (Private +
Public), critical investment plan for a rural development block should be atleast Rs. 200
Crore. So far as PURA is concerned, in terms of a scheme of a rural development 4230
PURAs, the poorest PURAs, have been identified to provide a grant from the centre to the
states worth Rs. 12,690 Crores. This amounts to an investment of Rs. 3 Crore per PURA.

Thus we observe that there is a huge deficit of Rs. 197 Crores. Even if other government
schemes are taken into account there remains huge deficit for all round development of
block. Hence the argument is that government alone cannot provide all the investment
needed for rural development. The vision behind PURA that emerges from above is that
PURA has to be made a profitable or commercial program so that the private investment
flows into rural areas in the manner that private investment flows in any urban centre. It
is argued that an important reason for the flow of private investment in urban areas is the
all round connectivities and the availability of market. The basic foundation of PURA has
to be led on precisely this vision that urban amenities, connectivities, markets should
be provided in the rural areas to attract large scale investment in the rural areas.
Political Commitment for PURA
The Honble Prime Minister of India in his Independence Day (2003) speech
declared the launching of PURA with the hope that it will bridge the rural-urban divide
and achieve balanced socio-economic development. Elaborating on PURA Honble President
of India made the following statement on 17.02.2003 in the Parliament:

A key element of Vision 2020 would be Providing Urban Amenities in

Rural Areas (PURA). More than two-thirds of Indias population lives in rural
areas. We need to give a new thrust to their all-round development through
provision of four critical connectivities: Physical Connectivity by providing
good roads, transport services and quality power; Electronic Connectivity by
providing reliable communication networks; Knowledge Connectivity by
establishing more professional institutions and vocational training centers,
schools with high quality infrastructure, teachers who are devoted to
teaching, production centers for rural artisans, primary health centers,
recreation centers, etc.; and Market Connectivity that will help realize the
best value for the products and services of rural people, and constantly
expand and enrich employment opportunities for them. The model envisaged
is a holistic habitat that would improve the quality of life in rural areas and
also help in de-congestion of urban areas.
Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas (PURA) is essentially conceived around
five types of connectivities, with the aim to speed up the process of achieving total rural
prosperity. For best results, all five have to develop in synchronism. Each connectivity has
a minimum threshold level. Below that threshold size, connectivity is unviable.

The first of these connectivities is Physical Connectivity

Leading to easy movement of people and goods, access to schools, Health centers
and markets. In our rural areas today, there are inadequate roads, rail and public

infrastructure. With more than 5,80,000 villages in India, the means to physical
connectivity is to organize these villages in clusters, from 10 upwards.
This cluster of villages needs to be provided physical connectivity by near ring
roads. Low cost buses, preferably driven by batteries energized by renewable energy
sources, and powered by high efficiency engine would be operated almost throughout the
day as shuttle services moving people and goods from village to village and village to school,
health center, fueling stations, farming areas, warehouses, agro-industries and other
commercial centers.



Physical Connectivity

Enables movement of
people and goods

Ring Road




Improves access to
schools and health
care centers
Reduces investment in
distribution of power,
water and



To Nearest City

Thus, the heart of the PURA concept is Physical Connectivity of 10 or more villages
by a ring road covering a population of around 30,000 50,000 people. Connectivity,
thereafter, to a rail network and to a nearest city beyond this village cluster would take
off from the ring road. All these roads or links will be of high quality enabling high-speed
This is potentially a cost effective solution for activating the schools, health
centres, village markets, warehouses and commercial centres that would serve the

population of the entire cluster, thus resulting in economies of scale. Also these clusters
will become an excellent investment destination because the transactional costs will be
much lower than in the metropolis. In addition, quality of life will be improved.

Similarly PURA needs to be provided with Electronic Connectivity

The system oriented approach for the village cluster would require to introduce
tele-education for farmers and villagers, village internet kiosks, public call-offices,
telemedicine-market, e-governance, e-commerce and so on. Thus, the revolution in
Information Technology supported by space-based technology would create the needed
societal transformation at the grass roots of the country. It also will provide the
opportunity for the villagers to collectively locate call centers, business processing
outsourcing and software development centres to use outside markets. Thus PURA
provides a seamless connection and movement of molecules (people), atoms (material) and
electrons (knowledge).

P U R A E le c tro n ic C o n n e c tivity
tiv ity
E s ta b lis h in g E le c tro nic c o n n e ctivity th ro u g h b ro a d b a n d /Fib e r/S a tellite/W ire le s s /L e a s e d Lin e
T e le -E d u c a tio n

T e le -M e d ic in e

S a te llite lin k
W ir e le s s c o n n e c tiv ity
F ib e r c o n n e c tiv ity
P u b lic C a ll O ffic e s ( S T D / I S D / IS D N )
L e a s e d L in e C o n n e c tiv ity

A N o d a l V illa g e
- P U R A V illa g e C ity
P u b lic C a ll O ffic e - P C O

V illa g e In te rn e t K io s k s
e -G o ve rn m e n t A cce ss
e -M a rke t A cce s s
T e le - T ra in in g o n Fa rm in g
e -B a n k in g
A T M C e n te rs
F o r V illa g e rs / Fa rm e rs

w w w .p resid en tofin dia.n

Knowledge Connectivity
Will transform the rural area with connectivity in education, healthcare, vocational
training, and satellite applications for crops, water and forest management, environment
protection and cooperative product marketing. The combination of electronic connectivity
and knowledge connectivity will generate literacy movement, tele-education, health care
and resource management.

PU R A K now ledge Connectivity
C onnectivity
Knowledge oriented approach to knowledge enable Village life

Tele-M edicine

P roactive H ealth Care

Educate Students/F arm ers/w orkers

IRS Im agery

B io - So lids R ecycling

Schools /Hospitals
Vocational Training
Know ledge T raining
IRS Im agery for
- Land & Crop M gm t
- W ater M gm t
- Forest M gm t
- Environm ent
Proactive Health care
Coop. Product M ktg.

W ater/Forest/Environm ent M anagem ent

Land/Crop M anagem ent


Economic Connectivity
It would be seen therefore that the triad of physical, electronic and knowledge
connectivity brings forth the economic connectivity through small-scale industries, agro
and food processing, warehouses, micro power plants, renewable energy and village
markets. This will generate larger employment opportunities, women empowerment and
improved quality of life. The villages not only improve the quality of life but also maintain
the rural beauty and environment. Moreover, the connectivities make the rural villages
close to any part of the world. As an economy progresses people consume newer goods and
services. New goods often have large thresholds, which it may be too large for PURA to
produce economically. Hence, such goods and services will have to be imported. And PURA
should have exports to match. The higher the exports, the larger are the import capability
and larger the potentials for prosperity. PURA, therefore, should have a plan for exports.



