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IW-CAAD 2004

Understanding and Using

Finite Element Analysis


July 19-21, 2004
Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software

Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand

Understanding and Using

Finite Element Analysis

Buddhi S. Shrama

The Objective

Finite Element Analysis

To understand the fundamentals of the


Finite Element Method and the Finite Element
Analysis
To apply the Finite Element Analysis Tools for
Modeling and Analysis of Structures
Use SAP2000 as Tool for Finite Element
Modeling and Analysis of Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Program

What is FEM and Why it is needed


Fundamental concepts in FEM and FEA
Concept of Stiffness
Finite Elements and their Usage
Constructing Finite Element Models
Applying Loads to FE Models
Interpreting FE Results
Modeling Different Types of Structures using FE
Intro to Non-linear and Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

What is Finite Element Analysis


and Why do We Need It!

The Structural System

Finite Element Analysis

STRUCTURE
EXCITATION
Loads
Vibrations
Settlements
Thermal Changes

pv

RESPONSES
Displacements
Strains
Stresses
Stress Resultants

ACECOMS, AIT

The Need For Analysis

Finite Element Analysis

We need to determine the


Response of the Structure to
Excitations

Analysis

so that:
We can ensure that the structure
can sustain the excitation with an
acceptable level of response

Design

ACECOMS, AIT

Analysis of Structures

Finite Element Analysis

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Real Structure is governed by Partial
Differential Equations of various order
pv

Direct solution is only possible for:


Simple geometry
Simple Boundary
Simple Loading.
ACECOMS, AIT

The Need for Structural Model


STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

Finite Element Analysis

EXCITATION
Loads
Vibrations
Settlements
Thermal Changes

pv

Displacements
Strains
Stress
Stress Resultants
Structural
Model

ACECOMS, AIT

The Need for Modeling

Finite Element Analysis

A - Real Structure cannot be Analyzed:


It can only be Load Tested to determine
response

B - We can only analyze a


Model of the Structure
C - We therefore need tools to Model the
Structure and to Analyze the Model
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Method and FEA


Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Finite Element Analysis

A discretized solution to a continuum


problem using FEM

Finite Element Method (FEM)


A numerical procedure for solving (partial)
differential equations associated with field
problems, with an accuracy acceptable to
engineers

ACECOMS, AIT

From Classical to FEM

Equilibrium

Finite Element Analysis

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Partial Differential
Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Classical

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

(Principle of Virtual Work)

K = Stiffness
r = Response
R = Loads
ACECOMS, AIT

Simplified Structural System


Deformations (u)

Loads (F)

Finite Element Analysis

Fv

(Stiffness)

F
Equilibrium Equation

F=Ku
ACECOMS, AIT

The Total Structural System


STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

Finite Element Analysis

EXCITATION
pv

Static
Dynamic

Elastic
Inelastic

Linear
Nonlinear

Eight types of equilibrium equations are possible!


ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Main Equilibrium Equations


1. Linear-Static
Ku F

Elastic

2. Linear-Dynamic

Elastic

Mu(t ) Cu(t ) Ku(t ) F (t )

3. Nonlinear - Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Elastic OR Inelastic

Mu(t ) Cu(t ) Ku(t ) F (t ) NL F (t )


ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Basic Analysis Types


Excitation

Structure

Response

Basic Analysis Type

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Special Analysis Types

Finite Element Analysis

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Steady State Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

The Finite Element Analysis Process


Engineer

Evaluate Real Structure

Finite Element Analysis

Create Structural Model


Discretize Model in FE
Software

Solve FE Model
Interpret FEA Results

Engineer

Physical significance of Results

ACECOMS, AIT

The Fundamentals
In Finite Element Method

Finite Element Analysis

From Continuum to Structure


From Structure To Structural Model

ACECOMS, AIT

Solid Structure - Model

Finite Element Analysis

3D SOLIDS

Discretization

Simplification
(geometric)

3D-CONTINUM
MODEL
(Governed by partial
differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL
OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by either
partial or total differential equations)

DISCRETE MODEL
OF STRUCTURE
(Governed by algebraic
equations)
ACECOMS, AIT

Equilibrium

Finite Element Analysis

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Partial Differential
Equations

Structure

Assumptions

Continuum

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

(Principle of Virtual Work)

K = Stiffness
r = Response
R = Loads
ACECOMS, AIT

Continuum Vs Structure

Finite Element Analysis

A continuum extends in all direction, has infinite


particles, with continuous variation of material
properties, deformation characteristics and stress
state
A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an
assemblage of substructures, components and
members

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Physical Categorization of Structures


Structures can be categorized in many ways.
For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall
physical behavior can be used as basis of
categorization

Cable or Tension Structures


Skeletal or Framed Structures
Surface or Spatial Structures
Solid Structures
Mixed Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Structure, Member, Element


Structure can be considered as an assemblage of
Physical Components called Members

Finite Element Analysis

Slabs, Beams, Columns, Footings, etc.

Physical Members can be modeled by using one


or more Conceptual Components called
Elements
1D elements, 2D element, 3D elements
Frame element, plate element, shell element, solid
element, etc.

ACECOMS, AIT

Structural Members
Continuum

Regular Solid
(3D)

Finite Element Analysis

y
Plate/Shell (2D)
x z
t<<(x,z)

z
x

Beam (1D)
b h
L>>(b,h)
h

z
x

L
b

Dimensional Hierarchy of Structural Members

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Reference System


To convert continuum to structures, the first step
is to define a finite number of reference
dimensions
The Four Dimensional Reference System:
Three Space Dimensions, x, y, z
One Time Dimension, t

The Entire Structural System is a function of


Space and Time
S (x, y, z, t)

ACECOMS, AIT

Global Axis and Local Axis

Finite Element Analysis

Global Axis used to reference the


overall structure and to locate its
components:
Also called the Structure Axis

Local Axis used to reference the


quantities on part of a structure or a
member or an element:
Also called the Member Axis or
Element Axis

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The General Global Coordinate System


The global coordinate system is a threedimensional, right-handed, rectangular coordinate
system.
The three axes, denoted X, Y, and Z, are mutually
perpendicular and satisfy the right-hand rule.
The location and orientation of the global system
are arbitrary. The Z direction is normally upward,
but this is not required.
All other coordinates systems are converted or
mapped back and forth to General Coordinate
System

ACECOMS, AIT

Polar Coordinate Systems

Finite Element Analysis

Polar coordinates include


Cylindrical CR-CA-CZ
coordinates
Spherical SB-SA-SR
coordinates.

Polar coordinate systems


are always defined with
respect to a rectangular XY-Z system.

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Local Coordinate Systems


Each part (joint, element, or constraint) of the
structural model has its own local co-ordinate
system used to define the properties, loads, and
response for that part.
In general, the local co-ordinate systems may
vary from joint to joint, element to element, and
constraint to constraint

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Local Axis and Natural Axis


The elements and
variation of fields can
often be described best
in terms Natural
Coordinates
Natural coordinates may
be linear or curvilinear
Shape functions can are
used to associate the
local system and natural
system

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Primary Relationships

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Basic Structural Quantities

Loads
Actions
Deformations
Strains
Stresses
Stress Resultants

The main focus of


Structural Mechanics is to
develop relationships
between these quantities

The main focus of FEM is


solve these relationships
numerically

ACECOMS, AIT

Mechanics Relationships

Finite Element Analysis

Load

Action

Stress Resultant

Deformation

Stress

Strain

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Primary Relationships

Load Action Relationship


Action Deformation Relationship
Deformation Strain Relationship
Strain Stress Relationship
Stress Stress Resultant Relationship
Stress Resultant Action Relationship

Most of these relationships can defined


mathematically, numerically and by testing

ACECOMS, AIT

Action - Deformation Relationship


This involves two types of relationships

Finite Element Analysis

Deformations produced due to given


Actions
PL
Example:

AE

Actions needed to produce or restrain


certain Deformation
Example:
EA
P

Moment-Curvatures, Load-Deflection
Curves are samples of this relationship
The represents to Element Stiffness

P
P

ACECOMS, AIT

Simplified Examples of Action-Deformation


L3
v
6 EI

3M

2V

V
M

Finite Element Analysis

PL

AE

L
2 EI

2M

ACECOMS, AIT

Deformation Strain Relationship

Finite Element Analysis

In general, strain is the first derivative of


deformation

Basic Deformation and Corresponding Strains are:

Shortening
Curvature
Shearing
Twisting

Axial Strain
Axial Strain
Shear Strain
Shear Strain + Axial Strain

Total Strain is summation of strains from different


deformations
ACECOMS, AIT

Strain Stress Relationship

Finite Element Analysis

The resistance of the material to strain, derived


from the stiffness of the material particles
For a general Isotropic Material

1 v v v 0 0 0
v 1 v v 0 0 0
x

x

v v 1 v 0 0 0 y
y


z

1

2
v
0 0 0
E
0 0 z


2
xy 1 v 1 2v
xy
1 2v

0 0 0 0
0 yz
yz
2

zx

1 2v zx
0 0 0 0 0

kfc

fy

For 2D, Isotropic Material, V=0

xx E x

xy G xy
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Stress Strain Components


The Hook's law is
simplified form of
Stress-Strain
relationship
Ultimately the six
stress and strain
components can be
represented by 3
principal summations

yy

y
x

yz

xy

zy
zz

yx

zx

xz

xx

At any point in a continuum, or solid,


the stress state can be completely
defined in terms of six stress
components and six corresponding
strains.
ACECOMS, AIT

Secondary Relationships
Global Axis - Local Axis

Finite Element Analysis

Geometric Transformations Matrices

Local Axis - Natural Axis


Shape Functions
Jacobian Matrix

ACECOMS, AIT

What are Shape Functions

Finite Element Analysis

Shape Functions or Interpolation Functions provide a


means of computing value of any quantity (field) at some
point based on the value specified at specific locations
Shape Functions are used in FEM to relate the values ate
Nodes to those within the Element
Nodal Displacements to Element Deformation
Nodal Stresses to Stresses within the Element

Shape Functions can be in 1D, 2D or in 3D


Shape Functions can be Liner or Polynomials

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

One Dimensional Shape Functions

N1 (s) 0.5 s (1 s)
S =-1
S=0

S=0

S =+1

N1 (s) (1 s)

S=1

N 2 (s) (1 s)(1 s)
N3 (s) 0.5 s (1 s)

N1 (s) s
S is the Natural Coordinate System

w( s) N1 ( s) w1 N 2 ( s) w2 N 3 ( s) w3
3

w( s) N i wi
i 1

ACECOMS, AIT

The Jacobian Matrix

Finite Element Analysis

Jacobian Matrix relates the derivative of Nodal


Displacement, directly with Element Strains
The Strain is Derivative of Displacement
Displacements are specified on nodes, in Element
Local Axis
For computing K. strains are needed in element in
Natural Coordinates
Shape Functions relate Nodal Displacements with
Element Displacements

N 3
N 2
w N1
J

w1
w2
w3
s
s
s
s
J N i , s wi
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Concept of DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Concept of DOF


In a continuum, each point can move in infinite
ways
In Structure, movement of each point is
represented or resolved in limited number of
ways, called Degrees Of Freedom (DOF)
The DOF of range from 1 to 7 depending on type
and level of structural model and the element
being considered
Global and Local DOF have different meaning
and significance
ACECOMS, AIT

The Basic Six DOF


Three Translations along the
reference axis

Finite Element Analysis

Dx, Dy, Dz

Three Rotations about the


reference axis
Rx, Ry, Rz

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Seven Degrees of Freedom


The General Beam
Element may have 7
degrees of freedom
The seventh degree
is Warping
Warping is out-of
plane distortion of
the beam crosssection

ry
uy
y

u x rx
x
z
uz
rz
wz

Each section on a beam


member can have seven
Degrees Of Freedom
(DOF) with respect to its
local axis.

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Actions and DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Complete DOF Picture

uz Axial deformation Axial strain Axial stress


ux Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
uy Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
rz Torsion Shear strain Shear stress
r y Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
rx Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
wz Warping Axial strain Axial stress

ACECOMS, AIT

Global Structural DOF

Finite Element Analysis

Only 3 DOF are really needed at Global Level


The deformation of the structure can be defined
completely in terms of 3 translations of points with
respect to Global Axis

Rotations may be defined arbitrarily at various


locations for convenience of modeling and
interpretation

ACECOMS, AIT

Local DOF and Natural DOF

Finite Element Analysis

DOF can be defined for local movements of joints


and elements in 3 Orthogonal reference system

Natural DOF can be defined in terms of Natural


Coordinates System of the element which may be
orthogonal or curvilinear
Relationship between Global, Local and Natural
DOF is established through Transformation
Matrices
ACECOMS, AIT

Types of DOF in SAP2000


Active
the displacement is computed during the analysis

Finite Element Analysis

Restrained
the displacement is specified, and the corresponding
reaction is computed during the analysis

Constrained
the displacement is determined from the
displacements at other degrees of freedom

Null
the displacement does not affect the structure and is
ignored by the analysis

Unavailable
The displacement has been explicitly excluded from
the analysis
ACECOMS, AIT

Constraints and Restraints


Restraints:

Finite Element Analysis

Direct limits on the DOF


External Boundary Conditions
Fixed Support , Support Settlement

Constraints
Linked or dependent limits on DOF
Internal linkages within the structure, in addition to
or in place of normal connections
Rigid Diaphragm, Master-Slave DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

Body Constraints

Finite Element Analysis

A Body Constraint causes all of its constrained joints to


move together as a three-dimensional rigid body.
All constrained joints are connected to each other by rigid
links and cannot displace relative to each other.
This Constraint can be used to:
Model rigid connections, such as where several beams
and/or columns frame together
Connect together different parts of the structural model
that were defined using separate meshes
Connect Frame elements that are acting as eccentric
stiffeners to Shell elements
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Constraints in SAP2000
A constraint is a set of two or more constrained
joints.
The displacements of each pair of joints in the
constraint are related by constraint equations.
The types of behavior that can be enforced by
constraints are:
Rigid-body behavior
Equal-displacement behavior
Symmetry and anti-symmetry conditions

ACECOMS, AIT

Constraints in SAP2000

Finite Element Analysis

Rigid-body behavior
Rigid Body: fully rigid for all displacements
Rigid Diaphragm: rigid for membrane behavior in a
plane
Rigid Plate: rigid for plate bending in a plane
Rigid Rod: rigid for extension along an axis
Rigid Beam: rigid for beam bending on an axis

ACECOMS, AIT

The Concept of
Stiffness

Finite Element Analysis

What is Stiffness ?
In structural terms, stiffness
may be defined as
Resistance to Deformation
So for each type of
deformation, there is a
corresponding stiffness
Stiffness can be considered
or evaluated at various levels
Stiffness is also the
constant in the ActionDeformation Relationship

For Linear Response

uF
Ku F
F
K
u

ACECOMS, AIT

The Structure Stiffness


Stress/Strain

Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry

Finite Element Analysis

EA, EI

Section Stiffness

Member Geometry

EA/L

Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry
Structure Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Structure Stiffness
The overall resistance
of the structures to over
all loads, called the
Global Structure
Stiffness.
Derived from the sum
of stiffness of its
members, their
connectivity and the
boundary or the
restraining conditions.
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Member and Element Stiffness


The resistance of each
Element to local actions
called the Element Stiffness
This is derived from the
cross-section stiffness and
the geometry of the
Element.
In FEM, the Member
Stiffness can be derived
from stiffness of Elements
used to model the Member

ACECOMS, AIT

Beam Element Cross-section Stiffness

Finite Element Analysis

The resistance of the cross-section to unit strains. This is derived


from the cross-section geometry and the stiffness of the
materials from which it is made.
For each of degree of freedom, there is a corresponding
stiffness, and a corresponding cross-section property

uz Cross-section area, Ax
ux Shear Area along x, SAx
uy Shear Area along y, SAy
rz Torsional Constant, J
rx Moment of Inertia, Ixx
r y Moment of Inertia, Iyy
wz Warping Constant, Wzz or Cw

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Computing Element Stiffness


Assume Nodal Displacements (Deformations)
Determine Deformations within the element using
Shape Functions
Determine the Strains within the element using
Strain-Displacement Relationship
Determine Stress within the element using
Stress-Strain Relationship
Use the principle of Virtual Work and integrate the
product of stress and strain over the volume of
the element to obtain the Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Deriving the Basic Stiffness Equation


Internal Work

I .W dv

External Work

E.W F

I .W dv

Finite Element Analysis

Stress-Strain

D
Strain-Disp.

I .W T D dv
V

I .W T B T D B dv
V

I .W B D B dv
V

Equilibrium

E.W I .W
T

F B D B dv
V

F B D B dv
V

F K

ACECOMS, AIT

Stiffness Equation: An Example


E

D
B

Finite Element Analysis


DE
1
B
L

L
K
V

K B D B dv
T

1
1
E
dv
L
L

E
L2

dv

E
K 2 AL
L
EA
K
L

EA

ACECOMS, AIT

The Matrices in FEM


Global Nodal Deformations
T-Matrix
Global-Local Cords.

Finite Element Analysis

Element Nodal Deformations


N-Matrix
Shape Functions

Deformation in Element Space


B-Matrix
Strain-Deforrmation

Strain In Element Space


D-Matrix
Stress-Strain

Stress in Element Space

ACECOMS, AIT

What is Stiffness Matrix

Finite Element Analysis

The actions and deformations of different DOF in


an element are not independent
One action may produce more than one
deformations
One Deformation may be caused by more than one
Action

A Stiffness Matrix relates various Deformation


and actions within an Element
A Stiffness Matrix is generalized expression of
overall element stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Element Stiffness Matrix


r5

r2

r3

r6

r1

r4

Finite Element Analysis

Node1

Node2

R1

K11

K12

K13

K14

K15

K16

r1

R2

K21

K22

K23

K24

K25

K26

r2

R5

K51

K52

K53

K54

K55

K56

r5

R6

K61

K62

K63

K64

K65

K66

r6

31
41

32
42

33
43

34
44

35
45

36
46

3
4

ACECOMS, AIT

A 2D Frame Element Stiffness


U2

U2

U3

U3

E ,A ,I ,L
U1

U1

Finite Element Analysis

Node1

Node2

(P1)1

EA/L

-EA/L

(U1)1

(P2)1

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

-12EI/L3

6EI/L2

(U2)1

(P3)1

6EI/L2

4EI/L

-6EI/L2

2EI/L

(U3)1

(P1)2 =

-EA/L

EA/L

(U1)2

(P2)2

-12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

(U2)2

(P3)2

6EI/L2

2EI/L

-6EI/L2

4EI/L

(U3)2

( U1)1

(U2)1

(U3)1

(U1)2

(U2)2

(U3)3

ACECOMS, AIT

Direct Stiffness Method and FEM

Finite Element Analysis

Basically there is no conceptual difference


between DSM and FEM. DSM is a special case
of the general FEM
Direct Stiffness Method (DSM)
The terms of the element stiffness matrix are defined
explicitly and in close form (formulae)
It is mostly applicable to 1D Elements (beam, truss)

Finite Element Method


The element stiffness matrix terms are computed by
numerical integration of the general stiffness
equation

ACECOMS, AIT

Isoparametric Elements

Finite Element Analysis

Introduction
In real world, the problem domains are such that
they have no proper shape
It is difficult to find the exact solution of the real
problems
Isoparametric elements are used to discretize a
complex shape problem domain into a number of
geometrical shapes
Analysis is carried out on the simple discretized
shapes and then the result is integrated over the
actual problem domain to get the approximate
numerical solution
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

1D Isoparametric Shape
Consider the example of a bar element
For simplification, let the bar lie in x-axis
First, relate the Global coordinate X to natural
coordinate system with variable r,
Y

x2
x1

U1

U2

X, U
r = -1

r = +1

1 r 1
ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
Transformation is given by:
1
1
X (1 r ) X 1 (1 r ) X 2
2
2

Finite Element Analysis

h1

x2
x1

U1

U2

X, U
r = -1

r = +1

h2

1
1
are interpolation of
h1 (1 r ) and h2 (1 r )
shape functions
2
2

The bar global displacements are shown by:


2

U hiU i
i 1

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

Finite Element Analysis

Element Strains can be calculated by:


dU dr

dr dX
dU U 2 U1

dr
2
dX X 2 X 1 L
and

dr
2
2

Where L is the length of the bar

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
Therefore, we have

Finite Element Analysis

U 2 U1

Bu
So, Strain displacement transformation
matrix can be shown as:

1
B 1 1
L
ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
The Stiffness Matrix is given by:

K BT EB dV

Finite Element Analysis

Where E is the Elasticity constant


Therefore, we have

AE
K 2
L

1
1 1 1 1 Jdr
1

Where,
A = area of the bar
J = Jacobian
relating an element
length in the global
coordinate system
to an element
length in the
natural coordinate
system

dX J dr
L
so J
2
ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
Therefore, K is evaluated as

Finite Element Analysis

Substituting the value of r from

AE 1 1
K
L 1 1
And put in

1
1
X (1 r ) X 1 (1 r ) X 2
2
2

To get

rX

U hiU i
i 1

( X 1 X 2) / 2
L/2

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Example 01
Derive
Interpolation Matrix H
Strain Displacement
Interpolation Matrix B
Jacobian Operator J
for the three-node element
as shown in figure
1

2
X, U

r = -1
x1

r=0
L/2

r = +1
L/2

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

Finite Element Analysis

Finding the interpolation


functions of the given
element

r
h1 (1 r )
2

+1

r = -1

r=0

+1
r = -1

r=0

r
h2 (1 r )
2

r = +1

+1

r = -1

h3 1 r

r = +1

r=0

r = +1

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

Finite Element Analysis

So,

H h1 h2 h3

The strain displacement


matrix B is obtained by

dH
dr
1
1

B J 1 ( r ) ( r ) 2r
2
2

B J 1

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01
For Jacobian Operator
x h1 x1 h2 x2 h3 x3
r
r
L
(1 r ) x1 (1 r )( x1 L) (1 r 2 )( x1 )
2
2
2
L L
x x1 r
2 2
dx
J
dr
L
J
2
L
2
J 1 ; det J
2
L

Finite Element Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

Finite Element Analysis

Linear and quadratic two-dimensional


isoparametric finite elements use the same shape
function for specification of the element shape
and interpolation of the displacement field
3

1
3
2

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

2D Isoparametric Element
Shape functions Ni are
defined in local
coordinates

, (1 , 1)

The same shape


functions are used for
interpolations of
displacements of
coordinates

u N i ui ; v N i vi

x N i xi ; y N i yi

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

Finite Element Analysis

Shape functions for linear quadratic twodimensional isoparametric elements are shown
here
Linear Elements 4-node:

1
N i (1 o )(1 o )
4

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

Finite Element Analysis

Quadratic Elements 8-nodes


1
1
N i (1 o )(1 o ) (1 2 )(1 o )
4
4
1
(1 o )(1 2 ) i 1, 3, 5, 7
4
1
N i (1 2 )(1 o ) i 2, 6
2
1
N i (1 o )(1 2 ) i 4, 8
2

where

o i ;o i
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Example 02
Derive the expressions
needed for the calculation
of Stiffness Matrix of the
isoparametric 4-node
finite element shown in
the figure. Assume plane
stress or plane strain
conditions

y, v

or s

or r
y4

3
4

x4

x, u

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Finite Element Analysis

The four interpolation functions for the linear


quadratic isoparametric element are
1
h1 (1 r )(1 s )
4
1
h 2 (1 r )(1 s )
4
1
h 3 (1 r )(1 s )
4
1
h 4 (1 r )(1 s )
4

y, v

or s

or r
y4

3
4

x4

x, u

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
The coordinate interpolations for the element is given by
4

i 1

i 1

Finite Element Analysis

x hi xi ; y hi yi
Using the interpolation functions, the coordinate
interpolations for this element are
1
1
1
1
x (1 r )(1 s) x1 (1 r )(1 s) x2 (1 r )(1 s) x3 (1 r )(1 s) x4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
y (1 r )(1 s) y1 (1 r )(1 s) y2 (1 r )(1 s) y3 (1 r )(1 s) y4
4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
The displacement interpolations for the element is given
by
4

i 1

11

Finite Element Analysis

u hi ui ; v hi vi
Using the interpolation functions, the coordinate
interpolations for this element are
1
1
1
1
u (1 r )(1 s)u1 (1 r )(1 s)u2 (1 r )(1 s)u3 (1 r )(1 s)u4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
v (1 r )(1 s)v1 (1 r )(1 s)v2 (1 r )(1 s)v3 (1 r )(1 s)v4
4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
The element strains are given by

T xx yy xy

Finite Element Analysis

xx

u
v
u v
; yy ; xy

x
y
y x

To evaluate the displacement derivatives, we need to


evaluate

x
r r

x
s s

y
r x

y
s y

or

J
r
x

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Finite Element Analysis

where
x 1
1
1
1
(1 s ) x1 (1 s ) x2 (1 s ) x3 (1 s ) x4
r 4
4
4
4
x 1
1
1
1
(1 r ) x1 (1 r ) x2 (1 r ) x3 (1 s ) x4
s 4
4
4
4
y 1
1
1
1
(1 s ) y1 (1 s ) y2 (1 s ) y3 (1 s ) y4
r 4
4
4
4
y 1
1
1
1
(1 r ) y1 (1 r ) y2 (1 r ) y3 (1 r ) y4
s 4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
For any value of r and s

Finite Element Analysis

1 r 1 and 1 s 1
We can form the Jacobian matrix. Assuming we evaluate
J at r r and s s
i

x

1 r
J

y
s
at r ri and s s j
ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Finite Element Analysis

To evaluate the element strains, we use


u 1
1
1
1
(1 s )u1 (1 s)u2 (1 s )u3 (1 s )u4
r 4
4
4
4
u 1
1
1
1
(1 r )u1 (1 r )u2 (1 r )u3 (1 s )u4
s 4
4
4
4
v 1
1
1
1
(1 s )v1 (1 s)v2 (1 s)v3 (1 s )v4
r 4
4
4
4
v 1
1
1
1
(1 r )v1 (1 r )v2 (1 r )v3 (1 r )v4
s 4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Finite Element Analysis

Simplifying the above relations, we get


u
x
1 s 0 (1 s ) 0 (1 s ) 0 1 s 0
1
J 1
u

u
1

r
0
1

r
0

(
1

r
)
0

(
1

s
)
0
4

y
and
v
x
0 1 s 0 (1 s ) 0 (1 s ) 0 1 s
1
J 1
u

v
0
1

r
0
1

r
0

(
1

r
)
0

(
1

s
)
4

Where

u T u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4
where r ri and s s j
ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
Strain-displacement transformation is given by

Finite Element Analysis

ij Bij u
So, we can get

0
(1 s)
0
1 s
0
1 s 0 (1 s)
1
Bij 0 1 r 0
1 r
0
(1 r )
0 (1 r )
4
1 r 1 s 1 r (1 s) (1 r ) (1 s ) (1 r ) 1 s

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
Stiffness Matrix K is given by
K tij ij Fij

Finite Element Analysis

i, j

where Fij BijT CBij det J ij

In the above expressions, C is the material property


matrix, t is the thickness of the element at the sampling
point (r,s)

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Example 03
Calculate the
deflection uA
of the
structural
model shown

Z
U4

U3

U1

Bar with xsectional


area =
1cm2

6 cm
U6
U5

U2

0.1cm
U8

U7= uA

0.5 cm2 each

E= 30 x 106 N/cm2

6 cm

0.3
0.1cm
Section AA
A
8 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

Finite Element Analysis

By symmetry and boundary


conditions, we only need to
evaluate the stiffness coefficient
corresponding to uA
We know that

Z
U4

U3

U6

x
r
J
x
s

y
r

y
s

U1

Bar with xsectional


area =
1cm2

6 cm

U5

U2

U8
Y

U7= uA
E= 30 x 106 N/cm2

6 cm

0.3

A
8 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
So, we have

Finite Element Analysis

4 0
J

0
3

Now, calculating B

3(1 s )

1
B
...
0

48
4(1 r )

...

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
Stiffness K for an Area is,

K BT EB t det J dr ds
3(1 s )

E
1
3 (1 s )
(0.1)(12)dr ds

3
(
1

s
)
0

4
(
1

r
)

1 48 1 2

2(1 )(1 r )

1 1

Finite Element Analysis

K 1336996.34 N / cm
The stiffness of the truss is AE/L, or

(1)(30 X 106 )
k
3750000 N / cm
8

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
Hence,
Ktotal = 6.424 x 106 N/cm

Finite Element Analysis

Now, since P = Ku
Therefore, u = P/K

6000
4
u

9
.
34
X
10
cm
6
6.424 X 10

u 9.34 X 104 cm
ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element

Finite Element Analysis

A Shell element is used to model shell,


membrane, and plate behavior in planar and
three-dimensional structures
The membrane behavior uses an isoparametric
formulation that includes translational in-plane
stiffness components and a rotational stiffness
component in the direction normal to the plane of
the element.

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element
Axis 3

Finite Element Analysis

Axis 2

Face 3

J3

Axis 1

Face 2

J2
J4

Face 4

Face5 Bottom
Face6 Top

J1

Face 1

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Shell Elements
A simple quadrilateral Shell Element
Two dimensional plate bending and membrane
elements are combined to form a four-node shell
element
y

y
z

uy

ux

uy
uz

ux

Plate Bending Element

Membrane Element

Shell Element

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Elements

Finite Element Analysis

A simple quadrilateral Shell Element


A thin-plate (Kirchhoff) formulation is normally
used that neglects transverse shearing
deformation

A thick plate (Mindlin/Reissner) formulation can


also be chosen which includes the effects of
transverse shearing deformation

ACECOMS, AIT

What are
The Finite Elements
(in SAP2000)

Finite Element Analysis

Nodes and Finite Elements


The Finite Elements are discretized
representation of the continuous structure
Generally they correspond to the physical
structural components but sometimes dummy or
idealized elements my also be used
Elements behavior is completely defined within its
boundaries and is not directly related to other
elements
Nodes are imaginary points used describe
arbitrary quantities and serve to provide
connectivity across element boundaries

ACECOMS, AIT

Basic Categories of Finite Elements


1 D Elements (Beam type)
Only one dimension is actually modeled as a line, other
two dimensions are represented by stiffness properties

Finite Element Analysis

Can be used in 1D, 2D and 2D

2 D Elements (Plate type)


Only two dimensions are actually modeled as a
surface, third dimension is represented by stiffness
properties
Can be used in 2D and 3D Model

3 D Elements (Brick type)


All three dimensions are modeled as a solid
Can be used in 3D Model
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The Joint or Node

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Basic Properties of Joints


All elements are connected to the structure at the joints
The structure is supported at the joints using Restraints
and/or Springs
Rigid-body behavior and symmetry conditions can be
specified using Constraints that apply to the joints
Concentrated loads may be applied at the joints
Lumped masses and rotational inertia may be placed at
the joints
Loads and masses applied to the elements are transferred
to the joints
Joints are the primary locations in the structure at which
the displacements are known (the supports) or are to be
determined
ACECOMS, AIT

Joint Local Coordinates

Finite Element Analysis

By default, the joint local 1-2-3 coordinate system is


identical to the global X-Y-Z coordinate system
It may be necessary to use different local coordinate
systems at some or all joints in the following cases:
Skewed Restraints (supports) are present
Constraints are used to impose rotational symmetry
Constraints are used to impose symmetry about a plane
that is not parallel to a global coordinate plane
The principal axes for the joint mass (translational or
rotational) are not aligned with the global axes
Joint displacement and force output is desired in
another coordinate system

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Joint Local Coordinates

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Spring Restraints on Joints


Any of the six degrees of freedom at any of the
joints in the structure can have translation or
rotational spring support conditions.
Springs elastically connect the joint to the ground.
The spring forces that act on a joint are related to
the displacements of that joint by a 6x6
symmetric matrix of spring stiffness coefficients.
Simple Springs
Coupled Springs

ACECOMS, AIT

Simple Spring Restraints

Finite Element Analysis

Independent spring
stiffness in each DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Coupled Spring Restraints


General Spring Connection
Global and skewed springs
Coupled 6x6 user-defined
spring stiffness option (for
foundation modeling)

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Stiffness Matrix for Spring Element

where u1 ,u2 ,u3 ,r1 ,r2 and r3 are the joint displacements and rotations,
and the terms u1, u1u2, u2, ... are the specified spring stiffness
coefficients.

ACECOMS, AIT

Some Sample Finite Elements

Finite Element Analysis

Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

One Dimensional Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

DOF for 1D Elements


Dy

Dx

2D Truss

Finite Element Analysis

Dy

Dy
Rz

Dz

Dx

3D Truss

2D Beam

Ry
Dy
Rz

Dy
Dx

Rz

Dy
Dz

Rx

Dx

Rx

Rz

2D Frame

2D Grid

3D Frame

ACECOMS, AIT

Variation of 1D Elements

Finite Element Analysis

Based on DOF

2D Truss
3D Truss
2D Beam
3D Beam
2D Grid

Based on Behavior
Thick Beam/ Thin Beam
Liner/ Isoperimetric

Non-Linear Elements

NL Link
Gap Element
Tension Only
Compression Only
Friction
Cable
Damper

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Usage of 1D Elements

3D Frame

2D Grid

2D Frame
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Nonlinear Link Element in SAP2000

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Two Dimensional Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

DOF for 2D Elements


Ry ?

Ry ?
Dy
Rz

Rx

Dx

Finite Element Analysis

Dy

Dy

Membrane

Plate

Dz

Dx

Rx

Rz

Shell

ACECOMS, AIT

Membrane Element
General

Finite Element Analysis

Total DOF per Node = 3 (or 2)


Total Displacements per Node = 2
Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0)
Membranes are modeled for flat
surfaces

R3

U2

U2
Node 4

Node 3

U1
3

U1
2

Application
For Modeling surface elements
carrying
in-plane loads

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

U1

Membrane

ACECOMS, AIT

Variation of Membrane Elements


Plain-Strain
Assumptions

x
1 unit

Finite Element Analysis

x2
x1

x3
3D Problem

2D Problem

Plane Strain Problem

Plane Stress Problem

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Plate Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 3
Total Displacements per
Node = 1
Total Rotations per Node = 2
Plates are for flat surfaces

U3

U3

R2

Node 3

R2

Node 4

R1
3

R1
2

Application
For Modeling surface
elements carrying
out of plane loads

U3

R2

Node 1

U3

R2

Node 2

R1

R1

Plate

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element
General

Finite Element Analysis

Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5)


Total Displacements per Node = 3
Total Rotations per Node = 3
Used for curved surfaces

U3, R3

U3, R3
U2, R2

U2, R2

Node 3

Node 4

U1, R1
3

Application
For Modeling surface elements
carrying general loads

U1, R1

U3, R3
1

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 1

U2, R2
Node 2

U1, R1

U1, R1

Shell

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Variations of Plate Elements


Based on Behavior
2D Plane Stress
2D Plane Strain
Axisymetric Solid
Plate
Shell

Based on Number of Nodes


3 Node, 6 Node
4 Node, 8 Node, (9 Node)

Based on Material Model


Rubber
Soil
Laminates
Isotropic/ Orthotropic

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Shell Elements in SAP2000

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Shell Elements in SAP2000

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Local Cords for Shell Element


Each Shell element
has its own local
coordinate system
used to define
Material properties,
loads and output.
The axes of this local
system are denoted 1,
2 and 3. The first two
axes lie in the plane of
the element the third
axis is normal

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Three Dimensional Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

DOF for 3D Elements


Dy

Finite Element Analysis

Dz

Dx

Solid/ Brick

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Brick Element in SAP2000


8-Node Brick
Bricks can be
added by using
Text Generation in
V7. New version
8 will have
graphical interface
for Bricks

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Connecting Dissimilar Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Connecting Different Types of Elements


Truss
Truss

Finite Element Analysis

Frame

Shell

Membrane

Plate

Shell

Solid

OK

OK

Dz

OK

OK

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz,


Dz

Rx ?
Dx, Dy

Rx ?

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

OK

OK

Dx, Dy

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz,


Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

OK

Membrane

Plate

Frame

Solid

Orphan Degrees Of Freedom:


0

ACECOMS, AIT

Connecting Dissimilar Elements

Finite Element Analysis

When elements with different degree of freedom at


ends connect with each other, special measures
may need to be taken to provide proper connectivity
depending on Software Capability

Beams to Plates

Beam to Brick

Plates to Brick
ACECOMS, AIT

Connecting Dissimilar Elements

Finite Element Analysis

When members with mesh of different size or


configuration need to be connected we may
have to:

Use special connecting elements


Use special Constraints
Use mesh grading and subdivision
Use in-compatible elements (Zipper Elements in
ETABS)
Automatic Node detection and internal
meshing by the Software

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Connecting Beams with Membrane

Modeling Shear-Walls
using Panels only

Modeling Shear-Walls using


Panels, Beams, Columns

(No Moment continuity


with Beams and Columns unless
6 DOF Shell is used)

(Full Moment continuity


with Beams and Columns is restored
by using additional beams)

ACECOMS, AIT

Meshing Slabs and Walls

Finite Element Analysis

Zipper

In general the mesh in the slab


should match with mesh in the
wall to establish connection

Some software automatically


establishes connectivity by using
constraints or Zipper elements

ACECOMS, AIT

How to Apply Loads to


Finite Element Model

Loads To Design Actions


Loads

Finite Element Analysis

Load Cases

Load Combinations
Design Envelopes
Design Actions

ACECOMS, AIT

Load Cases
Load cases are defined by the user and used for
analysis purpose only

Finite Element Analysis

Static Load Cases


Dead Load
Live Load
Wind Load

Earthquake Load Cases


Response Spectrum Load Cases
Time History Load Cases

Static Non-Linear Load Cases

ACECOMS, AIT

Load Combinations
The Load Combinations may be created by the
program, user defined or a combination of both.

Finite Element Analysis

Some Examples: [Created by the program]

1.4DL
1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL)
0.75[1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL) + 1.7WL]
0.75[1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL) - 1.7WL]
0.9DL + 1.3WL
0.9DL - 1.3WL
1.1 [1.2DL + 0.5(LL + RLL) + 1.0E]
1.1 [1.2DL + 0.5(LL + RLL) - 1.0E]
1.1 (0.9DL + 1.0E)
1.1 (0.9DL - 1.0E)

ACECOMS, AIT

Applying Gravity Loads

Finite Element Analysis

All gravity loads are basically Volume Loads generated


due to mass contained in a volume
Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads
to the Supports through a Medium
All type of Gravity Loads can be represented as:
Point Loads
Line Loads
Area Loads
Volume Loads

ACECOMS, AIT

Load Transfer Path

Finite Element Analysis

The Load is transferred through a medium which may be:

A Point
A Line
An Area
A Volume
A system consisting of combination of several mediums

The supports may be represented as:

Point Supports
Line Supports
Area Supports
Volume Supports

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Graphic Object Representation


Object

Load

Geometry
Medium

Support
Boundary

Point

Point Load
Concentrated Load

Node

Point Support
Column Support

Line

Beam Load
Wall Load
Slab Load

Beam / Truss
Connection Element
Spring Element

Line Support
Wall Support
Beam Support

Area

Slab Load
Wind Load

Plate Element
Shell Element
Panel/ Plane

Soil Support

Volume

Seismic Load
Liquid Load

Solid Element

Soil Support

ETABS and SAP200 uses graphic object modeling concept


ACECOMS, AIT

Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine


Load

Complexity of Load Transfer


Mechanism depend on:

Vol.

Finite Element Analysis

Area

Complexity of Load
Complexity of Medium
Complexity of Boundary

Line

Point Line
Line

Area

Volume

Medium

Area
Volume

Boundary

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine

Line

Area

Volume

Transfer of a Point Load to Point Supports Through Various Mediums


ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Simplified Load Transfer

To Lines

To Points

To Lines and Points

Transfer of Area Load


ACECOMS, AIT

Applying Wind Loads

Finite Element Analysis

At least 3 basic Wind Load Cases should be


considered
Along X-Direction
Along Y Direction
Along Diagonal

Each Basic Wind Load Case should be entered


separately into load combinations twice, once
with (+ve) and once with (-ve) sign
Total of 6 Wind Load Cases should considered in
Combinations, but only 3 Load Cases need to be
defined and analyzed
ACECOMS, AIT

Applying Wind Loads

Finite Element Analysis

At least 3 Basic Load


Case for Wind Load
should be considered

Wx

Diagonal wind load may


be critical for special
types and layouts of
buildings

Wy

Wxy
ACECOMS, AIT

Wind Load Combinations

Finite Element Analysis

Comb1

Comb2

Comb3

Comb4

Comb5

Comb6

Wx

+f

-f

Wy

+f

-f

Wxy

+f

-f

(f) Is the load factor specified for Wind in Example:


Comb = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7W) will need Six
the design codes
Actual Combinations

Six Additional Load Combinations are


required where ever Wind is
mentioned in the basic Load
Combinations

Comb1= 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wx)


Comb2 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wx)
Comb3 = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wy)
Comb4 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wy)
Comb5 = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wxy)
Comb6 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wxy)
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Nature of Dynamic Loads

Free Vibration
Forced Vibration
Random Vibration
Seismic Excitation
Response Spectrum
Time History
Steady-State Harmonic Load
Impact
Blast

ACECOMS, AIT

Getting and Interpreting


Finite Element Results

What Results Can We Get ?


Finite Element Analysis

(in SAP2000)

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

At Joints

Joint Displacements
Spring Reactions
Restrained Reactions
Constrained Forces
Results Available For:
For all Available DOF
Given on the Local Joint Coordinates
Given for all Load Case, Mode
Shapes,Response Spectrums, Time Histories,
Moving Loads, and Load Combinations

ACECOMS, AIT

For Frame Elements


The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both
Ends, in Local Coordinate System
2

Finite Element Analysis

+V2

+M2
+P
2

+V3

+V3
+P

+V2

+T

+M3

+M3

+T

+M2
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

For Shell Element


The Shell element internal forces (also called stress
resultants) are the forces and moments that result from
integrating the stresses over the element thickness.
The results include the Membrane Results (in-plane
forces) and Plate Bending Results
The results are given for Element Local Axis
It is very important to note that these stress resultants
are forces and moments per unit of in-plane length

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Shell Stress Resultants

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Membrane Results

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Plate Bending Results

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Obtaining Design Actions From Basic Results

ACECOMS, AIT

Obtaining Envelop Results


Comb1

Comb2

Comb3 Comb N

Finite Element Analysis

Load Case -1

Load Case - 2
Load Case - 3

Envelop Results

Load Case - M

Total

P1

P2

P3

PN

Max, P
Min, P

ACECOMS, AIT

Can Envelop Results be Used for Design ?

Finite Element Analysis

Actions Interact with each other, effecting the


stresses
For Column Design:
For Beam Design:
For Slabs:

P, Mx, My
Mx, Vy, Tz

Mx, My, Mxy


At least 3 Actions from each combination must be
considered together as set

Mx
My

Therefore, Envelop Results Can Not be Used


Every Load Combinations must be used for
design with complete Action Set

ACECOMS, AIT

For static loads, Design


Actions are obtained as
the cumulative result
from each load
combination, as set for
all interacting actions
The final or critical
results from design of
all load combinations
are adopted

Combinations
Load Cases

Finite Element Analysis

Design Actions For Static Loads

Design Actions
Obtained as set
from all
Combinations

ACECOMS, AIT

Static, Dynamic and Nonlinear Results


For a Single Action:

Finite Element Analysis

Static Load Case


Response Spectrum Load Case

+
1 for each Time Step

Time History Load Case

Static Non-linear Load Case

OR 1 for envelop

Load
Combination
Table

1 for each Load Step


OR 1 for Envelop

ACECOMS, AIT

Response Spectrum Case


All response spectrum cases are assumed to be
earthquake load cases

Finite Element Analysis

The output from a response spectrum is all positive.


Design load combination that includes a response
spectrum load case is checked for all possible
combinations of signs (+, -) on the response spectrum
values

A 3D element will have eight possible combinations of


P, M2 and M3 and eight combinations for M3, V, T

ACECOMS, AIT

Response Spectrum Results for Action Set

Maximum Results obtained by:


SRSS, CQC, etc.

P, Mx, My>

+P, +Mx, +My


+P, +Mx, -My
+P, -Mx, +My
+P, -Mx, -My

-P, +Mx, +My


-P, +Mx, -My
-P, -Mx, +My
-P, -Mx, -My

Load Combination Table

Finite Element Analysis

Design Actions needed for Columns:

ACECOMS, AIT

Time History Analysis Results


Option 2:
Design For All Values
(At each time step)

Finite Element Analysis

Max Val

T (sec)

Option 1:
Envelope Design

Min Val

Response Curve for One Action

ACECOMS, AIT

Time-History Results
The default design load combinations do not include any time
history results

Finite Element Analysis

Define the load combination, to include time history forces in a


design load combination
Can perform design for each step of Time History or design for
envelops for those results
For envelope design, the design is for the maximum of each
response quantity (axial load, moment, etc.) as if they occurred
simultaneously.
Designing for each step of a time history gives correct
correspondence between different response quantities
ACECOMS, AIT

Time History Results

Finite Element Analysis

The program gets a maximum and a minimum value for


each response quantity from the envelope results for a time
history
For a design load combination any load combination that
includes a time history load case in it is checked for all
possible combinations of maximum and minimum time
history design values.
If a single design load combination has more than one time
history case in it, that design load combination is designed
for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is
specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences.

ACECOMS, AIT

Static Non Linear Results

Finite Element Analysis

The default design load combinations do not


include any Static Nonlinear results

Define the load combination, to include Static


Nonlinear Results in a design load combination
For a single static nonlinear load case the design is
performed for each step of the static nonlinear
analysis.

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Obtaining Reinforcement From Actions

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Computing Rebars For Beam Elements


For Beam type elements (1D
elements) design actions like Axial
force, moments, and shear force are
output directly.
These actions can be used directly for
design purposes
Generally, design is carried out in two
parts

Axial- Flexural:
Shear Torsion:

My
Vy
Nx
x

Vz

Mz

Tx

3D Beam Column
y

My

P, Mx, My
T, Vx, Vy

Mz

Beam Design:
Column Design:

Mx, Vy, T
Mx, My, P

Nx

Biaxial & Load

ACECOMS, AIT

Computing Rebars For Beam Elements


Ast : To resist
tension due to My

Asc + Al/4: To resist compression due to


moment Mx (doubly reinforced beams) and
tension due to Torsion

Asc : To resist compression

Finite Element Analysis

due to My (may not be needed)

Asvt + Asv/2: To resist shear due to


Torsion. Must be closed hoops on sides of
the section

Asw + Al/4 : To resist secondary tension


in deep beams due to moment and due to
Torsion

Ast + Al/4 : To resist main tension due to


moment and tension due to Torsion
ACECOMS, AIT

Computing Rebars For Plate Elements

Finite Element Analysis

Moment output for plate type elements in Finite Element


Analysis is reported in moment per unit width along the
local axis of the plate element. These need to be
converted to moments along x and y for design purposes.

The following procedure can be used:


The portion of a plate element bounded by a crack is
shown in the Adjoining figure. The moment about an axis
dx =k dy
parallel to the crack may be given as:
mc ds mx dy mxy kdycos my kdy mxy dy sin
2

dy
mc mx k 2 m y 2kmxy
dx

dy

ds

Crack

ACECOMS, AIT

Computing Rebars For Plate Elements


mxy kdy

Finite Element Analysis

The plate needs to be reinforced


with bars in the x and y direction
The corresponding moment
capacity at the assumed crack is
2

dy
mrc mrx k 2 mry
dx

my kdy
mxy dy
mx dy

ms ds

mry kdy

mrx dy

Where mrc must equal or exceed


mc solving for the minimum we
get
1
mry m y mxy
k

mrc ds

mrx , mry
Positive moment
capacities per unit width
ACECOMS, AIT

Computing Rebars For Plate Elements

Finite Element Analysis

The reinforcement at
the bottom of the slab in
each direction is
designed to provide
resistance for the
positive moment

The reinforcement at
the top of the slab in
each direction is
designed to provide
resistance for the
negative moment

mry m y mxy
mrx mx mxy

mry and mrx are set to zero if they


yield a negative value

mry m y mxy
mrx mx mxy

mry and mrx are set to zero if they


yield a positive value

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Computing Rebars For Brick Elements


For Brick elements the FEA results in the nodal stresses
and strains.
The stresses on the brick elements need to be
integrated along x and y direction to obtain forces.
Stress variation in both the directions may be
considered and integrated.
These forces are then used to find the moment about
the two orthogonal axes and the net axial force. Similar
approach is used to obtain shear forces in two directions
After the axial forces, moments and shear forces are
obtained then the section can be designed as a
rectangular beam

ACECOMS, AIT

Computing Rebars For Brick Elements


Sample Calculations for P and M

Finite Element Analysis

Following equations are based on the


assumption that there is no stress
variation in the transverse direction
Pi C1 C2 T ........
n

P Pi
i 1

C1

M i C1 x1 C2 x2 Tx3 .......

x1
x3

M Mi
i 1

CL

x2

C2

ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling
Structures
Using FEM

Global Modeling or Macro Model

Finite Element Analysis

A model of the Whole Structure


Objective is to get Overall Structural
Response
Results in the form of member forces and
stress patterns

Global Modeling is same for nearly all


Materials
Material distinction is made by using specific
material properties
Global Model may be a simple 2D beam/
frame model or a sophisticated full 3D finite
element model
Generally adequate for design of usual
structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Local Model or Micro Model

Finite Element Analysis

Model of Single Member or part of a Member


Model of the Cross-section, Opening, Joints,
connection

Objective: To determine local stress


concentration, cross-section behavior,
modeling of cracking, bond, anchorage etc.
Needs finite element modeling, often using
very fine mesh, advance element features,
non-linear analysis
Mostly suitable for research, simulation,
experiment verification and theoretical studies
ACECOMS, AIT

Global Modeling of Structural Geometry

Finite Element Analysis

(a) Real Structure

(b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(e) 2D Fram e

(d) 3D Fram e

(f) Grid-Plate

Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

ACECOMS, AIT

The Basic Issues


Which Model to be used ?

Finite Element Analysis

3D or 2D
Frame or Grid
Plate, Membrane, Shell, Solid

Which Elements to be used ?


Beam, Plate, Brick
Size and number of elements

Which Solution to be used ?

Linear or Nonlinear
Static or Dynamic
Linear static or Nonlinear dynamic
Linear dynamic or Nonlinear static
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Overall Procedure Linear Static

Setup the Units to be used


Define Basic Material Properties
Define Cross-sections to be used
Draw, generate Nodes and Elements
Assign XSections, Restraints, Constraints etc.
Apply Loads to Nodes and Elements
Run the Analysis
Check Basic Equilibrium and Deformations
Interpret and use the Results
ACECOMS, AIT

What Type of Analysis


Should be Carried out!

Finite Element Analysis

The type of Analysis to be carried out


depends on the Structural System
The Type of Excitation (Loads)
The Type Structure (Material and Geometry)
The Type Response

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Steady State Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Large Displacement Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Static Excitation
When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time
When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly

Finite Element Analysis

Dynamic Excitation
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time
When the Inertial Force becomes significant

Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are considered


Quasi Static
Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to
Equivalent Static Loads
ACECOMS, AIT

Static

Dynamic

Self Load

Normal Operation

At lifting/ placement

Superimposed Dead
Load

Normal Operation

At placement

Live Load

Normal Operation

Depends on type

Highway Traffic

Quasi Static

Impact

Water/ Liquid

Normal Operation

Filling, Sloshing

Creep, Shrinkage

Static

No Dynamic
Component

Wind

Equivalent Static

Random Vibration

Seismic Excitation

Equivalent Static

Response Spectrum,
Time History

Vibratory Machines

Equivalent Static

Impulse At Startup
ACECOMS, AIT
Steady State at

Finite Element Analysis

Excitation/ Load

Elastic Material

Finite Element Analysis

Follows the same path during loading and unloading and


returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after
removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material
Does not follow the same path during loading and unloading and
may not returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc.
after removal of load/ excitation

Most materials exhibit both, elastic and inelastic behavior


depending upon level of loading.
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Creating Finite Element Models

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Model Creation Tools

Defining Individual Nodes and Elements


Using Graphical Modeling Tools
Using Numerical Generation
Using Mathematical Generation
Using Copy and Replication
Using Subdivision and Meshing
Using Geometric Extrusions
Using Parametric Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Graphic Object Modeling

Finite Element Analysis

Use basic Geometric Entities to create FE Models


Simple Graphic Objects

Point Object
Line Object
Area Object
Brick Object

Represents Node
Represents 1D Elements
Represents 2D Elements
Represents 3D Elements

Graphic Objects can be used to represent


geometry, boundary and loads
SAP2000, ETABS and SAFE use the concept of
Graphic Objects

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling Objects and Finite Elements


Structural Members are representation of actual
structural components
Finite Elements are discretized representation of
Structural Members
The concept of Graphic Objects can be used to
represent both, the Structural Members as well as
Finite Elements
In ETABS, the Graphic Objects representing the
Structural Members are automatically divided into
Finite Elements for analysis and then back to
structural members for result interpretation

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Unstable Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

When is Structure Unstable in FEM Solution


When the Global Stiffness Matrix is Singular

Finite Element Analysis

The determinant of matrix is zero


Any diagonal element in the matrix is zero

When the Global Stiffness Matrix is IllConditioned


The numerical values in various matrix cells are of
grossly different order
Numerical values are either too small or too large

ACECOMS, AIT

Why are the FEM Models Unstable


Restraint Instability
Not enough Boundary Restraints

Finite Element Analysis

Geometric Instability

Not enough Elements


Not enough stiffness of Elements
Elements not connected properly
Presence of Orphan Degrees Of Freedom

Material Instability
Not enough Material Stiffness, (E, G)
Not enough Cross-section Stiffness (A, I, J, ..)

ACECOMS, AIT

Structure Types
Cable Structures
Cable Nets
Cable Stayed

Finite Element Analysis

Bar Structures
2D/3D Trusses
2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures
Plate, Shell
In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures
ACECOMS, AIT

How to Model the


Foundations

Soil-Structure Interaction
Simple Supports

Finite Element Analysis

Fix, Pin, Roller etc.


Support Settlement

Elastic Supports
Spring to represent soil
Using Modulus of Sub-grade reaction

Full Structure-Soil Model


Use 2D plane stress elements
Use 3D Solid Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling of Foundations and Mats

Soil

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Mat
Beam

Plate

Brick

Constraint

Yes

Yes

Yes

Spring

Yes

Yes

Yes

Brick

No

Yes

Yes

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Computing Soil Spring


A = Spacing of
Springs in X
B = Spacing of
Springs in Y
Ks = Modulus of
sub-grade reaction
(t/cu m etc.)
K = Spring constant
(t/m etc)

B
B

K= ks*A*B
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Raft as Beam-Grid, Soil as Spring


The raft is represented as a
grillage of beams
representing slab strips in
both directions
The soil is represented by
spring
This approach is
approximate and does not
consider the Mxy or the
torsional rigidity of the mat

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Raft as Plate, Soil as Spring


The raft is modeled using
Plate (or Shell) elements
At least 9-16 elements
should be used in one
panel
Soil springs may be
located or every node or
at alternate nodes
Not suitable fro very thick
rafts like thick pile caps
etc

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Raft as Brick, Soil as Spring


The raft is represented by
brick elements, soil as
springs
More than one layer of
brick elements should be
used along thickness
(usually 3-5) unless higher
order elements are used
Suitable for very thick
mats and pile caps etc.
Difficult to determine
rebars from brick results

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Raft as Plate, Soil as Brick


The raft is represented by
plate elements, soil as
bricks
Soil around the mat should
also be modeled (min 2
times width)

ACECOMS, AIT

Raft as Brick, Soil as Brick

Finite Element Analysis

The raft is represented by


brick elements, soil as bricks
also
More than one layer of brick
elements should be used
along thickness (usually 3-5)
unless higher order elements
are used
Soil around the mat should
also be modeled (min 2 times
width)
Suitable for very thick mats
and pile caps etc.
Difficult to determine rebars
from brick results

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Cellular Mats


The top slab, the walls
and the bottom slab
should be modeled using
plate elements
More than one plate
element layer should be
used in the walls
The soil may be
represented by springs or
by bricks

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Piles
For analysis and design
of individual Pile, it can
be modeled as beam
element and soil
around it as series of
lateral and vertical
springs
For analysis of super
structure, entire pile
can be represented by
a single a set of springs

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Using Nonlinear Springs to Model Soil


The springs used to represent may be either
linear or non linear
The non-linear response of the soil can be
obtained from actual tests
The non-linear response can then be used to
determine K for various levels of load or
deformation
Nonlinear springs are especially useful for
vertical as well as lateral response of piles
and pile groups
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Shear Walls

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Planner Walls

Using Truss

Using Beam and Column

Using Panels, Plates and Beams


ACECOMS, AIT

Frame Model for Planer Walls

Finite Element Analysis

t
B

Rigid Zones

Specially Suitable when H/B


is more than 5
The shear wall is
represented by a column of
section B x t
The beam up to the edge of
the wall is modeled as
normal beam
The column is connected to
beam by rigid zones or very
large cross-section

ACECOMS, AIT

Using Plates to Model Walls

Finite Element Analysis

Multiple elements greater accuracy in determination of stress


distribution and allow easy modeling of openings

Using Plate Elements only


(No Moment continuity
with Beams and Columns unless
6 DOF Shell is used)

Using Plate Elements with


Beams, Columns
(Full Moment continuity
with Beams and Columns)
ACECOMS, AIT

Truss Model for Planner Walls

Finite Element Analysis

txt

C
t x 2t
B

For the purpose of analysis, assume


the main truss layout based on wall
width and floor levels
Initial member sizes can be
estimated as t x 2t for main axial
members and t x t for diagonal
members
Use frame elements to model the
truss. It is not necessary to use
truss elements
Generally single diagonal is sufficient
for modeling but double diagonal
may be used for easier interpretation
of results
The floor beams and slabs can be
connected directly to truss elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Cellular Shear Walls

Uniaxial

Biaxial
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modeling Walls With Openings

Plate-Shell Model

Rigid Frame Model

Truss Model

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction
To Dynamic Analysis

What is Seismic Analysis

Finite Element Analysis

Determination of Structural Response due to Seismic


Excitation
The Seismic Excitation is Dynamic in nature
So the Response is governed by

The Dynamic Equilibrium Equation


The question is how to solve this equation?

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

The General

Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Why Dynamic Analysis In General


Capture the Realistic Behavior of Structures

Finite Element Analysis

No Conservative Approximations in Analysis


Puts Check on Structural Irregularities
Identifies Ductility Demands

Lower Base Shears


Required by Code

ACECOMS, AIT

Basic Dynamic Equilibrium No Damping


Static Elastic Only:
Displacement (U)=Force (P) /Stiffness(K) P(u,a)

Finite Element Analysis

U = P/K or K u = P
K
Inertia Only :
Acceleration (a)=Force (P) / Mass(M)
a = P/M or Ma = P

BOTH :

Ma+Ku=P
ACECOMS, AIT

Basic Dynamic Equilibrium With Damping


F

Finite Element Analysis

FI + F D + FS = F

F(t)I + F(t)D + F(t)S = F(t)


M a(t) + C v(t) + K u(t) = F(t)
M u(t) +C u(t) + K u(t) = F(t)
(Second order differential equation for
linear structural behavior)

F = External Force
FS = Internal Forces
FD = Energy Dissipation Forces
FI= Inertial Force
(t) = Varies with time
u = Acceleration (a)
u = Velocity (v)
u = Displacement
M = Mass
C = Damping
K = Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Basics of Structure Dynamics

Finite Element Analysis

Idealization for a Single


Floor
Mass less Column, Entire
mass is concentrated on the
roof
Rigid roof, Rigid ground
Column is flexible in lateral
direction but rigid in vertical
direction

Roof

Column

Ground

ACECOMS, AIT

What is Dynamic Response ?


If the roof is displaced laterally by a
distance uo and then released the
structure will oscillate around its
equilibrium position.

Roof

Finite Element Analysis

Column

Ground

One Cycle
uo

uo

-uo

5
ACECOMS, AIT

Dynamic Response
Displacement

uo

Amplitude

Finite Element Analysis

time
3

-uo

The oscillation will continue


forever with the same
amplitude uo and the structure
will never come to rest.
Actual structure will oscillate
with decreasing amplitude
and will eventually come to
rest.

uo

uo

-uo

5
ACECOMS, AIT

Damped Dynamic Response

Finite Element Analysis

Mass m

Stiffness K
Damping C

Idealized One storey


Building

To incorporate damping or
dying out of dynamic
response feature into the
idealized structure, an energy
absorbing element should be
introduced.
Viscous damper is the most
commonly used energy
absorbing element in the
dynamic modeling of
structures
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Time Period
Frequency

Change in Location
Rate of Change of Displacement wrt Time
Rate of Change of Velocity wrt Time
The time taken to complete one cycle
The no. of cycles per second

u
du
v u
dt
d 2u
a v u 2
dt
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Free Vibration Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Free Vibration Analysis


Definition

Finite Element Analysis

Natural vibration of a structure released from initial


condition and subjected to no external load or
damping
Main governing equation -Eigen Value Problem



u c u K ut Pt
t
t

Solution gives
Natural Frequencies
Associated mode shapes
An insight into the dynamic behavior and response
of the structure
ACECOMS, AIT

Free Vibration

Finite Element Analysis

M u(t) +C u(t) + K u(t) = F(t)


M u(t) + K u(t) = 0
Which leads to eigenvalue
problem

K n w n2 M n

K w M 0
det K w M 0
2
n

2
n

Solution of above equation yields a


polynomial of order n for w , which in
turn gives n mode shapes

No external force is applied


No damping of the system

w = natural frequencies
F = Mode shape

A mode shape is set of


relative (not absolute)
nodal displacement for a
particular mode of free
vibration for a specific
natural frequency

ACECOMS, AIT

Modal Analysis

Finite Element Analysis

Determination of
natural frequencies
and mode shapes.
No external load or
excitation is applied
to the structure.
Obtained from
eigenvalue analysis.
There are as many
modes as there are
DOF in the system

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Analysis for

Ground Motion

ACECOMS, AIT

Basic Dynamic for Ground Motion

Finite Element Analysis

mu cu ku F
F mu mg mug
k
w
; c 2w m
m
mu cu ku mug
mu 2w mu mw 2u mug
u 2w u w 2u ug
The unknown is displacement and its
derivatives ( velocity, acceleration)
Variables are ground acceleration, damping
ratio and circular frequency

ACECOMS, AIT

Ground Motion Input and Displacement Output

u 2w u w u ug
Finite Element Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Determination the total


dynamic response of
structure as the sum of
response of all mode
shapes using the ground
acceleration at each time
step

+ Damping Ratio for each mode

0.15

Acceleration (a/g)

Finite Element Analysis

Response History Analysis

0.1
0.05
0
-0.05 0

10

15

20

25

30

35

-0.1
-0.15
Time (Second)

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Modal Displacements for Ground Motion

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Response
Spectrum
Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

What are Response Spectra

u 2w u w u ug
Finite Element Analysis

For a ground acceleration at particular time, for a given


time period and damping ratio, a single value of
displacement, velocity and acceleration can be obtained
Output of the above (u, v, a) equation are the dynamic
response to the ground motion for a structure considered
as a single DOF
A plot of the maximum response for different ground
motion history, different time period and damping ratio give
the Spectrum of Response
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Response Spectrum Generation

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Response Spectrum Generation

ACECOMS, AIT

Spectral Parameters
S v wS d

Finite Element Analysis

Spectral Displacement
Pseudo Spectral Velocity
Pseudo Spectral Acceleration

Sd
Sv
Sa

S a wSv w 2 S d

u
v u

du
dt

d 2u
a v u 2
dt

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Spectra For Different Soils

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

How to Use Response Spectra


For each mode of free vibration, corresponding Time
Period is obtained.
For each Time Period and specified damping ratio, the
specified Response Spectrum is read to obtain the
corresponding Acceleration
For each Spectral Acceleration, corresponding velocity
and displacements response for the particular degree
of freedom is obtained
The displacement response is then used to obtain the
corresponding stress resultants
The stress resultants for each mode are then added
using some combination rule to obtain the final
response envelop
ACECOMS, AIT

Modal combination Rules


ABS SUM Rule

Finite Element Analysis

Add the absolute maximum value from


each mode. Not so popular and not
ro
used in practice

SRSS
Square Root of Sum of Squares of the
peak response from each mode.
Suitable for well separated natural
frequencies.

CQC
Complete Quadric Combination is
applicable to large range of structural
response and gives better results than
SRSS.

ro

ro

n0

n 1

2
r
n0
n 1


i 1 n 1

r r

in i 0 n 0

ACECOMS, AIT

Response Spectrum Analysis

Uses modal
combination rules to
determine total peak
response from all
modes

Spectral Acceleartion

Finite Element Analysis

Determination of
peak response of the
structure based on a
design or specified
response spectrum
and the specified
mode shapes
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0%
2%
5%

Time Period (Sec)

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction to
Non-linear Analysis

Basic Sources of Non-Linearity


Geometric Non-Linearity

Finite Element Analysis

Material Non-Linearity

Compound Non-Linearity

P
P

Large Displacements
d

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Geometric Non Linearity

Finite Element Analysis

The deformations change the


basic relationships in the
stiffness evaluation
Example: Axial Load
Changes Bending Stiffness

The deformation produce


additional actions, not present
at initial conditions
Example: Axial load causes
additional moments

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Material Non-Linearity

Finite Element Analysis

The basic material


constants (E, G, v)
etc. change with level of
strain

kfc

Example: Stress-Strain
curve is non-linear

The cross-section
properties change with
level of strain
Example: Cracking in
reinforced concrete
reduces A, I etc

Kd
N.A

yt

As

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Material Non-linearity
Moment Curvature
curve generated for a
rectangular column
with circular core. The
outer portion is
modeled by stressstrain curve for low
strength unconfined
concrete where as the
core is modeled by
lightly confined
concrete. Observe the
drop in moment
capacity as the outer
concrete fails.

Semi-confined,
High Strength Concrete

Rectangular Whitney Curve

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Types of Non-Linearity
Smooth , Continuous

Finite Element Analysis

Softening
Hardening

Discontinuous
Snap-through
Bifurcation
Elastic Buckling
In-Elastic Buckling
P-Delta
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Non-linear Analysis in SAP2000

Finite Element Analysis

The non-linear analysis is Always carried out


together with Time History Dynamic analysis
Non-linear behavior can be modeled by:
NL Link Element For Dynamic Nonlinear
Elastic Stiffness for Linear Analysis
Gap, Hook, Damper, Isolator for Nonlinear
Hinge Element For Static Pushover
Material Non linearity
Load-Deflection Curves

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction to
Push-over Analysis

Why Pushover Analysis

Finite Element Analysis

Buildings do not respond as linearly elastic systems


during strong ground shaking
Improve Understanding of Building Behavior
- More accurate prediction of global displacement
- More realistic prediction of earthquake demand on individual
components and elements
- More reliable identification of bad actors

Reduce Impact and Cost of Seismic Retrofit


- Less conservative acceptance criteria
- Less extensive construction

Advance the State of the Practice


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Performance Based Design - Basics


Design is based not on Ultimate Strength but
rather on Expected Performance

Finite Element Analysis

Basic Ultimate Strength does not tell us what will be


performance of the structure at Ultimate Capacity

Performance Based Design Levels

Fully Operational
Operational
Life Safe
Near Collapse
Collapse
ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Pushover Spectrum

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Finite Element Analysis

Pushover Demand Curves

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Earthquake Push on Building

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Finite Element Analysis

The Pushover Curve

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Finite Element Analysis

Pushover Capacity Curves

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Finite Element Analysis

Demand Vs Capacity

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Non-linearity Considered in Pushover

Finite Element Analysis

Material nonlinearity at discrete, user-defined hinges in


frame/line elements.
1. Material nonlinearity in the link elements.
Gap (compression only), hook (tension only), uniaxial plasticity
base isolators (biaxial plasticity and biaxial friction/pendulum)..

2. Geometric nonlinearity in all elements.


Only P-delta effects
P-delta effects plus large displacements

3. Staged (sequential) construction.


Members can be added or removed in a sequence of stages
during each analysis case.

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Important Considerations

Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience


Each nonlinear problem is different
Start simple and build up gradually.
Run linear static loads and modal analysis first
Add hinges gradually beginning with the areas
where you expect the most non-linearity.
Perform initial analyses without geometric nonlinearity. Add P-delta effects, and large
deformations, much later.

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Important Considerations
Mathematically, static nonlinear analysis does not
always guarantee a unique solution.
Small changes in properties or loading can cause
large changes in nonlinear response.
It is Important to consider many different loading
cases, and sensitivity studies on the effect of
varying the properties of the structure
Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience.
Dont Rush it or Push to Hard

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis

Procedure for Static Pushover Analysis


1. Create a model just like for any other analysis.
2. Define the static load cases, if any, needed for use in the
static nonlinear analysis (Define > Static Load Cases).
3. Define any other static and dynamic analysis cases that
may be needed for steel or concrete design of frame
elements.
4. Define hinge properties, if any (Define > Frame Nonlinear
Hinge Properties).
5. Assign hinge properties, if any, to frame/line elements
(Assign > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges).
6. Define nonlinear link properties, if any (Define > Link
Properties).

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Finite Element Analysis

Procedure for Static Pushover Analysis


7. Assign link properties, if any, to frame/line elements
(Assign > Frame/Line > Link Properties).
8. Run the basic linear and dynamic analyses (Analyze >
Run).
9. Perform concrete design/steel design so that reinforcing
steel/ section is determined for concrete/steel hinge if
properties are based on default values to be computed by
the program.
10. For staged construction, define groups that represent the
various completed stages of construction.
11. Define the static nonlinear load cases (Define > Static
Nonlinear/Pushover Cases).

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Finite Element Analysis

Procedure for Static Pushover Analysis


12. Run the static nonlinear analysis (Analyze > Run
Static Nonlinear Analysis).
13. Review the static nonlinear results (Display >
Show Static Pushover Curve), (Display > Show
Deformed Shape), (Display > Show Member
Forces/Stress Diagram), and (File > Print Tables
> Analysis Output).
14. Perform any design checks that utilize static
nonlinear cases.
15. Revise the model as necessary and repeat.
ACECOMS, AIT