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## Finite Element Analysis

July 19-21, 2004
Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software

Buddhi S. Shrama

The Objective

## To understand the fundamentals of the

Finite Element Method and the Finite Element
Analysis
To apply the Finite Element Analysis Tools for
Modeling and Analysis of Structures
Use SAP2000 as Tool for Finite Element
Modeling and Analysis of Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

The Program

## What is FEM and Why it is needed

Fundamental concepts in FEM and FEA
Concept of Stiffness
Finite Elements and their Usage
Constructing Finite Element Models
Applying Loads to FE Models
Interpreting FE Results
Modeling Different Types of Structures using FE
Intro to Non-linear and Dynamic Analysis

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## What is Finite Element Analysis

and Why do We Need It!

## Finite Element Analysis

STRUCTURE
EXCITATION
Vibrations
Settlements
Thermal Changes

pv

RESPONSES
Displacements
Strains
Stresses
Stress Resultants

ACECOMS, AIT

## We need to determine the

Response of the Structure to
Excitations

Analysis

so that:
We can ensure that the structure
can sustain the excitation with an
acceptable level of response

Design

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Analysis of Structures

## Finite Element Analysis

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Real Structure is governed by Partial
Differential Equations of various order
pv

Simple geometry
Simple Boundary
ACECOMS, AIT

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

## Finite Element Analysis

EXCITATION
Vibrations
Settlements
Thermal Changes

pv

Displacements
Strains
Stress
Stress Resultants
Structural
Model

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## A - Real Structure cannot be Analyzed:

It can only be Load Tested to determine
response

## B - We can only analyze a

Model of the Structure
C - We therefore need tools to Model the
Structure and to Analyze the Model
ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Method and FEA

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

## A discretized solution to a continuum

problem using FEM

## Finite Element Method (FEM)

A numerical procedure for solving (partial)
differential equations associated with field
problems, with an accuracy acceptable to
engineers

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Equilibrium

## Finite Element Analysis

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Partial Differential
Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Classical

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

K = Stiffness
r = Response
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Deformations (u)

## Finite Element Analysis

Fv

(Stiffness)

F
Equilibrium Equation

F=Ku
ACECOMS, AIT

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION
pv

Static
Dynamic

Elastic
Inelastic

Linear
Nonlinear

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Main Equilibrium Equations

1. Linear-Static
Ku F

Elastic

2. Linear-Dynamic

Elastic

## Mu(t ) Cu(t ) Ku(t ) F (t )

3. Nonlinear - Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Elastic OR Inelastic

ACECOMS, AIT

Excitation

Structure

Response

## Basic Analysis Type

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Steady State Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Engineer

## Create Structural Model

Discretize Model in FE
Software

Solve FE Model
Interpret FEA Results

Engineer

## Physical significance of Results

ACECOMS, AIT

The Fundamentals
In Finite Element Method

## From Continuum to Structure

From Structure To Structural Model

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## Finite Element Analysis

3D SOLIDS

Discretization

Simplification
(geometric)

3D-CONTINUM
MODEL
(Governed by partial
differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL
OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by either
partial or total differential equations)

DISCRETE MODEL
OF STRUCTURE
(Governed by algebraic
equations)
ACECOMS, AIT

Equilibrium

## Finite Element Analysis

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Partial Differential
Equations

Structure

Assumptions

Continuum

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

## (Principle of Virtual Work)

K = Stiffness
r = Response
ACECOMS, AIT

Continuum Vs Structure

## A continuum extends in all direction, has infinite

particles, with continuous variation of material
properties, deformation characteristics and stress
state
A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an
assemblage of substructures, components and
members

ACECOMS, AIT

## Physical Categorization of Structures

Structures can be categorized in many ways.
For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall
physical behavior can be used as basis of
categorization

## Cable or Tension Structures

Skeletal or Framed Structures
Surface or Spatial Structures
Solid Structures
Mixed Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

## Structure, Member, Element

Structure can be considered as an assemblage of
Physical Components called Members

## Physical Members can be modeled by using one

or more Conceptual Components called
Elements
1D elements, 2D element, 3D elements
Frame element, plate element, shell element, solid
element, etc.

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Structural Members
Continuum

Regular Solid
(3D)

y
Plate/Shell (2D)
x z
t<<(x,z)

z
x

Beam (1D)
b h
L>>(b,h)
h

z
x

L
b

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Reference System

To convert continuum to structures, the first step
is to define a finite number of reference
dimensions
The Four Dimensional Reference System:
Three Space Dimensions, x, y, z
One Time Dimension, t

Space and Time
S (x, y, z, t)

ACECOMS, AIT

## Global Axis used to reference the

overall structure and to locate its
components:
Also called the Structure Axis

## Local Axis used to reference the

quantities on part of a structure or a
member or an element:
Also called the Member Axis or
Element Axis

ACECOMS, AIT

## The General Global Coordinate System

The global coordinate system is a threedimensional, right-handed, rectangular coordinate
system.
The three axes, denoted X, Y, and Z, are mutually
perpendicular and satisfy the right-hand rule.
The location and orientation of the global system
are arbitrary. The Z direction is normally upward,
but this is not required.
All other coordinates systems are converted or
mapped back and forth to General Coordinate
System

ACECOMS, AIT

## Polar coordinates include

Cylindrical CR-CA-CZ
coordinates
Spherical SB-SA-SR
coordinates.

## Polar coordinate systems

are always defined with
respect to a rectangular XY-Z system.

ACECOMS, AIT

## Local Coordinate Systems

Each part (joint, element, or constraint) of the
structural model has its own local co-ordinate
system used to define the properties, loads, and
response for that part.
In general, the local co-ordinate systems may
vary from joint to joint, element to element, and
constraint to constraint

ACECOMS, AIT

## Local Axis and Natural Axis

The elements and
variation of fields can
often be described best
in terms Natural
Coordinates
Natural coordinates may
be linear or curvilinear
Shape functions can are
used to associate the
local system and natural
system

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Primary Relationships

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Basic Structural Quantities

Actions
Deformations
Strains
Stresses
Stress Resultants

## The main focus of

Structural Mechanics is to
develop relationships
between these quantities

## The main focus of FEM is

solve these relationships
numerically

ACECOMS, AIT

Mechanics Relationships

Action

Stress Resultant

Deformation

Stress

Strain

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Primary Relationships

## Load Action Relationship

Action Deformation Relationship
Deformation Strain Relationship
Strain Stress Relationship
Stress Stress Resultant Relationship
Stress Resultant Action Relationship

## Most of these relationships can defined

mathematically, numerically and by testing

ACECOMS, AIT

## Action - Deformation Relationship

This involves two types of relationships

Actions
PL
Example:

AE

## Actions needed to produce or restrain

certain Deformation
Example:
EA
P

Curves are samples of this relationship
The represents to Element Stiffness

P
P

ACECOMS, AIT

L3
v
6 EI

3M

2V

V
M

PL

AE

L
2 EI

2M

ACECOMS, AIT

deformation

## Basic Deformation and Corresponding Strains are:

Shortening
Curvature
Shearing
Twisting

Axial Strain
Axial Strain
Shear Strain
Shear Strain + Axial Strain

deformations
ACECOMS, AIT

## The resistance of the material to strain, derived

from the stiffness of the material particles
For a general Isotropic Material

1 v v v 0 0 0
v 1 v v 0 0 0
x

x

v v 1 v 0 0 0 y
y

z

1

2
v
0 0 0
E
0 0 z

2
xy 1 v 1 2v
xy
1 2v

0 0 0 0
0 yz
yz
2

zx

1 2v zx
0 0 0 0 0

kfc

fy

xx E x

xy G xy
ACECOMS, AIT

## The Stress Strain Components

The Hook's law is
simplified form of
Stress-Strain
relationship
Ultimately the six
stress and strain
components can be
represented by 3
principal summations

yy

y
x

yz

xy

zy
zz

yx

zx

xz

xx

## At any point in a continuum, or solid,

the stress state can be completely
defined in terms of six stress
components and six corresponding
strains.
ACECOMS, AIT