Solar power

Economic Connectivity
Small Scale Industries
Agro Industries
Ware House
Micro Power plants
Renewable energies
Village Markets

Employment Opportunities
Value System Economic
Women Empowerment
Urban Decongestion
Improved Quality of Life
Increased purchase power

Wind power

Agro Industry



Societal Connectivity


To Nearest City

Includes municipal services, recreation and healthcare, local government, promotion

of local culture and arts, folk dance, group song, festivals. The integration of societal
connectivity will provide acceptability to the programmes and intervention in PURA. The
participative content of PURA could only be realised and sustained through internalising
the aspects of societal connectivity.
Strategy for Providing Urban Amenities for Rural Areas
India lives in villages, but because of the lack of proper education, employment,
healthcare and infrastructure they are forced to migrate to cities for a better living.
Because of this rush to city, the Indian cities are getting congested without sufficient
place for living and without power. The PURA model envisages a habitat designed to

improve quality of life in rural areas and also makes special suggestions to remove urban
congestion. Also, efficient supply of water and effective waste disposal in every locality
are the paramount civic needs. There is a minimum size below which a habitat is not viable
and not competitive within the existing congested city. At the same time, the existing

congested city is not economical compared to a new town once the minimum size of
expansion is crossed.
As against a conventional city say, rectangular in shape and measuring 10 km by 6
km, the model considers an annular ring-shaped town integrating minimum 10 to 15 villages
of the same 60 km sq. area, and the same access distance of 1 km to transport arteries. It
needs only one transportation route, half as long as that needed for the rectangular city;
so the frequency of transportation will be doubled, having waiting times. It has zero
junctions and will need only a single level layout. Also, it needs only one route as against
eight needed for the rectangular plan, so people will no longer need to change from one line
to another to move from any one point to another; that would save communicating time.
Further, as all traffic is concentrated into one single route, high efficiency mass
transportation systems become economical, even for a comparatively small population. This
cuts costs substantially and is more convenient for the general public.
Some Central Points During Discussion:
1. PURA envisions a ring road of 30-40 km catering to the population of 1
lakh in a block in a ring shape. It should have bus services at every 10
minutes along the ring road. All services ranging from colleges, shops,
hospitals, diagnostic centers should be located along ring road.
2. PURA must have a good water and sanitation facilities. Water should be
recycled and harvested for drinking purposes.
3. There should be a minimum threshold to each connectivity for making PURA
a viable developmental zone. To start with; government must provide
physical connectivity in the form of ring road and bus services. Electronic
connectivity can begin as a commercial activity.
4. As far as knowledge connectivity is concerned, basic education is a
necessity but provision of higher education must be need based. Unemployed
educated persons may be provided vocational skills for starting some
services in the PURA. Of course, it depends upon the kinds of economic
activities generated in PURA.
5. PURA must also integrate the concept of societal connectivity such as
healthcare, local government, temple construction, etc.,
6. PURA can be a productive and commercial proposition only if imports of
goods are ensured. To import it is necessary that exports should be
increased out of PURA. Thus, PURA should be in a position to trade on an
inter PURA basis and also at inter regional and inter state basis.

7. The target for PURA should be the creation of non-farm employment. At

least 1,000 jobs per year per PURA in non-farm employment should be
8. At present PURA is under funded and a basic minimum investment should be
provided to meet the benchmark connectivity requirements. However, PURA
is not a pure grant in aid scheme. It has to be made commercially viable

Chapter Two

Structure and Scope For Knowledge Connectivity

Around 90% of the jobs are in unorganized sector. The level of training in the
unorganized sector is hardly 6-7% in India. The developmental focus has to be shifted to
the rural areas and to the unorganized sector to raise the productivity of labour. This
means knowledge connectivity has to raise the level of training to the workers in the
unorganized sector to a level of 50-60%. PURA envisions a holistic concept of development
of the unorganized sector. Knowledge connectivity forms an important connectivity for
making PURA a success by providing a pool of knowledge workers. The participant of the
workshop suggested various opinion on the structures for the Knowledge Connectivity for
PURA. And they also suggested the role of different institutions in implementing the
objectives of PURA.
Goal of Knowledge Connectivity
Education is the key to create and sustain knowledge and knowledge is the key to
the social and economic well-being. The goal of knowledge connectivity is to meet the
economic needs of the people-the farmers, the artisans, the labourers. PURA also
envisions the provision of different services. Knowledge connectivity must target all
educated left out youth to serve the services sector in the professional way. The left out
educated youth in the age group 18-25 years dropping out at various stages of education
must first be surveyed. The goal of knowledge connectivity should be to target the left
out educated youth in each PURA on a priority basis. Furthermore the uneducated youth in
the age group 18-24 years and all the persons in the age group 25-45 years may be
targeted to be trained around the activities that they are engaged in. This would mean the
goal of knowledge connectivity is to create knowledge workers an essential prerequisite
of developed India.
To realize the goal of knowledge connectivity the perspective plan must contain the
target of knowledge workers to be trained and educated in each PURA.
In making the knowledge connectivity the social systems need to be involved and
this is also the real challenge because then the issue of knowledge connectivity becomes
the problems of the people, of the social institutions and of all policy makers and policy
seekers problem.

The Challenge of Knowledge Connectivity

It was proposed that the challenge of knowledge connectivity is to build knowledge
around vacancies. There are 35 million job seekers in the country and the policy of the
government is to provide 10 million jobs per annum. Hence, the real challenge is to build
the education system around vacancies. In this connection, it was pointed out that our
education system creates around 3 million graduates per annum out of which only 20% of
them hardly find their way to the job market. Besides, there are students who drop out at
various stages of education. The challenge of knowledge connectivity is to provide suitable
education to all those drop outs, pass outs at different levels of formal system of
A related issue is that the education system must be geared to the local needs of
the people. It demands the analysis of the demands of different vocations. The supply of
trained manpower should be by educational institutions. It should be to match the demand
for local specific vocations. Therefore, there cannot be a monolithic system of education.
The challenge of knowledge connectivity is therefore to build the education system around
the local needs of the economic and social system. It was mentioned that there is vast
scope for employment in the services sector. The employment potentials in the services
sector should be identified and the educational institutions should cater to the demands
for it by supplying the suitable programmes.
The third challenge, it was pointed out, is to meet the challenges posed by
internationalisation of education. This means that the pace at which knowledge is traveling
now is fast and borderless. The country has to achieve a status of knowledge super power
as visualized by the planning commission. The phenomena of development of knowledge in
todays context are complex. But important point is that how the vast pool of knowledge
i.e. created elsewhere is properly utilized by educational institutions to disseminate the
knowledge and using it for productive processes.
Scope of Knowledge Connectivity
The knowledge connectivity must begin at the primary stage itself and continue
throughout all levels of education including technical, management and professional,
allowing for the possibility of horizontal and vertical integration of different streams. So
this demands to promote a multidisciplinary, trans-disciplinary and inter disciplinary
approach to knowledge connectivity. As knowledge connectivity has to address the people
around economic activities in the unorganized sector, the scope of knowledge connectivity
is extended to non-formal streams as well.


Who Will Take the Initiatives?

Initiatives for investment in PURA may be taken by NGOs and the industry or the
banking sector. There are many examples and models, which were successfully tried out,
and their experiences may be of importance for replicating in PURA like situation.
However, these individual experiments have to be institutionalized so that multiple
agencies willing to work can work in organized manner and in a large scale so that the
synergy of multiple agencies could be achieved. Thus, the initiative whosoever takes needs
to be routed in institutionalized manner.
Models of Knowledge Connectivity:
In the workshop three models were suggested for imparting knowledge
First Model is Rural University Type I. In which the traditional universities and
colleges may take a lead role. They have already an inbuilt structure of
departments, vocational training and technology resource centres. Giving financial
support by the rural development ministry could activate these units and the UGC
may give mandate for initiating some of the activities.
Second Model is Non-University Type. In this model, a cadre of rural profession
may be created through a Centre of Training for Rural Professions (CETRUP). The
entrepreneurs may be interested in particular economic activities, say, Mushroom
farming. If the particular region is suitable for mushroom farming then farmers
numbering 500-1000 may be selected from the cluster of villages and they will be
given professional training not necessarily through the traditional type of
educational institutions (university types) but by the business group who have
relevant technologies and expertise to train the farmers for growing mushrooms.
CETRUP will arrange for the training of farmers or non-farmers in various
professions in which the entrepreneurs are interested. Thus training will be demand
driven and these professionals may then venture out appropriate business in PURA.
In addition to the training CETRUP may have linkages with Panchayat bodies, NGOs,
rural universities, agricultural universities, rural colleges as well as business houses.
It may be an IT enabled structure and the funding support may be from the rural
development department.
The Third Model refers to Technology Resource Centre Type. UNDP has
initiated TRCs kind of structure in 20 blocks in Bihar, MP, Chhatisgarh and
Jharkhand. A three-tier structure parallel to the Panchayat structure may be
thought for PURA- at Panchayat level, at PURA (Block level) and at the district
level. Beginning with PURA at the block level an upward linkage will be with the


