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July 19-21, 2004

Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software

Buddhi S. Shrama

The Objective

Finite Element Method and the Finite Element

Analysis

To apply the Finite Element Analysis Tools for

Modeling and Analysis of Structures

Use SAP2000 as Tool for Finite Element

Modeling and Analysis of Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

The Program

Fundamental concepts in FEM and FEA

Concept of Stiffness

Finite Elements and their Usage

Constructing Finite Element Models

Applying Loads to FE Models

Interpreting FE Results

Modeling Different Types of Structures using FE

Intro to Non-linear and Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

and Why do We Need It!

STRUCTURE

EXCITATION

Loads

Vibrations

Settlements

Thermal Changes

pv

RESPONSES

Displacements

Strains

Stresses

Stress Resultants

ACECOMS, AIT

Response of the Structure to

Excitations

Analysis

so that:

We can ensure that the structure

can sustain the excitation with an

acceptable level of response

Design

ACECOMS, AIT

Analysis of Structures

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x

y

z

Real Structure is governed by Partial

Differential Equations of various order

pv

Simple geometry

Simple Boundary

Simple Loading.

ACECOMS, AIT

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

Loads

Vibrations

Settlements

Thermal Changes

pv

Displacements

Strains

Stress

Stress Resultants

Structural

Model

ACECOMS, AIT

It can only be Load Tested to determine

response

Model of the Structure

C - We therefore need tools to Model the

Structure and to Analyze the Model

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

problem using FEM

A numerical procedure for solving (partial)

differential equations associated with field

problems, with an accuracy acceptable to

engineers

ACECOMS, AIT

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x

y

z

Partial Differential

Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Classical

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic

Equations

_

dV p u dV p u ds

t

v

t

s

K = Stiffness

r = Response

R = Loads

ACECOMS, AIT

Deformations (u)

Loads (F)

Fv

(Stiffness)

F

Equilibrium Equation

F=Ku

ACECOMS, AIT

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

pv

Static

Dynamic

Elastic

Inelastic

Linear

Nonlinear

ACECOMS, AIT

1. Linear-Static

Ku F

Elastic

2. Linear-Dynamic

Elastic

3. Nonlinear - Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Elastic OR Inelastic

ACECOMS, AIT

Excitation

Structure

Response

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis

Buckling Analysis

Static Pushover Analysis

Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)

Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Free Vibration and Modal Analysis

Response Spectrum Analysis

Steady State Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Engineer

Discretize Model in FE

Software

Solve FE Model

Interpret FEA Results

Engineer

ACECOMS, AIT

The Fundamentals

In Finite Element Method

From Structure To Structural Model

ACECOMS, AIT

3D SOLIDS

Discretization

Simplification

(geometric)

3D-CONTINUM

MODEL

(Governed by partial

differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL

OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by either

partial or total differential equations)

DISCRETE MODEL

OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by algebraic

equations)

ACECOMS, AIT

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x

y

z

Partial Differential

Equations

Structure

Assumptions

Continuum

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic

Equations

_

dV p u dV p u ds

t

v

t

s

K = Stiffness

r = Response

R = Loads

ACECOMS, AIT

Continuum Vs Structure

particles, with continuous variation of material

properties, deformation characteristics and stress

state

A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an

assemblage of substructures, components and

members

ACECOMS, AIT

Structures can be categorized in many ways.

For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall

physical behavior can be used as basis of

categorization

Skeletal or Framed Structures

Surface or Spatial Structures

Solid Structures

Mixed Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Structure can be considered as an assemblage of

Physical Components called Members

or more Conceptual Components called

Elements

1D elements, 2D element, 3D elements

Frame element, plate element, shell element, solid

element, etc.

ACECOMS, AIT

Structural Members

Continuum

Regular Solid

(3D)

y

Plate/Shell (2D)

x z

t<<(x,z)

z

x

Beam (1D)

b h

L>>(b,h)

h

z

x

L

b

ACECOMS, AIT

To convert continuum to structures, the first step

is to define a finite number of reference

dimensions

The Four Dimensional Reference System:

Three Space Dimensions, x, y, z

One Time Dimension, t

Space and Time

S (x, y, z, t)

ACECOMS, AIT

overall structure and to locate its

components:

Also called the Structure Axis

quantities on part of a structure or a

member or an element:

Also called the Member Axis or

Element Axis

ACECOMS, AIT

The global coordinate system is a threedimensional, right-handed, rectangular coordinate

system.

The three axes, denoted X, Y, and Z, are mutually

perpendicular and satisfy the right-hand rule.

The location and orientation of the global system

are arbitrary. The Z direction is normally upward,

but this is not required.

All other coordinates systems are converted or

mapped back and forth to General Coordinate

System

ACECOMS, AIT

Cylindrical CR-CA-CZ

coordinates

Spherical SB-SA-SR

coordinates.

are always defined with

respect to a rectangular XY-Z system.

ACECOMS, AIT

Each part (joint, element, or constraint) of the

structural model has its own local co-ordinate

system used to define the properties, loads, and

response for that part.

In general, the local co-ordinate systems may

vary from joint to joint, element to element, and

constraint to constraint

ACECOMS, AIT

The elements and

variation of fields can

often be described best

in terms Natural

Coordinates

Natural coordinates may

be linear or curvilinear

Shape functions can are

used to associate the

local system and natural

system

ACECOMS, AIT

Primary Relationships

ACECOMS, AIT

Loads

Actions

Deformations

Strains

Stresses

Stress Resultants

Structural Mechanics is to

develop relationships

between these quantities

solve these relationships

numerically

ACECOMS, AIT

Mechanics Relationships

Load

Action

Stress Resultant

Deformation

Stress

Strain

ACECOMS, AIT

Primary Relationships

Action Deformation Relationship

Deformation Strain Relationship

Strain Stress Relationship

Stress Stress Resultant Relationship

Stress Resultant Action Relationship

mathematically, numerically and by testing

ACECOMS, AIT

This involves two types of relationships

Actions

PL

Example:

AE

certain Deformation

Example:

EA

P

Moment-Curvatures, Load-Deflection

Curves are samples of this relationship

The represents to Element Stiffness

P

P

ACECOMS, AIT

L3

v

6 EI

3M

2V

V

M

PL

AE

L

2 EI

2M

ACECOMS, AIT

deformation

Shortening

Curvature

Shearing

Twisting

Axial Strain

Axial Strain

Shear Strain

Shear Strain + Axial Strain

deformations

ACECOMS, AIT

from the stiffness of the material particles

For a general Isotropic Material

1 v v v 0 0 0

v 1 v v 0 0 0

x

x

v v 1 v 0 0 0 y

y

z

1

2

v

0 0 0

E

0 0 z

2

xy 1 v 1 2v

xy

1 2v

0 0 0 0

0 yz

yz

2

zx

1 2v zx

0 0 0 0 0

kfc

fy

xx E x

xy G xy

ACECOMS, AIT

The Hook's law is

simplified form of

Stress-Strain

relationship

Ultimately the six

stress and strain

components can be

represented by 3

principal summations

yy

y

x

yz

xy

zy

zz

yx

zx

xz

xx

the stress state can be completely

defined in terms of six stress

components and six corresponding

strains.