Secondary Relationships
Global Axis - Local Axis

Shape Functions
Jacobian Matrix

ACECOMS, AIT

## Shape Functions or Interpolation Functions provide a

means of computing value of any quantity (field) at some
point based on the value specified at specific locations
Shape Functions are used in FEM to relate the values ate
Nodes to those within the Element
Nodal Displacements to Element Deformation
Nodal Stresses to Stresses within the Element

## Shape Functions can be in 1D, 2D or in 3D

Shape Functions can be Liner or Polynomials

ACECOMS, AIT

## One Dimensional Shape Functions

N1 (s) 0.5 s (1 s)
S =-1
S=0

S=0

S =+1

N1 (s) (1 s)

S=1

N 2 (s) (1 s)(1 s)
N3 (s) 0.5 s (1 s)

N1 (s) s
S is the Natural Coordinate System

w( s) N1 ( s) w1 N 2 ( s) w2 N 3 ( s) w3
3

w( s) N i wi
i 1

ACECOMS, AIT

## Jacobian Matrix relates the derivative of Nodal

Displacement, directly with Element Strains
The Strain is Derivative of Displacement
Displacements are specified on nodes, in Element
Local Axis
For computing K. strains are needed in element in
Natural Coordinates
Shape Functions relate Nodal Displacements with
Element Displacements

N 3
N 2
w N1
J

w1
w2
w3
s
s
s
s
J N i , s wi
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Concept of DOF

In a continuum, each point can move in infinite
ways
In Structure, movement of each point is
represented or resolved in limited number of
ways, called Degrees Of Freedom (DOF)
The DOF of range from 1 to 7 depending on type
and level of structural model and the element
being considered
Global and Local DOF have different meaning
and significance
ACECOMS, AIT

## The Basic Six DOF

Three Translations along the
reference axis

Dx, Dy, Dz

reference axis
Rx, Ry, Rz

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Seven Degrees of Freedom

The General Beam
Element may have 7
degrees of freedom
The seventh degree
is Warping
Warping is out-of
plane distortion of
the beam crosssection

ry
uy
y

u x rx
x
z
uz
rz
wz

## Each section on a beam

member can have seven
Degrees Of Freedom
(DOF) with respect to its
local axis.

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## uz Axial deformation Axial strain Axial stress

ux Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
uy Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
rz Torsion Shear strain Shear stress
r y Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
rx Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
wz Warping Axial strain Axial stress

ACECOMS, AIT

## Only 3 DOF are really needed at Global Level

The deformation of the structure can be defined
completely in terms of 3 translations of points with
respect to Global Axis

## Rotations may be defined arbitrarily at various

locations for convenience of modeling and
interpretation

ACECOMS, AIT

## DOF can be defined for local movements of joints

and elements in 3 Orthogonal reference system

## Natural DOF can be defined in terms of Natural

Coordinates System of the element which may be
orthogonal or curvilinear
Relationship between Global, Local and Natural
DOF is established through Transformation
Matrices
ACECOMS, AIT

## Types of DOF in SAP2000

Active
the displacement is computed during the analysis

## Finite Element Analysis

Restrained
the displacement is specified, and the corresponding
reaction is computed during the analysis

Constrained
the displacement is determined from the
displacements at other degrees of freedom

Null
the displacement does not affect the structure and is
ignored by the analysis

Unavailable
The displacement has been explicitly excluded from
the analysis
ACECOMS, AIT

Restraints:

## Direct limits on the DOF

External Boundary Conditions
Fixed Support , Support Settlement

Constraints
Linked or dependent limits on DOF
Internal linkages within the structure, in addition to
or in place of normal connections
Rigid Diaphragm, Master-Slave DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

Body Constraints

## A Body Constraint causes all of its constrained joints to

move together as a three-dimensional rigid body.
All constrained joints are connected to each other by rigid
links and cannot displace relative to each other.
This Constraint can be used to:
Model rigid connections, such as where several beams
and/or columns frame together
Connect together different parts of the structural model
that were defined using separate meshes
Connect Frame elements that are acting as eccentric
stiffeners to Shell elements
ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Constraints in SAP2000
A constraint is a set of two or more constrained
joints.
The displacements of each pair of joints in the
constraint are related by constraint equations.
The types of behavior that can be enforced by
constraints are:
Rigid-body behavior
Equal-displacement behavior
Symmetry and anti-symmetry conditions

ACECOMS, AIT

Constraints in SAP2000

## Finite Element Analysis

Rigid-body behavior
Rigid Body: fully rigid for all displacements
Rigid Diaphragm: rigid for membrane behavior in a
plane
Rigid Plate: rigid for plate bending in a plane
Rigid Rod: rigid for extension along an axis
Rigid Beam: rigid for beam bending on an axis

ACECOMS, AIT

The Concept of
Stiffness

## Finite Element Analysis

What is Stiffness ?
In structural terms, stiffness
may be defined as
Resistance to Deformation
So for each type of
deformation, there is a
corresponding stiffness
Stiffness can be considered
or evaluated at various levels
Stiffness is also the
constant in the ActionDeformation Relationship

uF
Ku F
F
K
u

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Structure Stiffness

Stress/Strain

Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry

## Finite Element Analysis

EA, EI

Section Stiffness

Member Geometry

EA/L

Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry
Structure Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Structure Stiffness
The overall resistance
of the structures to over
all loads, called the
Global Structure
Stiffness.
Derived from the sum
of stiffness of its
members, their
connectivity and the
boundary or the
restraining conditions.
ACECOMS, AIT

## Member and Element Stiffness

The resistance of each
Element to local actions
called the Element Stiffness
This is derived from the
cross-section stiffness and
the geometry of the
Element.
In FEM, the Member
Stiffness can be derived
from stiffness of Elements
used to model the Member

ACECOMS, AIT

## The resistance of the cross-section to unit strains. This is derived

from the cross-section geometry and the stiffness of the
materials from which it is made.
For each of degree of freedom, there is a corresponding
stiffness, and a corresponding cross-section property

uz Cross-section area, Ax
ux Shear Area along x, SAx
uy Shear Area along y, SAy
rz Torsional Constant, J
rx Moment of Inertia, Ixx
r y Moment of Inertia, Iyy
wz Warping Constant, Wzz or Cw

ACECOMS, AIT

## Computing Element Stiffness

Assume Nodal Displacements (Deformations)
Determine Deformations within the element using
Shape Functions
Determine the Strains within the element using
Strain-Displacement Relationship
Determine Stress within the element using
Stress-Strain Relationship
Use the principle of Virtual Work and integrate the
product of stress and strain over the volume of
the element to obtain the Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

Internal Work

I .W dv

External Work

E.W F

I .W dv

## Finite Element Analysis

Stress-Strain

D
Strain-Disp.

I .W T D dv
V

I .W T B T D B dv
V

I .W B D B dv
V

Equilibrium

E.W I .W
T

F B D B dv
V

F B D B dv
V

F K

ACECOMS, AIT

E

D
B

DE
1
B
L

L
K
V

K B D B dv
T

1
1
E
dv
L
L

E
L2

dv

E
K 2 AL
L
EA
K
L

EA

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Matrices in FEM

Global Nodal Deformations
T-Matrix
Global-Local Cords.