district unit that will have business linking all around. Down below linkage will be
with the villages/panchayats. PURA unit will be the real decision making unit
entrusted with the responsibility for meeting the training/education demand of
rural youth.
All the three models may be tried out in some part or the other. The model that
finds favour, and may be a dominant model, is the first one in which it is suggested to
designate a lead university status to the university in each Commisionary of over 5-10
districts. Similarly, some of the colleges may also be recognised by UGC as College with
Development and Excellance. University/College may establish Centre for Regional (PURA)
Development (CRD). Centre may act as nodal agency to implement knowledge connectivity
for PURA. It may, on the one hand, establish linkages with NGOs, financial agencies,
industries, and technology providers and link up directly with rural colleges, on the other.
Centre of Regional Development for PURA (CRDP)
The role of CRDP attached with lead rural university/college may be to provide the
main institutional outfit to implement the knowledge connectivity for PURA. CRDP may be
endowed with sufficient fund to carry on PURA operations. The initial endowment to CRDP
may be raised from Rural Development Ministry and upon receipt of fund, it may initiate
some of the initial activities such as various study reports relating to resources, types of
economic activity, technology used and required, educational programmes to be offered
and developing a whole lot of information for the region. It may be entrusted to develop a
perspective plan of Knowledge connectivity for PURA as well. This would provide the
foundation for knowledge connectivity. These works may be taken up immediately while
other connectivities are being planned out in each PURA. It will not be out of place to
mention that in the first phase in each state a lead university is mandated to establish
CRDP. UGC may seek assistance from Rural Development Ministry to support CRDP. NCRI
may arrange an orientation programme for all CRDPs in each state. The orientation
programme shall provide broad directions in which knowledge connectivity exercises will
have to be carried out by CRDP.
Convergence with Rural Colleges and Other Schemes
PURA envisions educational and training programmes that are relevant and need
based. Today in India, there may be thousands of engineering graduates who are
unemployed because they are in surplus in the trades in which they have specialized. In
PURA model demand driven training will mean restructuring of the rural colleges for
relevant trades. Restructuring of the rural colleges is a difficult task, although an attempt
may be made on the following lines.


UGC has already initiated first-degree vocationalisation. Under this programme

education is being imparted in services, which are partly general and partly technical. Any
college is supposed to impart such programmes. Added to this, UGC advocates the Add on
Programmes. Under this, a student while having his usual university degree is allowed to
earn extra qualifications. It is possible that in a PURA type of situation there will be many
services and some of the services that are not of pure technical type may be identified.
These rural colleges may take up some such programmes with the funding support from
CRDP or from the Rural College with Centre for Development and Excellence. Rural
colleges may be developed as the hub of various techno services. Reconstruction and
convergence with rural colleges will help to serve PURA in terms of knowledge connectivity
in a big way.
Role of AICTE
The Polytechnic and Engineering colleges can play a vital role specially when we talk
about three connectivities i.e. Physical Connectivity, Digital Connectivity, Knowledge
Connectivity. AICTE can make a definite impact through co-curricular activities and
through extra curricular activities. In the latter category, mention may be made of the
National Service Scheme in which some colleges have started innovative programs to
improve the literacy rate, standard of living, and sanitation and provide advice on
technological solutions. The need of appropriate technology to look into local needs, local
resources, and local culture is important because anything, which is transplanted from
outside and without participation of the local community, has not much succeeded.
While implementing a new device its maintenance and after sale services are
required for their smooth operation because after installation, many of them have to be
repaired and maintained. Participation of local community would ensure the maintenance of
these devices after they have been installed. So there is not only a technical problem but
also social issues involved in implementation of PURA.

Certification and Accreditation:

All India Board of Vocational Education in AICTE is working on an important
initiative that will have direct bearing on PURA. It is considering the implementation of
National Qualifications Framework (NQF). This will enable the certification of existing
talents and skills of the people. All those who are on the job or off the job can acquire
certificate after proper education and training. The user of the services of the person will
then become aware of the accreditation of this person. NQF will also ensure that a life
long education can be provided to the person. No degree or diploma is considered as the
terminal education. Existing skill of a person can be upgraded at any time that a person
wishes to upgrade. NQF will also make the transferability of students from one stream to


another possible. The students from academic stream can join the vocational stream or
Role of Rural Engineering Colleges
Around 1/3rd of the colleges are in the rural areas. The present situation is that
neither the faculty members nor the students move to the rural areas. Maximum unfilled
vacancies are in the rural areas. There is the migration of the teachers and students of
the rural area engineering colleges to the urban areas. All this is happening because rural
industries do not support engineering colleges - both in terms of resource support and in
terms of the demand for graduates. The engineering colleges, too, do not provide
sufficient exposure to the graduate students for the rural industries. The result is that
the engineering students develop the mind set to serve in the urban setup.
Notwithstanding the problems raised above, rural engineering colleges can play very
important role to fulfill the need of knowledge connectivity for PURA. These colleges can
map the technological needs of the region, design suitable courses relevant for the region.
Various short run courses may also be thought to impart appropriate skills in the region.
Technical colleges can adopt particular PURA for implementing various technological
solutions. They can be aligned towards the fulfillment of the objectives of PURA.
The partnership of several potential stakeholders and the engineering colleges can
be appreciated. By making the optimum and appropriate use of existing resources and
networking the Knowledge Connectivity exercise should be undertaken as creating new
system is going to take time. The participant suggested that first; we should use the
existing networks, the communication channels, and the connectivities before we proceed
to the second step. Many of the institutions which have in addition to teaching and
research, services as one of the important component will definitely rise to this occasion.
We have tremendous opportunity here. It is just a question of right mandate and right
objective together.
Role of Centre of Educational Consortium
UGC countrywide classroom is at present reaching all rural areas where the
equipment is available. This is a kind of an enrichment program related to health and
education. At present, there is a 24-hour higher education channel where knowledge is
being imparted in terms of subject specific and skill specific programmes to all the
colleges in India. The disadvantage of earlier channel was that it was telecast through
Doordarshan and cable operators were not reaching to the rural area. Hence, there is a
need for an independent dish antenna to be installed in every college so that an
independent channel could be devoted by creating a virtual classroom in all the colleges in
India. Centre for Educational Consortium (CEC) may at present target 1,000 colleges to


equip with dish antenna and impart knowledge-subject as well as skill based- to all these
rural colleges in collaboration with Ministry of HRD and NCRI. CEC expressed its full
support to knowledge connectivity to PURA through the programmes to the rural colleges.
Vocationalisation at School Level to be Integral Part of PURA
There are at present 6800 schools in India spread over all states where vocational
education and training programmes are running. The situation is not very happy. However,
they are producing manpower for different professions. A simple statistics would reveal
that technical institutions are not in a position to supply the trained manpower. Referring
to a survey of Seho district in M P, it was pointed out that 40,000 students enter grade I
and roughly 5000 students pass 12th grade. There are 7 degree colleges, one agricultural,
one engineering college for those students, but for those who are the left-outs, roughly
35,000 students, there are 3 ITIs and one Polytechnic which have the intake capacity of
only 134 students. Hence there is the problem of producing large skilled manpower.
Fortunately, large number of schools running the vocational courses may be supported by
some nodal agency engaged in providing knowledge connectivity for PURA.
Role of IITs and Indian Institutes of Science
The present technical structure of IITs is capital intensive. Students are taught
to serve and manage capital-intensive industries. Engineers passing out from IITs are
least suited to serve rural industries. Unless present system of education is revamped,
role of IITs in PURA development must be seen differently. IITs have large technological
resource, which they have developed over long period of time while intervening in rural
programmes of development either directly or indirectly through different agencies. All
IITs may agree to become Technology Interface Unit thereby agreeing to supply and
support rural technologies for PURA. They may also train the rural youth for a programme
certified by the universities.
IITs may also develop Entrepreneur Development Scheme to train huge manpower
of engineering graduates. They can be agent of rural industrialization in PURA set up.
It was also suggested that PURA needs a framework, which cannot be subsumed
under government. No innovation is possible where method of support is structurally rigid.
Some Central Points During Discussion:
1. Goal of Knowledge Connectivity was considered to create knowledge workers
around the economic needs of the people. The target group was visualized as
the educated left out youth and all the persons in the age group 18-24 and
25-45 years who are engaged in various economic activities.


