You are on page 1of 8

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL

Heat treatment

0226962

OBJECTIVES
To acquire knowledge about heat treatment and its importance in industry.
To gain knowledge about heat treatment and the importance in engineering fields.
To understand the effect and characteristics of heat treatment process to the
strength and attribute of a metal.
To get familiar to the use of the heat treatment machine.
To study the reaction of metal after the heat treatment.
To get familiar to the heat treatment process.

APPARATUS

5 pieces mild steel bars


Heat Treatment Furnace: Nabertherm N 81/13
Water
Oil
Hardness testing machine (Mitutoyo ARK 600)
Tongs
Vice
File

PROCEDURES
1. The five pieces of mild steel bars, is prepared by cutting a long piece of metal
into five pieces with the same length (10 inches) using the hack saw.
2. Four pieces of the steel bars are placed into the furnace and heated until the
temperature rises up to 900C. The fifth one is the reference.
3. The heating process is stopped once the temperature of 900C was reached
which took about 1 hour.
4. Then 3 pieces of the heated bar is taken out.

One piece is left to cool in room temperature.

One piece is cooled by immersing it in water.

One piece is cooled by immersing it in oil.


5. The one left in the furnace is left to cool in the furnace.
6. After the work pieces are completely cooled, some tests are carried out.
Fatigue test Each of the metal bars is held on a vice vertically and
bent back and forth until the bar is fractured by using tong. The numbers

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

of bends that it takes until the steel is fractured is recorded for each
piece respectively in the Result sheet.
File test or scratch resistant test The metal is clamped on a vice and
scratched by using a file. The effect of the process is then compared and
recorded in the Result sheet.
Hardness test This test is carried out to test the hardness of the metal
bars by using hardness-testing machine in the Material Testing Lab. The
result was recorded respectively in the Result sheet.
RESULTS
Bar No.

Quenching

File test

No. of bends

1
2
3
4
5

medium
Water
Oil
Air
Furnace
Reference

Hard
Hard
Soft
Soft
Hard

till fracture
46
38.5
22
12
45

Hardness No.

Name of

35
23.5
29.5

Process
Quenching
Quenching
Normalizing
Annealing

48

The results of the fatigue file or scratch resistant and hardness tests.

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

DISCUSSION
Heat treatment has become an essential process in most engineering
applications to fulfill the demands of quality product. It is mainly the operation of heating
and cooling of a metal in its solid state to change its physical properties to gain some
desired properties. Depending on the procedure chosen, the metal can be hardened to
resist cutting action and abrasion, or it can be softened to allow machining. Heat
treatment is done to accomplish any of these objectives:
To diffuse carbon and alloying elements
To improve machinability
To stress relieve
To soften and harden the material
To increase toughness and wear resistance
Metals can be classified into two categories, which are ferrous and non-ferrous. For
non-ferrous metals, heat treatment is carried out to offset plastic strain inherent in a
particular metal by bringing about recrystallization to provide new equiaxed and stress
free grains, to relieve the internal stress from ferrous metals and to strengthen by age.
Meanwhile, ferrous metals are treated with heat to change its microstructure by refining
the grain size or producing uniform grain throughout a part, to relieve stress, to
strengthen the metal and to alter the surface chemistry by adding or eliminating
elements.
The amount of carbon dissolved in iron depends on the arrangement of atoms in
the crystal lattice. At room temperature, iron has a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure,
known as ferrite. The smaller carbon atom is squeezed into the interstitial site between
the four-iron atoms structure. At temperatures higher than 906C, the atoms rearrange
themselves to form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, which can accommodate up
to 1.7 % carbon in solid and is known as austenite.
Iron atoms start to revert to ferrite structure at temperature of above 912C. the
carbon atoms diffuse to where the lattice is still face centered cubic, creating carbon-rich
zone in the carbon-free ferrite. When the zone is saturated, carbon starts to precipitate
from solution. Therefore, at 912C ferrite is completely converted to austenite. The
carbon that precipitated from solid solution is deposited in fine lamellae of cementite,
iron carbide with the formula Fe3C alternate with layers of excess ferrite. This is called
pearlite.
Cooling an iron-carbon solid solution precipitates a separate carbon- rich phase
only if the rate of cooling is slow enough for the alloy structure to remain in equilibrium
with the temperature conditions. With very rapid cooling, there is not sufficient time for
the reaction that forms pearlite to take place, and the carbon remains in solution. In this
case, an alternative transformation occurs. The alloy reverts to its low-temperature
structure, which cannot easily accommodate the carbon, and as a result, the lattice
becomes severely distorted. This structure is known as martensite. The martensite
transformation only involves a structural change, unlike pearlite where there are