N-Matrix
Shape Functions

## Deformation in Element Space

B-Matrix
Strain-Deforrmation

D-Matrix
Stress-Strain

ACECOMS, AIT

## The actions and deformations of different DOF in

an element are not independent
One action may produce more than one
deformations
One Deformation may be caused by more than one
Action

## A Stiffness Matrix relates various Deformation

and actions within an Element
A Stiffness Matrix is generalized expression of
overall element stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

r5

r2

r3

r6

r1

r4

Node1

Node2

R1

K11

K12

K13

K14

K15

K16

r1

R2

K21

K22

K23

K24

K25

K26

r2

R5

K51

K52

K53

K54

K55

K56

r5

R6

K61

K62

K63

K64

K65

K66

r6

31
41

32
42

33
43

34
44

35
45

36
46

3
4

ACECOMS, AIT

U2

U2

U3

U3

E ,A ,I ,L
U1

U1

Node1

Node2

(P1)1

EA/L

-EA/L

(U1)1

(P2)1

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

-12EI/L3

6EI/L2

(U2)1

(P3)1

6EI/L2

4EI/L

-6EI/L2

2EI/L

(U3)1

(P1)2 =

-EA/L

EA/L

(U1)2

(P2)2

-12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

(U2)2

(P3)2

6EI/L2

2EI/L

-6EI/L2

4EI/L

(U3)2

( U1)1

(U2)1

(U3)1

(U1)2

(U2)2

(U3)3

ACECOMS, AIT

## Basically there is no conceptual difference

between DSM and FEM. DSM is a special case
of the general FEM
Direct Stiffness Method (DSM)
The terms of the element stiffness matrix are defined
explicitly and in close form (formulae)
It is mostly applicable to 1D Elements (beam, truss)

## Finite Element Method

The element stiffness matrix terms are computed by
numerical integration of the general stiffness
equation

ACECOMS, AIT

Isoparametric Elements

## Finite Element Analysis

Introduction
In real world, the problem domains are such that
they have no proper shape
It is difficult to find the exact solution of the real
problems
Isoparametric elements are used to discretize a
complex shape problem domain into a number of
geometrical shapes
Analysis is carried out on the simple discretized
shapes and then the result is integrated over the
actual problem domain to get the approximate
numerical solution
ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

1D Isoparametric Shape
Consider the example of a bar element
For simplification, let the bar lie in x-axis
First, relate the Global coordinate X to natural
coordinate system with variable r,
Y

x2
x1

U1

U2

X, U
r = -1

r = +1

1 r 1
ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
Transformation is given by:
1
1
X (1 r ) X 1 (1 r ) X 2
2
2

## Finite Element Analysis

h1

x2
x1

U1

U2

X, U
r = -1

r = +1

h2

1
1
are interpolation of
h1 (1 r ) and h2 (1 r )
shape functions
2
2

## The bar global displacements are shown by:

2

U hiU i
i 1

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape

dU dr

dr dX
dU U 2 U1

dr
2
dX X 2 X 1 L
and

dr
2
2

## Where L is the length of the bar

ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
Therefore, we have

## Finite Element Analysis

U 2 U1

Bu
So, Strain displacement transformation
matrix can be shown as:

1
B 1 1
L
ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
The Stiffness Matrix is given by:

K BT EB dV

## Where E is the Elasticity constant

Therefore, we have

AE
K 2
L

1
1 1 1 1 Jdr
1

Where,
A = area of the bar
J = Jacobian
relating an element
length in the global
coordinate system
to an element
length in the
natural coordinate
system

dX J dr
L
so J
2
ACECOMS, AIT

1D Isoparametric Shape
Therefore, K is evaluated as

## Substituting the value of r from

AE 1 1
K
L 1 1
And put in

1
1
X (1 r ) X 1 (1 r ) X 2
2
2

To get

rX

U hiU i
i 1

( X 1 X 2) / 2
L/2

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Example 01
Derive
Interpolation Matrix H
Strain Displacement
Interpolation Matrix B
Jacobian Operator J
for the three-node element
as shown in figure
1

2
X, U

r = -1
x1

r=0
L/2

r = +1
L/2

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

## Finding the interpolation

functions of the given
element

r
h1 (1 r )
2

+1

r = -1

r=0

+1
r = -1

r=0

r
h2 (1 r )
2

r = +1

+1

r = -1

h3 1 r

r = +1

r=0

r = +1

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01

So,

H h1 h2 h3

## The strain displacement

matrix B is obtained by

dH
dr
1
1

B J 1 ( r ) ( r ) 2r
2
2

B J 1

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 01
For Jacobian Operator
x h1 x1 h2 x2 h3 x3
r
r
L
(1 r ) x1 (1 r )( x1 L) (1 r 2 )( x1 )
2
2
2
L L
x x1 r
2 2
dx
J
dr
L
J
2
L
2
J 1 ; det J
2
L

## Finite Element Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

## Linear and quadratic two-dimensional

isoparametric finite elements use the same shape
function for specification of the element shape
and interpolation of the displacement field
3

1
3
2

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

2D Isoparametric Element
Shape functions Ni are
defined in local
coordinates

, (1 , 1)

## The same shape

functions are used for
interpolations of
displacements of
coordinates

u N i ui ; v N i vi

x N i xi ; y N i yi

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

## Finite Element Analysis

Shape functions for linear quadratic twodimensional isoparametric elements are shown
here
Linear Elements 4-node:

1
N i (1 o )(1 o )
4

ACECOMS, AIT

2D Isoparametric Element

## Quadratic Elements 8-nodes

1
1
N i (1 o )(1 o ) (1 2 )(1 o )
4
4
1
(1 o )(1 2 ) i 1, 3, 5, 7
4
1
N i (1 2 )(1 o ) i 2, 6
2
1
N i (1 o )(1 2 ) i 4, 8
2

where

o i ;o i
ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Example 02
Derive the expressions
needed for the calculation
of Stiffness Matrix of the
isoparametric 4-node
finite element shown in
the figure. Assume plane
stress or plane strain
conditions

y, v

or s

or r
y4

3
4

x4

x, u

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

## The four interpolation functions for the linear

quadratic isoparametric element are
1
h1 (1 r )(1 s )
4
1
h 2 (1 r )(1 s )
4
1
h 3 (1 r )(1 s )
4
1
h 4 (1 r )(1 s )
4

y, v

or s

or r
y4

3
4

x4

x, u

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
The coordinate interpolations for the element is given by
4

i 1

i 1

## Finite Element Analysis

x hi xi ; y hi yi
Using the interpolation functions, the coordinate
interpolations for this element are
1
1
1
1
x (1 r )(1 s) x1 (1 r )(1 s) x2 (1 r )(1 s) x3 (1 r )(1 s) x4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
y (1 r )(1 s) y1 (1 r )(1 s) y2 (1 r )(1 s) y3 (1 r )(1 s) y4
4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
The displacement interpolations for the element is given
by
4

i 1

11

## Finite Element Analysis

u hi ui ; v hi vi
Using the interpolation functions, the coordinate
interpolations for this element are
1
1
1
1
u (1 r )(1 s)u1 (1 r )(1 s)u2 (1 r )(1 s)u3 (1 r )(1 s)u4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
v (1 r )(1 s)v1 (1 r )(1 s)v2 (1 r )(1 s)v3 (1 r )(1 s)v4
4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
The element strains are given by

T xx yy xy

xx

u
v
u v
; yy ; xy

x
y
y x

evaluate

x
r r

x
s s

y
r x

y
s y

or

J
r
x

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

## Finite Element Analysis

where
x 1
1
1
1
(1 s ) x1 (1 s ) x2 (1 s ) x3 (1 s ) x4
r 4
4
4
4
x 1
1
1
1
(1 r ) x1 (1 r ) x2 (1 r ) x3 (1 s ) x4
s 4
4
4
4
y 1
1
1
1
(1 s ) y1 (1 s ) y2 (1 s ) y3 (1 s ) y4
r 4
4
4
4
y 1
1
1
1
(1 r ) y1 (1 r ) y2 (1 r ) y3 (1 r ) y4
s 4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
For any value of r and s

## Finite Element Analysis

1 r 1 and 1 s 1
We can form the Jacobian matrix. Assuming we evaluate
J at r r and s s
i

x

1 r
J

y
s
at r ri and s s j
ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

## To evaluate the element strains, we use

u 1
1
1
1
(1 s )u1 (1 s)u2 (1 s )u3 (1 s )u4
r 4
4
4
4
u 1
1
1
1
(1 r )u1 (1 r )u2 (1 r )u3 (1 s )u4
s 4
4
4
4
v 1
1
1
1
(1 s )v1 (1 s)v2 (1 s)v3 (1 s )v4
r 4
4
4
4
v 1
1
1
1
(1 r )v1 (1 r )v2 (1 r )v3 (1 r )v4
s 4
4
4
4

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02

## Simplifying the above relations, we get

u
x
1 s 0 (1 s ) 0 (1 s ) 0 1 s 0
1
J 1
u

u
1

r
0
1

r
0

(
1

r
)
0

(
1

s
)
0
4

y
and
v
x
0 1 s 0 (1 s ) 0 (1 s ) 0 1 s
1
J 1
u

v
0
1

r
0
1

r
0

(
1

r
)
0

(
1

s
)
4

Where

u T u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4
where r ri and s s j
ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
Strain-displacement transformation is given by

## Finite Element Analysis

ij Bij u
So, we can get

0
(1 s)
0
1 s
0
1 s 0 (1 s)
1
Bij 0 1 r 0
1 r
0
(1 r )
0 (1 r )
4
1 r 1 s 1 r (1 s) (1 r ) (1 s ) (1 r ) 1 s

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 02
Stiffness Matrix K is given by
K tij ij Fij

i, j

## In the above expressions, C is the material property

matrix, t is the thickness of the element at the sampling
point (r,s)

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
Calculate the
deflection uA
of the
structural
model shown

Z
U4

U3

U1

area =
1cm2

6 cm
U6
U5

U2

0.1cm
U8

U7= uA

## 0.5 cm2 each

E= 30 x 106 N/cm2

6 cm

0.3
0.1cm
Section AA
A
8 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03

## By symmetry and boundary

conditions, we only need to
evaluate the stiffness coefficient
corresponding to uA
We know that

Z
U4

U3

U6

x
r
J
x
s

y
r

y
s

U1

## Bar with xsectional

area =
1cm2

6 cm

U5

U2

U8
Y

U7= uA
E= 30 x 106 N/cm2

6 cm

0.3

A
8 cm

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
So, we have

## Finite Element Analysis

4 0
J

0
3

Now, calculating B

3(1 s )

1
B
...
0

48
4(1 r )

...

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
Stiffness K for an Area is,

K BT EB t det J dr ds
3(1 s )

E
1
3 (1 s )
(0.1)(12)dr ds

3
(
1

s
)
0

4
(
1

r
)

1 48 1 2

2(1 )(1 r )

1 1

## Finite Element Analysis

K 1336996.34 N / cm
The stiffness of the truss is AE/L, or

(1)(30 X 106 )
k
3750000 N / cm
8

ACECOMS, AIT

Example 03
Hence,
Ktotal = 6.424 x 106 N/cm

## Finite Element Analysis

Now, since P = Ku
Therefore, u = P/K

6000
4
u

9
.
34
X
10
cm
6
6.424 X 10

u 9.34 X 104 cm
ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element

## A Shell element is used to model shell,

membrane, and plate behavior in planar and
three-dimensional structures
The membrane behavior uses an isoparametric
formulation that includes translational in-plane
stiffness components and a rotational stiffness
component in the direction normal to the plane of
the element.

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element
Axis 3

Axis 2

Face 3

J3

Axis 1

Face 2

J2
J4

Face 4

Face5 Bottom
Face6 Top

J1

Face 1

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Shell Elements
A simple quadrilateral Shell Element
Two dimensional plate bending and membrane
elements are combined to form a four-node shell
element
y

y
z

uy

ux

uy
uz

ux

Membrane Element

Shell Element

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Elements

## A simple quadrilateral Shell Element

A thin-plate (Kirchhoff) formulation is normally
used that neglects transverse shearing
deformation

## A thick plate (Mindlin/Reissner) formulation can

also be chosen which includes the effects of
transverse shearing deformation

ACECOMS, AIT

What are
The Finite Elements
(in SAP2000)

## Nodes and Finite Elements

The Finite Elements are discretized
representation of the continuous structure
Generally they correspond to the physical
structural components but sometimes dummy or
idealized elements my also be used
Elements behavior is completely defined within its
boundaries and is not directly related to other
elements
Nodes are imaginary points used describe
arbitrary quantities and serve to provide
connectivity across element boundaries

ACECOMS, AIT

## Basic Categories of Finite Elements

1 D Elements (Beam type)
Only one dimension is actually modeled as a line, other
two dimensions are represented by stiffness properties

## 2 D Elements (Plate type)

Only two dimensions are actually modeled as a
surface, third dimension is represented by stiffness
properties
Can be used in 2D and 3D Model

## 3 D Elements (Brick type)

All three dimensions are modeled as a solid
Can be used in 3D Model
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Basic Properties of Joints

All elements are connected to the structure at the joints
The structure is supported at the joints using Restraints
and/or Springs
Rigid-body behavior and symmetry conditions can be
specified using Constraints that apply to the joints
Concentrated loads may be applied at the joints
Lumped masses and rotational inertia may be placed at
the joints
Loads and masses applied to the elements are transferred
to the joints
Joints are the primary locations in the structure at which
the displacements are known (the supports) or are to be
determined
ACECOMS, AIT

## By default, the joint local 1-2-3 coordinate system is

identical to the global X-Y-Z coordinate system
It may be necessary to use different local coordinate
systems at some or all joints in the following cases:
Skewed Restraints (supports) are present
Constraints are used to impose rotational symmetry
Constraints are used to impose symmetry about a plane
that is not parallel to a global coordinate plane
The principal axes for the joint mass (translational or
rotational) are not aligned with the global axes
Joint displacement and force output is desired in
another coordinate system

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Spring Restraints on Joints

Any of the six degrees of freedom at any of the
joints in the structure can have translation or
rotational spring support conditions.
Springs elastically connect the joint to the ground.
The spring forces that act on a joint are related to
the displacements of that joint by a 6x6
symmetric matrix of spring stiffness coefficients.
Simple Springs
Coupled Springs

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Independent spring
stiffness in each DOF

ACECOMS, AIT

## Coupled Spring Restraints

General Spring Connection
Global and skewed springs
Coupled 6x6 user-defined
spring stiffness option (for
foundation modeling)

ACECOMS, AIT

## Stiffness Matrix for Spring Element

where u1 ,u2 ,u3 ,r1 ,r2 and r3 are the joint displacements and rotations,
and the terms u1, u1u2, u2, ... are the specified spring stiffness
coefficients.

ACECOMS, AIT

## Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Dy

Dx

2D Truss

## Finite Element Analysis

Dy

Dy
Rz

Dz

Dx

3D Truss

2D Beam

Ry
Dy
Rz

Dy
Dx

Rz

Dy
Dz

Rx

Dx

Rx

Rz

2D Frame

2D Grid

3D Frame

ACECOMS, AIT

Variation of 1D Elements

## Finite Element Analysis

Based on DOF

2D Truss
3D Truss
2D Beam
3D Beam
2D Grid

Based on Behavior
Thick Beam/ Thin Beam
Liner/ Isoperimetric

Non-Linear Elements

Gap Element
Tension Only
Compression Only
Friction
Cable
Damper

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Usage of 1D Elements

3D Frame

2D Grid

2D Frame
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Ry ?

Ry ?
Dy
Rz

Rx

Dx

Dy

Dy

Membrane

Plate

Dz

Dx

Rx

Rz

Shell

ACECOMS, AIT

Membrane Element
General

## Total DOF per Node = 3 (or 2)

Total Displacements per Node = 2
Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0)
Membranes are modeled for flat
surfaces

R3

U2

U2
Node 4

Node 3

U1
3

U1
2

Application
For Modeling surface elements
carrying

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

U1

Membrane

ACECOMS, AIT

Plain-Strain
Assumptions

x
1 unit

x2
x1

x3
3D Problem

2D Problem

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Plate Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 3
Total Displacements per
Node = 1
Total Rotations per Node = 2
Plates are for flat surfaces

U3

U3

R2

Node 3

R2

Node 4

R1
3

R1
2

Application
For Modeling surface
elements carrying
out of plane loads

U3

R2

Node 1

U3

R2

Node 2

R1

R1

Plate

ACECOMS, AIT

Shell Element
General

## Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5)

Total Displacements per Node = 3
Total Rotations per Node = 3
Used for curved surfaces

U3, R3

U3, R3
U2, R2

U2, R2

Node 3

Node 4

U1, R1
3

Application
For Modeling surface elements

U1, R1

U3, R3
1

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 1

U2, R2
Node 2

U1, R1

U1, R1

Shell

ACECOMS, AIT

## Variations of Plate Elements

Based on Behavior
2D Plane Stress
2D Plane Strain
Axisymetric Solid
Plate
Shell

## Based on Number of Nodes

3 Node, 6 Node
4 Node, 8 Node, (9 Node)

## Based on Material Model

Rubber
Soil
Laminates
Isotropic/ Orthotropic

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Local Cords for Shell Element

Each Shell element
has its own local
coordinate system
used to define
Material properties,
The axes of this local
system are denoted 1,
2 and 3. The first two
axes lie in the plane of
the element the third
axis is normal

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Dy

Dz

Dx

Solid/ Brick

ACECOMS, AIT

## Brick Element in SAP2000

8-Node Brick
Bricks can be
Text Generation in
V7. New version
8 will have
graphical interface
for Bricks

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Truss
Truss

Frame

Shell

Membrane

Plate

Shell

Solid

OK

OK

Dz

OK

OK

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Rx ?
Dx, Dy

Rx ?

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

OK

OK

Dx, Dy

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

OK

Membrane

Plate

Frame

Solid

0

ACECOMS, AIT

## When elements with different degree of freedom at

ends connect with each other, special measures
may need to be taken to provide proper connectivity
depending on Software Capability

Beams to Plates

Beam to Brick

Plates to Brick
ACECOMS, AIT

## When members with mesh of different size or

configuration need to be connected we may
have to:

## Use special connecting elements

Use special Constraints
Use mesh grading and subdivision
Use in-compatible elements (Zipper Elements in
ETABS)
Automatic Node detection and internal
meshing by the Software

ACECOMS, AIT

## Connecting Beams with Membrane

Modeling Shear-Walls
using Panels only

## Modeling Shear-Walls using

Panels, Beams, Columns

## (No Moment continuity

with Beams and Columns unless
6 DOF Shell is used)

## (Full Moment continuity

with Beams and Columns is restored
by using additional beams)

ACECOMS, AIT

Zipper

## In general the mesh in the slab

should match with mesh in the
wall to establish connection

## Some software automatically

establishes connectivity by using
constraints or Zipper elements

ACECOMS, AIT

## How to Apply Loads to

Finite Element Model

## Finite Element Analysis

Design Envelopes
Design Actions

ACECOMS, AIT

Load cases are defined by the user and used for
analysis purpose only

## Earthquake Load Cases

Response Spectrum Load Cases
Time History Load Cases

## Static Non-Linear Load Cases

ACECOMS, AIT

The Load Combinations may be created by the
program, user defined or a combination of both.

## Some Examples: [Created by the program]

1.4DL
1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL)
0.75[1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL) + 1.7WL]
0.75[1.4DL + 1.7(LL + RLL) - 1.7WL]
0.9DL + 1.3WL
0.9DL - 1.3WL
1.1 [1.2DL + 0.5(LL + RLL) + 1.0E]
1.1 [1.2DL + 0.5(LL + RLL) - 1.0E]
1.1 (0.9DL + 1.0E)
1.1 (0.9DL - 1.0E)

ACECOMS, AIT

## All gravity loads are basically Volume Loads generated

due to mass contained in a volume
Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads
to the Supports through a Medium
All type of Gravity Loads can be represented as:

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Load is transferred through a medium which may be:

A Point
A Line
An Area
A Volume
A system consisting of combination of several mediums

Point Supports
Line Supports
Area Supports
Volume Supports

ACECOMS, AIT

## Graphic Object Representation

Object

Geometry
Medium

Support
Boundary

Point

Node

Point Support
Column Support

Line

Beam / Truss
Connection Element
Spring Element

Line Support
Wall Support
Beam Support

Area

Plate Element
Shell Element
Panel/ Plane

Soil Support

Volume

Solid Element

Soil Support

ACECOMS, AIT

## Complexity of Load Transfer

Mechanism depend on:

Vol.

## Finite Element Analysis

Area

Complexity of Medium
Complexity of Boundary

Line

Point Line
Line

Area

Volume

Medium

Area
Volume

Boundary

ACECOMS, AIT

Line

Area

Volume

ACECOMS, AIT

To Lines

To Points

ACECOMS, AIT

## At least 3 basic Wind Load Cases should be

considered
Along X-Direction
Along Y Direction
Along Diagonal

## Each Basic Wind Load Case should be entered

separately into load combinations twice, once
with (+ve) and once with (-ve) sign
Total of 6 Wind Load Cases should considered in
Combinations, but only 3 Load Cases need to be
defined and analyzed
ACECOMS, AIT

## At least 3 Basic Load

Case for Wind Load
should be considered

Wx

## Diagonal wind load may

be critical for special
types and layouts of
buildings

Wy

Wxy
ACECOMS, AIT

Comb1

Comb2

Comb3

Comb4

Comb5

Comb6

Wx

+f

-f

Wy

+f

-f

Wxy

+f

-f

## (f) Is the load factor specified for Wind in Example:

Comb = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7W) will need Six
the design codes
Actual Combinations

required where ever Wind is
mentioned in the basic Load
Combinations

## Comb1= 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wx)

Comb2 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wx)
Comb3 = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wy)
Comb4 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wy)
Comb5 = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7Wxy)
Comb6 = 0.75(1.4D - 1.7Wxy)
ACECOMS, AIT

## Nature of Dynamic Loads

Free Vibration
Forced Vibration
Random Vibration
Seismic Excitation
Response Spectrum
Time History
Impact
Blast

ACECOMS, AIT

## Getting and Interpreting

Finite Element Results

## What Results Can We Get ?

Finite Element Analysis

(in SAP2000)

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

At Joints

Joint Displacements
Spring Reactions
Restrained Reactions
Constrained Forces
Results Available For:
For all Available DOF
Given on the Local Joint Coordinates
Given for all Load Case, Mode
Shapes,Response Spectrums, Time Histories,

ACECOMS, AIT

## For Frame Elements

The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both
Ends, in Local Coordinate System
2

+V2

+M2
+P
2

+V3

+V3
+P

+V2

+T

+M3

+M3

+T

+M2
ACECOMS, AIT

## For Shell Element

The Shell element internal forces (also called stress
resultants) are the forces and moments that result from
integrating the stresses over the element thickness.
The results include the Membrane Results (in-plane
forces) and Plate Bending Results
The results are given for Element Local Axis
It is very important to note that these stress resultants
are forces and moments per unit of in-plane length

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Membrane Results

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Comb1

Comb2

Comb3 Comb N

Load Case - 2
Load Case - 3

Envelop Results

Load Case - M

Total

P1

P2

P3

PN

Max, P
Min, P

ACECOMS, AIT

## Actions Interact with each other, effecting the

stresses
For Column Design:
For Beam Design:
For Slabs:

P, Mx, My
Mx, Vy, Tz

## Mx, My, Mxy

At least 3 Actions from each combination must be
considered together as set

Mx
My

## Therefore, Envelop Results Can Not be Used

Every Load Combinations must be used for
design with complete Action Set

ACECOMS, AIT

## For static loads, Design

Actions are obtained as
the cumulative result
combination, as set for
all interacting actions
The final or critical
results from design of

Combinations

Design Actions
Obtained as set
from all
Combinations

ACECOMS, AIT

## Static, Dynamic and Nonlinear Results

For a Single Action:

## Static Load Case

Response Spectrum Load Case

+
1 for each Time Step

OR 1 for envelop

Combination
Table

OR 1 for Envelop

ACECOMS, AIT

## Response Spectrum Case

All response spectrum cases are assumed to be

## The output from a response spectrum is all positive.

Design load combination that includes a response
spectrum load case is checked for all possible
combinations of signs (+, -) on the response spectrum
values

## A 3D element will have eight possible combinations of

P, M2 and M3 and eight combinations for M3, V, T

ACECOMS, AIT

P, Mx, My>

+P, +Mx, -My
+P, -Mx, +My
+P, -Mx, -My

-P, +Mx, -My
-P, -Mx, +My
-P, -Mx, -My

ACECOMS, AIT

## Time History Analysis Results

Option 2:
Design For All Values
(At each time step)

Max Val

T (sec)

Option 1:
Envelope Design

Min Val

## Response Curve for One Action

ACECOMS, AIT

Time-History Results
The default design load combinations do not include any time
history results

## Define the load combination, to include time history forces in a

Can perform design for each step of Time History or design for
envelops for those results
For envelope design, the design is for the maximum of each
response quantity (axial load, moment, etc.) as if they occurred
simultaneously.
Designing for each step of a time history gives correct
correspondence between different response quantities
ACECOMS, AIT

## The program gets a maximum and a minimum value for

each response quantity from the envelope results for a time
history
For a design load combination any load combination that
includes a time history load case in it is checked for all
possible combinations of maximum and minimum time
history design values.
If a single design load combination has more than one time
history case in it, that design load combination is designed
for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is
specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences.