ACECOMS, AIT

Secondary Relationships

Global Axis - Local Axis

Shape Functions

Jacobian Matrix

ACECOMS, AIT

means of computing value of any quantity (field) at some

point based on the value specified at specific locations

Shape Functions are used in FEM to relate the values ate

Nodes to those within the Element

Nodal Displacements to Element Deformation

Nodal Stresses to Stresses within the Element

Shape Functions can be Liner or Polynomials

ACECOMS, AIT

N1 (s) 0.5 s (1 s)

S =-1

S=0

S=0

S =+1

N1 (s) (1 s)

S=1

N 2 (s) (1 s)(1 s)

N3 (s) 0.5 s (1 s)

N1 (s) s

S is the Natural Coordinate System

w( s) N1 ( s) w1 N 2 ( s) w2 N 3 ( s) w3

3

w( s) N i wi

i 1

ACECOMS, AIT

Displacement, directly with Element Strains

The Strain is Derivative of Displacement

Displacements are specified on nodes, in Element

Local Axis

For computing K. strains are needed in element in

Natural Coordinates

Shape Functions relate Nodal Displacements with

Element Displacements

N 3

N 2

w N1

J

w1

w2

w3

s

s

s

s

J N i , s wi

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

In a continuum, each point can move in infinite

ways

In Structure, movement of each point is

represented or resolved in limited number of

ways, called Degrees Of Freedom (DOF)

The DOF of range from 1 to 7 depending on type

and level of structural model and the element

being considered

Global and Local DOF have different meaning

and significance

ACECOMS, AIT

Three Translations along the

reference axis

Dx, Dy, Dz

reference axis

Rx, Ry, Rz

ACECOMS, AIT

The General Beam

Element may have 7

degrees of freedom

The seventh degree

is Warping

Warping is out-of

plane distortion of

the beam crosssection

ry

uy

y

u x rx

x

z

uz

rz

wz

member can have seven

Degrees Of Freedom

(DOF) with respect to its

local axis.

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ux Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress

uy Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress

rz Torsion Shear strain Shear stress

r y Curvature Axial strain Axial stress

rx Curvature Axial strain Axial stress

wz Warping Axial strain Axial stress

ACECOMS, AIT

The deformation of the structure can be defined

completely in terms of 3 translations of points with

respect to Global Axis

locations for convenience of modeling and

interpretation

ACECOMS, AIT

and elements in 3 Orthogonal reference system

Coordinates System of the element which may be

orthogonal or curvilinear

Relationship between Global, Local and Natural

DOF is established through Transformation

Matrices

ACECOMS, AIT

Active

the displacement is computed during the analysis

Restrained

the displacement is specified, and the corresponding

reaction is computed during the analysis

Constrained

the displacement is determined from the

displacements at other degrees of freedom

Null

the displacement does not affect the structure and is

ignored by the analysis

Unavailable

The displacement has been explicitly excluded from

the analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Restraints:

External Boundary Conditions

Fixed Support , Support Settlement

Constraints

Linked or dependent limits on DOF

Internal linkages within the structure, in addition to

or in place of normal connections

Rigid Diaphragm, Master-Slave DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

Body Constraints

move together as a three-dimensional rigid body.

All constrained joints are connected to each other by rigid

links and cannot displace relative to each other.

This Constraint can be used to:

Model rigid connections, such as where several beams

and/or columns frame together

Connect together different parts of the structural model

that were defined using separate meshes

Connect Frame elements that are acting as eccentric

stiffeners to Shell elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Constraints in SAP2000

A constraint is a set of two or more constrained

joints.

The displacements of each pair of joints in the

constraint are related by constraint equations.

The types of behavior that can be enforced by

constraints are:

Rigid-body behavior

Equal-displacement behavior

Symmetry and anti-symmetry conditions

ACECOMS, AIT

Constraints in SAP2000

Rigid-body behavior

Rigid Body: fully rigid for all displacements

Rigid Diaphragm: rigid for membrane behavior in a

plane

Rigid Plate: rigid for plate bending in a plane

Rigid Rod: rigid for extension along an axis

Rigid Beam: rigid for beam bending on an axis

ACECOMS, AIT

The Concept of

Stiffness

What is Stiffness ?

In structural terms, stiffness

may be defined as

Resistance to Deformation

So for each type of

deformation, there is a

corresponding stiffness

Stiffness can be considered

or evaluated at various levels

Stiffness is also the

constant in the ActionDeformation Relationship

uF

Ku F

F

K

u

ACECOMS, AIT

Stress/Strain

Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry

EA, EI

Section Stiffness

Member Geometry

EA/L

Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry

Structure Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Structure Stiffness

The overall resistance

of the structures to over

all loads, called the

Global Structure

Stiffness.

Derived from the sum

of stiffness of its

members, their

connectivity and the

boundary or the

restraining conditions.

ACECOMS, AIT

The resistance of each

Element to local actions

called the Element Stiffness

This is derived from the

cross-section stiffness and

the geometry of the

Element.

In FEM, the Member

Stiffness can be derived

from stiffness of Elements

used to model the Member

ACECOMS, AIT

from the cross-section geometry and the stiffness of the

materials from which it is made.

For each of degree of freedom, there is a corresponding

stiffness, and a corresponding cross-section property

uz Cross-section area, Ax

ux Shear Area along x, SAx

uy Shear Area along y, SAy

rz Torsional Constant, J

rx Moment of Inertia, Ixx

r y Moment of Inertia, Iyy

wz Warping Constant, Wzz or Cw

ACECOMS, AIT

Assume Nodal Displacements (Deformations)

Determine Deformations within the element using

Shape Functions

Determine the Strains within the element using

Strain-Displacement Relationship

Determine Stress within the element using

Stress-Strain Relationship

Use the principle of Virtual Work and integrate the

product of stress and strain over the volume of

the element to obtain the Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Internal Work

I .W dv

External Work

E.W F

I .W dv

Stress-Strain

D

Strain-Disp.

I .W T D dv

V

I .W T B T D B dv

V

I .W B D B dv

V

Equilibrium

E.W I .W

T

F B D B dv

V

F B D B dv

V

F K

ACECOMS, AIT

E

D

B

DE

1

B

L

L

K

V

K B D B dv

T

1

1

E

dv

L

L

E

L2

dv

E

K 2 AL

L

EA

K

L

EA

ACECOMS, AIT

Global Nodal Deformations

T-Matrix

Global-Local Cords.

N-Matrix

Shape Functions

B-Matrix

Strain-Deforrmation

D-Matrix

Stress-Strain

ACECOMS, AIT

an element are not independent

One action may produce more than one

deformations

One Deformation may be caused by more than one

Action

and actions within an Element

A Stiffness Matrix is generalized expression of

overall element stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

r5

r2

r3

r6

r1

r4

Node1

Node2

R1

K11

K12

K13

K14

K15

K16

r1

R2

K21

K22

K23

K24

K25

K26

r2

R5

K51

K52

K53

K54

K55

K56

r5

R6

K61

K62

K63

K64

K65

K66

r6

31

41

32

42

33

43

34

44

35

45

36

46

3

4

ACECOMS, AIT

U2

U2

U3

U3

E ,A ,I ,L

U1

U1

Node1

Node2

(P1)1

EA/L

-EA/L

(U1)1

(P2)1

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

-12EI/L3

6EI/L2

(U2)1

(P3)1

6EI/L2

4EI/L

-6EI/L2

2EI/L

(U3)1

(P1)2 =

-EA/L

EA/L

(U1)2

(P2)2

-12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

(U2)2

(P3)2

6EI/L2

2EI/L

-6EI/L2

4EI/L

(U3)2

( U1)1

(U2)1

(U3)1

(U1)2

(U2)2

(U3)3

ACECOMS, AIT

between DSM and FEM. DSM is a special case

of the general FEM

Direct Stiffness Method (DSM)

The terms of the element stiffness matrix are defined

explicitly and in close form (formulae)

It is mostly applicable to 1D Elements (beam, truss)

The element stiffness matrix terms are computed by

numerical integration of the general stiffness

equation

ACECOMS, AIT

Isoparametric Elements

Introduction

In real world, the problem domains are such that

they have no proper shape

It is difficult to find the exact solution of the real

problems

Isoparametric elements are used to discretize a

complex shape problem domain into a number of

geometrical shapes

Analysis is carried out on the simple discretized

shapes and then the result is integrated over the

actual problem domain to get the approximate

numerical solution

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

Consider the example of a bar element

For simplification, let the bar lie in x-axis

First, relate the Global coordinate X to natural

coordinate system with variable r,

Y

x2

x1

U1

U2

X, U

r = -1

r = +1

1 r 1

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

Transformation is given by:

1

1

X (1 r ) X 1 (1 r ) X 2

2

2

h1

x2

x1

U1

U2

X, U

r = -1

r = +1

h2

1

1

are interpolation of

h1 (1 r ) and h2 (1 r )

shape functions

2

2

2

U hiU i

i 1

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

dU dr

dr dX

dU U 2 U1

dr

2

dX X 2 X 1 L

and

dr

2

2

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

Therefore, we have

U 2 U1

Bu

So, Strain displacement transformation

matrix can be shown as:

1

B 1 1

L

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

The Stiffness Matrix is given by:

K BT EB dV

Therefore, we have

AE

K 2

L

1

1 1 1 1 Jdr

1

Where,

A = area of the bar

J = Jacobian

relating an element

length in the global

coordinate system

to an element

length in the

natural coordinate

system

dX J dr

L

so J

2

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

Therefore, K is evaluated as

AE 1 1

K

L 1 1

And put in

1

1

X (1 r ) X 1 (1 r ) X 2

2

2

To get

rX

U hiU i

i 1

( X 1 X 2) / 2

L/2

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

Derive

Interpolation Matrix H

Strain Displacement

Interpolation Matrix B

Jacobian Operator J

for the three-node element

as shown in figure

1

2

X, U

r = -1

x1

r=0

L/2

r = +1

L/2

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

functions of the given

element

r

h1 (1 r )

2

+1

r = -1

r=0

+1

r = -1

r=0

r

h2 (1 r )

2

r = +1

+1

r = -1

h3 1 r

r = +1

r=0

r = +1

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

So,

H h1 h2 h3

matrix B is obtained by

dH

dr

1

1

B J 1 ( r ) ( r ) 2r

2

2

B J 1

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

For Jacobian Operator

x h1 x1 h2 x2 h3 x3

r

r

L

(1 r ) x1 (1 r )( x1 L) (1 r 2 )( x1 )

2

2

2

L L

x x1 r

2 2

dx

J

dr

L

J

2

L

2

J 1 ; det J

2

L

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

isoparametric finite elements use the same shape

function for specification of the element shape

and interpolation of the displacement field

3

1

3

2

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

Shape functions Ni are

defined in local

coordinates

, (1 , 1)

functions are used for

interpolations of

displacements of

coordinates

u N i ui ; v N i vi

x N i xi ; y N i yi

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

Shape functions for linear quadratic twodimensional isoparametric elements are shown

here

Linear Elements 4-node:

1

N i (1 o )(1 o )

4

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

1

1

N i (1 o )(1 o ) (1 2 )(1 o )

4

4

1

(1 o )(1 2 ) i 1, 3, 5, 7

4

1

N i (1 2 )(1 o ) i 2, 6

2

1

N i (1 o )(1 2 ) i 4, 8

2

where

o i ;o i

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Derive the expressions

needed for the calculation

of Stiffness Matrix of the

isoparametric 4-node

finite element shown in

the figure. Assume plane

stress or plane strain

conditions

y, v

or s

or r

y4

3

4

x4

x, u

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

quadratic isoparametric element are

1

h1 (1 r )(1 s )

4

1

h 2 (1 r )(1 s )

4

1

h 3 (1 r )(1 s )

4

1

h 4 (1 r )(1 s )

4

y, v

or s

or r

y4

3

4

x4

x, u

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

The coordinate interpolations for the element is given by

4

i 1

i 1

x hi xi ; y hi yi

Using the interpolation functions, the coordinate

interpolations for this element are

1

1

1

1

x (1 r )(1 s) x1 (1 r )(1 s) x2 (1 r )(1 s) x3 (1 r )(1 s) x4

4

4

4

4

1

1

1

1

y (1 r )(1 s) y1 (1 r )(1 s) y2 (1 r )(1 s) y3 (1 r )(1 s) y4

4

4

4

4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

The displacement interpolations for the element is given

by

4

i 1

11

u hi ui ; v hi vi

Using the interpolation functions, the coordinate

interpolations for this element are

1

1

1

1

u (1 r )(1 s)u1 (1 r )(1 s)u2 (1 r )(1 s)u3 (1 r )(1 s)u4

4

4

4

4

1

1

1

1

v (1 r )(1 s)v1 (1 r )(1 s)v2 (1 r )(1 s)v3 (1 r )(1 s)v4

4

4

4

4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

The element strains are given by

T xx yy xy

xx

u

v

u v

; yy ; xy

x

y

y x

evaluate

x

r r

x

s s

y

r x

y

s y

or

J

r

x

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

where

x 1

1

1

1

(1 s ) x1 (1 s ) x2 (1 s ) x3 (1 s ) x4

r 4

4

4

4

x 1

1

1

1

(1 r ) x1 (1 r ) x2 (1 r ) x3 (1 s ) x4

s 4

4

4

4

y 1

1

1

1

(1 s ) y1 (1 s ) y2 (1 s ) y3 (1 s ) y4

r 4

4

4

4

y 1

1

1

1

(1 r ) y1 (1 r ) y2 (1 r ) y3 (1 r ) y4

s 4

4

4

4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

For any value of r and s

1 r 1 and 1 s 1

We can form the Jacobian matrix. Assuming we evaluate

J at r r and s s

i

x

1 r

J

y

s

at r ri and s s j

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

u 1

1

1

1

(1 s )u1 (1 s)u2 (1 s )u3 (1 s )u4

r 4

4

4

4

u 1

1

1

1

(1 r )u1 (1 r )u2 (1 r )u3 (1 s )u4

s 4

4

4

4

v 1

1

1

1

(1 s )v1 (1 s)v2 (1 s)v3 (1 s )v4

r 4

4

4

4

v 1

1

1

1

(1 r )v1 (1 r )v2 (1 r )v3 (1 r )v4

s 4

4

4

4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

u

x

1 s 0 (1 s ) 0 (1 s ) 0 1 s 0

1

J 1

u

u

1

r

0

1

r

0

(

1

r

)

0

(

1

s

)

0

4

y

and

v

x

0 1 s 0 (1 s ) 0 (1 s ) 0 1 s

1

J 1

u

v

0

1

r

0

1

r

0

(

1

r

)

0

(

1

s

)

4

Where

u T u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4

where r ri and s s j

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Strain-displacement transformation is given by

ij Bij u

So, we can get

0

(1 s)

0

1 s

0

1 s 0 (1 s)

1

Bij 0 1 r 0

1 r

0

(1 r )

0 (1 r )

4

1 r 1 s 1 r (1 s) (1 r ) (1 s ) (1 r ) 1 s

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

Stiffness Matrix K is given by

K tij ij Fij

i, j

matrix, t is the thickness of the element at the sampling

point (r,s)

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

Calculate the

deflection uA

of the

structural

model shown

Z

U4

U3

U1

area =

1cm2

6 cm

U6

U5

U2

0.1cm

U8

U7= uA

E= 30 x 106 N/cm2

6 cm

0.3

0.1cm

Section AA

A

8 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

conditions, we only need to

evaluate the stiffness coefficient

corresponding to uA

We know that

Z

U4

U3

U6

x

r

J

x

s

y

r

y

s

U1

area =

1cm2

6 cm

U5

U2

U8

Y

U7= uA

E= 30 x 106 N/cm2

6 cm

0.3

A

8 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

So, we have

4 0

J

0

3

Now, calculating B

3(1 s )

1

B

...

0

48

4(1 r )

...

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

Stiffness K for an Area is,

K BT EB t det J dr ds

3(1 s )

E

1

3 (1 s )

(0.1)(12)dr ds

3

(

1

s

)

0

4

(

1

r

)

1 48 1 2

2(1 )(1 r )

1 1

K 1336996.34 N / cm

The stiffness of the truss is AE/L, or

(1)(30 X 106 )

k

3750000 N / cm

8

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

Hence,

Ktotal = 6.424 x 106 N/cm

Now, since P = Ku

Therefore, u = P/K

6000

4

u

9

.

34

X

10

cm

6

6.424 X 10

u 9.34 X 104 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element

membrane, and plate behavior in planar and

three-dimensional structures

The membrane behavior uses an isoparametric

formulation that includes translational in-plane

stiffness components and a rotational stiffness

component in the direction normal to the plane of

the element.

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element

Axis 3

Axis 2

Face 3

J3

Axis 1

Face 2

J2

J4

Face 4

Face5 Bottom

Face6 Top

J1

Face 1

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Elements

A simple quadrilateral Shell Element

Two dimensional plate bending and membrane

elements are combined to form a four-node shell

element

y

y

z

uy

ux

uy

uz

ux

Membrane Element

Shell Element

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Elements

A thin-plate (Kirchhoff) formulation is normally

used that neglects transverse shearing

deformation

also be chosen which includes the effects of

transverse shearing deformation

ACECOMS, AIT

What are

The Finite Elements

(in SAP2000)

The Finite Elements are discretized

representation of the continuous structure

Generally they correspond to the physical

structural components but sometimes dummy or

idealized elements my also be used

Elements behavior is completely defined within its

boundaries and is not directly related to other

elements

Nodes are imaginary points used describe

arbitrary quantities and serve to provide

connectivity across element boundaries

ACECOMS, AIT

1 D Elements (Beam type)

Only one dimension is actually modeled as a line, other

two dimensions are represented by stiffness properties

Only two dimensions are actually modeled as a

surface, third dimension is represented by stiffness

properties

Can be used in 2D and 3D Model

All three dimensions are modeled as a solid

Can be used in 3D Model

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

All elements are connected to the structure at the joints

The structure is supported at the joints using Restraints

and/or Springs

Rigid-body behavior and symmetry conditions can be

specified using Constraints that apply to the joints

Concentrated loads may be applied at the joints

Lumped masses and rotational inertia may be placed at

the joints

Loads and masses applied to the elements are transferred

to the joints

Joints are the primary locations in the structure at which

the displacements are known (the supports) or are to be

determined

ACECOMS, AIT

identical to the global X-Y-Z coordinate system

It may be necessary to use different local coordinate

systems at some or all joints in the following cases:

Skewed Restraints (supports) are present

Constraints are used to impose rotational symmetry

Constraints are used to impose symmetry about a plane

that is not parallel to a global coordinate plane

The principal axes for the joint mass (translational or

rotational) are not aligned with the global axes

Joint displacement and force output is desired in

another coordinate system

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Any of the six degrees of freedom at any of the

joints in the structure can have translation or

rotational spring support conditions.

Springs elastically connect the joint to the ground.

The spring forces that act on a joint are related to

the displacements of that joint by a 6x6

symmetric matrix of spring stiffness coefficients.

Simple Springs

Coupled Springs

ACECOMS, AIT

Independent spring

stiffness in each DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

General Spring Connection

Global and skewed springs

Coupled 6x6 user-defined

spring stiffness option (for

foundation modeling)

ACECOMS, AIT

where u1 ,u2 ,u3 ,r1 ,r2 and r3 are the joint displacements and rotations,

and the terms u1, u1u2, u2, ... are the specified spring stiffness

coefficients.

ACECOMS, AIT

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Dy

Dx

2D Truss

Dy

Dy

Rz

Dz

Dx

3D Truss

2D Beam

Ry

Dy

Rz

Dy

Dx

Rz

Dy

Dz

Rx

Dx

Rx

Rz

2D Frame

2D Grid

3D Frame

ACECOMS, AIT

Variation of 1D Elements

Based on DOF

2D Truss

3D Truss

2D Beam

3D Beam

2D Grid

Based on Behavior

Thick Beam/ Thin Beam

Liner/ Isoperimetric

Non-Linear Elements

NL Link

Gap Element

Tension Only

Compression Only

Friction

Cable

Damper

ACECOMS, AIT

Usage of 1D Elements

3D Frame

2D Grid

2D Frame

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Ry ?

Ry ?

Dy

Rz

Rx

Dx

Dy

Dy

Membrane

Plate

Dz

Dx

Rx

Rz

Shell

ACECOMS, AIT

Membrane Element

General

Total Displacements per Node = 2

Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0)

Membranes are modeled for flat

surfaces

R3

U2

U2

Node 4

Node 3

U1

3

U1

2

Application

For Modeling surface elements

carrying

in-plane loads

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

U1

Membrane

ACECOMS, AIT

Plain-Strain

Assumptions

x

1 unit

x2

x1

x3

3D Problem

2D Problem

ACECOMS, AIT

Plate Element

General

Total DOF per Node = 3

Total Displacements per

Node = 1

Total Rotations per Node = 2

Plates are for flat surfaces

U3

U3

R2

Node 3

R2

Node 4

R1

3

R1

2

Application

For Modeling surface

elements carrying

out of plane loads

U3

R2

Node 1

U3

R2

Node 2

R1

R1

Plate

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element

General

Total Displacements per Node = 3

Total Rotations per Node = 3

Used for curved surfaces

U3, R3

U3, R3

U2, R2

U2, R2

Node 3

Node 4

U1, R1

3

Application

For Modeling surface elements

carrying general loads

U1, R1

U3, R3

1

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 1

U2, R2

Node 2

U1, R1

U1, R1

Shell

ACECOMS, AIT

Based on Behavior

2D Plane Stress

2D Plane Strain

Axisymetric Solid

Plate

Shell

3 Node, 6 Node

4 Node, 8 Node, (9 Node)

Rubber

Soil

Laminates

Isotropic/ Orthotropic

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Each Shell element

has its own local

coordinate system

used to define

Material properties,

loads and output.

The axes of this local

system are denoted 1,

2 and 3. The first two

axes lie in the plane of

the element the third

axis is normal

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Dy

Dz

Dx

Solid/ Brick

ACECOMS, AIT

8-Node Brick

Bricks can be

added by using

Text Generation in

V7. New version

8 will have

graphical interface

for Bricks

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Truss

Truss

Frame

Shell

Membrane

Plate

Shell

Solid

OK

OK

Dz

OK

OK

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Rx ?

Dx, Dy

Rx ?

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

OK

OK

Dx, Dy

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

OK

Membrane

Plate

Frame

Solid

0

ACECOMS, AIT

ends connect with each other, special measures

may need to be taken to provide proper connectivity

depending on Software Capability

Beams to Plates

Beam to Brick

Plates to Brick

ACECOMS, AIT

configuration need to be connected we may

have to:

Use special Constraints

Use mesh grading and subdivision

Use in-compatible elements (Zipper Elements in

ETABS)

Automatic Node detection and internal

meshing by the Software

ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling Shear-Walls

using Panels only

Panels, Beams, Columns

with Beams and Columns unless

6 DOF Shell is used)

with Beams and Columns is restored

by using additional beams)

ACECOMS, AIT

Zipper

should match with mesh in the

wall to establish connection

establishes connectivity by using

constraints or Zipper elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Model

Loads

Load Cases

Load Combinations

Design Envelopes

Design Actions

ACECOMS, AIT

Load Cases

Load cases are defined by the user and used for

analysis purpose only

Dead Load

Live Load

Wind Load

Response Spectrum Load Cases

Time History Load Cases

ACECOMS, AIT

Load Combinations

The Load Combinations may be created by the

program, user defined or a combination of both.

1.4DL

1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL)

0.75[1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL) + 1.7WL]

0.75[1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL) - 1.7WL]

0.9DL + 1.3WL

0.9DL - 1.3WL

1.1 [1.2DL + 0.5(LL + RLL) + 1.0E]

1.1 [1.2DL + 0.5(LL + RLL) - 1.0E]

1.1 (0.9DL + 1.0E)

1.1 (0.9DL - 1.0E)

ACECOMS, AIT

due to mass contained in a volume

Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads

to the Supports through a Medium

All type of Gravity Loads can be represented as:

Point Loads

Line Loads

Area Loads

Volume Loads

ACECOMS, AIT

A Point

A Line

An Area

A Volume

A system consisting of combination of several mediums

Point Supports

Line Supports

Area Supports

Volume Supports

ACECOMS, AIT

Object

Load

Geometry

Medium

Support

Boundary

Point

Point Load

Concentrated Load

Node

Point Support

Column Support

Line

Beam Load

Wall Load

Slab Load

Beam / Truss

Connection Element

Spring Element

Line Support

Wall Support

Beam Support

Area

Slab Load

Wind Load

Plate Element

Shell Element

Panel/ Plane

Soil Support

Volume

Seismic Load

Liquid Load

Solid Element

Soil Support

ACECOMS, AIT

Load

Mechanism depend on:

Vol.

Area

Complexity of Load

Complexity of Medium

Complexity of Boundary

Line

Point Line

Line

Area

Volume

Medium

Area

Volume

Boundary

ACECOMS, AIT

Line

Area

Volume

ACECOMS, AIT

To Lines

To Points

ACECOMS, AIT

considered

Along X-Direction

Along Y Direction

Along Diagonal

separately into load combinations twice, once

with (+ve) and once with (-ve) sign

Total of 6 Wind Load Cases should considered in

Combinations, but only 3 Load Cases need to be

defined and analyzed

ACECOMS, AIT

Case for Wind Load

should be considered

Wx

be critical for special

types and layouts of

buildings

Wy

Wxy

ACECOMS, AIT

Comb1

Comb2

Comb3

Comb4

Comb5

Comb6

Wx

+f

-f

Wy

+f

-f

Wxy

+f

-f

Comb = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7W) will need Six

the design codes

Actual Combinations

required where ever Wind is

mentioned in the basic Load

Combinations

Comb2 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wx)

Comb3 = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wy)

Comb4 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wy)

Comb5 = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wxy)

Comb6 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wxy)

ACECOMS, AIT

Free Vibration

Forced Vibration

Random Vibration

Seismic Excitation

Response Spectrum

Time History

Steady-State Harmonic Load

Impact

Blast

ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Results

Finite Element Analysis

(in SAP2000)

ACECOMS, AIT

At Joints

Joint Displacements

Spring Reactions

Restrained Reactions

Constrained Forces

Results Available For:

For all Available DOF

Given on the Local Joint Coordinates

Given for all Load Case, Mode

Shapes,Response Spectrums, Time Histories,

Moving Loads, and Load Combinations

ACECOMS, AIT

The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both

Ends, in Local Coordinate System

2

+V2

+M2

+P

2

+V3

+V3

+P

+V2

+T

+M3

+M3

+T

+M2

ACECOMS, AIT

The Shell element internal forces (also called stress

resultants) are the forces and moments that result from

integrating the stresses over the element thickness.

The results include the Membrane Results (in-plane

forces) and Plate Bending Results

The results are given for Element Local Axis

It is very important to note that these stress resultants

are forces and moments per unit of in-plane length

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Membrane Results

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Comb1

Comb2

Comb3 Comb N

Load Case -1

Load Case - 2

Load Case - 3

Envelop Results

Load Case - M

Total

P1

P2

P3

PN

Max, P

Min, P

ACECOMS, AIT

stresses

For Column Design:

For Beam Design:

For Slabs:

P, Mx, My

Mx, Vy, Tz

At least 3 Actions from each combination must be

considered together as set

Mx

My

Every Load Combinations must be used for

design with complete Action Set

ACECOMS, AIT

Actions are obtained as

the cumulative result

from each load

combination, as set for

all interacting actions

The final or critical

results from design of

all load combinations

are adopted

Combinations

Load Cases

Design Actions

Obtained as set

from all

Combinations

ACECOMS, AIT

For a Single Action:

Response Spectrum Load Case

+

1 for each Time Step

OR 1 for envelop

Load

Combination

Table

OR 1 for Envelop

ACECOMS, AIT

All response spectrum cases are assumed to be

earthquake load cases

Design load combination that includes a response

spectrum load case is checked for all possible

combinations of signs (+, -) on the response spectrum

values

P, M2 and M3 and eight combinations for M3, V, T

ACECOMS, AIT

SRSS, CQC, etc.

P, Mx, My>

+P, +Mx, -My

+P, -Mx, +My

+P, -Mx, -My

-P, +Mx, -My

-P, -Mx, +My

-P, -Mx, -My

ACECOMS, AIT

Option 2:

Design For All Values

(At each time step)

Max Val

T (sec)

Option 1:

Envelope Design

Min Val

ACECOMS, AIT

Time-History Results

The default design load combinations do not include any time

history results

design load combination

Can perform design for each step of Time History or design for

envelops for those results

For envelope design, the design is for the maximum of each

response quantity (axial load, moment, etc.) as if they occurred

simultaneously.

Designing for each step of a time history gives correct

correspondence between different response quantities

ACECOMS, AIT

each response quantity from the envelope results for a time

history

For a design load combination any load combination that

includes a time history load case in it is checked for all

possible combinations of maximum and minimum time

history design values.

If a single design load combination has more than one time

history case in it, that design load combination is designed

for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is

specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences.

ACECOMS, AIT

include any Static Nonlinear results

Nonlinear Results in a design load combination

For a single static nonlinear load case the design is

performed for each step of the static nonlinear

analysis.

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

For Beam type elements (1D

elements) design actions like Axial

force, moments, and shear force are

output directly.

These actions can be used directly for

design purposes

Generally, design is carried out in two

parts

Axial- Flexural:

Shear Torsion:

My

Vy

Nx

x

Vz

Mz

Tx

3D Beam Column

y

My

P, Mx, My

T, Vx, Vy

Mz

Beam Design:

Column Design:

Mx, Vy, T

Mx, My, P

Nx

ACECOMS, AIT

Ast : To resist

tension due to My

moment Mx (doubly reinforced beams) and

tension due to Torsion

Torsion. Must be closed hoops on sides of

the section

in deep beams due to moment and due to

Torsion

moment and tension due to Torsion

ACECOMS, AIT

Analysis is reported in moment per unit width along the

local axis of the plate element. These need to be

converted to moments along x and y for design purposes.

The portion of a plate element bounded by a crack is

shown in the Adjoining figure. The moment about an axis

dx =k dy

parallel to the crack may be given as:

mc ds mx dy mxy kdycos my kdy mxy dy sin

2

dy

mc mx k 2 m y 2kmxy

dx

dy

ds

Crack

ACECOMS, AIT

mxy kdy

with bars in the x and y direction

The corresponding moment

capacity at the assumed crack is

2

dy

mrc mrx k 2 mry

dx

my kdy

mxy dy

mx dy

ms ds

mry kdy

mrx dy

mc solving for the minimum we

get

1

mry m y mxy

k

mrc ds

mrx , mry

Positive moment

capacities per unit width

ACECOMS, AIT

The reinforcement at

the bottom of the slab in

each direction is

designed to provide

resistance for the

positive moment

The reinforcement at

the top of the slab in

each direction is

designed to provide

resistance for the

negative moment

mry m y mxy

mrx mx mxy

yield a negative value

mry m y mxy

mrx mx mxy

yield a positive value

ACECOMS, AIT

For Brick elements the FEA results in the nodal stresses

and strains.

The stresses on the brick elements need to be

integrated along x and y direction to obtain forces.

Stress variation in both the directions may be

considered and integrated.

These forces are then used to find the moment about

the two orthogonal axes and the net axial force. Similar

approach is used to obtain shear forces in two directions

After the axial forces, moments and shear forces are

obtained then the section can be designed as a

rectangular beam

ACECOMS, AIT

Sample Calculations for P and M

assumption that there is no stress

variation in the transverse direction

Pi C1 C2 T ........

n

P Pi

i 1

C1

M i C1 x1 C2 x2 Tx3 .......

x1

x3

M Mi

i 1

CL

x2

C2

ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling

Structures

Using FEM

Objective is to get Overall Structural

Response

Results in the form of member forces and

stress patterns

Materials

Material distinction is made by using specific

material properties

Global Model may be a simple 2D beam/

frame model or a sophisticated full 3D finite

element model

Generally adequate for design of usual

structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Model of the Cross-section, Opening, Joints,

connection

concentration, cross-section behavior,

modeling of cracking, bond, anchorage etc.

Needs finite element modeling, often using

very fine mesh, advance element features,

non-linear analysis

Mostly suitable for research, simulation,

experiment verification and theoretical studies

ACECOMS, AIT

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(e) 2D Fram e

(d) 3D Fram e

(f) Grid-Plate

ACECOMS, AIT

Which Model to be used ?

3D or 2D

Frame or Grid

Plate, Membrane, Shell, Solid

Beam, Plate, Brick

Size and number of elements

Linear or Nonlinear

Static or Dynamic

Linear static or Nonlinear dynamic

Linear dynamic or Nonlinear static

ACECOMS, AIT

Define Basic Material Properties

Define Cross-sections to be used

Draw, generate Nodes and Elements

Assign XSections, Restraints, Constraints etc.

Apply Loads to Nodes and Elements

Run the Analysis

Check Basic Equilibrium and Deformations

Interpret and use the Results

ACECOMS, AIT

Should be Carried out!

depends on the Structural System

The Type of Excitation (Loads)

The Type Structure (Material and Geometry)

The Type Response

ACECOMS, AIT

P-Delta Analysis

Buckling Analysis

Static Pushover Analysis

Response Spectrum Analysis

Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)

Steady State Dynamic Analysis

Free Vibration and Modal Analysis

Large Displacement Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Static Excitation

When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time

When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly

Dynamic Excitation

When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time

When the Inertial Force becomes significant

Quasi Static

Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to

Equivalent Static Loads

ACECOMS, AIT

Static

Dynamic

Self Load

Normal Operation

At lifting/ placement

Superimposed Dead

Load

Normal Operation

At placement

Live Load

Normal Operation

Depends on type

Highway Traffic

Quasi Static

Impact

Water/ Liquid

Normal Operation

Filling, Sloshing

Creep, Shrinkage

Static

No Dynamic

Component

Wind

Equivalent Static

Random Vibration

Seismic Excitation

Equivalent Static

Response Spectrum,

Time History

Vibratory Machines

Equivalent Static

Impulse At Startup

ACECOMS, AIT

Steady State at

Excitation/ Load

Elastic Material

returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after

removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material

Does not follow the same path during loading and unloading and

may not returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc.

after removal of load/ excitation

depending upon level of loading.

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Using Graphical Modeling Tools

Using Numerical Generation

Using Mathematical Generation

Using Copy and Replication

Using Subdivision and Meshing

Using Geometric Extrusions

Using Parametric Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Simple Graphic Objects

Point Object

Line Object

Area Object

Brick Object

Represents Node

Represents 1D Elements

Represents 2D Elements

Represents 3D Elements

geometry, boundary and loads

SAP2000, ETABS and SAFE use the concept of

Graphic Objects

ACECOMS, AIT

Structural Members are representation of actual

structural components

Finite Elements are discretized representation of

Structural Members

The concept of Graphic Objects can be used to

represent both, the Structural Members as well as

Finite Elements

In ETABS, the Graphic Objects representing the

Structural Members are automatically divided into

Finite Elements for analysis and then back to

structural members for result interpretation

ACECOMS, AIT

Unstable Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

When the Global Stiffness Matrix is Singular

Any diagonal element in the matrix is zero

The numerical values in various matrix cells are of

grossly different order

Numerical values are either too small or too large

ACECOMS, AIT

Restraint Instability

Not enough Boundary Restraints

Geometric Instability

Not enough stiffness of Elements

Elements not connected properly

Presence of Orphan Degrees Of Freedom

Material Instability

Not enough Material Stiffness, (E, G)

Not enough Cross-section Stiffness (A, I, J, ..)

ACECOMS, AIT

Structure Types

Cable Structures

Cable Nets

Cable Stayed

Bar Structures

2D/3D Trusses

2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures

Plate, Shell

In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Foundations

Soil-Structure Interaction

Simple Supports

Support Settlement

Elastic Supports

Spring to represent soil

Using Modulus of Sub-grade reaction

Use 2D plane stress elements

Use 3D Solid Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Soil

Modeling of Mat

Beam

Plate

Brick

Constraint

Yes

Yes

Yes

Spring

Yes

Yes

Yes

Brick

No

Yes

Yes

ACECOMS, AIT

A = Spacing of

Springs in X

B = Spacing of

Springs in Y

Ks = Modulus of

sub-grade reaction

(t/cu m etc.)

K = Spring constant

(t/m etc)

B

B

K= ks*A*B

ACECOMS, AIT

The raft is represented as a

grillage of beams

representing slab strips in

both directions

The soil is represented by

spring

This approach is

approximate and does not

consider the Mxy or the

torsional rigidity of the mat

ACECOMS, AIT

The raft is modeled using

Plate (or Shell) elements

At least 9-16 elements

should be used in one

panel

Soil springs may be

located or every node or

at alternate nodes

Not suitable fro very thick

rafts like thick pile caps

etc

ACECOMS, AIT

The raft is represented by

brick elements, soil as

springs

More than one layer of

brick elements should be

used along thickness

(usually 3-5) unless higher

order elements are used

Suitable for very thick

mats and pile caps etc.

Difficult to determine

rebars from brick results

ACECOMS, AIT

The raft is represented by

plate elements, soil as

bricks

Soil around the mat should

also be modeled (min 2

times width)

ACECOMS, AIT

brick elements, soil as bricks

also

More than one layer of brick

elements should be used

along thickness (usually 3-5)

unless higher order elements

are used

Soil around the mat should

also be modeled (min 2 times

width)

Suitable for very thick mats

and pile caps etc.

Difficult to determine rebars

from brick results

ACECOMS, AIT

The top slab, the walls

and the bottom slab

should be modeled using

plate elements

More than one plate

element layer should be

used in the walls

The soil may be

represented by springs or

by bricks

ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling of Piles

For analysis and design

of individual Pile, it can

be modeled as beam

element and soil

around it as series of

lateral and vertical

springs

For analysis of super

structure, entire pile

can be represented by

a single a set of springs

ACECOMS, AIT

The springs used to represent may be either

linear or non linear

The non-linear response of the soil can be

obtained from actual tests

The non-linear response can then be used to

determine K for various levels of load or

deformation

Nonlinear springs are especially useful for

vertical as well as lateral response of piles

and pile groups

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Using Truss

ACECOMS, AIT

t

B

Rigid Zones

is more than 5

The shear wall is

represented by a column of

section B x t

The beam up to the edge of

the wall is modeled as

normal beam

The column is connected to

beam by rigid zones or very

large cross-section

ACECOMS, AIT

distribution and allow easy modeling of openings

(No Moment continuity

with Beams and Columns unless

6 DOF Shell is used)

Beams, Columns

(Full Moment continuity

with Beams and Columns)

ACECOMS, AIT

txt

C

t x 2t

B

the main truss layout based on wall

width and floor levels

Initial member sizes can be

estimated as t x 2t for main axial

members and t x t for diagonal

members

Use frame elements to model the

truss. It is not necessary to use

truss elements

Generally single diagonal is sufficient

for modeling but double diagonal

may be used for easier interpretation

of results

The floor beams and slabs can be

connected directly to truss elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Uniaxial

Biaxial

ACECOMS, AIT

Plate-Shell Model

Truss Model

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction

To Dynamic Analysis

Excitation

The Seismic Excitation is Dynamic in nature

So the Response is governed by

The question is how to solve this equation?

ACECOMS, AIT

The General

Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Capture the Realistic Behavior of Structures

Puts Check on Structural Irregularities

Identifies Ductility Demands

Required by Code

ACECOMS, AIT

Static Elastic Only:

Displacement (U)=Force (P) /Stiffness(K) P(u,a)

U = P/K or K u = P

K

Inertia Only :

Acceleration (a)=Force (P) / Mass(M)

a = P/M or Ma = P

BOTH :

Ma+Ku=P

ACECOMS, AIT

F

FI + F D + FS = F

M a(t) + C v(t) + K u(t) = F(t)

M u(t) +C u(t) + K u(t) = F(t)

(Second order differential equation for

linear structural behavior)

F = External Force

FS = Internal Forces

FD = Energy Dissipation Forces

FI= Inertial Force

(t) = Varies with time

u = Acceleration (a)

u = Velocity (v)

u = Displacement

M = Mass

C = Damping

K = Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Floor

Mass less Column, Entire

mass is concentrated on the

roof

Rigid roof, Rigid ground

Column is flexible in lateral

direction but rigid in vertical

direction

Roof

Column

Ground

ACECOMS, AIT

If the roof is displaced laterally by a

distance uo and then released the

structure will oscillate around its

equilibrium position.

Roof

Column

Ground

One Cycle

uo

uo

-uo

5

ACECOMS, AIT

Dynamic Response

Displacement

uo

Amplitude

time

3

-uo

forever with the same

amplitude uo and the structure

will never come to rest.

Actual structure will oscillate

with decreasing amplitude

and will eventually come to

rest.

uo

uo

-uo

5

ACECOMS, AIT

Mass m

Stiffness K

Damping C

Building

To incorporate damping or

dying out of dynamic

response feature into the

idealized structure, an energy

absorbing element should be

introduced.

Viscous damper is the most

commonly used energy

absorbing element in the

dynamic modeling of

structures

ACECOMS, AIT

Displacement

Velocity

Acceleration

Time Period

Frequency

Change in Location

Rate of Change of Displacement wrt Time

Rate of Change of Velocity wrt Time

The time taken to complete one cycle

The no. of cycles per second

u

du

v u

dt

d 2u

a v u 2

dt

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Definition

condition and subjected to no external load or

damping

Main governing equation -Eigen Value Problem

u c u K ut Pt

t

t

Solution gives

Natural Frequencies

Associated mode shapes

An insight into the dynamic behavior and response

of the structure

ACECOMS, AIT

Free Vibration

M u(t) + K u(t) = 0

Which leads to eigenvalue

problem

K n w n2 M n

K w M 0

det K w M 0

2

n

2

n

polynomial of order n for w , which in

turn gives n mode shapes

No damping of the system

w = natural frequencies

F = Mode shape

relative (not absolute)

nodal displacement for a

particular mode of free

vibration for a specific

natural frequency

ACECOMS, AIT

Modal Analysis

Determination of

natural frequencies

and mode shapes.

No external load or

excitation is applied

to the structure.

Obtained from

eigenvalue analysis.

There are as many

modes as there are

DOF in the system

ACECOMS, AIT

Analysis for

Ground Motion

ACECOMS, AIT

mu cu ku F

F mu mg mug

k

w

; c 2w m

m

mu cu ku mug

mu 2w mu mw 2u mug

u 2w u w 2u ug

The unknown is displacement and its

derivatives ( velocity, acceleration)

Variables are ground acceleration, damping

ratio and circular frequency

ACECOMS, AIT

u 2w u w u ug

Finite Element Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

dynamic response of

structure as the sum of

response of all mode

shapes using the ground

acceleration at each time

step

0.15

Acceleration (a/g)

0.1

0.05

0

-0.05 0

10

15

20

25

30

35

-0.1

-0.15

Time (Second)

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Response

Spectrum

Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

u 2w u w u ug

Finite Element Analysis

time period and damping ratio, a single value of

displacement, velocity and acceleration can be obtained

Output of the above (u, v, a) equation are the dynamic

response to the ground motion for a structure considered

as a single DOF

A plot of the maximum response for different ground

motion history, different time period and damping ratio give

the Spectrum of Response

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Spectral Parameters

S v wS d

Spectral Displacement

Pseudo Spectral Velocity

Pseudo Spectral Acceleration

Sd

Sv

Sa

S a wSv w 2 S d

u

v u

du

dt

d 2u

a v u 2

dt

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

For each mode of free vibration, corresponding Time

Period is obtained.

For each Time Period and specified damping ratio, the

specified Response Spectrum is read to obtain the

corresponding Acceleration

For each Spectral Acceleration, corresponding velocity

and displacements response for the particular degree

of freedom is obtained

The displacement response is then used to obtain the

corresponding stress resultants

The stress resultants for each mode are then added

using some combination rule to obtain the final

response envelop

ACECOMS, AIT

ABS SUM Rule

each mode. Not so popular and not

ro

used in practice

SRSS

Square Root of Sum of Squares of the

peak response from each mode.

Suitable for well separated natural

frequencies.

CQC

Complete Quadric Combination is

applicable to large range of structural

response and gives better results than

SRSS.

ro

ro

n0

n 1

2

r

n0

n 1

i 1 n 1

r r

in i 0 n 0

ACECOMS, AIT

Uses modal

combination rules to

determine total peak

response from all

modes

Spectral Acceleartion

Determination of

peak response of the

structure based on a

design or specified

response spectrum

and the specified

mode shapes

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0%

2%

5%

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction to

Non-linear Analysis

Geometric Non-Linearity

Material Non-Linearity

Compound Non-Linearity

P

P

Large Displacements

d

ACECOMS, AIT

basic relationships in the

stiffness evaluation

Example: Axial Load

Changes Bending Stiffness

additional actions, not present

at initial conditions

Example: Axial load causes

additional moments

ACECOMS, AIT

Material Non-Linearity

constants (E, G, v)

etc. change with level of

strain

kfc

Example: Stress-Strain

curve is non-linear

The cross-section

properties change with

level of strain

Example: Cracking in

reinforced concrete

reduces A, I etc

Kd

N.A

yt

As

ACECOMS, AIT

Material Non-linearity

Moment Curvature

curve generated for a

rectangular column

with circular core. The

outer portion is

modeled by stressstrain curve for low

strength unconfined

concrete where as the

core is modeled by

lightly confined

concrete. Observe the

drop in moment

capacity as the outer

concrete fails.

Semi-confined,

High Strength Concrete

ACECOMS, AIT

Types of Non-Linearity

Smooth , Continuous

Softening

Hardening

Discontinuous

Snap-through

Bifurcation

Elastic Buckling

In-Elastic Buckling

P-Delta

ACECOMS, AIT

together with Time History Dynamic analysis

Non-linear behavior can be modeled by:

NL Link Element For Dynamic Nonlinear

Elastic Stiffness for Linear Analysis

Gap, Hook, Damper, Isolator for Nonlinear

Hinge Element For Static Pushover

Material Non linearity

Load-Deflection Curves

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction to

Push-over Analysis

during strong ground shaking

Improve Understanding of Building Behavior

- More accurate prediction of global displacement

- More realistic prediction of earthquake demand on individual

components and elements

- More reliable identification of bad actors

- Less conservative acceptance criteria

- Less extensive construction

ACECOMS, AIT

Design is based not on Ultimate Strength but

rather on Expected Performance

performance of the structure at Ultimate Capacity

Fully Operational

Operational

Life Safe

Near Collapse

Collapse

ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Spectrum

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Demand Vs Capacity

ACECOMS, AIT

frame/line elements.

1. Material nonlinearity in the link elements.

Gap (compression only), hook (tension only), uniaxial plasticity

base isolators (biaxial plasticity and biaxial friction/pendulum)..

Only P-delta effects

P-delta effects plus large displacements

Members can be added or removed in a sequence of stages

during each analysis case.

ACECOMS, AIT

Important Considerations

Each nonlinear problem is different

Start simple and build up gradually.

Run linear static loads and modal analysis first

Add hinges gradually beginning with the areas

where you expect the most non-linearity.

Perform initial analyses without geometric nonlinearity. Add P-delta effects, and large

deformations, much later.

ACECOMS, AIT

Important Considerations

Mathematically, static nonlinear analysis does not

always guarantee a unique solution.

Small changes in properties or loading can cause

large changes in nonlinear response.

It is Important to consider many different loading

cases, and sensitivity studies on the effect of

varying the properties of the structure

Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience.

Dont Rush it or Push to Hard

ACECOMS, AIT

1. Create a model just like for any other analysis.

2. Define the static load cases, if any, needed for use in the

static nonlinear analysis (Define > Static Load Cases).

3. Define any other static and dynamic analysis cases that

may be needed for steel or concrete design of frame

elements.

4. Define hinge properties, if any (Define > Frame Nonlinear

Hinge Properties).

5. Assign hinge properties, if any, to frame/line elements

(Assign > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges).

6. Define nonlinear link properties, if any (Define > Link

Properties).

ACECOMS, AIT

7. Assign link properties, if any, to frame/line elements

(Assign > Frame/Line > Link Properties).

8. Run the basic linear and dynamic analyses (Analyze >

Run).

9. Perform concrete design/steel design so that reinforcing

steel/ section is determined for concrete/steel hinge if

properties are based on default values to be computed by

the program.

10. For staged construction, define groups that represent the

various completed stages of construction.

11. Define the static nonlinear load cases (Define > Static

Nonlinear/Pushover Cases).

ACECOMS, AIT

12. Run the static nonlinear analysis (Analyze > Run

Static Nonlinear Analysis).

13. Review the static nonlinear results (Display >

Show Static Pushover Curve), (Display > Show

Deformed Shape), (Display > Show Member

Forces/Stress Diagram), and (File > Print Tables

> Analysis Output).

14. Perform any design checks that utilize static

nonlinear cases.

15. Revise the model as necessary and repeat.

ACECOMS, AIT

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