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

movements of the carbon atom. Martensite gives the metal great hardness but it reduces
toughness and makes it brittle.
Basically, heat treatments involve one or more series of processes in which the
metal is heated to a specific temperature, soaked for a time, and cooled under specified
conditions to develop the required structures and properties. The five major forms of
heat treatment for the standard steel are shown below.
PROCESS

PURPOSE

PROCEDURE

PHASE (S)

Annealing

To soften

Slow cool from -stable


range

+ carbide

Quenching

To harden

Quench to miss I-T curves

Martensite*

Interrupted
quenching

To harden without
cracking

Quench, followed by slow


cool from M to M

Martensite*

Austempering

To harden without
forming brittle
martensite

Quench, followed by
isothermal transformation

+ carbide

To toughen (usually
with minimal softening)

Reheating the martensite

Tempering

above the M
+ carbide

* Steels containing martensite must be toughened by the tempering processes


transformation processes for Steels
Annealing can be defined as a process of heating a particular material to above
the critical range for a sufficient time and followed by a slow cooling in the furnace. The
temperature to which given steel should be heated in annealing depends on its
composition and at about above the recrystallization temperature. After heated and
cooled in the furnace, the material produces very coarse pearlite. Annealing is usually
carried out for small cross section products and is usually for the following reasons:
To improve ductility, toughness or other mechanical properties.
To reduce hardness.
To soften hard steel thus making it easier to be machined or cold-worked.
To produce a definite microstructure.
To relieve internal stress induced by previous operations.
To revive neutral structure and to refine crystal structure.
When a material is heated to above the upper critical range for a sufficient time
and cooled in the normal and still room temperature air, it is normalized. Normalizing

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

implies that the structure and properties considered normal for the material is
restored. It is frequently applied to castings and forgings, to refine grain structure to
obtain uniform grains and to improve machinability, and is commonly applied after
cold working, overheating, or any other operations resulting in non-uniform heating
and cooling.
Quenching refers to rapid cooling in any manner after the heating process by
immersion in liquid or gases or by contact with masses of metal to avoid carbon from
getting out. Quenching in water can be divided into three separate stages. As the
material from the hardening temperature is immersed in water, a vapor film or
envelope immediately surrounds it. The rate of cooling is slow at this stage. This
process produce martensite, which is very hard, but brittle phase. The cooling has to
be very fast in order for the austenite to be transformed into martensite.
Tempering involves slow and moderate heating to increase the toughness of
metal that have gone previous heat treatment to a specific temperature for a definite
atomic mobility. It is also to relieve the internal stress of a quenched material in order
to obtain a greater ductility. Metals are usually hardened by being heated and
quenched rapidly, causing brittleness, which can be reduced by tempering. A desired
hardness for steel can be achieved by plunging it into a bath when it has cooled to the
right shade of yellow, or brown, or blue. The change in color is caused by an oxide
film.

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

Heat treating temperature ranges for plain carbon steel, as indicated on the iron-iron
carbide phase diagram.

The internal reactions of a metal to external forces are known as mechanical


properties. The mechanical properties are directly related to each other. A change in one
property usually causes a change in one or more additional properties. Some of the
mechanical properties of a metal are:

Toughness the ability of a metal to resist fracture. A tough metal can resist
considerable stress, either slowly or suddenly applied and will deform before
failure.

Hardness the ability of a metal to resist penetration and wear by another


metal or material. It takes a combination of hardness and toughness to withstand
heavy pounding. The hardness of a metal limits the ease with which it can be
machined, since toughness decreases as hardness increases.