ACECOMS, AIT

## The default design load combinations do not

include any Static Nonlinear results

## Define the load combination, to include Static

Nonlinear Results in a design load combination
For a single static nonlinear load case the design is
performed for each step of the static nonlinear
analysis.

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Computing Rebars For Beam Elements

For Beam type elements (1D
elements) design actions like Axial
force, moments, and shear force are
output directly.
These actions can be used directly for
design purposes
Generally, design is carried out in two
parts

Axial- Flexural:
Shear Torsion:

My
Vy
Nx
x

Vz

Mz

Tx

3D Beam Column
y

My

P, Mx, My
T, Vx, Vy

Mz

Beam Design:
Column Design:

Mx, Vy, T
Mx, My, P

Nx

ACECOMS, AIT

## Computing Rebars For Beam Elements

Ast : To resist
tension due to My

## Asc + Al/4: To resist compression due to

moment Mx (doubly reinforced beams) and
tension due to Torsion

## Asvt + Asv/2: To resist shear due to

Torsion. Must be closed hoops on sides of
the section

## Asw + Al/4 : To resist secondary tension

in deep beams due to moment and due to
Torsion

## Ast + Al/4 : To resist main tension due to

moment and tension due to Torsion
ACECOMS, AIT

## Moment output for plate type elements in Finite Element

Analysis is reported in moment per unit width along the
local axis of the plate element. These need to be
converted to moments along x and y for design purposes.

## The following procedure can be used:

The portion of a plate element bounded by a crack is
shown in the Adjoining figure. The moment about an axis
dx =k dy
parallel to the crack may be given as:
mc ds mx dy mxy kdycos my kdy mxy dy sin
2

dy
mc mx k 2 m y 2kmxy
dx

dy

ds

Crack

ACECOMS, AIT

mxy kdy

## The plate needs to be reinforced

with bars in the x and y direction
The corresponding moment
capacity at the assumed crack is
2

dy
mrc mrx k 2 mry
dx

my kdy
mxy dy
mx dy

ms ds

mry kdy

mrx dy

## Where mrc must equal or exceed

mc solving for the minimum we
get
1
mry m y mxy
k

mrc ds

mrx , mry
Positive moment
capacities per unit width
ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

The reinforcement at
the bottom of the slab in
each direction is
designed to provide
resistance for the
positive moment

The reinforcement at
the top of the slab in
each direction is
designed to provide
resistance for the
negative moment

mry m y mxy
mrx mx mxy

## mry and mrx are set to zero if they

yield a negative value

mry m y mxy
mrx mx mxy

## mry and mrx are set to zero if they

yield a positive value

ACECOMS, AIT

## Computing Rebars For Brick Elements

For Brick elements the FEA results in the nodal stresses
and strains.
The stresses on the brick elements need to be
integrated along x and y direction to obtain forces.
Stress variation in both the directions may be
considered and integrated.
These forces are then used to find the moment about
the two orthogonal axes and the net axial force. Similar
approach is used to obtain shear forces in two directions
After the axial forces, moments and shear forces are
obtained then the section can be designed as a
rectangular beam

ACECOMS, AIT

## Computing Rebars For Brick Elements

Sample Calculations for P and M

## Following equations are based on the

assumption that there is no stress
variation in the transverse direction
Pi C1 C2 T ........
n

P Pi
i 1

C1

M i C1 x1 C2 x2 Tx3 .......

x1
x3

M Mi
i 1

CL

x2

C2

ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling
Structures
Using FEM

## A model of the Whole Structure

Objective is to get Overall Structural
Response
Results in the form of member forces and
stress patterns

## Global Modeling is same for nearly all

Materials
Material distinction is made by using specific
material properties
Global Model may be a simple 2D beam/
frame model or a sophisticated full 3D finite
element model
Generally adequate for design of usual
structures

ACECOMS, AIT

## Model of Single Member or part of a Member

Model of the Cross-section, Opening, Joints,
connection

## Objective: To determine local stress

concentration, cross-section behavior,
modeling of cracking, bond, anchorage etc.
Needs finite element modeling, often using
very fine mesh, advance element features,
non-linear analysis
Mostly suitable for research, simulation,
experiment verification and theoretical studies
ACECOMS, AIT

## (b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(e) 2D Fram e

(d) 3D Fram e

(f) Grid-Plate

ACECOMS, AIT

## The Basic Issues

Which Model to be used ?

## Finite Element Analysis

3D or 2D
Frame or Grid
Plate, Membrane, Shell, Solid

## Which Elements to be used ?

Beam, Plate, Brick
Size and number of elements

## Which Solution to be used ?

Linear or Nonlinear
Static or Dynamic
Linear static or Nonlinear dynamic
Linear dynamic or Nonlinear static
ACECOMS, AIT

## Setup the Units to be used

Define Basic Material Properties
Define Cross-sections to be used
Draw, generate Nodes and Elements
Assign XSections, Restraints, Constraints etc.
Apply Loads to Nodes and Elements
Run the Analysis
Check Basic Equilibrium and Deformations
Interpret and use the Results
ACECOMS, AIT

## What Type of Analysis

Should be Carried out!

## The type of Analysis to be carried out

depends on the Structural System
The Type of Excitation (Loads)
The Type Structure (Material and Geometry)
The Type Response

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Steady State Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Large Displacement Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

Static Excitation
When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time
When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly

## Finite Element Analysis

Dynamic Excitation
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time
When the Inertial Force becomes significant

## Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are considered

Quasi Static
Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to
ACECOMS, AIT

Static

Dynamic

Normal Operation

At lifting/ placement

Normal Operation

At placement

Normal Operation

Depends on type

Highway Traffic

Quasi Static

Impact

Water/ Liquid

Normal Operation

Filling, Sloshing

Creep, Shrinkage

Static

No Dynamic
Component

Wind

Equivalent Static

Random Vibration

Seismic Excitation

Equivalent Static

Response Spectrum,
Time History

Vibratory Machines

Equivalent Static

Impulse At Startup
ACECOMS, AIT

Elastic Material

## Finite Element Analysis

returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after
removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material
may not returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc.
after removal of load/ excitation

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Defining Individual Nodes and Elements

Using Graphical Modeling Tools
Using Numerical Generation
Using Mathematical Generation
Using Copy and Replication
Using Subdivision and Meshing
Using Geometric Extrusions
Using Parametric Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

## Use basic Geometric Entities to create FE Models

Simple Graphic Objects

Point Object
Line Object
Area Object
Brick Object

Represents Node
Represents 1D Elements
Represents 2D Elements
Represents 3D Elements

## Graphic Objects can be used to represent

geometry, boundary and loads
SAP2000, ETABS and SAFE use the concept of
Graphic Objects

ACECOMS, AIT

## Modeling Objects and Finite Elements

Structural Members are representation of actual
structural components
Finite Elements are discretized representation of
Structural Members
The concept of Graphic Objects can be used to
represent both, the Structural Members as well as
Finite Elements
In ETABS, the Graphic Objects representing the
Structural Members are automatically divided into
Finite Elements for analysis and then back to
structural members for result interpretation

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Unstable Structures

ACECOMS, AIT

## When is Structure Unstable in FEM Solution

When the Global Stiffness Matrix is Singular

## The determinant of matrix is zero

Any diagonal element in the matrix is zero

## When the Global Stiffness Matrix is IllConditioned

The numerical values in various matrix cells are of
grossly different order
Numerical values are either too small or too large

ACECOMS, AIT

## Why are the FEM Models Unstable

Restraint Instability
Not enough Boundary Restraints

## Finite Element Analysis

Geometric Instability

## Not enough Elements

Not enough stiffness of Elements
Elements not connected properly
Presence of Orphan Degrees Of Freedom

Material Instability
Not enough Material Stiffness, (E, G)
Not enough Cross-section Stiffness (A, I, J, ..)

ACECOMS, AIT

Structure Types
Cable Structures
Cable Nets
Cable Stayed

## Finite Element Analysis

Bar Structures
2D/3D Trusses
2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures
Plate, Shell
In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures
ACECOMS, AIT

## How to Model the

Foundations

Soil-Structure Interaction
Simple Supports

## Fix, Pin, Roller etc.

Support Settlement

Elastic Supports
Spring to represent soil
Using Modulus of Sub-grade reaction

## Full Structure-Soil Model

Use 2D plane stress elements
Use 3D Solid Elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Soil

Modeling of Mat
Beam

Plate

Brick

Constraint

Yes

Yes

Yes

Spring

Yes

Yes

Yes

Brick

No

Yes

Yes

ACECOMS, AIT

## Computing Soil Spring

A = Spacing of
Springs in X
B = Spacing of
Springs in Y
Ks = Modulus of
(t/cu m etc.)
K = Spring constant
(t/m etc)

B
B

K= ks*A*B
ACECOMS, AIT

## Raft as Beam-Grid, Soil as Spring

The raft is represented as a
grillage of beams
representing slab strips in
both directions
The soil is represented by
spring
This approach is
approximate and does not
consider the Mxy or the
torsional rigidity of the mat

ACECOMS, AIT

## Raft as Plate, Soil as Spring

The raft is modeled using
Plate (or Shell) elements
At least 9-16 elements
should be used in one
panel
Soil springs may be
located or every node or
at alternate nodes
Not suitable fro very thick
rafts like thick pile caps
etc

ACECOMS, AIT

## Raft as Brick, Soil as Spring

The raft is represented by
brick elements, soil as
springs
More than one layer of
brick elements should be
used along thickness
(usually 3-5) unless higher
order elements are used
Suitable for very thick
mats and pile caps etc.
Difficult to determine
rebars from brick results

ACECOMS, AIT

## Raft as Plate, Soil as Brick

The raft is represented by
plate elements, soil as
bricks
Soil around the mat should
also be modeled (min 2
times width)

ACECOMS, AIT

## The raft is represented by

brick elements, soil as bricks
also
More than one layer of brick
elements should be used
along thickness (usually 3-5)
unless higher order elements
are used
Soil around the mat should
also be modeled (min 2 times
width)
Suitable for very thick mats
and pile caps etc.
Difficult to determine rebars
from brick results

ACECOMS, AIT

## Modeling of Cellular Mats

The top slab, the walls
and the bottom slab
should be modeled using
plate elements
More than one plate
element layer should be
used in the walls
The soil may be
represented by springs or
by bricks

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Modeling of Piles
For analysis and design
of individual Pile, it can
be modeled as beam
element and soil
around it as series of
lateral and vertical
springs
For analysis of super
structure, entire pile
can be represented by
a single a set of springs

ACECOMS, AIT

## Using Nonlinear Springs to Model Soil

The springs used to represent may be either
linear or non linear
The non-linear response of the soil can be
obtained from actual tests
The non-linear response can then be used to
determine K for various levels of load or
deformation
Nonlinear springs are especially useful for
vertical as well as lateral response of piles
and pile groups
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Using Truss

ACECOMS, AIT

t
B

Rigid Zones

## Specially Suitable when H/B

is more than 5
The shear wall is
represented by a column of
section B x t
The beam up to the edge of
the wall is modeled as
normal beam
The column is connected to
beam by rigid zones or very
large cross-section

ACECOMS, AIT

## Multiple elements greater accuracy in determination of stress

distribution and allow easy modeling of openings

## Using Plate Elements only

(No Moment continuity
with Beams and Columns unless
6 DOF Shell is used)

## Using Plate Elements with

Beams, Columns
(Full Moment continuity
with Beams and Columns)
ACECOMS, AIT

txt

C
t x 2t
B

## For the purpose of analysis, assume

the main truss layout based on wall
width and floor levels
Initial member sizes can be
estimated as t x 2t for main axial
members and t x t for diagonal
members
Use frame elements to model the
truss. It is not necessary to use
truss elements
Generally single diagonal is sufficient
for modeling but double diagonal
may be used for easier interpretation
of results
The floor beams and slabs can be
connected directly to truss elements

ACECOMS, AIT

Uniaxial

Biaxial
ACECOMS, AIT

## Modeling Walls With Openings

Plate-Shell Model

## Rigid Frame Model

Truss Model

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction
To Dynamic Analysis

## Determination of Structural Response due to Seismic

Excitation
The Seismic Excitation is Dynamic in nature
So the Response is governed by

## The Dynamic Equilibrium Equation

The question is how to solve this equation?

ACECOMS, AIT

The General

Dynamic Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

## Why Dynamic Analysis In General

Capture the Realistic Behavior of Structures

## No Conservative Approximations in Analysis

Puts Check on Structural Irregularities
Identifies Ductility Demands

Required by Code

ACECOMS, AIT

## Basic Dynamic Equilibrium No Damping

Static Elastic Only:
Displacement (U)=Force (P) /Stiffness(K) P(u,a)

## Finite Element Analysis

U = P/K or K u = P
K
Inertia Only :
Acceleration (a)=Force (P) / Mass(M)
a = P/M or Ma = P

BOTH :

Ma+Ku=P
ACECOMS, AIT

F

## Finite Element Analysis

FI + F D + FS = F

## F(t)I + F(t)D + F(t)S = F(t)

M a(t) + C v(t) + K u(t) = F(t)
M u(t) +C u(t) + K u(t) = F(t)
(Second order differential equation for
linear structural behavior)

F = External Force
FS = Internal Forces
FD = Energy Dissipation Forces
FI= Inertial Force
(t) = Varies with time
u = Acceleration (a)
u = Velocity (v)
u = Displacement
M = Mass
C = Damping
K = Stiffness

ACECOMS, AIT

## Idealization for a Single

Floor
Mass less Column, Entire
mass is concentrated on the
roof
Rigid roof, Rigid ground
Column is flexible in lateral
direction but rigid in vertical
direction

Roof

Column

Ground

ACECOMS, AIT

## What is Dynamic Response ?

If the roof is displaced laterally by a
distance uo and then released the
structure will oscillate around its
equilibrium position.

Roof

Column

Ground

One Cycle
uo

uo

-uo

5
ACECOMS, AIT

Dynamic Response
Displacement

uo

Amplitude

time
3

-uo

## The oscillation will continue

forever with the same
amplitude uo and the structure
will never come to rest.
Actual structure will oscillate
with decreasing amplitude
and will eventually come to
rest.

uo

uo

-uo

5
ACECOMS, AIT

Mass m

Stiffness K
Damping C

## Idealized One storey

Building

To incorporate damping or
dying out of dynamic
response feature into the
idealized structure, an energy
absorbing element should be
introduced.
Viscous damper is the most
commonly used energy
absorbing element in the
dynamic modeling of
structures
ACECOMS, AIT

## Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Time Period
Frequency

Change in Location
Rate of Change of Displacement wrt Time
Rate of Change of Velocity wrt Time
The time taken to complete one cycle
The no. of cycles per second

u
du
v u
dt
d 2u
a v u 2
dt
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Definition

## Natural vibration of a structure released from initial

condition and subjected to no external load or
damping
Main governing equation -Eigen Value Problem

u c u K ut Pt
t
t

Solution gives
Natural Frequencies
Associated mode shapes
An insight into the dynamic behavior and response
of the structure
ACECOMS, AIT

Free Vibration

## M u(t) +C u(t) + K u(t) = F(t)

M u(t) + K u(t) = 0
Which leads to eigenvalue
problem

K n w n2 M n

K w M 0
det K w M 0
2
n

2
n

## Solution of above equation yields a

polynomial of order n for w , which in
turn gives n mode shapes

## No external force is applied

No damping of the system

w = natural frequencies
F = Mode shape

## A mode shape is set of

relative (not absolute)
nodal displacement for a
particular mode of free
vibration for a specific
natural frequency

ACECOMS, AIT

Modal Analysis

## Finite Element Analysis

Determination of
natural frequencies
and mode shapes.
No external load or
excitation is applied
to the structure.
Obtained from
eigenvalue analysis.
There are as many
modes as there are
DOF in the system

ACECOMS, AIT

Analysis for

Ground Motion

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

mu cu ku F
F mu mg mug
k
w
; c 2w m
m
mu cu ku mug
mu 2w mu mw 2u mug
u 2w u w 2u ug
The unknown is displacement and its
derivatives ( velocity, acceleration)
Variables are ground acceleration, damping
ratio and circular frequency

ACECOMS, AIT

## Ground Motion Input and Displacement Output

u 2w u w u ug
Finite Element Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

## Determination the total

dynamic response of
structure as the sum of
response of all mode
shapes using the ground
acceleration at each time
step

## + Damping Ratio for each mode

0.15

Acceleration (a/g)

0.1
0.05
0
-0.05 0

10

15

20

25

30

35

-0.1
-0.15
Time (Second)

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

Response
Spectrum
Analysis

ACECOMS, AIT

## What are Response Spectra

u 2w u w u ug
Finite Element Analysis

## For a ground acceleration at particular time, for a given

time period and damping ratio, a single value of
displacement, velocity and acceleration can be obtained
Output of the above (u, v, a) equation are the dynamic
response to the ground motion for a structure considered
as a single DOF
A plot of the maximum response for different ground
motion history, different time period and damping ratio give
the Spectrum of Response
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Response Spectrum Generation

ACECOMS, AIT

Spectral Parameters
S v wS d

## Finite Element Analysis

Spectral Displacement
Pseudo Spectral Velocity
Pseudo Spectral Acceleration

Sd
Sv
Sa

S a wSv w 2 S d

u
v u

du
dt

d 2u
a v u 2
dt

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## How to Use Response Spectra

For each mode of free vibration, corresponding Time
Period is obtained.
For each Time Period and specified damping ratio, the
specified Response Spectrum is read to obtain the
corresponding Acceleration
For each Spectral Acceleration, corresponding velocity
and displacements response for the particular degree
of freedom is obtained
The displacement response is then used to obtain the
corresponding stress resultants
The stress resultants for each mode are then added
using some combination rule to obtain the final
response envelop
ACECOMS, AIT

ABS SUM Rule

## Add the absolute maximum value from

each mode. Not so popular and not
ro
used in practice

Square Root of Sum of Squares of the
peak response from each mode.
Suitable for well separated natural
frequencies.

CQC
Complete Quadric Combination is
applicable to large range of structural
response and gives better results than

ro

ro

n0

n 1

2
r
n0
n 1

i 1 n 1

r r

in i 0 n 0

ACECOMS, AIT

## Response Spectrum Analysis

Uses modal
combination rules to
determine total peak
response from all
modes

Spectral Acceleartion

## Finite Element Analysis

Determination of
peak response of the
structure based on a
design or specified
response spectrum
and the specified
mode shapes
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0%
2%
5%

## Time Period (Sec)

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction to
Non-linear Analysis

## Basic Sources of Non-Linearity

Geometric Non-Linearity

## Finite Element Analysis

Material Non-Linearity

Compound Non-Linearity

P
P

Large Displacements
d

ACECOMS, AIT

## The deformations change the

basic relationships in the
stiffness evaluation
Changes Bending Stiffness

## The deformation produce

additional actions, not present
at initial conditions
Example: Axial load causes

ACECOMS, AIT

Material Non-Linearity

## The basic material

constants (E, G, v)
etc. change with level of
strain

kfc

Example: Stress-Strain
curve is non-linear

The cross-section
properties change with
level of strain
Example: Cracking in
reinforced concrete
reduces A, I etc

Kd
N.A

yt

As

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Material Non-linearity
Moment Curvature
curve generated for a
rectangular column
with circular core. The
outer portion is
modeled by stressstrain curve for low
strength unconfined
concrete where as the
core is modeled by
lightly confined
concrete. Observe the
drop in moment
capacity as the outer
concrete fails.

Semi-confined,
High Strength Concrete

## Rectangular Whitney Curve

ACECOMS, AIT

Types of Non-Linearity
Smooth , Continuous

## Finite Element Analysis

Softening
Hardening

Discontinuous
Snap-through
Bifurcation
Elastic Buckling
In-Elastic Buckling
P-Delta
ACECOMS, AIT

## The non-linear analysis is Always carried out

together with Time History Dynamic analysis
Non-linear behavior can be modeled by:
NL Link Element For Dynamic Nonlinear
Elastic Stiffness for Linear Analysis
Gap, Hook, Damper, Isolator for Nonlinear
Hinge Element For Static Pushover
Material Non linearity

ACECOMS, AIT

Introduction to
Push-over Analysis

## Buildings do not respond as linearly elastic systems

during strong ground shaking
Improve Understanding of Building Behavior
- More accurate prediction of global displacement
- More realistic prediction of earthquake demand on individual
components and elements
- More reliable identification of bad actors

## Reduce Impact and Cost of Seismic Retrofit

- Less conservative acceptance criteria
- Less extensive construction

ACECOMS, AIT

## Performance Based Design - Basics

Design is based not on Ultimate Strength but
rather on Expected Performance

## Basic Ultimate Strength does not tell us what will be

performance of the structure at Ultimate Capacity

## Performance Based Design Levels

Fully Operational
Operational
Life Safe
Near Collapse
Collapse
ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Pushover Spectrum

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Demand Vs Capacity

ACECOMS, AIT

## Material nonlinearity at discrete, user-defined hinges in

frame/line elements.
1. Material nonlinearity in the link elements.
Gap (compression only), hook (tension only), uniaxial plasticity
base isolators (biaxial plasticity and biaxial friction/pendulum)..

## 2. Geometric nonlinearity in all elements.

Only P-delta effects
P-delta effects plus large displacements

## 3. Staged (sequential) construction.

Members can be added or removed in a sequence of stages
during each analysis case.

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Important Considerations

## Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience

Each nonlinear problem is different
Start simple and build up gradually.
Run linear static loads and modal analysis first
Add hinges gradually beginning with the areas
where you expect the most non-linearity.
Perform initial analyses without geometric nonlinearity. Add P-delta effects, and large
deformations, much later.

ACECOMS, AIT

## Finite Element Analysis

Important Considerations
Mathematically, static nonlinear analysis does not
always guarantee a unique solution.
Small changes in properties or loading can cause
large changes in nonlinear response.
It is Important to consider many different loading
cases, and sensitivity studies on the effect of
varying the properties of the structure
Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience.
Dont Rush it or Push to Hard

ACECOMS, AIT

## Procedure for Static Pushover Analysis

1. Create a model just like for any other analysis.
2. Define the static load cases, if any, needed for use in the
static nonlinear analysis (Define > Static Load Cases).
3. Define any other static and dynamic analysis cases that
may be needed for steel or concrete design of frame
elements.
4. Define hinge properties, if any (Define > Frame Nonlinear
Hinge Properties).
5. Assign hinge properties, if any, to frame/line elements
(Assign > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges).
6. Define nonlinear link properties, if any (Define > Link
Properties).

ACECOMS, AIT

## Procedure for Static Pushover Analysis

7. Assign link properties, if any, to frame/line elements
(Assign > Frame/Line > Link Properties).
8. Run the basic linear and dynamic analyses (Analyze >
Run).
9. Perform concrete design/steel design so that reinforcing
steel/ section is determined for concrete/steel hinge if
properties are based on default values to be computed by
the program.
10. For staged construction, define groups that represent the
various completed stages of construction.
11. Define the static nonlinear load cases (Define > Static
Nonlinear/Pushover Cases).

ACECOMS, AIT

## Procedure for Static Pushover Analysis

12. Run the static nonlinear analysis (Analyze > Run
Static Nonlinear Analysis).
13. Review the static nonlinear results (Display >
Show Static Pushover Curve), (Display > Show
Deformed Shape), (Display > Show Member
Forces/Stress Diagram), and (File > Print Tables
> Analysis Output).
14. Perform any design checks that utilize static
nonlinear cases.
15. Revise the model as necessary and repeat.
ACECOMS, AIT