2. Multi agency approach to the Knowledge connectivity in PURA is visualized. This

means industry, NGOs, banking sector, entrepreneurs can invest in PURA. The
related demand for knowledge workers may be met through certain structures
that would synergise the activities of different agencies through the provision
of information, education and training.

The suggested structures were rural / agricultural universities at the division

level along with rural colleges (roughly 5000), rural engineering and
polytechnics, schools imparting vocational education (6800) forming a network
reaching out at PURA level. Centre of Regional Development for PURA (CRDP),
Centre of Training for Rural Professions (CETRUP) may be some such
structures to be identified by UGC or AICTE.

4. AICTE may provide an enabling framework through the National Qualifications

Framework thereby ensuring flexibility to acquire qualifications at any stage of
education throughout ones life.
5. Structures identified for implementing Knowledge Connectivity for PURA may
generate study reports on the level of skill, mapping of resources for PURA,
identification of training needs and help to generate perspective plan for
PURA. It may also identify and support institutions for training.
6. Various other national and state level institutions such as CSIR, ICAR, IMAR,
DST, KVICs, IITs, IIS, CII, CEC may lend technological, financial support to
PURA structures in diverse forms.
7. Knowledge-powered rural development is an essential need for transforming
India into a knowledge superpower. High bandwidth rural connectivity is the
minimum requirement to take education, healthcare and economic dynamism to
the rural areas.


Chapter Three

Role of Individual Institutions and

Multi Agency Collaboration
The success of any rural initiative depends on the community participation. The
rural set up developed and maintained its economy through collaboration of individual
initiatives albeit the mechanism was more an informal one. Another important argument
generally cited in case of rural area is that the level of social capital in the rural area is
higher than in the urban area. The picture of self-sustained rural development, however,
did not receive the support it needed. This was so because of the urban centric western
model of development. The belief that gains would percolate down to the people in the
rural areas did not come true. Knowledge economy of today provides an opportune moment
to garner the support of individual institutions in a multi-collaborative framework to
develop the knowledge workers. In the case of PURA reflections on individual and multiagency collaborative framework provide the basis of networking to realize PURA
Inter Institutional Collaboration
Apart from the institutional efforts the knowledge delivery in PURA requires inter
institutional collaboration. An institution such as the University or a rural college with
having potentials for development may be identified as lead institution. This institution will
network, on the one hand, with the PURA for identifying the demand for training to raise
the skills through the network of rural colleges and, on the other hand, explore the
possibilities of supplying the appropriate training and education programmes. In order to
accomplish this the institution will network with the technological institutions to identify
the appropriate technology. It may have to search the funding agencies amongst various
government departments or even the corporate sector for making commercial investment
related to a particular project. The IITs and IIMs can be important institutions to form a
part of this network to serve PURA.
Another model could be developing a total autonomous system for multi agency
collaborative framework. It can consider effective interaction between the academic
system, with the unconventional sector and the non-recognized institutions. Whether this
autonomous system should be at the state level or be attached to the ministry or the
universities or colleges may be decided. It would provide the instrumentalities for
effective interaction and suggest models for knowledge connectivity for PURA.


Intra Institutional Collaboration

NAAC, an autonomous structure within UGC, have suggested preparing the status
report of various colleges in the various states in the country. The status report provides
information on the strengths of the various colleges and how they can network together
for mutual growth. It was suggested that a lead college might be identified and the rest
of the colleges around a lead college might then form a network. PURA may be an
important agenda for networking. Once an institutional structure is identified, as
suggested above, UGC may ask to conduct an analysis of the various communities and
potentials of the various villages. Thereafter potential PURA in the region may be
identified and a project relating to knowledge connectivity may be prepared. Thus within a
university system lead rural colleges may form a network of institutions to serve PURA.
Public - Private Partnership
PURA should not be viewed as a discrete disjointed investment. It is a holistic and
integrated concept. The danger is that even if it is holistic concept, in implementation it
may turn out to be a disjointed investment. Therefore, it was pointed out that government
might begin with some minimum benchmark investment in roads and other basic amenities.
Then with suitable structure already in place co-operation from multiple agencies must be
obtained. The private sector may be motivated to invest. In many PURAs where basic
infrastructure does not exist, it is the public investment that crowds in investment from
various public and private agencies. Private initiatives may begin only when there is an
expectation of gain. Experiment with a model 5 PURAs in a region or scattered over
different regions may be made. In this experiment, an estimate of total amount of money
required may be made. With some minimum benchmark investment in roads and other basic
amenities, it was also pointed out that there should be a base line data for each PURA.
After proper designing of PURA only it should be implemented. There should be also a
system of monitoring and evaluation, which should analyse to what extent reverse
migration has been prevented. PURA should be implemented in truly partnership model and
it should not be a top down imposed model.
Rural Urban Institutional Linkages
The argument that large pool of talent needs to be trained in rural areas because
the urban graduates are not inclined to serve rural areas is a false argument. City doctors
or engineers do not serve rural areas because they do not find their future in rural areas.
If urban amenities are provided in rural areas it is quite likely that people trained in rural
areas do not migrate to urban areas in search of lucrative employment. Hence the PURA
structure demands that sufficient incentives exist to attract talent. This is a necessary
condition for PURA to succeed. Vellore, Pilani and Mesra are examples where highly


reputed institutions were established. Institutions in rural areas also demand a threshold
level where 15-20 or more professional people should work together. Institutions with
reputation and excellence within PURA can only thrive if large number of professionally
competent people can join the institution. The point to note is that a mindset has to be
created among the policymakers for the rural bias.
Individual Initiative to Support Multi Agency Efforts
In achieving the goal of overall development the role of individual, group and multi
agency collaborative efforts are important. All the initiative are finally targeted to
achieve the same objective. In this regard the initiative of some institution provide us
vision to conceptualize the road map for multi agency collaboration for PURA.
a) Knowledge Connectivity through Networking: A Case of Society for Rural
Industrialization, Bariatu, Ranchi
The Knowledge Connectivity through networking can play an instrumental role in
achieving the PURA objective. This kind of initiative helped in creating the
environment of learning, environment of work and environment of information, which
will create capacity, and competence of the rural disadvantaged group. The SRI in
Ranchi trains the tribal youth and organize them into science clubs and make these
clubs as a medium of information delivery on the one hand and entrepreneurial
involvement of youth on the other (for example: taking up contractual work of
watershed dam construction). They have also taken initiatives like creation of one
rural technology park in each block of Jharkhand, (So far 26 rural technology parks
have been set up, 10 of them as part of an UNDP employment programme), setting
up of block level Data & Information centres (so far 20 of these centres have been
set up), Networking intimately with NGOs (so far SRI has intensive working
partnership with 10 block level NGOs and linkages with about 400 NGOs). The
thrust areas of collaboration will be information technology, biotechnology,
process-technology and service technologies.


b) TECH NET: A Case of the Technocracy Project, Started in Gandhigram Rural

Tech Net in this regard took another important initiative. They have created a
human network within an area like a block with youth trained in resource relevant
technology topics. After six month skill training a group of people formed a SHG
and initiated production of product. In each Panchayat about five prominent
problem directions are identified (say for example watershed, reforestation,
health, literacy, employment). For each topic two youth (one male and one female)
are selected by the community. If the block has - for example - fifteen Panchayats
and in twelve of them watershed becomes a theme, then there will be twenty-four
youth on this topic alone. This team will be given intensive training and information
support related to the topic of specialization. In addition all the teams together
will be trained in resource identification, planning, project formulation, etc. The
above network will be a channel for disseminating information on the relevant
technologies and creating activities in the respective Panchayats and also in the
block as a whole. For sustainability each of the youth is given training to become an
entrepreneur. For example a person who will be working on reforestation might have
an enterprise of rising nurseries and this provides a way of active linkage between
the persons own development with the development of the community.
The above ideas were developed under a DST project during 1988-1993 and this
proved that it could pave the way also for future leadership at the Panchayat level.
c) Knowledge Connectivity Through Human Networking A case of Samaj Shilpi
The Samaj Shipis get continuously trained in various techniques and they become
local implementers of development projects involving those technologies. Their
presence in the village and their practicing the technology themselves, wherever
possible, facilitates the adoption by the villagers without hesitation. Since
different Samaj shilpis with varying technical capabilities (eg. construction
technology, Ayurveda, food preservation, etc.,) live in adjacent villages a process of
pooling of skills of the Samaj Shilpi network is also possible in the whole region. In
this sense it has the same effect as the TECHNET project. Seeing the
effectiveness of the Samaj Shilpi Dampati project the RIM (Rejuvenate India
Movement) project supported by a large number of US groups adopted the name
Samaj Shilpi for their volunteers, though the volunteers were not required to be a
d) Connectivity with Womens Groups: Gramin Bank And SEWA AHMEDABAD


In fact without effective participation of women PURA objective cannot be

achieved. Economic connectivity is linked with knowledge transformation. The
women group can also be linked with the knowledge connectivity to achieve economic
connectivity. The SEWA group has taken some initiatives in this regard. The women
organized into groups are trained in different vocations so that they qualify to use
the credits and further they are networked into marketing etc. groups. An
attitudinal change is brought about by making the women commit themselves to
sixteen vows that carry them through a gradual process of development and
ultimately enables them to stabilize their families. Group based training is evident
at each stage. This initiative also enhances the level of knowledge among the
women. SEWA members are workers who have no fixed employee-employer
relationship and depend on their own labour for survival. They are poor, illiterate
and vulnerable. They barely have any assets or working capital. But they are
extremely economically active, contributing very significantly to the economy and
society with their labour.
e) Knowledge Connectivity for Entrepreneurs:
Employment Training Institute

A Case Of Rural Development Self

To achieve the overall objective of PURA an effective initiative for the

entrepreneurs development in rural area is essential. And other important thing is
to establish linkages with different institutions. In this regard financial institutions
are also playing an active role. Various types of training programmes are being
conducted by RUDSETI with the collaboration of Canara Bank. There are more than
50 training programmes. They are short-term courses ranging from one to eight
weeks. All training programmes are residential in nature; free boarding and lodging
facilities are given. In addition to the above there are various programmes for
further development of the youth. There are nearly a dozen RUDSET institutes
under Canara Bank alone in various states of India. They represent a new role of
bank in providing credit after ensuring knowledge-readiness of the entrepreneur.


f) Knowledge Connectivity through Schools: A Case of Bangladesh Academy For

Rural Development (BARD)
A very interesting experiment was in removing illiteracy in the villages so that
youth could be given proper schooling so that they will be able to receive the right
type of agricultural education. Groups called Sabuj Sangha were formed and they
worked under the guidance of teachers, TEO (Thana level Educational Officers),
local leaders and ward field workers. The BARD initially provided training of the
The Sabuj Sangha projects were both individually and collectively conducted.
Individual projects were at home to raise vegetable, poultry and livestock and for
clay modeling, needlework and handicrafts. All concerned met twice a month at the
Thana Headquarters to discuss the progress of the project. Networking has helped
to bring the primary schools closer to the development agencies.


Chapter Four

Implementation Processes

In the previous chapters various suggestions were made regarding the structure
and model of knowledge connectivity, multi-agency collaborative framework, provision of
education around economic activities, enabling framework of up- gradation and certifying
the skills. However, issues of awareness, planning, targeting, participative modes are issues
relating to processes and mechanisms that lead to road maps for implementing knowledge
connectivity for PURA.
Target Oriented Approach for Knowledge Connectivity
An important suggestion that emerge relates to the targeting. Given an analysis of
the villages, target setting for each PURA may be made. Given the report on the status,
percentage of the people in age group 18-24 and 25-45 may be targeted to complete some
or other form of education and training out of certain range of courses to be offered by
the educational institutions. These trained youth will find their way into some gainful
activities in PURA. Particularly in the northeast, we have seen that some private colleges,
probably aided colleges, are adopting villages. Some of the colleges nearly in last 10-15
years have set a target, that of not providing first rank or top rank in the university but,
to provide at least one graduate in each family. Such targets have been settled by a
number of colleges. Such adoption of villages in a target mode may be put as a first
requirement for each PURA.
Issue of Awareness Among Youth
Additional financial support can be given to colleges to organize some sort of
awareness programme or, may be, one day or half day seminars in the colleges involving the
teachers and their students. Graduates who are generated by the colleges and who are
looking for meaningful employment can also be part of it. UGC can suggest some guidelines
to the rural colleges for initiating awareness campaign.
Manpower Planning in PURA
The participant suggested that at present we do not have manpower planning at the
district, state or even at the national level to know the number of professional or skilled
personnel that have to be prepared. For example, we know that nation requires 10 million
school teachers and at present we have only 3 million school teachers leaving a deficit of 7


million teachers. The tenth plan document states that there is 21 million-target group who
look for vocational training and self-employment avenues. As against this, available formal
training capacity of the country is only 2.3 million students, which leaves a gap of 18.7
million. (See Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-07, p.49)
Do we have such analysis for various category of professionals? A PURA approach
would, therefore, require that for each specific PURA a manpower planning involving the
estimates of required trained manpower be prepared assuming that PURA attains a certain
level of development
Enhance Participation of Unemployed Youth through Training
Country has large number of unemployed graduate in this country and many states
have some sort of a statistics on graduates in various disciplines like arts, science,
commerce. UGC and the AICTE can provide some sort of a certification for them. The
training may revolve around various PURA based vocations so that the training would also
ensure the employability of the personnel trained.
Road Map for Future Agenda

PURA implementation demands clarity in the terms of multi-agency collaborative

framework. As such a two-day national workshop involving all the collaborators and
partner agencies may be convened to discuss the role of different agencies.

The identification of the structures of educational institutions at the state level

should begin. In every state the search of a network of such educational institutions to
serve the cause of knowledge connectivity for PURA should be carried out.

An apex educational institution at the state level with the help of research institutions
should carry out different exercises relating to the occupation, skill level, economic
potentials, relevant technology needs for different regions-cluster of PURAs.

The information collected above should form the basis for perspective plan of
knowledge connectivity.

Assimilation and dissemination of information is another important activity to

implement any program. This is achieved by publication and distribution of literatures
containing information related to objective of PURA. For this purpose all
communication media such as Leaflets, Filmstrips, Video Films, Brochures, Exhibitions,
Organising Community Workshops, and Seminars etc are adopted.

Various research institutions and laboratories have developed a great number of

technologies. But the benefits of these technologies have failed to reach the rural
area. The nodal agency of the state should collect the information available on
appropriate technologies from various agencies and organise demonstration of these


technologies in villages and thus help them to adopt technological innovation. The nodal
agency should also establish linkages between Panchayat, Rural University, government
department and market.

Human resources is to be developed for gainful employment and training. In this

regard the state nodal agency should identify the need of vocational training for the
PURA area. And after the identification responsibility should be given to the rural
colleges to train the manpower.

The effectiveness of any program is based on administrative set up and monitoring of

the program. To achieve this goal the PURA extension centre should be established for
each 10-15 villages in the PURA area. The center should develop interaction between
the villages and the institute to provide all possible helps in extending facilities.




Dr. I.V. Subba Rao*

Gandhijis vision of Indian Village was a centerpiece of free Indias political and
socio-economic fabric. He considered that India really lives in the villages and that if
villages perish, India too would perish. He cherished for Indias development through the
development of villages and village oriented society i.e. `Village Swaraj or Gram Swaraj.
His vision of rural development was building a self-supporting, self-governing and selfreliant village community, where every bodys needs were met and the people lived in
harmony, love and cooperation as one family. His emphasis was food for all with human
dignity. To what extent his concept was put into practice and to what extent we have
succeeded in the past 5 decades is a different question. But, it is gratifying that PURA, a
centrally sponsored scheme, announced by Honble Prime Minister on 15-8-2003 with the
avowed objective of a balanced socio-economic development of rural clusters is a step in
the right direction.
What is rural development? It is multidimensional and connotes overall integrated
development of rural areas. A holistic rural development encompasses agriculture including
horticulture, forestry, sericulture, apiculture, mushroom culture, dairy, poultry, sheep and
goat husbandry, fisheries etc. and their mixed farming, education, health, sanitation,
drinking water, environment, ecology, roads, transport, communications, storage, housing,
tourism, science and technology, rural agro-based industries, crafts, arts, traditions,
heritage, culture etc. and a holistic self supporting development aimed at employment
generation, better wages, more income and finally improvement in quality of life.
Agriculture sector supplies raw materials for all the industries barring, steel and cement,
either directly or indirectly. Thus, it is obvious that agriculture development is key to
rural development, since nearly 72 per cent of people live in villages and depend on
agriculture. It provides employment to 56.7 per cent people and contributes to 25 per cent
of GDP. Past experience shows that agriculture development leads to development of all
other sectors. If this sector fails, everything else fails and the entire economy of the
nation cripples. The late Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said that everything else
can wait but not agriculture. The agriculture sector plays a critical role in ensuring food
security, nutrition security, health security, livelihood security, poverty alleviation or 8 to

Former Vice-Chancellor, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad.


10 percent GDP growth and a Hunger Free India by 2007, India as a Developed Nation by
2020 and a strong, sovereign India.
While there are daunting challenges and threats, there are also uncommon and
plentiful opportunities for harnessing. We have witnessed green revolution, white
revolution, blue revolution, yellow revolution, information, space, remote sensing technology
revolutions, through a synergy of technologies, public policies and support of farmers,
industrialists and the people. It is through science and technology and frontier technology
revolutions alone India can become a strong and developed nation. The country has rich
heritage, culture, values, morals, ethics, indigenous knowledge, wisdom and great potential
and bright future. But, what are required is unleashing of these sectors, financial and
public policy support, a will and determination to achieve the goals.
Indian agriculture is a blend of traditional knowledge and modern technologies.
Traditional knowledge was passed from generation to generation verbally or in some cases
written on palmyarah leaves, paper or leather documents. It was subsistence agriculture
with no marketable surpluses. It was farmer to farmer passage of knowledge and
techniques and barter system of marketing. Gradually, scientifically trained manpower was
available for transfer of technologies employing qualified agriculture graduates. The first
green revolution was through a set of improved package of technologies, consisting of high
yielding varieties of crops, irrigation, fertilizer use and crop protection. As a result, the
country became not only self sufficient in food but also had surpluses to offer for export.
The Green Revolution was however, confined to endowment rich, and irrigated belts. But,
soon secondary problems cropped up. Meanwhile, the demand for food is increasing every
day because of increasing population, which will touch about 1300 millions by the year
2020. While it is so, land and water, the two basic resources are limited and these are
declining with passage of every year. Consequently, we have to produce more and more
from less and less of poor quality resources. Unless a second green revolution comes, it will
be difficult to sustain the population. A breakthrough in crop yields and technologies is
necessary to make India a hunger free nation. Food must be accessible to the 260 million
people, who are below the poverty line by improving their incomes and purchasing power
through gainful, assured on- farm and non-farm employment and by adopting mixed farming
and establishment of agro-based and processing industries. In the wake of liberalization,
globalisation and under WTO regime, we have to make our agriculture competitive, by
reducing the costs of production and improving quality. There should be a paradigm shift in
our agricultural education, research and extension systems. It will be knowledge society
and farmers are knowledge hungry. Two things that we have to bear in mind when we think
of knowledge connectivity are:


The content generation, which is the responsibility of State Agricultural

Universities (SAUs) and ICAR institutions, supplemented partly by private
sector agencies, and
Transmission of the knowledge to the end users.


Some of the shift which are required in R & D to face the new challenges in
agriculture are listed below:
i) A shift from general farming to precision farming with emphasis on ecofriendly, cost effective technologies and quality improvement.
ii) Productivity to profitability.
iii) Subsistence farming to commercial agriculture and commercial horticulture.
iv) Export oriented agriculture, horticulture, animal and fish production.
v) Diversification of agriculture and alternate land use.
vi) Commodity to farming systems.
vii) Production technologies to pre-and post harvest technologies, agro-processing,
value addition, new product development and by-product and total production
viii) Conservation of bio-diversity, agro-diversity, eco-system and enhancement.
ix) Organic farming, total recycling of organic materials, farm and crop wastes.
x) Quality seed production and export of seeds.
xi) Provision of institutional credit on easy terms of lending at affordable rates of
interest; say 3 or less than 3 per cent; meeting 80 per cent of farmers /
credit needs, with facility to draw the amount at will as in case of ATM for
bank customers.
xii) Policy reforms and enabling procedures to sustain agriculture and farmers.
The other issues that should be addressed and considered seriously are: sanitary
and phyto-sanitary measures, TRIPS, patenting, development of Codex alimentarius
standards for food products, protection of plant varieties and farmers rights.
The advances made in frontier technologies such as information, communication,
space, remote sensing, post-harvest and biotechnologies have to be harnessed in the field
of agriculture.
New Breed of Farm Graduates and Agri-technologists
The issues listed under R & D in above should reflect in the curriculum of
agricultural education. Also, the avenues for public sector employment are virtually dried
and there will be more openings and better avenues with the private sector. There is also a
need for women and youth empowerment programmes. Agricultural Universities should
produce entrepreneurs, and job providers rather than job seekers. There should be an
`end to end technology mission approach in agricultural education. Therefore, the
universities need to produce a new breed of farm graduates who can live in the villages


along with the farmers, understand their problems, their socio-economic conditions and
resource base, render timely advice, provide cost reduction technologies and new skills,
marketing strategies and management skills. We require professionals, technologists and
technocrats but not mere graduates or post-graduates. Farmers, farm graduates, farm
labour need continued training in knowledge and upgradation of skills. Certificate, diploma,
job and enterprise oriented courses are the need of the hour to produce grass root level
workers. These courses have become more attractive and popular than the regular degree
programmes. Private sector entrepreneurs are showing special preference for them.
Hence, the old degree programmes, courses and curricula should undergo major
restructuring if our farm graduates have to fit into the new paradigms. Farmwomen and
rural youth need skill and enterprise oriented training and equipped with gadgets to reduce
drudgery and improve work efficiency. This would increase productivity and enhance
quality. They should be educated on all aspects relating to post-harvest technologies, value
addition and byproduct Utilization.
Had the country adopted Dr. S. Radha Krishnan Committees Recommendations and
implemented the concept of Rural Universities instead of the Land Grant Model
Agricultural Universities established since 1960, the required manpower would have been
available to meet the present day challenges. We have missed the bus and we have to
make good the loss at the earliest opportunity.
Agri-Knowledge Connectivity
Having agreed that agriculture plays a key role in rural development and
transforming India into a Developed Nation by 2020, the research output i.e. technologies
and knowledge generated by the universities and the Indian Council of Agricultural
Research should reach the end users i.e. farmers, industries, NGOs, voluntary organizers,
entrepreneurs, government departments without loss of time, loss of content and quality.
Transfer of Technology or Extension was the exclusive domain of government departments
till recent times and several models have been tried with varying successes. With the
establishment of Agricultural Universities (since 1960) and entry of private sector seed,
fertilizer, pesticide industries, NGOs and voluntary organizations there is a qualitative
change in the sense that these organizations have also undertaken extension work in a
limited way. Notwithstanding the efforts of all these agencies, it is virtually impossible to
reach and contact each and every farmer or even the farm holding, numbering more than
106 millions as per 1991 census, living in more than 5,80,000 villages. But, equity and
justice requires that we should ensure that the technologies the wheels of development,
should reach the stakeholders, particularly the unreached. There are several ways and
means to do this, if there is a will to do. Media, both print and electronic, NGOs, voluntary
organizations, the entrepreneurs, input supply agencies, bankers etc., also can help to
transmit the knowledge to the users.


Knowledge Connectivity ANGRAU Model

In the Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, with which I was associated
since its establishment in 1964, more importantly as Zonal Director of Research at RARS,
Lam (Guntur), as the Director of Research and Vice-Chancellor in the past 22 years, we
have introduced and tried several innovations/models along with my colleague scientists
and Deans and Directors with good success. These are abstracted below (the details will
be available, on request, from the Director of Extension, Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural
University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad)
Wings of University Extension Innovative Programmes
1. District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centres
(DAATTCs) These are 22 in number, one for each of the 22 rural districts,
presently manned by a multi-disciplinary team of 4 Agricultural Scientists as a
link between University on the one side and farmers, departmental extension
staff, private sector, NGOs and voluntary agencies on the other, for on the spot
diagnosis, treatment, advice, trainings, conducting Melas, Exhibitions and to
implement RAWEP, RHSWEP.
2. Village Adoption Programme in operation in 50 villages, w.e.f 1998, one village
each by the major and medium research stations and colleges with an objective
of overall development of the village utilizing Farmer Scientist linkages in
technology transfer, the villages serving as windows.


3. Agricultural Information and Communication Centre (AI & CC) in operation

since 1969, responsible for content of generation, processing and dissemination
of technologies to stake holders through publications (pamphlets, leaflets,
folders, bulletins, books, newsletters, Journal of Research ANGRAU), press and
AI & CC carved niche in the hearts of farmers, extension staff, NGOs and
others through the publication of:

Vyavasaya Panchangam A Farmers Almanac updated yearly.


Illustrative Diagnostic Bulletins for major crops and commodities for

field diagnosis of pests, diseases, deficiency disorders and problems, for
use by farmers and extension workers.


Crop Strategies and Contingency Plans for AP, every year.


Answering farmers queries, questions and doubts

4. Extension Education Institute (Regional), for training of middle level extension

personnel of the states of AP, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa,
Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshwadeep, functioning since 1962.
5. Agricultural Market Committee (AMC) Level Farmers Training Programmes
conducted by the scientists of the University at 276 AMCs to educate and train
the farmers, both in Kharif and Rabi seasons, on various aspects of production,
protection, processing, quality, cost reduction technologies and sensitize
farmers on WTO aspects to reach about 1,20,000 farmers every year.
6. Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs of ICAR) a grass root level institution for
imparting skill oriented training to farmers, farm women, rural youth, organizing
short and long term vocational programmes and income generating
enterprises/activities at 10 stations. There is a similar setup in Farmers
Training Centres under the Dept of Agriculture in each of the 23 districts to
give off-farm training to farmers in the villages, which also can effectively be
used for knowledge connectivity.
7. Institution Village Linkage Programme (IVLP-TAR) of ICAR, Technology
Assessment and Refinement for rain fed Agro-eco system in operation under
IVLP serving as window for technologies generated by the scientists.
8. Agricultural Technology and Information Centre (ATIC) Functioning since
1.1.1999 A Single Window delivery system for technologies, products, linking
the various units of research institution involved in problem solving, decision
making, supply of seeds, planting materials and feed back from the farmers.
9. Diagnostic Services Teams of scientists in each of the 22 rural districts
conducting diagnostic surveys for malady remedy-work, along with extension
staff, farmers during crop season (both kharif rabi), render on the spot


advice and give advance forecasts of pests and diseases in operation since
10. Kisan Melas, Exhibitions and Fairs conducted every year at all the major
research stations and colleges are a big attraction for farmers. These provide
opportunities to know the latest technologies, see live demonstrations, interact
with scientists, exchange ideas with experiences of other farmers, various
agencies, participate in quiz, question answer sessions, purchase of
publications, books, seeds, implements, planting materials etc.
11. Mandal-wise Farming Situation-wise Cropping Plans: For each of the 1100
mandals, incorporating existing crops, cropping systems, their competitiveness,
comparative advantage, management practices and alternatives in the context
of WTO to make agriculture profitable and sustainable, prepared and
Harnessing IT and Electronic Media
IT and electronic media, harnessed very effectively. - Electronic media and IT in
extensive use in ANGRAU since mid 1960s (All India Radio) and 1998 (TV programmes).
The programmes are innovative and introduced for the first time by any Agricultural
University for the benefit of farmers.
These are:

Vyavasaya Soochanalu Over All India Radio every day

for 10 minutes from 6.50 to 7.00 pm covering the whole state of Andhra


Distance Education in Agriculture - Introduced for the

first time on 2.10.1998 in collaboration with ETV channel, twice a week for 15
minutes on Tuesday and Fridays televising production and enterprise oriented
programmes for farmers under the banner Annadatha Velugubata, as distance


Rythu Mitra An innovative Farm Telecast, daily for one

hour between 6 and 7 pm through TEJA TV channel in collaboration with DOA
and GOAP, w.e.f. 6.8.2001. The programme has the following components:

6 to 6.30 pm Pre- recorded (Canned) programmes, usually 3 to

10 mts (agriculture, horticulture, animal fisheries etc) duration on
aspects of production, processing, pests, diseases, management,
problems and action plans.


6.30 to 6.35 pm Agricultural News - Weather, pests, diseases

forecasts, problems and solutions.



6.35 to 7.00 pm Live phone-in programme for Farmers

Scientists interactions two-way audio and one-way video programme.
An Electronic Media Wing with 5 scientists was established during
2001 exclusively for this purpose to promote e-extension.

d) Agricultural Call Centre - Established during July 2003, (first in the country)
by GOAP, deploying 16 scientists of ANGRAU and 10 Officers of DOA. The
centre works from 8 am to 8 pm, during which farmers from any corner of the
state can interact with the scientists, ask questions, get clarifications and
answers to their problems on toll-free call. It was a big success. Govt. of
India started a similar programme for the entire nation under the banner
e) Video conferencing and Crop Escorts - The Honble Chief Minister of AP
conducts video conference on all aspects relating to agriculture every week on
Friday (till now) with district officials, Rythu Mithra Groups (several thousands
in numbers) during which farmers interact with Ministers, Dept Officers,
Scientists of ANGRAU on Virtual Village Concept to get feed back on
programme implementation issues and problems, have technology backup and
solutions from scientists, for which the University identified Principal
Scientists as CROP ESCORTS, who are supported by 3 scientist experts. Crop
Escorts work in liaison with Dept Officials, DAATTCs, and Agricultural Research
Stations on upto-date on hand information.
The Directorate of Extension, ANGRAU has produced hundreds of videotapes and
interactive CDs on various aspects of crops, animals, fishes, home science subjects and
supplied to the line Departments for mass multiplication and use at the village level and by
University Scientists for a similar purpose.
Through correspondence courses and distance learning and Agro-clinics introduced
by GOI, the knowledge connectivity can be further intensified.
Likewise, all Agricultural Universities in the country and ICAR institutions have
their own programmes of reaching the clients.
We should institutionalize these
programmes and establish enduring functional linkages.
Since several universities,
organizations and institutions will be involved in the process, to work in harmony, there
should be a mechanism to oversee their functioning and effective management for which
some nodal Agency/authority should be identified. Panchayati Raj Department, which is
funding and coordinating the rural development activities, is better equipped to serve as a
Nodal Authority at the national level. The ICAR can co-ordinate the activities of its own
institutions, while SAUs will undertake a similar exercise in respect of their research
stations and colleges. These can be linked to the National Nodal Authority.




1. To consider the lead questions (See below) & specify the role of individual
institutions to have a multi agency collaborative framework to provide knowledge
connectivity for PURA.
2. To seek suggestions on the overall design of the national workshop and other mini
feeder workshops

Session-wise Details
Date: 21.04.04
10.00 AM 10.45 AM

10.45 AM 11.00 AM

Venue: NIEPA
Inaugural Session

Prof. M. Mukhopadhyay


Prof. Sudhanshu Bhushan

Inaugural Address

Prof. V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai

Keynote Address on National


Prof. (Dr.) B.H. Briz Kishore


Lead Questions: Programme Structure and Institutional Mechanisms

What could be a workable model of Knowledge Connectivity for PURA? Anything to
derive from existing models like community college, rural university, etc.,?
Is it possible to reshape the rural colleges to play a pivotal role?
How could other structure like KVK, Community Polytechnics enable this?
What would be the policy supports needed from Government


11.00 AM 01.00 PM

Technical Session I

Prof. V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai

Introducing PURA

Prof. P.V. Indiresan

Background Note and Questions

for Discussion

Prof. T. Karunakaran

To be followed by Discussions
01.00 PM 02.00 PM


02.00 PM 04.00 PM

Technical Session II

Prof. Prem Vrat

Theme Coordinator:

Prof. M. Anandakrishnan

To be followed by Discussions
Lead Questions: Multi-agency Collaborative Framework
What would be the role of technical institutions in supporting PURA structures and
What would be the role of corporate sectors?
How to visualize an administrative umbrella framework under which the multi-agency
collaboration will be facilitated?
04.00 PM- 05.00 PM

Suggestions for the overall organization of National Workshop

and the Feeder Programmes

Expected Outcomes of the Meet:

To generate ideas on evolving a multi agency collaborative framework to help

knowledge connectivity to rural sector.

To visualize the role of various agencies with respect to technical, financial,

academic support to the PURA knowledge structures.





1. Prof. (Dr.) B.H. Briz Kishore
National Council of Rural
Institutes (NCRI)
Shakar Bhawan
Fateh Maidan Road
Hyderabad 500 004
Andhra Pradesh
2. Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai
University Grants Commission
Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg
New Delhi-110002
3. Prof. R. Natarajan
Indira Gandhi Sports Complex
I.P. Estate
New Delhi 110 002
4. Prof. M. Anandakrishnan
Former Vice Chancellor
Anna University &
Former Vice-Chairman of
Fifth Main Road
Kasturba Nagar, Adyar
Chennai 600 021
Tamil Nadu
5. Prof Rajesh Anand
JS Vocational Education Cell
University Grants Commission
Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg
New Delhi-110002



E Mail


23238858 (O)

323 6288

23392553 (O)

M: 9444051133

24916291 (O)


6. Dr. P. L. Dhar
Professor (Mech. Engineering)
and Head of National Research
Center for Value Education in
Engineering (NRCVEE)
IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas
New Delhi 110016
7. Dr. (Ms.) Santosh Satya
Professor & Head
Centre for Rural Development
and Appropriate Technology
IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas
New Delhi 110016
8. Dr. B. N. Jain
Deptt. of Computer Science
IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas
New Delhi 110016
9. Dr. Prem Vrat
IIT Roorkee
10 Dr.Subba Rao
Ex Vice Chancellor
(Acharya N.G.Ranga Agriculture
1-10-315, Manovikas Nagar
Andhra Pradesh
11. Prof. S.Z. Haider
Joint Director
Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central
Institute of Vocational Edu.
131, Zone-II, M.P. Nagar
12 Prof. Udipi Shrinivasa
SuTRA [Sustainable
Transformation of Rural Areas]
Department of Mathematics
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore 560012





(O) M:



080- 360 2435/

360 0080 / 360
2993 / 360
8635 (O);
98457 29295



13 Prof. Dayanand Dongaonkar,

Secretary General, AIU
Association of Indian
Universities, AIU House
16, Comd. Indrajit Gupta Marg
(Kotla Marg)
New Delhi - 110002
14 Prof. H. Ramachandran
Indian Applied Manpower
Research (IAMR)
Plot No.25, Sector A-7
Institutional Area,
New Delhi-110040
15 Brig (Dr.) R. Siva Kumar
Director NRDMS DST and
Director, National Spatial Data
East Block VII level V,
R. K. Puram,
New Delhi 110066
16 Dr. Anita Priyadarshini
Dy. Director (Acad.)
Nation Institute of Open
Schooling (NIOS)
B-31B, Kailash Colony, New Delhi.
17 Prof. P. V. Krishan Bhatt
Hony. Coordinator (IGNCA)
109, J. C. Road,
18 Prof. G. D. Sharma
Consortium for Educational
Communication (CEC)
Aruna Asaf Ali Marg,
New Delhi 110 016
19 Shri. Sanjeev Kumar
Director of Higher Education
Ministry of HRD
Shastri Bhawan
New Delhi
20 Dr. Debendra Nath Dash
Ministry of HRD
Shastri Bhawan
New Delhi











011 23388632

011 23388632


21 Prof. T. Karunakaran
Vice Chancellor,
Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot
Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya
22 Dr. A. K. Sharan
Deputy Director,
A-1, Baba Khadak Singh Marg
New Delhi.
23 Dr. S. K. Ghosh
Associate Professor
Deptt. of Civil Engineering
IIT Roorkee
24 Prof. P. V. Indiresan
Former Director, IIT Madras
B-57, Hill View Apartments
Vasant Vihar
New Delhi-110057
25 Dr. Bhoop Singh
Department of Science and
Technlogy Bhavan
New Delhi 110016
26 Dr. Ramesh Chandra
Sr. Executive Officer
National Institute of Open
Schooling (NIOS)
B-31B, Kailash Colony
New Delhi.


TEL: 23363777,






NIEPA Faculty:

Prof. Pradeep Kumar Joshi



Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay

Joint Director,NIEPA


Prof. Sudhanshu Bhushan

Sr. Fellow and Head
Higher Education Unit


Dr. Y. Josephin
Associate Fellow
Educational Administration Unit


Dr. R. S. Tyagi
Associate Fellow
Educational Administration Unit


Dr. Neeru Snehi

Associate Fellow
Educational Planning Unit


Dr. Madhumita Bandhopadhyay

Associate Fellow
Educational Policy Unit


Ms. Kavita Saxena

Research and Training Associate
Higher Education Unit


Mr. Vijay Vrat Arya

Project Assistant
Higher Education Unit


10. Mr. Subrata Kundu

Project Assistant
Higher Education Unit
11. Mr. Nilay Ranjan
Project Assistant
Higher Education Unit
12. Mr. D. Kamaraj
Higher Education Unit