Corrosion Resistance the ability of a metal to resist the eating or wearing


away by air, moisture and other agents. When residual stress, a force that is
inadvertently exerted and stored in the metal, is applied, the metal has a larger
tendency to corrode.

Brittleness the tendency of a material to fracture or break with little or no


deformation, bending, or twisting. It is usually not a desirable property. Normally,
the harder the metal, the more brittle it is.

Tensile Strength the ability of a metal to resist being pulled apart by


opposing forces acting in a straight line. It is expressed as the amount of force
required to pull apart a bar of the material 1-inch wide and 1 inch thick.

Shear Strength the ability of a metal to resist being fractured by opposing


forces not acting on a straight line. It can be controlled by varying the hardness of
the metal.

Compressive Strength the ability of a metal to withstand pressure acting on


a given plane.

Elasticity the ability of a metal to return to its original size and shape after
being stretched or pulled out of shape.

Ductility the ability of a metal to be drawn or stretched permanently without


rupture or fracture. Metals that lack ductility will crack and even break before
bending.

Malleability the ability of a metal to be hammered, rolled, or pressed into


various shapes without rupture or fracture.
The theoretical explanation for this activity is that when heated, the grain
in the four bars in the furnace is expanded. Then when the four bars were cooled
separately the grain was shrank in different rate of stabilizing. Theoretically, the
annealed bar that was cooled in the furnace is the softest and most ductile amongst the
others because the grain is uniform thoroughly. Then it is followed by the normalized and
the quenched bars. The bars quenched in water and in oil breaks more easily and has
the hardest surface compared to others.

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

In this experiment, the results that were obtained erred somewhat from
the theoretical result in which the most number of bends is for the bar cooled in the
furnace, but we obtained the least number of bends (12) for that part of the activity. This
also occurred for the least theoretical number of bends, which should be for water but
the largest number of bends in our activity is for water (46). The quenched products i.e.
the ones cooled in water and oil should have the least number of bends before broken
compared to the annealed and normalized bars. This is because the higher number of
bends, the lower is its rate of cooling and thus the grain of the metal will be more stable
and uniform. A uniform fine grain will have better machinability, tougher, more ductile,
less tendency to distort or crack during heat treatment and greater depth-hardening
power. Fast cooling will make the grain not uniformed when it reaches thermodynamic
state and it makes the metal hard and brittle.
These irregularities in the number of bends may be because of differences in
the force applied while bending the metal bar and the bending was not continuous and
not in a straight path. It may also be because of the metal bar was clamped to the vice
and the part that is bent is at the top of the vice but sometimes, the bending occurs at a
place higher than that area. The bending of the bars were done by different person
which may explain the differences in force exerted on the metal bars.
The metal bar quenched in water has a higher hardness number than the
one quenched in oil. This is because theoretically water has higher thermal conductivity
and specific heat than oil, thus it absorbs heat faster. The least hard metal bar after heat
treatment is for oil and the largest is for oil. To complete this part of the activity, we had to
go to the Material Testing lab, which is a first for all of us. So, inadvertently, we were also
introduced to the lab and the equipments in it.

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

AIMI IZYANA BINTI ISMAIL


Heat treatment

0226962

CONCLUSION
Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah for it is with His grace that we were able to
complete this experiment within the time given. All of the objectives have been achieved
as we were exposed to the annealing, quenching, normalizing, and tempering
processes, thus enabling us to have a better understanding of heat treatment. The
processes mentioned above demonstrated the effect of heat treatment on changing a
metals properties, which makes it possible to treat a material specifically according to its
needs.
In doing this experiment, care should be practiced so that the work will lead to
the most satisfying result. Furthermore, the necessary precautions and steps must be
strictly followed. To conclude, heat treatment is important since it can change the
properties of metals and alloys by changing their microscopic structures.
REFERENCES
Course Manual MEC 1105 Workshop Technology, Kuliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Manufacturing Processes ,Herbert W. Yankee, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey 07632
Manufacturing Processes 8th Edition, B.H Amstead, Phillipe F. Ostwald and Myron L.
Begeman, John Wiley & Sons

MEC 1105
WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY