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Imag(in)ing, A fresh look at design, presentation and communication

Delft University Press Post bus 98

2600 MG Delft

Tel: *3115 27832541 Fax: '3115 2781661 email: OUP@OUP.TUOelfi.NL

list of works consulted ISBN 90'407'1952'7

trefw. Mediatoepassingen; Bouwkunst/Simulaties; bouwkunst

copyrights © 1999 by Jan van der Does

All rights reserved. NIT part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission from the publisher Delft University Press.

4 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Objectives and working hypotheses

1.2 Research plan in three phases

6 2 PLAN OF RESEARCH PROJECT

6 2.1 Preparatory work

6 2.1.1 Recruitment and formation of pairs

6 2.1.2 Selection of site

9 2.1.3 Definition of the 'rules of play'

9 2.1.4 Media and the design process

11 2.2 The research setup protocol

11 2.3 Operating procedure of meetings/ questionnaires per pair

12 2.4 The questionnaires

15 2.5 The design processes

15 2.5.1 Working material

15 2.6 Interactional research

21 22 22 25 26 26 29

3 PRESENTATION MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION

3.1 The communication process

3.2 The verbal component in the communication process

3.2.1 The part played by interactional study of the verbal component 3.3 The visual component of the communication process

3.3.1 The medium and designing

3.3.2 The media and the presentation

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4 THE CASES

4.1 Description of cases

4.2 Tables of comparative opinions per case

52 52

5 RESULTS AND FINDINGS

5.1 Findings per case

64 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

64 6.1 'The verbal component

64 6.1.1 Conclusions and recommendations

67 6.2 The visual component

67 6.2.1 The media and communication

Medium: model/endoscope Medium: computer

69 6.2.2 The media and the design process

Medium: model/endoscope Medium: computer

69 6.2.3 The two media compared

70 6.2.4 Conclusions and recommendations

72 SYNOPSIS

74 REFERENCES AND RECOMMENDED LITERATURE

76 AKNOWLEDGMENTS

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z In 1990, the Delft University Press published a report on research into the utility and significance of imaging media in architectural simulation under the title 'Presentation and Simulation' ('Overdracht en Simulatie', Van der Does et. al.). That research project compared video-endoscope images of a detailed three-dimensional model of an existing street with the real urban situation and evaluated them against other suitably adapted presentation techniques. The results of a follow-up project, in which comparisons were made between computer·rendered images, video-endoscope images and coloured perspective drawings, were presented on video and slides at EAEA '93, the first conference of the European Architectural Endoscopy Association held in Tampere, Finland, in 1993. This research work primarily addressed the representation of real-world situations. The third EAEA conference, which included the workshop 'Imaging Imagination', took place in the Delft University Faculty of Architecture in 1997 and concentrated on the use of endoscopy and computers as imaging media (see references, EAEA '97).

In the present research project, we address the genesis of an architectural design, the process by which the requirements of the client lead through a creative process to a provisional and then a final . response from the architect. This project has direct relevance to ongoing development of new techniques for teaching and for research in the Delft Faculty of Architecture, as is reflected in the second objective of the present study as stated below.

Exchanges of experiences relating to media research and media education which took place at the EAEA conferences of 1993,1995 and 1997 confirmed that technology was advancing in both analogue and digital media including CAD systems. These visualization and simulation techniques are proving useful in professional practice for making the design tangible to its intended users. A sketchy, notional design can be elaborated into a final sketch design suitable for presentation to the decisionmakers, and this can be prepared and distributed relatively quickly. The architect can call on the assistance of a media specialist to bring the initial design to a stage where it is ready for formal approval.

The present research project focuses on the use of specific imaging media in the phase from the first sketches to the finished sketch design. We also consider the crucial role of verbal communication in the contact between the architect and the client, and the consequences of the choice of medium for the architect himself. It was considered beneficial to this research to invite the participation of experimental subjects from the professional field of architectural practice. In order to exclude the possibility of undesired mutual influences, we requested the cooperation of experienced clients and architects without informing either party of the other's involvement. Being aware of the potential practical value of this research, eighteen persons, consisting of nine architects and nine clients, proved willing to commit their time and creativity disinterestedly to this enterprise. It will be clear that without their much-appreciated dedicated efforts, this publication of research on the effects of communication and imaging in the primary design phase would never have seen the light of day.

1.1 OBJECTIVES AND WORKING HYPOTHESES

Our previous study highlighted the importance in conveying visual information of movement and realistic colouration in combination with detailed scale models, computer visualizations and perspective views. The present study addresses the design process and design representation and presentation. In training as well as professional practice, the preliminary design process and communication of the final sketch design rely extensively on representational techniques.

The present study considers all the imaging media - including drawings etc. - used in communication between the architect and the client. We concentrate on their application at two points, namely in the second phase, i.e. presentation of the draft design, and in the third phase, i.e. the final presentation of the sketch design. Our principle attention goes to two specific media, endoscopy and computer simulation. The primary objective of the present study is as follows:

to obtain insight into the effect and utility of endoscope and computer techniques as means of presentation of the sketch design and of communication between the designer and the client.

Since we decided to examine the application of these techniques in an early phase of the design process as a whole, the representation of reality in the presentation of the design does not playa primary part in the evaluation.

The tools available for visualization media education and research undergo continual crossfertilization with ongoing research in this area (EAEA '93, '95 and '97, Van der Does et all. The questions posed to the research participants in the present project include some connected with the media they were expected to use. Our second objective is as follows:

to gain experience in the improvement, adaptation and testing of these tools for the purposes of teaching in communication techniques and for subsequent research, both inside and outside the Architecture Faculty.

The hypotheses to be tested in this study are as follows:

1. Distortions (deviations from expectations) occur in the information flow between the designer (architect) and the client such that there are differences between the ideas the client wishes to convey and the image as conceived by the architect.

a) distortions due to verbal communication between the parties

b) distortions due to the visualization media used .

c) the visualization medium used will have an effect on design decisions.

2. The kind of distortion occurring will vary according to the visualization medium used (endoscope or computer).

1.2 RESEARCH PLAN IN THREE PHASES

Activities prior to commencement of the design process included the formulation of a research protocol including uniform 'rules of play' to be followed by each client/ architect (e/ A) pair: a situation for the design of 60 dwelling, a schedule of requirements (SOR) and the applicable building regulations.

At the first design stage, the client informs the architect about the project. The client is allowed to particularize some aspects of the protocol accordingto his own professional insights. The client hands the architect the brief and discusses it with him. He makes an audio recording of the conversation and delivers it to the research team immediately afterwards.

At the second stage, the architect informs the client of progress made. The architect presents his preliminary design and backs it with arguments. After discussion, the client checks the preliminary design against the schedule of requirements. The conversation at this meeting is taped and handed to the research team. The two participants agree a date and time for the final design presentation.

The final meeting marks the third stage, in which the client is able to view the final presentation of the finished provisional design. The 'rules of play' mentioned above state that the architect must for this purpose use the presentation medium (endoscopic or computer visualization) assigned by the research team before the start of the design process. Once again, the explanation and commentary given in this presentation and the ensuing conversation are recorded on audio tape, which is passed to the research team immediately afterwards.

Preliminary discussions about the visualization techniques to be assigned to each of the nine client! architect pairs proceeded without problems. Five endoscopic visualizations and four computer visualizations were planned.

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:::J: The present research focuses on the genesis of a design prior to its presentation to the client. The products of this process were evaluated in the light of the original briefing, the intentions of the client and architect, proposed particularizations of the 'rules of play', how they fulfilled their experimental roles etc. Following recruitment, both the clients and the architects were sent written confirmation of their tasks as participating pairs and instructions with regard to the number of scheduled meetings, oral questionnaires administered by the research team and the recording of meetings on audio tape. The last of these was crucial to analysis of the quality of information transfer .

2.1 PREPARATORY WORK

The preparatory activities preceding initiation of the design projects are described below.

2.1.1 Recruitment and formation of pairs Helpful recommendations from members of the architectural profession enabled the authors to establish contacts and arrive at agreements with a number of experienced architects and clients. There was ample willingness to make a contribution to the research. As mentioned in the introduction, a total of 18 volunteers, consisting of 9 clients and 9 architects, volunteered to take part. All of them were drawn from practising professional circles. They were grouped into 9 pairs consisting each of one architect and one client. In contrast to the usual practice, the respective members of each pair were not necessarily previously acquainted. One of the nine pairs was set in action earlier than the others to function as a pilot study. Apart from a few easily remedied textual points, no change in the initial research plan proved necessary, so it was also unnecessary to give the first pair an exceptional treatment in the subsequent detailed analysis. The participants of each pair were explicitly asked to simulate an interaction between two disciplines in which the client formally briefs the architect on a building project. This was considered necessary for the success of the overall research project, since it constitutes the start of a process of communication that continues with personal contact through the intermediate discussion and finally into the presentation of a sketch design prepared by the architect.

2.1.2 Selection of site We chose a city centre site in Delft bordering partly on a development offive fairly new houses and partly on an area of older buildings. The site is itself occupied by small houses with first-floor attics ranged on either side of a street of 100 metres. Each house has a back garden 10 metres in length. The participants were free to place the buildings to be designed on this site in any desired layout, subject to certain access requirements. The 'rules of play' include instructions regarding the representation of plasticity in the final presentation. The shaded area on a 1:1000 situation plan which we prepared showed which of the existing houses were to make way for the projected development. The issued information finally included black and white photographs of the existing situation.

Existing shuation

2.1.3 Definition of the 'rules of play' At their first meeting, the client gives the architect the design brief in accordance with rules of play which are identical for all participants.

Protocol to be presented at first meeting:

Schedule of requirements

60 dwellings in the social rental sector and subsidized rental sector, of which 50 percent are 1 -2 bedroom dwellings and 50 percent 3 -4 bedroom dwellings. The respective proportions of social sector (35%) and subsidized rental (65%) dwellings distributed evenly over the 1 bedroom and 2 bedroom dwellings.

Gross floor areas (B.K.O.)

social rental: 80 mz (2/3),100 rnz (4/5) subsidized rental: 90 rnz (2/3), 110 rnz (4/5)

Situation

as indicated on 1:1000 map (shaded area indicates maximum boundary)

Boundories of design site

If the existing street (Patrimoniumstraat) cannot be retained in its present or modified form, the dwellings must clearly be provided with some other access routes to the existing streets at either end

Building height

Maximum 9 metres (3 storeys)

Additional information

Regulations applicable to the city of Delft (including those relating to respect for adjacent parcels).

Required final product

A: ground plans and transverse/longitudinal sections, scale 1:200, format A3; and situation sketch, scale 1:500

B: a short video presentation (1 to 2 minutes) consisting of moving images or a series of stills representing an eye-height view of the design, produced either as

a. an endoscopic exploration of a scale model of the design (1:200) or

b. computer-rendered images/animation.

Whichever medium of representation is used, the representation must include details such as windows, wall surfaces, eaves, corner solutions, roof shapes, access forms and colouration. Buildings adjacent to the development (see thick line on site plan) must be represented in block form.

Appendices

Cadastral map 1:1000

7 situation photographs, 20 x 20 cm., black and white.

Optional materials

Endoscopic representation: block model of adjacent buildings finished in neutral grey. Computer rendering: A digital representation of the surroundings of Patrimoniumstraat at scale 1:1500 with height data in DXF, DWG (AutoCad) or Microstation file format.

2.1.4 Media and the design process In the above protocol, the required design is presented in the form of an end product as described under A and B. In the middle phase (stage 2, see diagram 1.3), the architect presents his initial ideas in the form of sketches, drawings or sketch models. For the presentation of the definitive provisional design (phase 3), the above-mentioned end products required by the protocol will be used.

Those architects presenting their design by means of a video recording of endoscopic images of a 1:200 scale model are allowed to use the endoscopy equipment of the Faculty of Architecture. They will receive all necessary technical assistance in taking their chosen route at pedestrian eye-height through the model. If required, the design model can be embedded in the neutral block model of the built surroundings provided by the Faculty of

Architecture.

Those architects presenting their design by means of a computer animation or a sequence of rendered still images may make use of a digital representation of the surroundings in a DXF file and of a drawing indicating existing building heights.

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2.2 THE RESEARCH SETUP PROTOCOL Pairs

9 fixed pairs each consisting of a client and an architect

Technique allocation

5 endoscope video, 4 computer video

All participating architects and clients are active in professional practice

Conditions (land use plan, local regulations etc.) Identical

Schedule afrequirements (no. of dwellings = approx. 60, floor areas, all other numerical data)

Identical.

Each client is free to present and/or interpret the schedule of requirements as he/she wishes. Situation

Identical (see 'rules of play') No. of client-architect meetings (3) Identical

No. of scheduled oral questionnaires (2) Identical

Presentation of provisional design Identical

2.3 OPERATING PROCEDURE OF MEETINGS/QUESTIONNAIRES PER PAIR

START OF PROCESS

1ST MEETING

1ST QUESTIONNAIRE BY RESEARCH TEAM

2ND MEETING

3"D MEETING

2ND QUESTIONNAIRE BY RESEARCH TEAM

TOTAL 5 INTERACTIONS WITH RESEARCH TEAM

CLIENT RECEIVES COMMISSION PROTOCOL FROM RESEARCH TEAM

CLIENT GRANTS COMMISSION TO ARCHITECT (MEDIUM IS MADE KNOWN)

AUDIOTAPE

(TO RESEARCH TEAM)

FIRST SERIES OF VERBAL QUESTIONS TO CLIENT AND ARCHITECT

2 AUDIOTAPES (ro RESEARCH TEAM)

ARCHITECT DISCUSSES HIS INITIAL IDEAS ON THE PRELIMINARY DESIGN WITH THE CLIENT

AUDIOTAPE

(TO RESEARCH TEAM)

ARCHITECT PRESENTS HIS DEFINITIVE SKETCH DESIGN AND DISCUSSES IT WITH CLIENT (USE OF MEDIUM)

AUDIOTAPE

(TO RESEARCH TEAM)

2 AUDIOTAPES (TO RESEARCH TEAM)

SECOND SERIES OF VERBAL QUESTIONS TO CLIENT AND TO ARCHITECT

TOTAL 7 AUDIOTAPES PER PAIR

To sum up, nine clients received the project specifications from the research team, and this formed the start of nine design processes. In total there were 9 x 3 = 27 (+1) meetings between clients and architects (one pair held an extra last-minute discussion and also recorded it on tape). The dialogues between each pair were recorded on 28 tapes. A total of 9 x 4 = 36 interviews took place, 9 x 2 = 18 between the research team and the clients and 18 between the research team and the architects. The questionnaire responses were recorded on 36 tapes. Thus a total quantity of audio material to be studied was 64 tapes, i.e. seven tapes per pair plus one extra tape.

TOTAL 3 MEETINGS BETWEEN CLIENT AN D ARCH ITECT

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2.4 THE QUESTIONNAIRES

First oral questionnaire to the client

1 What kind of information did you use to explain the brief to the architect (oral, written, visual etc.)?

2 Did you brief the architect in the same way as you would normally do? Or were there any differ-

ences?

Besides the schedule of requirements, did you tell the architect of any additional intentions, wishes or preferences? If so, please describe them .

Afterwards, did you have the impression that all aspects of the brief had been dealt with? If not, please give further details.

Do you have any experience in evaluating design presentations prepared by endoscopic or computer techniques?

The architect has been asked to use a specific visualization technique. Are there any aspects that you think require the architect's special attention?

Do you expect use of the chosen imaging technique to make the design more comprehensible than othertechniques?

Please give a short description of what you expect to be shown with the endoscopic/ computer visualization technique (at the intermediate presentation and the final presentation)

9 Please give a short description of your own style, taste or approach.

10 Do you think the architect understood you completely? If not, why? Were you already acquaint-

ed with the architect?

11 Do you trust this architect to respond to your brief with a good design? Please amplify. 12 What concrete follow-up appointments have you made with the architect?

13 Please give a short description of your company, your function, how long you have been doing this work etc.

14 Do you have previous experience of briefing an architect with a project of this kind?

Phase 2: provisional design

First oral questionnaire to the architect

1 By what means was the design task explained to you (oral, written, visual etc.)?

2 Was this the usual way such tasks are explained to you? If not, what differences were there? 3 Did the client inform you of any requirements, preferences, wishes or further intentions not

mentioned in the schedule of requirements? Were you already acquainted with the architect? 4 Do you consider the commission clearly and fully formulated? Did you receive all necessary

information, e.g. about the situation, the site, the schedule of requirements etc?

5 Do you have previous experience with the use of endoscopy or computer imaging techniques? 6 How do you intend to make use of the medium? For what purpose, and when?

7 Do you think that the application ofthis imaging medium will influence the transfer of inform ation? If so, in what respect? What aspects will not be affected?

8 Do you expect the design to be better as a result of the use of this visualization medium? If so, why? If not, why not?

9 Please give a short description of your own style, taste and approach.

10 Do you share the client's views about the formal concepts, materials etc. to be used, and about the effect to be expected from their use?

11 Do you intend to offer any architectural 'extras' apart from own general style and design principles?

12 How do you now intend to deal with the design task? Have you made any follow-up appointments with the client?

13 Please give a short description of your company (size, portfolio, architectural characteristics), your position and your length of experience in that function.

14 Do you have previous experience in carrying out commissions of this kind?

Second oral questionnaire to the client

1 What did you think of the design presented at the third and final meeting? Please describe your impression in terms of form, elements, materials etc. Which medium do you think played the most important role in the design project? Can you recall what questions you asked?

2 Did you have different expectations about the presentation as a whole?

3 Were you able to evaluate the three·dimensional representation of the design satisfactorily? 4 What is your impression of the visualization medium used? Would the presentation ofthe

design have been less comprehensible without a video made by endoscopic or computer imaging? Why do you think so? (Possible stronger or weaker points: amount of information conveyed, colour, detailing, atmosphere/experience, viewpoint, plasticity etc.)

5 Do you think the medium had any influence during the design process? Did it, in your opinion, contribute to achieving the desired result?

6 Did the architect offer you more than one design variant? If so, did you immediately express a preference for one of them?

7 Has the brief been fulfilled? At what moment did you feel convinced that the design would be a satisfactory one (at the second or third meeting)?

8 Were there any shortcomings? If so, what is your critique of the design? Are any such objections to the design or parts of it based on criticism to be expected from third parties (individuals, official bodies, etc.)?

9 Does the design meet all preferences, intentions etc. you expressed at the first meeting? Were there any misunderstandings (e.g. during the final presentation of the design)?

10 Were you struck by 'extras' in the design? If so, what brought them to your attention? Did you perceive a personal signature of the architect in the design? If so, in what respect?

11 What do you think of the way the design fits in with its surroundings? What do you think of how the design as a whole was represented, a. in the drawings and b. in the endoscope or computer visualization?

12 What questions did you ask the architect at the second meeting (e.g. about the visualization medium)? And what were you shown at the second meeting?

13 At the second meeting, did the architect's verbal explanation or sketches of his/her proposed design approach reveal the need for any alterations or additions? If so, in what medium were these modifications eventually made?

14 Were positive or negative expectations aroused at the second meeting which were not fulfilled in the final meeting? What was it that aroused these expectations?

15 Do you think that the architect devoted much time to the design and presentation? On what do you base this view?

.16 How have you found the experience of cooperating in this project? Are you satisfied with the result?

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Second oral questionnaire to the architect

1 What did you show the client at the third and final meeting? Please describe in terms of shapes, elements, materials etc. Which medium do you consider to have played the most important part in communicating the design? Can you recall what wishes the client had expressed concerning the final presentation?

2 Are you satisfied with the presentation as a whole?

3 Do you feel that in presenting your design, you were successful in communicating all aspects of it to the client? Did it become apparent during the presentation that there were aspects or parts of your design that needed further elaboration? Did the imaging medium used lend itself to this purpose or did it restrict you?

4 Are you satisfied with the imaging medium used for the design presentation? Would you have been unable to present such a comprehensible picture of the design without the use of endoscopic/computer-rendered images and video? Why do you think so (strong/weak points: amount of information conveyed, colour, detailing, atmosphere/ experience, viewpoint, plasticity)?

5 At what point in the design process did you begin preparations for the endoscopic / computer visualization? In retrospect, would it have been better to start earlier or later? How much was known about your design at that point? In retrospect, are you satisfied with the visualization medium used in the design phase?

Did you conceive one or more variants of the design? Ifmore than one, did you offer them as alternatives to the client? Did you draw comparisons between them? If so, how?

Do you regard yourself as having fulfilled the brief? At what point did you realize that your design was satisfactory?

Are there any aspects of your own design with which you are dissatisfied? Were too many constraints imposed on you (by the client or in other respects)?

Did any misunderstandings occur during the presentation? Did you misinterpret or underestimate the importance of any of the information given to you by the client?

10 Does the design bear the hallmarks of your own architectural style? Are any architectural 'extras' that you conceived still present or visible in the design?

11 Did the surroundings play an important part in your design? Was this evident in your presentation? If so, how?

12 Please describe briefly the state of progress of your design prior to the second meeting with the client What did you show in your presentation at that meeting? What were the main points you wished to show? By what means? What wishes had the client expressed concerning this meeting?

13 was the first image you set down (conceptual or otherwise)? How and when did you arrive at the salient characteristics of your design?

14 How did you set about your work? Did you gather information ih addition to or parallel to that handed over by the client? Did you do so before or after starting on the actual design?

15 What images of the design did you specifically wish to convey in the video presentation of endoscope/ computer visualizations at the third meeting?

16 Did you have any problem with the time scale of the project orthe interval between meetings?

How much time did you spend on this project?

What is your general feeling about having worked on this project? Are you yourself satisfied with the result? Please amplify.

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2.5 THE DESIGN PROCESSES

At formal submission, this research plan included a time schedule in which, following definition of the empirical section and the recruitment of participants, a pilot study with the first client-architect pair was to start in September 1995. The analysis of this pilot result showed that scarcely any modification of the protocol was necessary. It was thus immediately possible to agree starting dates with the next 4 pairs of participants. Taking into account among other things the business commitments of the participants, it was necessary to allocate a period of roughly two months for completion of each design project. As the four projects proceeded, the oral questionnaires defined above were administered as planned separately to the architect and the client of each pair. The first set offour pairs completed their work in January 1996 and the second set offour pairs the following July. Organization of the visual material and transcription of the 63 audio tapes (7 per pair), which were needed for preparation of the synopses and for thematic comparisons, started in September. This work was followed by the start of analysis of the results.

All the five projects in which the endoscopic imaging technique was used took advantage of the neutral block models provided of the buildings surrounding the project site. In the four projects employing computer visualization, the DXF file and the drawing with height data provided necessary information but gave little visual support in modelling the project surroundings.

All the project processes proceeded without any hitch and led to the required design results.

Starting from identical design briefs and protocols, the nine pairs produced nine different designs for projects of approx. 60 dwellings. Below we give a synopsis of each case (design project) and tables of thematic comparisons by which means we were able to compare the impressions of the architect with those of the client.

2.5.1 Working material Each design process generated the following working material for the researchers:

1 Verbal Communication at the briefing

2 Responses to the first oral questionnaire to the client

3 Responses to the first oral questionnaire to the architect

4 Communication between the client and the architect during the interim presentation of the preliminary sketch design

5 The architect's ideas about the preliminary design in the middle phase

6 Communication between the client and the architect during the final presentation of the final

sketch design

7 Drawings (A3) and an endoscopic or computer visualization of the definitive provisional design 8 Responses to the second oral questionnaire to the client

9 Responses to the second oral questionnaire to the architect.

2.6 INTERACTIONAL RESEARCH

The researchers contacted Prof. H.J. Verkuijl of the University of Utrecht Faculty of Language and Literature for advice on a complementary subsidiary study into language use in the cornmunlcation between the client and the architect. This contact led us to approach the Applied Linguistics Department of the Dutch Language and Literature Sub-faculty, also at Utrecht.

The outcome was that we appointed a research assistant who had been recommended by three members of the Applied Linguistics Department to carry out an interactional analysis study, under their supervision, into the oral communications between each client-architect pair on the basis of the conversations recorded on audio tape. The conclusions and recommendations of this study form part of the findings and conclusions of this research project as a whole.

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1 Code: 'a system of signifiers forthe transmission of inforrna-

tion over a communication channel' (Prak).

Establishing the part played by the presentation media in the design process requires more information about the presentation of information and the way communication takes place. Information is involved in every contact, and in every human contact communication takes place (Walraven). When two important partners in the building process, the client and the architect, form a pair in our research project, they also take part in a communication process in which information transfer takes place. The process of mutual communication begins when the client briefs the architect for the design task. The first design result is discussed in an intermediate consultation between the two parties and the communication process concludes with the architect's presentation of the final sketch design to the client. This mutual transfer of information is partly visual, using sketches, models, drawings and written information, and partly verbal, arising in the personal contact between the client and the architect. We recognize several variables within this process, l.e. the visual plays a part as well as the verbal. 'Human communication is essentially symbolic in character .. .' (Nauta). But the extent to which this is also true for the visual communication media is a difficult question to answer within the scope of the present research. As with verbal communication, we can no more than touch on such problem areas as the multiple functions that an image may possess ('pictures, symbols and signs')(Arnheim '69), the part played in this by perception and whether or not all this is wholly or partially true for the techniques studied here as opposed to the traditional two-dimensional media. Then we can attempt to determine the significance of the media studied in this research project. How successful was the attempt to visualize an architectural environment at eye height, 'what a place will be like when experienced' (Appelyard).

'In the design process, form representation and form interpretation play an important role. In most cases the form that is presented is an abstraction of reality and it will hide information that is not yet known or not yet regarded relevant. A great part of an architect's education consists in learning to understand and to use these abstractions mechanisms. The correct interpretation of building design is a skill that greatly depends on the experience of the 'reader' of the design. The abstraction mechanism varies with the problem that is to be solved' (De Vries).

In the present study, the scale model/ endoscope and computer-generated images are different codifications of an object'. A code determines what information can be transmitted. The possibilities of the code are in turn determined and limited by the communication channel (Prak), e.g. video. At the same time, we are concerned with the activity of designing, with what is, as Hamel states, the creation of something that does not yet exist - the thing that is to be designed, and which cannot be described unambiguously at the start of the process (Hame!).

Finally, the moment at which a medium is deployed is relevant. Should we for example define for each client-architect pair: the point in the design process of a sketch design at which the architect deploys a particular medium and what allowance he should make for the consequences this will have for the final presentation?

3.1 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

The client and architect communicate verbally in the whole course of the project. The client makes his requirements known and the architect explains his design concept. 'Language, the most common form of communication, is useful for describing the functional and social aspects of projects and general environmental impacts, but it is only an indirect mode of describing their visual appearance ... Language describes environment and projects in terms of categories and concepts, which evokestereotypical images' (Appleyard).

This communication process avails itself of images as well as of words. As already stated above, several variables can be identified within this process: besides 'the visual' (the media, in our case), 'the verbal' also plays an important part.

To evaluate the role of the media more clearly, we need to submit the verbal variable to some analysis. As for the visual media, we can divide the process into two parts: the media in interaction with the designer himself and the media as a means of communication with others, i.e. the client. This can be represented diagrammatically as follows:

VERBAL COMPONENT

ICOMMUNICATIONI

VISUAL COMPONENT (MEDIA)

THE MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION

THE MEDIA AND THE DESIGNING

3.2 THE VERBAL COMPONENT IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

As already stated above, communication takes place between people who are in contact with one another and it involves the transmission of information. This process hence involves a message sent by the sender to the recipient. Communication takes place by means of symbolic behaviour, both verbal and non-verbal.

The interaction is symbolic in the respect that it bears information which is contributed by persons belonging to the same communicative community. 'This interaction can result in mutual understanding to the extent that those involved possess the same communicative competence, to the extent that they belong to the same communicative community. "Communicative competence" enables a person to relate his own and the other person's concrete behaviour to their collective knowledge of symbol types and situation types. This collective stock of symbols at their command forms the communicative medium of a communicative community. Language is one of these communicative media.' (Walraven).

An analogy may be drawn with the visual design language. Our research involves professional clients and architects who, in this respect too, belong in their professional capacity to the same communicative community.

In communication, information is imparted in some form or another. It may take place by 'an autonomous action by one of the parties (information transfer) or may be a reciprocal process (information exchange). Desirably it should take place as effectively and as efficiently as possible.

'Communication is in this respect intentional; it consciously aims to achieve an effect. It is an activity addressed to another. By means of joint construction of the message, the sender of that message aims to achieve a certain goal: one specific response activity on the part of the recipient.

The communicative act may be considered successful forthe sender if the recipient proves to have received and understood the message correctly and responds appropriately to the communicative objective ( ... ) The sender uses both verbal and non-verbal signs and symbols to code his message. A fundamental precondition for successful communication is of course that he selects signs, symbols and combinations of these whose meaning is known to the receiver. In other words, the sender and recipient must both ascribe the same semantic value to the message' (Korswagen)>.

2 'Man thus communicates verbally and non-verbally, visually

and/or auditorily. in signs and/or symbols. Signs are sensorily perceptible denotations of things. Symbols are signs or other sensorily perceptible objects which, by condensing a number or a complex of concepts, give a picture of something with a broader meaning, something mental or abstract. It is not always totally clear to us whether we are dealing with a mere sign or with a pure symbol. There are many non-verbal signs with a partial symbolic value: (Korswagen)

Normally this feedback takes place through face-to-face communication. In this context, the roles of sender and recipient continually alternate. Here too it is relevant that, as Walraven states, those involved nurture expectations concerning each other's behaviour and that each knows, to a certain extent, what behaviour is expected of himself.

According to Schulz von Thun, full communication only takes place when the sender obtains information from the recipient's response about the way his message has been received. Four psychologically important aspects playa part here simultaneously: the informative, the relational, the expressive and the directive aspects. From the point of view of the sender, the informative aspect concerns transmission offactual information (accuracy, comprehensibility); the expressive aspect refers to what he simultaneously reveals about himself (self-disclosure) and the relational aspect concerns the implied relation with the recipient (manipulation, appreciation, patronization) so that the latter feels himself to be addressed in a certain way. Finally, through the directive aspect, the sender expects to achieve some effect on the thoughts, emotions and actions of the other.

Viewing matters from the perspective ofthe recipient, however, the latter tries to understand the informative content; through the expressive aspect, he tries to form an assessment of the sender of the message; in the relational aspect, the sender's attitude towards him (appreciative, manipulative?) comes into play. Finally, according to Schulz, the directive aspect is for the recipient a matter of 'what does the sender want to get me to do?', or, in relation to the use of the information obtained, 'what is the best thing for me to do in the light of what I now know?'The recipient can only respond consciously to the four aspects of a message if he realizes what information each of them conveys, although he is free to choose which aspects of the message he will respond to.

This makes interpersonal communication complex and can lead to a number of malfunctions.

The recipient may, for example, react to an aspect of the message that the sender did not intend to emphasize. A recipient may similarly have a persistent interpretive bias, e.g. extracting the factual information from the message and responding only to that.

The reaction of the recipient gives the sender feedback on how his message has been received.

This final aspect completes the model of interpersonal communication as shown in the following diagram (from Schulz von Thun):

~RESSIVE ASPECT I I MESSAGE 1 I DIRECTIVE ASPECT

l r-RE-,A~~u':~:B.~~:~~-Ec-Tl~~I--------------------_j

SENDER

RECIPIENT

In connection with the question of who in practice is ultimately entitled to determine the outward appearance of a building, the client or the architect, Shoshkes quotes a property developer as follows: 'A good architect views himself as serving the client but also has an idea to sell. The architect has to convince the client that the aesthetic is effective. The best buildings result when the architect is skilful in communication with lay people'. (Shoshkes)

Although the clients involved in our research project are professionals in their field, this will undoubtedly playa significant part in the findings of the present project.

For convenience, we can sum up the points of special attention as follows:

In the provision of information, communication is only successful if the recipient has understood the intended information in accordance with the intentions of the sender and has responded to them satisfactorily. A precondition for this is that, when verbal and non-verbal signs are used, the provider of information and the recipient ascribe the same significance to these signs, symbols and combinations. This applies when the client and architect belong to the same professional community in the communicative sense.

Schultz von Thun resorts to a psychological model to show that the sender can judge whether the message has been transmitted within the framework of a fully-fledged communication process from the feedback that the recipient gives through his response.

3.2.1 The part played by interactional study of the verbal component Finally, a subsidiary study looked into the three communicative phases in the design process (the briefing, the interim presentation and the final presentation) and into the question of which communicative factors contribute to an optimal transfer of information. This was carried out with the cooperation of the Faculty of Language and Literature under the title 'De Verbeelding verwoord' (Liiffelman). Extracts from this study appear in the 'Conclusions and Recommendations' section below. The following questions introduce this subsidiary study:

What makes a design brief into a successful project?

When are the client and the architect satisfied with the result?

When does the cooperation between a client and an architect run smoothly?

Anyone seeing the above questions will observe that the success or failure of a design project depends entirely on the persons who are cooperating, the means they have at their disposal and their capacity to communicate with each other and make it clear what they require. Other conceivable factors include the amount of time available and the level of education of those involved. This subsidiary study addresses one of the above-mentioned factors that can have an influence on the effectiveness of information transfer between the client and the architect - on verbal communication.

Before the specified technique is applied to concretize a representation of the design, much discussion takes place about the brief. A consensus is reached about the intention of the brief before the architect sets to work, and he/she is now able to make a start on the preliminary sketch design. Whether the architect succeeds in presenting a correct sketch design (i.e. one that agrees with the image in the mind of the client) depends entirely on achieving good communication during the briefing. For example, some of the pairs in the present research were eminently successful in creating a successful concretization of the design brief, while others were less successful in doing so. This study assesses the language exchanged between the clients and the architects for its communicative value. The outcome of the analysis must be an initial review of factors in the interaction that contribute to the objective of an optimal transfer of information between the client and the architect. This is also the principle question addressed by the study:

What factors of the interaction between the client and" the architect contribute to an optimal verbal transfer of information between the two parties?

An attempt is made to generate an answer to this question by reference to an analysis of four cases of the participating client-architect pairs.

From each of the two categories of pairs (i.e. those that used endoscopic visualization of the design and those that used computer visualization respectively), a. one pair was selected that was wholly satisfied with the outcome of the design process, and b. another pair was selected that was not wholly satisfied with the outcome. It proved difficult to establish a clear boundary between 'wholly satisfied' and 'not wholly satisfied' through general examination of the recorded material, but the researcher was able to make a choice of suitable cases for study on the basis of several important statements made by the participants, and labelled them as 'wholly satisfied' or

'not wholly satisfied' (not wholly satisfied' here means that those involved were dissatisfied with one or more phases of the design process, e.g. with the communication of information or with the elaboration of the initial design).

Conclusioris and recommendations arising from this subsidiary study appear in section 6.1.

Four situation studies

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3.3 THE VISUAL COMPONENT OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS For clarity, we divide this component into two areas.

• The medium and designing. For example, how does an architect communicate with himself?

• The medium and communication. What visual means does the architect deploy to transfer information in a convincing manner?

3.3.1 The medium and designing We can describe the conversion of any visual idea by its conceiver into a visual form as a form of 'self-communication'. This 'conversation with oneself' in which one communicates with the various media brings us to Laseau's concept of ' visual thinking'. 'Visual thinking is ... a form of thinking which utilizes the products of vision, seeing, imagining and drawing. When thinking becomes externalized in the form of a sketched image it can be said to have become graphic' (Laseau)

The meaning of this term in the context of this research will be amplified in relation to the visual media involved. Oxman terms the same activity 'visual reasoning' and describes it as thinking in images about the appearance of the object under design. Sketching then becomes 'reflection in action', i.e. an externalization of the designer's process of thinking in images (Oxman). The sketch, regardless of the medium in which it is made and whether or not it is intended for cornrnunication with others, is the record of a certain moment within the process. In this respect these two-dimensional sketches or sketch models can give the designer feedback, analogously for example to the verbal communication between the client and the architect.

Bridges points out that one of the properties of the design process is that all the components under development are subject to feedback: ' ... it is also characteristic of design activities, as opposed to logical or scientific undertakings, that all parts of the process are pervaded by feedback. Each stage in the process changes the stage of the emerging solution, and in doing so brings into relevance fresh considerations.' (Bridges)

In his paragraph on codification, Prak states that codes are used not only for the transmission of information to others, but also forthe sender's self-communicatlon. The properties of these codes influence the message: 'an architect who designs in scale models obtains a different, more three-dimensional, record of his thoughts than an architect who designs with pencil and paper. This can significantly affect the outcome of the design process.' (Prak)

the design sketch

An assessment of the part played by two and three dimensional media during the design process is partly determined by the moment at which they are applied as part of the architect's design activities. Lawson cites four design process phases which are defined in the Architect's Handbook of Practice Management published by the Royal Institute of British Architects:

Phase 1, assimilation:

the accumulation and ordering of general information specially related to the problem in hand; Phase 2, general study:

the investigation of the nature of the problem; the investigation of possible solutions or means of solutions.

Phase 3, development:

the development and refinement of one or more of the tentative solutions isolated during phase 2.

Phase 4, communication:

the communication of one or more solutions to people inside or outside the design team.' (Lawson)

In practice, it appears that these steps do not necessarily occur in chronological order, but they overlap to some extent in a reiterative process. Lawson stresses that architects become acquainted with the nature of the problem - the required design - primarily by means of trial solutions. For designers, analysis, the comprehension of the problem, is highly integrated with synthesis, the generation of solutions.

The question of whether the client has defined the problem well must also be taken into account. As Lawson states, 'clients so often seem to find it easier to communicate their wishes by reacting to and criticising a proposed design, than by trying to draw up an abstract comprehensive performance specification.' (Lawson)

Designing, Hamel emphasizes, is the invention of something that does not yet exist and that can not be unambiguously described at the start of the process. He characterizes the sketch design as 'a scale drawing of the solution that the architect offers for the problem expressed in the brief ... The process that leads to the sketch design has as its input the text of the brief, the explanations given by the client and many other kinds of data, such as information about the site and about local and official regulations. This information is largely couched in verbal descriptions and is thus "non-spatial". Maps and photographs of the surrounding area and the architect's own observations of the site are admittedly spatial, but the problem situation - the client's wish - is nonspatial by nature. The sketch design is thus a spatial solution that is stated in non-spatial terms.'

These design decisions are made visible by means of various media are preserved for his own reference and if necessary to show the client. As to the computer, Mitchell speaks of a digital imaging or computer graphics system as 'a memory with a display.' (Mitchell)

The moment at which an architect applies the available media on account of their usefulness as design tools and not merely as means of presentation is also significant. In what respect, for example, can the new media prove valuable to the architect in the initial design phase? They can in any case make the role of the designer more important.

'The ability of designers to deal with more and varied design solutions through computer-aided

design and video techniques will allow designers to expand their role in the decision-making process. This, coupled with data-processing storage capabilities, will enable the designer to expand the number of alternatives that can be presented to client groups and to increase the designer's ability to evaluate those alternatives critically.' (Kirk)

points for special attention Here is a brief summary of the main points. When you use media while designing, you are communicating with yourself. It is a visual thinking process that makes use of seeing, imagining and sketching as a graphic language; thinking in images about the appearance of the object that is being designed.

In the intermediate consultations, the first design results are in all cases represented by the architect using various kinds of media and models. At the same time, they are momentary snapshots of his thinking. As Oxman, again, phrases it, thinking in images is externalized by the designer.

Every sketch or sketch model is a momentary snapshot of the design process which, together with the client's reactions, gives the designer feedback. Insight, acquired skills and the properties of the sketching medium have consequences for the message. As Prak points out, these aspects can substantially influence the outcome of the design process.

Besides the fact that the design task can not be described in unequivocal terms, another relevant question is whether the client has defined the design problem well. Other aspects are also relevant, for example feedback (or lack of it) and existing examples that the client may offer for reference during the briefing.

Idea sketches

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Ii II

design concept

3.3.2 The media and the presentation Visual communication is gaining an increasing presence and use of the visual media is entering the domain of an increasingly wide public. 'The potential of visual communication will be tested as we approach the twenty- first century. Two overriding features are the deluge of information that we must absorb and the increasing of the problems we must solve'.

The recognition of patterns will help us to gain an increasing grasp on this situation. 'We seek patterns, not only to screen for significance of information, but also to illustrate processes or structures by which our world operates ( ... ) The full utilization of this new capability will be directly related to the development of our visual thinking ( .... ) The new equipment is of no value in itself; it is only as good as our imagination can make it. If we are to realise the potential of visual technology, we must learn to think visually.' (Laseau) 3

Arnheim states that images can fulfil three different functions, namely as pictures, as symbols and as signs (Arnheim '69). A sign stands for 'a particular content without reflecting its characteristics visually', e.g. the triangular shape of a road warning sign. 'Images are pictures to the extent to which they portray things located at a lower level of abstractness than they are themselves'. The level of abstractness may vary widely. Arnheim thus rejects the notion that abstractness serves as an invitation to the viewer to fill in the 'missing' details himself. 'Abstractness is a means by which the picture interprets what it portrays ( .... ) it is not incompleteness. A picture is a statement about visual qualities, and such a statement can be complete at any level of abstractness. Only when the picture is incomplete, imprecise or ambiguous with regard to these abstract qualities, is the observer called upon to make his own decisions about the nature of what he sees'.

Endoscope and computer images are not easily categorized; they certainly operate as pictures but they are also symbols. As symbols (with a form and meaning) they are carriers of pragmatic information and denote a 'purposeful state' as explained by Nauta: 'man is in an ever-changing purposeful state. Man can design his own purposes (within the limits of his own nature, true enough, such as psycho-physiological and socio-culturallimits). He can make plans, furthermore, for the realization of these purposes. This presupposes knowledge of the relevant existing state, of the possible future states, and of the adequate means for the attainment of a specific one selected from these possible states. The upshot of all this is a continuous need for pragmatic information. In fact, the essence of man's position is that he must always decide in the phase of uncertainty. Pragmatic information may be briefly defined as that which reduces this uncertainty, viz. The uncertainties relevant to a purposeful state'.

People create symbols according to requirements. A communicative community develops its symbols as the need arises. In the visual case, this is necessarily a continuous process: the introduction of new techniques engenders new vocabularies which must still be assimilated by a wider public before they can be interpreted.

Leaving a number of aspects undecided during the early phases of the design process increases the chance that the image offered by the architect will find favour since it can then still be developed according to individual preference. A certain comparison may be made with what Prak states in connection with texts: if we are asked to complete a statement with one of three given sentences, we are much less certain about the outcome when we are left free to draw our own conclusion. In other words, vagueness enlarges the possibilities of use.

In our view, a link thus exists between the acceptability of the image and abstractness as defined by Arnheim: the picture, as an abstract representation, is often incomplete in architectur· al respects. The spectator's imagination will complement the visual perception with known, prototypical information. Arnheim goes so far as to propose that a high level of realism in an image can hinder the viewer's perception of the essential characteristics and prevent structuregiving properties of lines and colours from satisfying some of people's preferences as to colour, building materials etc".

As noted above, the properties of the code also have an influence on the 'message' that is coded (Prak). For example, endoscopic and computer imaging cannot reproduce the total peripheral perception of the situation of which human visual acuity is capable, or at least not without considerable distortions. This often makes it more difficult for the viewer to obtain a comprehensive view and an accurate sense of orientation. Gibson suggests that this framing is one of the most important differences between the pictorial field and reality.

He also notes that the field is viewed from a single standpoint, its composition is a matter of choice, it uses perspective representation and it has no 'real' depth: in a picture, the objects change shape with different viewpoints, whereas in the real world they remain constant while the observer is the one who moves (Gibson).

Besides the horizon at which dimensions and textures have a zero value, Gibson mentions the horizon for movement: this is a zero value on a scale of extremities. For example, if you are looking out of a train window and focus on a certain point in the landscape, everything between you and that point will appear to be moving 'backwards' and everything beyond that point will appear to be moving 'forwards'. The reversal point naturally varies according to the point of fixation and is a dynamic factor. In endoscope and computer visualizations, this point like many other details is imposed by the technique and decided in advance.

Neither the spectator nor the designer is able to look on a building in its totality during the design process; both have to try to reconstruct the whole from a partial representation. The architect uses a three-dimensional model for this purpose. The model is a reflection of the architect's thinking at a certain point in time and at the same time it reduces the memory burden for the architect since the model itself bears a record of the design decisions.

'The upmost advantage of visual thinking is that while we are hearing, smelling or touching, we are also seeing; and the. brain, which constantly seeks to simplify information for us. sets up

visual clues, enabling us to substitute vision for our other senses

(".) Therefore, visual images are powerful by the way they represent experiences using the other senses ( ... ) Although research opinion varies, it seems generally accepted that 70 to 80 percent of what we learn, is through sight' (Laseau)

Teaching practice shows that despite possible shortcomings of a scale model/ endoscope recording, this method of visualization is often experienced as more 'realistic'. This is most likely a consequence of the fact that a physical model is used. In connection with detailing, texture should be borne in mind; changes in texture can enhance the sense of dimension and distance to a considerable extent. The scale is important here: while detailing appears in principle lndependent of scale in a computer model, in a physical model the scale always dictates the level of detail that can be applied.

Previous research by Bouwman into the merits of the endoscope in relation to other preseritation techniques, which studied not only the tlegree of realism but also the effectiveness of the different techniques, produced a number of conclusions: 'The evaluation of a design depends on the degree to which it deviates from the usual patterns, in the respect that the more strongly it deviates from them, the less correct will be the evaluation.' Bouwman's research also demon· strates the positive effect of the use of colour, of a high level of detailing and of large presentation formats. This study, unlike later research (v.d. Does et al), failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of movement. 'Although the results in general, including those for the endoscope images and relatoscope slides, are very favourable, the best result is obtained when the design plans are presented with both technical and perspective drawings as well as relatoscope slides and endoscope images. This complete presentation produced the best results in the study for all groups of subjects and for both designs.' (Bouwman)

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The research performed by v.d. Does et al in 1990 concluded that, assuming careful optical application of the endoscope and a naturalistic colouration of the scale model, 'in comparisons of video/endoscope images with coloured perspective drawings, and of endoscope images with still slides, movement is definitely preferable. The drawings proved superior however in the respects of 'experience' and 'the presence of components on the buildings' and in the area of information transfer: 'video images of a correctly detailed and colour-finished scale model give an even better information transfer (spatial/dimensional assessment) than the other techniques.'

A pilot study carried out byv.d. Does et al in 1995 compared video/endoscope images of a housing development under construction with computer visualization of the same 'route' as a series of still images, and with five coloured perspective drawings of the same project. The questionnaires posed to 4 groups of 50 subjects per visualization technique yielded the conclusion that 'the computer images occupied a constantly modest position in the ranking, the drawings scored constantly high and the video/endoscope images of the model scored high for experience-oriented questions but poorly for information-oriented questions.' (v.d. Does et at)

Both the above studies made use of a correctly detailed, realistic scale model. The 1990 study, which did not include a computer visualization technique in the comparison, the coloured perspective drawing and the video images yielded the best information transfer. In 1995, with computer visualization now included, the perspective drawing and the computer images scored high on the information-oriented questions, and the video/endoscope images and perspective drawings scored high on the experlence-oriented questions.

A part of the total research plan of the Architecture Faculty's Media sector in 1997 was 'Imaging Imagination', a workshop forming part of the third European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference, which was organized on that occasion by the Delft Faculty of Architecture. Fifteen participants, eight of whom used the endoscope technique and seven of whom used computer

techniques, rose to the following challenge: to design a spatial composition to form part of an urban design created by the preparatory team, and to plot an eve-height route through it such that the designed composition presents an interesting, varied image against the background of the given texture-mapped facades of the existing buildings. 11 of the 15 participants completed the questionnaires. A few (cautious) conclusions are as follows. The texture-mapped models were in general positively received; this could be concluded from the diversity of the designs made with some effort to fit in with the surroundings and respond to them. Some participants expressed a preference at certain points in the design process for a less detailed model with the buildings represented in abstract block form and facade details omitted, since this would help them concentrate on the massing and on spatial proportions. A critical evaluation of the project visualizations revealed that the chosen 'eye heights' were not always correct. In some cases, the simulation eye height used for a walk-through was significantly higher than the viewpoint of a normal pedestrian. Comparison of all the questionnaires for an average of the answers for all design tasks reveal some preference for the use of pedestrian eye height (60%) as opposed to aerial standpoints (40%). The organizers considered that it was important 'that there should be a simultaneous integration that combines the two standpoints'.

Points for attention: As pointed out above, the acquisition of feedback is an immediate process in oral communication. In the context the present section about 'the media and the presentation', the graphic images and models produced by the architect may be regarded as (visual) feedback. Feedback is also offered during the meetings with the client, depending in part on the available material. This response to some extent takes place irnrnediately and for the rest is postponed to the following session. This applies both to the architect and to the client. The client is then confronted with his own ideas, and can adjust them; the brief itself is modified. We observe this taking place literally for certain pairs.

The computer visualizations concerned in the present study included both animations and sequences of stills. The latter suggest movement without representing it directly: 'Dynamic concepts do not require an actual physical continuity of the phenomena for

27210

which they stand. The human mind is capable of organizing such a continuum from separate, widespread entities if they resemble each other sufficiently.' (Arnheim '69).

In the computer visualizations, this is achieved by creating sufficient overlap between the content of successive images.

In accordance with our main objective as stated above, scale models and computer visualizations which are realistic, naturalistic and colour-detailed will not form the starting point of the study; the same techniques will be used, but here we are interested in their application from the conceptual phase to the presentation of the final sketch design. The study aims to be a well-founded attempt to obtain more insight into the effect of cornmunication and imaging in the sketch phase of the commission.

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en 4.1 DESCRIPTION OF CASES

Case 1 Medium: scale model/endoscope (scale model plus videotape)

C initially had difficulty in reconciling himself with the client role, referring now and then to 'the research project' instead of making his own decisions within the rules of the game.

C expects A to pay attention to the facade image, corner solutions, the roof shape, the exterior area and the masses. C does not assume a high level of detail will be present in the endoscopic images, but does expect it in the drawings. C expects the chosen medium to convey corner solutions and plasticity, as well as the street profile and the street facades that surround the project. C thinks that the overall design will be easier to grasp and that this will not depend entirely on the drawings. The chosen medium has an additionally convincing effect for third parties.

A has experience with block models. He uses the computer for urban design studies. C did not make any explicit requests to A with regard to the intermediate meeting. A will therefore prepare the design as normal in the form of 2D sketches.

With regard to the medium, A expects that its use in the presentation will have a clarifying effect towards C. A does not exclude the possibility of the medium enhancing the design, but considers this to depend on the complexity of the brief. A does not expect this effect to be present with the present brief.

With regard to the schedule of requirements, C assumed that certain types of dwellings would be situated at ground level; A has however found a different solution and supports his idea with good arguments. C gives his unqualified assent. During the final presentation, C also saw the scale model itself. C found the motions in the video a little too slow; the video presentation might well have been longer than the actual 1.5 minutes or it could have been shown a number of times . C has gained a clear impression of the profile of the street (retreating gallery).

C found that, of all the media shown, the first scale model (seen 'live') was the most illustrative with regard to plasticity, building masses, colour, window openings and building entrances. C considered the eye height image of the street profile conveyed by the medium as a test and a confirmation; otherwise there would have been residual doubt about whether the street profile was too narrow: Although C's evaluation of the medium was generally positive, he found that it was less suitable for the purpose of assessing details.

A used his sketchbook to present the summary of the design, plans and facades (but not perspectives, since the model was available). A thinks that the model played the most important part in the presentation (you can rotate it, pick it up and point things out in it); this is in contrast to the sequential character of the video.

On further consideration, A found the endoscope an addition to the armoury for presenting an eyeheight experience; you sense the plasticity, the rotation as you turn a corner and the effect of a retreating gallery. The endoscope made these aspects clearly visible, A considered. Other techniques were suitable for colour and detailing. A spent two weeks working on the project tasks, indudingthe meetings.

Case 2 Medium: scale model/endoscope (videotape)

C has experience with scale models but not with the endoscope. C considers that certain qualities are more easily recognizable from a scale model, for example scale and a sheltered quality. C also thinks that the medium will convey the design in a more comprehensible way; C even considers that a 3D medium (such as a model) is always necessary. In this case, presentation by means of the endoscope can only be an improvement.

C expects the final presentation will give an impression of the scale and the character of the design, of the relation among the dwellings and between the dwellings and the public space; that the individual homes (e.g. entrances) will be distinguishable, but window/door frame dimensions etc. will not be evident. C considers the indicated duration of 1 to 2 minutes to be too short, and sees as a drawback of video that the viewpoints are fixed.

A plans to make small scale models during the design process, but feels he can only get to grips with the design through hand sketching. A does not expect that the way of working with the medium will have an influence on the presentation. Beforehand, A mentioned the following points as anticipated advantages: information, plasticity, scale, relation to the surroundings and atrnosphere. The design will be improved as a result of using the medium, A expects. It is a medium 'for communicating with yourself'. During the design process, use was made not only of sketches but of a small block model and part-model. C was free to choose from these.

C admitted being impressed by the presentation and considered the endoscopic images 'trernendously realistic'; the plasticity and the atmosphere were particularly good. The standpoints used (going towards somewhere, entering somewhere) ensured that the presentation retained a measure of surprise.

A understood that the tape was the most convincing part of the presentation for C. It showed C that the design concept worked as intended, that it was tangible and that it was a 'little place in its own little area'. For A, the scale model alone is sufficient. A finds a pleasing aspect of the endoscope that you 'are present in the design' instead of 'looking at the design'. A considers that to be a confirmation of the rightness of the design decisions. Apart from jerkiness (caused by turning the endoscope), A was positive about all aspects of it. The time invested in the process was two weeks.

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Case 3 Medium: computer (jD model plus image sequence)

C took a keen interest in the project. C and A started by making acquaintance with each other's work. C has experience with the endoscope but is occasionally shown computer images. With regard to the medium, C expects to gain a good picture of the project - the spatial experience obtained on a walk through the street, the appearance of the facades, the general impression given of the detailing and whether the presentation corresponds to what C had expected of the design. C reports that he does not consider the medium crucial, but that it will at most make the design a little more comprehensible. For third parties, however, C considers that it could be very effective.

A has experience with sketch and scale models but not with the endoscope. A's practice sometimes constructs 3D computer models in order to generate perspective views. The studio has recently started making use of rendered images and animations, and is still investing considerable time in developing these techniques. A does not operate the medium himself; he states that the medium will be applied after the design has been worked out in the form of sketches. A considered use ofthe computer at this statge would be too early for presentation to C. In A's view, it will add something - e.g. streetscape, spatial comprehension and facade rhythm.

Computer models are usable, A thinks, for working out dimensions and proportions, and for testing proposals.

Besides seeing the stored images at the final presentation, C had an opportunity to see the 3D model itself and to view it from various angles including several viewpoints he himself requested. This was the part of the presentation that C considered most important. Positive aspects mentioned were plasticity, information and the ability to assess a design properly from all angles at an early stage in the process. C explained that he did not need it himself, but thought it presented the design clearly and thus made it easier to understand. C was positive about one particular spatial aspect of the design (a small open space). C found that the computer images helped him evaluate the 3D representation of the design properly.

Negative aspects were colour (C described it as distracting when not applied realistically) which

in turn influenced the atmosphere/experience; and the level of detail which was insufficient.

A did not introduce the medium until the end of the design process, after all the limiting conditions for the design had been discussed at the second meeting. A is very satisfied with the medium; it gave good insight into the problems relating to the brief and it complemented his usual techniques. A mentioned as drawbacks of the medium the need for more refined colour facilities and also the amount of time required to create the visualization. A also warned against deploying the medium at too early a stage in the process. As advantages, A referred to the freedom to choose different viewpoints, the amount of information conveyed and the convincing power of the medium in the event of doubts or ambiguities. A also commends the facility of displaying the spatial operation ofthe scheme or parts of it, an aspect that is impossible to demonstrate by other methods. The time invested was very approximately five weeks.

Case 4 Medium: computer (image sequence on video)

C has experience with all media and has his own idea for a design: public square form (the existing street profile with a 'relaxation' in the middle) with access to both side streets. A agrees to this. C also wishes for an unequivocal pattern and preservation of the 'friendly' character of the existing neighbourhood. In the presentation, C expects to see the total profile, a frontal view of the buildings (at eye height), the space itself and how well the new development fits in the surroundings. C expects that the masses, colour, architectural elements, outward character and the totality will be more clearly visible than in the elevation drawing.

A found the briefing very short and to the point; A also felt a lack of references. A sometimes uses hand sketching and sometimes computer graphics (hidden line perspectives). A finds that the scale models add little; they are too elaborate and not expressive enough. A wishes to use the medium not only as a presentation means but also as a means of testing alternatives. A thinks that use of the medium will affect communication positively by making the design more convincing and aiding the verbal explanation.

A finds that it also gives a better idea of plasticity etc. A warns against applying the medium at too early a stage because it can give the impression that the whole design is already settled. A thinks that a design can definitely be improved as a result of using the medium; it also becomes feasible to try all kinds of alternatives.

At the intermediate presentation, hand-drawn idea sketches, computer mass studies and ground plans were shown.

At the final presentation, video recordings made from two variant computer models were shown. C considered the tape too short; it was played back several times and frequently paused for still image display. C had expected more detailed computer images, but found the presentation more comprehensible owing to the comparison of variants. C's insight was enhanced by being able to view the design from different angles. C was positive about information with regard to plasticity and eye-height viewpoints. Detailing, colour and atmosphere scored less well.

C considered that the medium had not influenced the design process, but had affected the outward appearance of the design. Vertical visual elements added as a possible enhancement at the request of C during the final evaluation proved to weaken the design.

A found that the tape has most impact during the final presentation. A is satisfied/very satisfied with the medium. It makes the design more comprehensible and more convincing. The spatial experience of the street strikes A as a stronger point. Considering the process subsequent to the first rough, hand-drawn idea-sketches, A is satisfied with the computer as a design medium. Positive points in A's view include plasticity in the profile, balconies and end facades. Negative points were texture and atmosphere.

A spent a total of 2.5 weeks working on this process.

Case 5 Medium: scale model/ endoscope (scale model plus videotape)

( has experience with scale models but not with the endoscope. At first ( took a little while to get used to the role of client and did not stand fully behind the schedule of requirements. A asked ( to make a choices on a number of points of the schedule. Extensive consultations then took place on a number of matters.

After the first meeting, ( handed A documentation of some project examples. ( does not regard the use of the model/endoscope combination as necessary for such a simple brief. ( considers that it could be convenient for communicating with third parties (management committees, agents etc.) on larger projects. ( does not expect the images of the 1:200 scale model to produce a particularly plastic impression; textures will be indistinguishable and the model will seem flatter than in reality.

A has experience with sketch models only and also thinks that the medium will be unnecessary for the present design project. A does however expect that the medium will improve cornmunication by making the design easier to explain - it will certainly make matters clearer for non-professionals. A is unable to say whether use of the medium will make the design any better, but states the intention to use it to check how the design looks and whether it is feasible.

At the final presentation, the scale model was available for inspection; C preferred it above other media. ( thought a videotape presentation of this kind was over too quickly and frequently felt a need to pause the motion in order to look around. ( also considered the scale model insufficiently elaborated for a recordingofthis kind. C found the medium a pleasant one (recognizable plasticity, balconies, piers) but did not consider it essential. As positive features of the endoscope images, ( mentioned the realistic atmosphere, information and plasticity. Drawbacks were colour, the lack of texture, over-prominent irregularities and too abstract a representation of the surroundings. ( argues for the use of realistic information such as colour, and warns against use of the medium at too early a stage because it can give a distorted impression, particularly for nonexperts. ( found that the tape helped in the evaluation of certain details (e.g. plasticity) better than it did for other, larger aspects of the plan. Computer visualization would also be a good way of presenting alternatives.

In A's view, the design presentation should make use of a combination of the various techniques i.e. drawings, endoscope/video images and the scale model (in that order). Although he was not surprised by the eye-height visualization of the endoscope, A thought it gave a good impression of the design. Like C, A was dissatisfied with the colour reproduction. The facades from the blackand-white drawings were copied and pasted onto the scale model. A thought this gave a good impression of the fenestration pattern: although flat, the scale of the windows was clearly represented.

A spent over two weeks working on the project.

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Case 6 Medium: scale model/endoscope (videotape)

C's commission to A is complete and substantiated by a number of examples from C's practice. C has himself not used the medium earlier for evaluating a design, but he knows how it works. It turns out that C and A are privately acquainted.

In the context of this project, C wishes to see how the facades 'behave' when you walk along the street· how much information it gives in comparison to a scale model where you view a minuscule structure from above. C expresses a preference for a certain rhythmic pattern in the facades in the present project. C expects that use of the endoscope will make the design definitely easier to grasp than drawings alone would. C expects to be 'taken for a walk' through the project site, to recognize the diversity that the neighbourhood already possesses in the design and to be able to evaluate the plasticity of the design. C does not think colour is necessary at this stage.

A does not have any experience with the endoscope. A usually makes sketch models and his experience is that these attract deeper involvement from the client. A anticipates that aspects that are difficult to explain by means of drawings will be clearly conveyed by endoscopic imaging; the medium will therefore have an influence on communication. A considers that if you make a model at scale 1:200, you can give yourself the feeling that you are located in the designed space. He believes that it is possible to communicate this experience well by endoscopic imaging and also by (AD programs. These techniques have a value, according to A, when you are trying to explain changing, kinaesthetic ('kine·aesthetic') spatial experiences in terms of endoscope motion, for example for an urban development scheme or for larger buildings designed in an urban context. There is less need for them for smaller projects. A says that he himself does not need this medium.

By the second meeting, it was clear to A that the concept was viable even though the desigh was still in the sketch-roll stage. At the final presentation (at which the videotape was run several times), C found that the tape played the most important part with respect to the general structure of the design and spatial aspects. C indicates that he did not need the medium as an aid to comprehending the design but it was necessary for evaluating its spatial qualities (from the drawings, (had considered the design too massive). C points out that it is difficult to judge facades on the basis of drawings. In relation to the second meeting with A, C considers that the design has undergone a positive metamorphosis. The client's wishes with respect to plasticity in the facade were fully understood by A. Positive points were plasticity, viewpoint, atmosphere and detailing: 'clever and well solved'. C especially noted that the desired atmosphere and tranquillity had been successfully achieved. C found it well captured in the video.

A considers that the desired design result was achieved through modifications discussed with C. A finds the drawings the most important part of the presentation, but thinks that certain spatial qualities are more easily explained with the aid of the medium. The medium is particularly pleasing, in A's view, because it enhances the reality value for the client. It was not necessary in C's case, A thinks, but was more in the nature of an optional extra. For A, the advantages were movement, viewpoint, atmosphere and spatial quality. Disadvantages were colour and texture. A found the endoscope recording supportive of the design; it had a confirmative function.

Total time invested: 2.5 weeks.

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Case 7 Medium: computer (animation on videotape)

C does not have experience with computer visualizations and has in mind a design for an introverted housing development and an intention to investigate unconventional habitation forms. C expects that the medium will especially make the urban space (31)) easier to grasp and that it will be strongly complementary to the design drawings. C also expects to be able to evaluate the scheme as it appears between the building volumes by undergoing a 'walk through' at eye height. C also mentions the aspect of 'sequentiality' - experiencing of the tension inherent to a design by discovering it in a certain order, instead of all at once as from a drawing. C expects to be able to evaluate the plasticity and the atmosphere of the design, but not the detailing or exact colouration.

A is experienced in the use of the computer for presentations. He never uses it for designing. A does not believe use of the computer will result in a better design; it remains a means of evaluation.

In the present project A will take care not to use the computer at an early stage. It would however be appropriate for more complex projects. A considers the computer an ancillary tool for the presentation of information, but warns against conveying 'vague conceptual' impressions of a design that are insufficiently rooted in reality and against images that give the impression of everything having been decided at too early a stage.

At the final presentation, C watched several runs of an approximately i-rninute animation (at 'almost' eye height and in bird's eye view). This gave a less precise picture offacades and textures than C had expected - it was more abstract. C did however find it surprising, informative and plastic; it gave additional clarity with regard to spatial qualities. C found the computer an enhancement compared to drawings and saw it as having a complementary effect. It enabled C to evaluate the design better.

Positive points were plasticity and information about the spatial image evoked. The medium made it possible to display a number of experiential alternatives. Negative points were the lack of detailing or realistic colouration, the atmosphere and the absence of facilities for the viewer to determine the viewpoint.

A found the drawing most important from the point of view of information, but the animation was certainly the most 'engaging' part of the presentation. In A's view, positive points were the plasticity, the possibilities for playing with lighting and texture and the 'sales impact' of the medium. Negative points were the detailing, the atmosphere and the misleading suggestion of realism at too early a stage. A states having visualized only the principle features of the design (not doors or windows, for example) because they might get in the way of more essential decisions.

The total time invested was 1.5 weeks,

Case 8 Medium: computer (image sequence)

C does not have experience with the computer but worked with the endoscope as a student. C felt some difficulty with the restricted rules of the protocol (schedule of requirements, budget) and therefore specified some additional conditions relating to the range and character of dwelling categories. C does not know what A will propose at the second meeting but has asked for elevations and sections. C expects to be enabled to 'walk through' the design at the final presentation and is curious about the way the design will relate to the existing surroundings. C does not expect the medium to be used in the design process itself.

A intends to explore the situation on the computer and then to sketch a draft urban design on paper. C will then be shown these sketches, partly coloured in by hand, together with perspective views generated by the computer. A does not expect the medium to take the place of manual designing in the first phase of the design process. A is familiar with the medium but does not operate the software directly. A thinks that the medium will make it easier to explain a spatial image to a client. A does not think that the design will be improved as a result. A regards it more as an aid for detailing. The computer, in A's view, is better than a scale model in enabling the architect to show a design to the client from a variety of angles.

At the final presentation. C examined elevations and sections and expressed approval of the scheme. After examining prints of elevations and perspectives and a sequence of computer generated stills, C agreed that the medium did add something but essentially not much. Drawings are most important in C's view because they contain more information. C had assumed he would be able to modify the walk-through image sequence at the final presentation; despite this not being possible, C describes it as a good complementary medium. As positive aspects, C mentions that one gains better insight and that this will lead more quickly to discussion. C reports not having seen certain aspects of the facade composition prior to the computer visualization. Detailing is a negative aspect of animation, according to C, because it is very labour-intensive.

A considers that the drawings played the most important part in the presentation; the computer visualization had more of a supporting function for communicating the spatial image, and was not necessary for the (professional) client in this case. For non-specialists, this is quite otherwise. A is positive about the degree of insight that the medium gives in examination of a plan from different viewpoints and about the level of detailing. Negative points are colour and atmosphere, which is not represented realistically. A also sees it as a drawback that it makes it look as though the design is 'finished' and does not leave anything for the client to decide.

A spent just under four weeks on this design process.

Case 9 Medium: scale model/endoscope (scale model plus videotape)

C has experience with the medium and presents thousands of dwellings annually. C briefs A for the project in a brief, businesslike way. C and A are already acquainted. C considers that A has sufficient experience to put up sound proposals for the project, which C wishes to link up with the surrounding situation. C is capable of grasping a design on the basis of a flat drawing, but endoscopic images will definitely add to C's experience of the design.

C considers that the endoscope is a good medium for projects such as this one in which higher densities have to be achieved. C would be happy to build this design. C is curious as to whether the endoscope will allow one to experience whether the small-scaled character of the existing street profile has survived. The design must harmonize with the overall scene.

A considers the information provided by the short, to-the-point meeting with C to be above average. A aims to supply the best solution possible within the given preconditions and constraints. At the second meeting, A presented 3 or 4 different site layouts in the form of block models; C chose one of these. A is not yet prepared to say anything about expectations for the final presentation.

C reports that the spatial effect of the variant chosen from 3 form and/or colour variants only became apparent during the final presentation on videotape. With the aid of the medium, A then made the final choice of variant. Among professionals, according to C, the result can sometimes be disappointing; the medium can help confirm or disconfirm the previously expected appearance of the design. C stresses the importance of this in the genesis of a design; each party involved forms a distinct picture and it is uncertain whether you are talking about the same thing. The tape and the scale model helped C to evaluate the design satisfactorily; in addition to the eye-height experience, the real scale model was available for examination of the design from every angle. C is positive about all aspects of the medium, especially about the experience ("totally different"). The effect of colour was also evident. Texture was not indicated on the model. A is in general also positive about all aspects. Essential aspects are, in A's view, movement and eye height. A stresses the importance of a good tape reproduction quality - S-VHS is the minimum standard - and warns against the rather shaky image that can be produced when moving through a narrow street. A also warns against the use of unrealistic lighting (in relation to the local climate) and notes a lack of street noise and furnishings.

A particularly hoped to show C the architectural quality of the spatial image - of the chosen variant - by means of the medium. A thinks that the medium was probably unnecessary to help this particular client comprehend the design. It could however have been necessary for other parties involved. For A, the medium was important for examining and testing a number of aspects. The medium demonstrated, for example, that the darker colour variant was more effective than the lighter one, contrary to what A expected.

Work on the design project process extended over 5 weeks.

4.2 TABLES OF COMPARATIVE OPINIONS PER CASE

The tables on the pages below contain an overview of the research results. The opinions of the respective client and architect are arranged for comparison pair by pair.

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High expectations. Will it correspond to the drawings? Did the second meeting give the architect enough to go on? What will the elevations look like on a walk through the street?

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Expects a general impression of the building. a cross section of the street, corner solutions, access, colouration, architectural elements. The pattern of tensions that the new design sets up in the existing context.

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Urban spaces and built volumes that can be inspected on an eyeheight walk-through.

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Finds it amusing; cannot imagine what the architect will propose; regards it as a walk through a design; is curious about adjustment to the surroundings.

EXPECTATIONS FOR COMMUNICATION AND PRESENTATION OF THE DESIGN

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III « v

Not a complex brief, so the medium will add something but not much.

Medium not used.

Used for 20 work. on site plan, mass studies and house floor plans.

Medium not used.

Saw rough sketches, medium notysed.

MEDIUM USE AT INTERMEDIATE PRESENTATION OF DESIGN

Medium not used. Clarifies choice ofvariants.

"" Supporting role in communicating the design; client gains a bet-
'" ter idea of plasticity and in principle of all aspects. Advisable not
III
« to use medium too early in the process. Yes, for design
v
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U ... Computer Facilitates testing of alternatives and is a good way of
III
iii: « conveying information. Medium not used.
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=> It simplifies explanation of a spatial image to the client. It is more
III
« revealing than two-dimensional representations. Medium not used.
v Small public space is a good extra. Certainty that design was good came during presentation offinal sketch design.

Presentation would have been less satisfactory without computer. Vertical elements added on request in final presentation were meant to improve the look but instead weakened the design.

It started to become clear at the znd meeting that the plan was feasible from the polnt of view 01 dwelling typology. By the final presentation. C was certain that a good design had been achieved.

Good design; satisfied with the scheme .

OPINION ON DESIGN RESULT

Positive, especially about added public space.

Satisfied with result.

A clear presentation of a dear scheme. The city gains more than it loses.

Positive.

computer model played most important role .

Had influence on exterior appearance of design but not on design process.

Image 01 spatial quality primarily conveyed by computer animation: overall impression of scheme primarily by drawings.

Pleasing addition to the drawings.

OPINION ON ROLE OF MEDIUM IN FINAL PRESENTATION

Drawings of ground plan and elevations viewed before computer model.

Positive. Used after rough hand-drawn idea sketches for development of the design.

The most 'appealing'; good sales medium.

Sequence of stills.

Fantastic medium for quickly arriving at correct interpretation of the design drawing.

Ability to view design from different angles increases insight. Design becomes more comprehensible through comparison of variants.

Surprising, in the sense of being informative and visual. More abstract than expected; more precise image of facades and texture expected.

Viewpoint and plasticity, good. It does add something, but actually not much.

ASSESSMENT OF MEDIUM

Very satisfied.

Satisfied: the design becomes more comprehensible. Strong point: spatial experience of the street.

Animated computer images always score a success. A is personally not so enthusiastic about the medium.

Must be more fully exploited, e.g. to examine the scheme from different viewpoints.

DETAIL PLASTlCITV INFOR- ATMO· VIEWPOINT COLOUR
MATION SPHERE
± + + +
+ ± +
+ + ±
+ ± + ±
I ADVANTAGES OF MEDIUM I
I
± no opinion + no optnton + ±
I
no opinion + + ±
+ + +
+ + ±
DETAIL PLASTICITY INFOR- ATMO- VIEWPOINT COLOUR
MATION SPHERE DETAIL. I PLASTICITY

ATMO- I

VIEWPOINT SPHERE

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In relation to existing buildings, the 3D model made an 'airier' n
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impression. Positive: gives rapid insight into design. Negative: III
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care needed with unrealistic colour use. W
Tape is too short and over too quickly. Medium useful for evalua- n
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PLASTICITY

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Head of project development for Large housing cooperative. 3 years' experience .

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Head of project development for property development company.

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Director of construction company. 20 years' experience .

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Acquisition manager for major property investor: 1 year's experience. Previous posts.

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POSITION, EXPERIENCE IN FUNCTION

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Own firm with 2 partners, 12 staff. 12 years' experience, primarily in housing.

Briefing proceeded normally except financial planning and technical aspects.

Normal, apart from fee.

Normal, except for selection of architect.

Neither brief nor money were normal.

B~E~NG:NORMALORABNORMA~

Normal but too summary.

Too short, very businesslike. Absence of references.

Very normal.

Normal apart from provision of photographs and Lack of data on fees.

A few occasions with the computer.

All-round.

No experience.

No experience.

EXPERIENCE OF EVALUATION USING MEDIUM

Yes .

Sometimes with computer.

Experience in computer use for presentation. Never used in design process.

Is familiar with medium. A does not operate the medium.

C suspects that A first sorted out possibilities using the medium, but does not know exactly how.

Yes, sometimes •

Was not influentiaL

Not in the design prof.ess.

OPINION ON MEDIUM USE DURING DESIGN PROCESS

MEDIUM USE DURING DESIGN PROCESS

Construction of computer model started as soon as the elevations and plans of the design emerged clearly.

Applied tothe ground plan (2D)

No influence on design process. Used for final presentation.

After the preliminary sketch design.

Models on A3 drawings, scale 1;200. Sketchy interpretation of requirements.

Advanced.

F a irly sketchy. Explicitly asked about effect of external spaces (dimensions) and feasibility of number of dwellings.

Sketch allotment and sections.

DESIGN STAGE AT INTERIM PRESENTATION

Decisions clarified by use of variants.

More or less final in general design concept.

Sketchy, urban design approach. Ground plans and typology.

Alternative a lIotment plans and solutions.

2D dwelling ground plans and parking scheme (1:200)

2D and 3D sketches, 2D computer-drawn plan

Sketchy, ground plans, urban design concept.

20 sketch models.

MEDIA USE AT INTERIM PRESENTATION

A3 sketches of 6 variants. to eLucidate options.

Sketches in 20 and 3D.

Drawings showing urban design concept, ground plans, typology, dimensions.

Schematic drawings in thick felt-tip pen. A3 coloured perspective sketches.

Facade surfaces coloured in too brightly. Opportunity (3D) to take alternative viewpoints gives better comprehension.

Media are complementary.

No variants at 3rd meeting. Expectations satisfied.

Video excessively pre-programmed. (had hoped to 'control' the presentation himself. Drawings were the most important medium.

POINTS FOR ATTENTION IN MEDIA USED

computer use dangerous if too early. Normally 99.9% of early design presentations are sketches on paper.

Greater 'warmth' and feeling imparted by hand sketches.

A opts for the urban design pi a n as the most essential component.

In A's view, drawings most important for a professional client. Care required for cohesion ofthe various media.

Much time required.

Much time required.

Needed considerable effort.

Much time needed for presentation.

OPINION ON TIME REQUIRED

TIME REQUIRED

approx. 5 weeks

2_5 weeks

1-5 weeks

just under 4 weeks

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Open/closed forms, roof eaves, materials, colour

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Wishes to see how the facade 'behaves' when you walk along the street. Use of the medium should make the design more comprehensible in comparison to drawings.

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Wishes to discover through endoscopic imaging whether the small-scaled character of the existing street profile will be preserved in the new design.

EXPECTATIONS FOR COMMUNICATION AND PRESENTATION OF THE DESIGN

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Medium influences communication with both lay persons and professional clients.

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Design difficult to represent, especially in 20. Spatial interpretation can be conveyed well by the endoscope.

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Not yet known. Expects that manner of presentation will have similar effect to detailed perspective views. Excellent for nonprofessionals.

None .

None. A selection was made from allotment plan alternatives .

Nearly everything seen in 20. No perspectives, no 3D.

Hand sketches of urban design on paper roll.

Block models. Client selected one of several allotment model alternatives.

MEDIUM USE AT INTERIM PRESENTATION

No physical representation made. 20 information only.

No medium. A visualized analysis of the situation (2D) as an interpretation of the schedule of requirements and 5 concepts, in drawn form.

No medium. Only design sketches (1:50), facade fragments. Emphasis on quality of dwelling.

No use of medium.

No endoscope/video images. 3 site layout concepts in spatial form (block models) ..

Even though the design deviates from the schedule of requirements. C gave consent. It was a pleasant surprise for C.

Has a fine, modern image. (is positive about sheltered character of streets. Exciting transitions at both sides of the design.

Positive about whole design.

Clever, sound solution; a metamorphosis. Without street contents (cars), the design makes a very spatial impression. 100% satisfactory.

Endoscope is good medium for a project like this in which higher densities are required. It is not the first endoscope presenation for C. C would be happy to build the scheme,

OPINION ON RESULT OF DESIGN PROCESS

Satisfied. All aspects were communicated satisfactorily. The scale model played an important part in this.

At an additional meeting, the changes and additions arising from the second meeting had been applied to the ground plan, elevations and block model.

Certainly a good scheme, except that it contains only 52 instead of the required 60 dwellings.

After agreed changes, A believes that he has achieved the desired result.

The brief has been satisfied, as evident from the client's reaction etc. Confirmed' by effective look of cu rved facades.

Without seeing the scale model 'live', C would have been left wondering if the street profile were too narrow.

Tape was rather short; repeat showings. (surprised at realism of video images.

Plasticity dearly visible (balconies, piers, windows). No material texture. Colour better in later phase.

Design was madeon the basis of the drawings and medium was then utilized.

The design was adjudged as a good one on basis of video and scale model. It is a good means of presentation: you are both looking at the same thing.

OPINION ON ROLE OF MEDIUM IN FINAL PRESENTATION OF DESIGN

First the scale model, then the videotape.

In A's view, the most convincing design visualization for the client.

Presentation sequence recommended by A; 1. the drawings, 2. the medium (video of eye-height walk-through, 3. the scale model.

Endoscope recordings supportive of drawings and verbal expLanation.

First the edited videotape, then the scale model and finally the requested drawings. In A's opinion. all are necessary, in this order.

Satisfactory.

Satisfactory. Original points of departure emerge well in end result. Desirable elements that C wished to have included are well conveyed. Fine houses in fine scheme.

For endoscope use, the scale model should be more fully worked out. Plastic aspects can be better evaluated on video.

Design concept and spatial aspects (an be better evaluated than from the drawing. It was really an urban design task.

Professional quality recording. A wholLy new experience for C. Enthusiastic about 'walk'through street. Surprising.

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EVALUATION OF MEDIUM

Satisfied with the presentation.

Video is a good way to show that the scheme works as intended.

Satisfied with the video/endoscope combination, but this should be accompanied by 'live' viewing of the scale model.

It was an enjoyable presentation. A argues for addition of a voiceover to the videotape.

A regards eye-height viewing and motion as essential properties of the endoscope visualization experience.

DETAIL. PLASTICITY INFOR- ATMO- VIEWPOINT COLOUR
MATION SPHERE
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DETAIL. PLASTICITY INFOR- ATMO' VIEWPOINT COLOUR
MATION SPHERE OETAIL. PLASTICITY INFOR- ATMO- VIEWPOINT COLOUR
MATION SPHERE
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I DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIUM I
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OETAIL PLASTICITY INfOR· ATMO· VIEWPOINT COLOUR
MATION SPHERE Tape could have been a little longer. n
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Head of engineering in housing cooperative. 7.5 years' experience in similar areas.

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Head of projects in housing cooperative. 9 years' experience.

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Director of housing association. Ample experience.

Director afone of the Netherlands' larges housing constructors.

POSITION, EXPERIENCE IN FUNCTION

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Architect. four years with large architecture firm.

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Independent architect since 1983.

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Partner/architect in medium-sized architecture firm. 20 years' experience.

As usual, except that the brief is more detailed in technical respects.

As usual, except that honorarium and planning were not discussed this time.

Proceeded normally, but was unusual in that ( was not previously acquainted with A.

Went normally. However, C normally requires more time for the initial part of the process and then selects the architect himself.

Generally normal. The conversation is usually a process offamiliarization, followed by formalization of the brief. The architect has to feel comm itted.

BRIEFING: PROCEEDED NORMALLY OR ABNORMALLY?

Went as usual, but you always miss something on a first meeting.

As. usual.

No, commission did not come from C himself.

Different in two respects. More was defined than usual, and there was less discussion about the budget than usual.

Direct contact with the director resulted in an unusually short and effective meeting.

Pilot study; question not posed.

Familiar with scale models but not with the endoscope.

Experience with drawings, scale models, computer images etc. Not with endoscopes.

little experience using the endoscope .

(is experienced. He presents thousands of dwellings annually.

EXPERIENCE IN EVALUATION USING MEDIUM

Pilot study; question not posed.

Familiar with scale models but not with the endoscope.

Makes sketch models; used endoscope as student.

No experience with the endoscope; usually makes a sketch model.

Has worked with the endoscope before. Generally makes Simple block models.

The medium did not play an important part in the design process.

The medium was used for presenting the final result.

No opinion .

The project was designed on the basis of the sketches and then the model was detailed.

Medium used. It contributed to the choice of the WIVed design variant.

OPINION ON USE OF MEDIUM DURING DESIGN PROCESS

USE OF MEDIUM DURING DESIGN PROCESS

Not used as a design instrument; used only at the end.

Video effective in demonstrating that the design works; l.e. a confirmation.

Used from the start with the. required final presentation in mind. Scale model discussed at 2nd meeting but not displayed.

Scheme was worked out in drawings before work started on the scale model. The spatial quality of the ground plan was conveyed by the video.

Scale-models at 1:500 were already ready by the znd meeting. The endoscope helped show the difference between the straight and the curved project facade (scale 1:200).

Seeing colour sketches of the facade at 1:200 at the second meeting gave the feeling that it would be a good design.

Mainly sketch drawings. Decisions made on this basis. External space qualities assessed from a part model.

It was there by the second meeting: ground plan, facades, front, rear, partly in colour, spatial sketches.

Only a rough approach was ready by the second meeting, not a design. Variants were discussed and one of these was chosen.

Convinced by the second meeting that the design would turn out well.

STAGE OF DESIGN AT INTERIM PRESENTATION

In sketch form and 2Dj everything as intended in the final presentation except for detailed ground plans.

Drawings only.

Small book with site plan shown to C. Detailed ground plan 1:50, a facade fragment and a perspective view of this.

After the second meeting, Awas certain that the approach was feasible, although no design was available yet.

3 site plan concepts.

Sketches: study of the brief in the given location and a second study showing differentiation per price class.

Drawings. ground plan and block model.

Everything 20 in A3 format.

Hand-drawn urban design sketches on a roll of paper as sketch impressions of 2D and 3D design.

Block model. drawings at 1:200, ground plan and elevations, coloured in.

MEDIA USE AT INTERIM PRESENTATION

The same sketch book as at the final presentation, followed by the scale model and a video of it.

Drawings, ground plans and the block model.

Book with 1:50 ground plans. Emphasis on quality of the dwellings.

Sketches following rst meeting and sketches following and meeting; then, without fundamental changes, the scale model for use in the video presentation.

Three site parcelling concepts in drawn form (1:200), block model 1:500. Principle ground plan and section. These were used to select an approach for further detailing and for scale model/video presentation.

Without a 'live' scale model, picture of design was less clear.

Thanks to the drawings and 1:500 study models, it was possible to discuss changes in dimensions of components at the second meeting, also in the model.

Choice of sequence was good: first the tape, and then if you want to know some more the scale model.

The videotape showed that. since the znd meeting. the design had undergone a complete metamorphosis in a positive sense.

less attention was paid to the drawings at the final presentation.

POINTS FOR ATTENTION CONCERNING MEDIA USED

A less comprehensible picture of the plan conveyed without a 'live'model.

The client liked the walk-through of the model with the endoscope.

The combination of drawing, scale model and video is more effective than using a single medium.

A considers certain aspects of the design are more easily explained by the scale model without using the endoscope.

Depth offield should be improved. The movement control and illumination are also open to improvement.

Time consuming.

Much time spent on final scale model.

In C's opinion, A spent considerable time on the design.

A must have spent many hours of work on designing and puzzling things out.

(thinks that A spent much time on the design and presentation.

OPINION ON TIME EXPENDED

TIME EXPENDED

2 weeks

2 weeks

Over 2 weeks

2.5 weeks

5 weeks

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Case 1 Medium: scale model/ endoscope (scale model plus videotape) With regard to verbal communication

C's additional comments about the schedule of requirements of the brief gave A wide freedom of action. C initially had some difficulty with his role.

A resolved one aspect of the scheme in a different way to what C had expected. A argued the case for this choice lucidly. After hearing A's arguments, C assented to the scheme.

With regard to the media and the presentation

C had expected the endoscope recordings to convey the street profile in a more comprehensible way in comparison with a presentation in the form of drawings only.

C found the tape too short. Although both A and C considered the scale model to play the leading role (it was possible to view the components of the scale model from any desired angle), both expressed their satisfaction with the endoscope. For them, it scored almost unanimously positive on plasticity, information, atmosphere/experience, viewpoints and colour.

A, who responded positively on eye-height experience, considered other techniques suitable for colour and detailing.

With regard to the media and the design process

It operated as a design medium in respect of the test function, the elimination of doubts that C harboured.

A did not himself use the medium scale model/endoscope for design purposes. A thought that this might well have been the case on a design project involving a more complex brief.

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Case 2 Medium: scale model/endoscope (videotape) With regard to verbal communicatian:

C and A held an additional meeting.

With regard to the media ond the presentation:

A showed C a number of variants of the project on paper, and C chose one of these.

C found the indicated duration of the videotape too short and considered the fixed viewpoint a disadvantage. C said that a scale model, and even more an endoscopic exploration, would always make the design more comprehensible. Certain qualities such as scale and sheltered character were moreover well conveyed by this medium.

C expressed surprise at the realism of the video sequences.

Both A and C were positive in all respects, but particularly with regard to comprehensibility (the experience ofform), the atmosphere (very good) and the scale. The viewpoints (movement destinations and points of entry) helped maintain a sense of excitement. A disadvantage was the jerkiness of the image during turns of the endoscope.

Use of the medium was in A's view a confirmation for the client, even though the client in the present case understood many aspects of the design after the presentation of drawings.

With regard to the media and the design process:

A did not make any use of the endoscope in the second conversation with C. At this meeting, however, A presented a 2D visual analysis of the situation and 5 concepts in drawing form.

C made a selection from the presented options. The drawings and the study model (scale 1:500) enabled C to have the dimensions of certain components modified after discussion with A at the interim meeting. The result was confirmed in the medium and the design was consequently improved, as A had expected.

Case 3 Medium: computer (JD model plus image sequence) With regard to verbal communication:

C and A became acquainted with each other's work prior to the briefing. C immersed himself in the role of client, explained the proposed project in clear and systematic terms, answered A's questions clearly and gave a full account of wishes concerning the project. A emerged as an articulate discussion partner and asked many questions, particularly in the initial phase.

With regard to the media and the presentation:

C stated that he himself did not need the medium; at most it made the design a little more comprehensible. C thought however that the computer model would be very useful for presenting the design to third parties. After the final presentation, C found that the computer model had played the most important part. C was very pleased indeed with the medium: 'a fantastic medium for quickly obtaining an accurate interpretation of the design'.

A started on the computer model as soon as the design was clear in the respect of facades and ground plan. A appreciated the medium. It had, he considered, a checking function in the event of doubts and/or ambiguities. The medium offers a way to represent a design in spatial terms, and both C and A found that from this point of view the medium had been put to extremely good use. The spatial effect of (parts of) the design were visualized, something that is very difficult to achieve with drawings. C also had high expectations of the medium. These were rewarded because C was enabled to examine the 3D computer model from a variety of viewpoints.

A mentioned that the time consumed to make the visualization was a disadvantage and advised against deploying the medium at too early a stage.

With regard to the media and the design process:

To illustrate the options at the interim presentation, A presented A3 sketches of 6 variants.

The medium was not operated by A himself. A stated that the medium would only be used for the final presentation, in part as a check. In A's view. the medium can be useful for investigating dimensions and relations, and for testing design ideas (checking function).

For C, the medium offered a way of rapidly evaluating the computer-based design in the correct manner from a variety of viewpoints at an early stage.

bird's eye view. case 3

Case 4 Medium: computer (image sequence on video) With regard to verbal communication:

The briefing was clear and to the point. C had a personal opinion with regard to the image to be projected by the design. A shared that view. C had the fullest confidence that A had understood him in all respects including his vision of the project. A stated that he had been fully briefed by C.

With regard to the media and the presentation:

At the interim presentation, hand sketches, computer mass studies and ground plans were shown. C and A both thought that the medium made the design comprehensible. C found the tape too short. It was therefore played back several times and paused whenever necessary.

According to C, the medium had a checking function; things that looked good in the elevation drawing proved disappointing when seen on video. C was positive about the plasticity. Moreover, interpretation was facilitated because it was possible to view buildings from all sides (various viewpoints). Negative points of the computer visualization were the detailing, the atmosphere and the colour. A considered the spatial experience of the street the strongest aspect. A was also positive about the information and the viewpoints. A found less satisfactory aspects to be detailing and the atmosphere. A advises against use of the medium at too early a stage since it could give the impression that the whole design is unalterable.

With regard to the media and the design process:

Computer massing studies were also shown at the interim presentation. C considered that the use of the medium did not influence the design process, but it did have an effect on the final appearance of the design. However, C considers the medium a valid tool for testing variants. The computer visualization was used to support the choice from a number of design variants. The design of the facade was clearer from the computer image on video than from the drawings.

A utilized the medium during design work in order to examine aspects of the design from all directions.

Case 5 Medium: scale model/endoscope (videotape plus model) With regard to verbal communication:

C initially had some difficulty with identifying himself with the schedule of requirements. A asked C to make a number of choices. After the first meeting, C left documentation of example projects withA.

With regard to the media and the presentation:

At the interim meeting, A presented C with a small book containing the site layout plan, the detailed ground plan (1:50), a facade fragment and a perspective of it. C was positive about this design result.

At the final presentation, C found the video too quickly finished. C would also have liked to have paused the tape more often to view still images.

Neither C nor A found the medium necessary for less complex projects such as this. The medium would however be useful for communicating with third parties (managements and purchasers). C had not expected the recording made from the 1:200 scale model to produce all that plastic an image. Nonetheless, C was able to judge the plasticity of certain details on the tape better than larger parts of the design.

A expected that the medium would improve communication. It would help him explain the idea better. Both found that the medium was highly suitable for presentations to third parties. C saw the positive points as being that the endoscope gives clear information and that the atmosphere and plasticity of the design were reproduced realistically.

Negative points, according to A, were the colour, the lack of texture, the visibility of imperfections in the model and an excessively abstract representation of the surroundings. A found the field of view too rigid. The dependence of the depth offield on the level of illumination was also a problem.

A warned against the use of unrealistic information such as colour and advised against too early use of the medium. This would have a distorting effect, particularly for non-professionals.

With regard to the media and the design process:

C was able to judge certain details, such as plasticity, better through use of the medium than directly from the scale model itself.

Application ofthe medium in the design process depends, in A's view, on the kind of project.

Case 6 Medium: scale model/endoscope (videotape) With regard to verbal communication:

C gave A full information about the project and additional technical specifications of the housing requirements. C declared preferences concerning the plasticity of the facade, bearing in mind the existing diversity of the neighbourhood. A made sketches during the meetings.

With regard to the media and the presentation:

C expected to understand the design better with the aid of the endoscope recording than if it were presented only in the form of drawings. The endoscope could be a particularly good medium, C thought, for assessing the design of the facades. C hoped to walk through the design site, to see how the facade would behave and how much information the endoscope recording gave in comparison to a scale model, where you view a miniature world from above.

A usually makes sketch models. Aspects that are difficult to explain by means of drawings are easily made palpable by the endoscope, in A's view. The medium must therefore clearly have an effect on the presentation.

A worked out the concept in drawings and then made the scale model on the basis of the ground plan. An endoscopic recording was then made to convey the spatial qualities. A used the endoscope recordings at the final presentation to support the drawings and the verbal presentation. Certain aspects of the design were however better explained by means of the model itself. Positive points of the endoscope images were, according to A, the representation of movement ('kine-aesthetics'), the possibility of different viewpoints and the spatial quality.

At the final presentation, C found that the main scheme of the design and its spatial aspects were clarified principally by the endoscope images. C indicated that the medium was not necessary for better comprehension of the design, but it did help in evaluating its spatial qualities. C was positive about most aspects of endoscopic imaging but found the chosen colours unrealistic.

With regard to the media and the design process:

A made sketches during the meetings and used this among other things to develop a better 3 dimensional feeling for the project. A thought that the endoscopic images played a supporting part in the design process, functioning as a confirmation.

C had thought from the drawings that the design was too massive.

Case 7 Medium: computer (animation on videotape) With regard to verbal communication:

Both C and A considered the briefing process normal in every way.

With regard to the media and the presentation:

C expected that the urban space would be conveyed clearly by the medium. C thought he would be able to walk through the design at pedestrian eye height and thereby assess the building volumes objectively.

At the interim presentation, variant designs were not offered. The stage of the design was fairly sketchy, but A's intention was clear due to the ground plans and the typology.

At the final presentation, the urban plan played the most essential part in A's opinion. The urban concept was conveyed better by the medium than by drawings.

C found that a good design had been achieved. The idea of the design and its spatial qualities were conveyed mainly by the computer animation. This was supplemented by drawings to produce a total picture of the design.

An advantage of the medium was what C called its 'sequentiality'. By this C meant the sequential experience of the surprises inherent to the design. As negative points of the computer as a medium, C mentioned the detailing, the atmosphere and the colour. The plasticity and the information were, in C's view, positive aspects.

A considered the plasticity, the information, the viewpoint, the movement and the possibilities of lighting to be merits of the medium. A drawback was that it presented a misleadingly realistic picture, giving an impression of everything having been decided, at too early a stage in the design process.

With regard to the media and the design process:

Accordingto C, the medium had no influence on the design process. A does not believe that use of the computer necessarily produces a better design. The computer is a means of testing alternative designs. A eventually admits that the computer can have a considerable influence on the design.

C also admitted that the urban concept ofthe project was easier to evaluate with the aid of the medium.

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IX: case 7; X: case 1; XI: case 2; XII: case 8

Case 8 Medium: computer (still image sequence on monitor screen) With regard to verbal communication:

C had some difficulty with the limitations of the protocol. C added some conditions to the protocol concerning, among other things, the character of various categories of dwelling.

With regard to the media and the presentation:

C did not know what A was going to present, but wished to have an opportunity to 'walk through the design' at the final presentation. C was curious about how the development would fit into its surroundings. At the interim presentation, C saw rough sketches.

At the final presentation, C was shown an animation which C found much too short. The animation was repeated a number of times. C would have liked to have been able to control the visualization. The drawings were to C the most important source of information. C did not think that the medium had really contributed much, but thought that this might be different for a more complex project. C conceded that the medium gave more insight into the design. C also mentioned that he had observed certain aspects of the facade composition only in thecomputer visualization.

A shortcoming in C's view was the detailing, since it was time consuming to realize.

A was positive about the freedom the medium gave in choosing viewpoints. The detailing, too, was an advantage. Disadvantages were the colour and the atmosphere, if not represented realistically.

With regard to the media and the design process:

A does not think that the medium leads to a better design. A sees the computer more as a supporting tool for detailing and for viewing and showing building designs from a variety of angles. A did however use the medium for comparing such variants as alternative allotment plans. ( stated that the computer visualization gave greater insight into the design and therefore led to discussion more quickly. ( also mentioned not having observed certain aspects of the facade composition before viewing the computer visualization.

Case 9 Medium: scale model/endoscope (model plus videotape) With regard to verbal communication

C and A were already acquainted. C briefed A with the project quickly and efficiently. C expected A to come up with sound proposals.

With regard to the media and the presentation

C regards the endoscope an enhancement of the experience of the design. C hoped to learn from the endoscope images whether the design would remain sufficiently small-scaled in character. At the second meeting, A presented C with several dwelling ground plans and 3 site layout schemes in the form of block models. C chose one of the alternatives and this design was developed further.

At the final presentation, the definitive design was evaluated by reference to the endoscope visualization and the scale model. The importance of the endoscope, according to C, is that the individuals involved, who could otherwise each form a different picture ofthe same design, can view the same endoscopic visualization and then check whether they have the same understanding of the design.

C was positive about all aspects of the endoscope, but especially about the spatial experience it offered of the design. The effect of colour, too, was clear. Texture was not indicated.

A was also generally positive about the medium. A hoped the medium would make the merits of the selected variant clear to C.

A found the endoscopic imaging relevant for examining and testing various aspects of the design. Such aspects as motion and eye-level viewing are, in A's view, essential. A furthermore warns about the tendency for movements of the endoscope to produce a shaky image. and against the use of unrealistic lighting. A noticed a lack of street noise and street contents in the endoscope visualization.

With regard to the media and the design process:

C deliberately aimed at a follow-up design project in which the endoscope was to playa part ("to learn from the endoscope images whether the design will remain sufficiently small-scale in character").

This prompted A to prepare block models to accompany the dwelling floor plans for the second and third meetings. A choice was later made from the different models. The endoscope also helped in choosing the shape of the street facade. The medium was further used for deciding among colour variants in the facade; it was shown that the dark colour was more effective than the lighter one. A also considers the endoscope an important means of examining other aspects of the design.

ground plan, case 8, in situ

6.1 THE VERBAL COMPONENT

As stated in section 3.2.1, an analytical subsidiary study of client! architect communications in four of the cases was commissioned in order to verify the visual media research results to some extent and additionally to check the usability of the conversations recorded on audio tape.

Working hypothesis 1.a was simultaneously tested. It may be stated in this connection that there was indeed evidence of distortion in the verbal communication between the client and the architect in a number of cases.

In the assessment of the role of the visualization media concerned, these had scarcely any influence on these distortions.

6.1.1 Conclusions and recommendations In the subsidiary study report 'De Verbeelding verwoord' (Loffelrnan), the following question was addressed:

What factors of the client/architect interaction contribute to optimal verbal information transfer between the two parties?

The material made available was suitable forthe successful completion of this research. Condensed transcripts of the tapes were used to select four client/ architect pairs for the performance of an interactional analysis study. Two pairs were chosen in which the architect was to present the design using computer visualization, and two were chosen in which the architect was to use endoscopic visualization. In each of these two groups, one of the two pairs was not wholly satisfied with the design presentation at the third and final meeting. It was not possible to make this distinction a hard one: the pairs who were categorized as 'not wholly satisfied' proved to be satisfied with some aspects of the collaboration, and vice versa.

The next step in the research consisted of investigating the causes of the 'lesser' satisfaction that emerged. It is not inconceivable that a certain amount of dissatisfaction is due to communication failures. The client and architect might misunderstand each other, they might feel inhibited about posing relevant questions, etc. In other words, the study aimed to highlight the interactional problems. This was done by comparing the replies that the respective members of each pair gave to the questions posed after each meeting and by tracing any contradictions that appeared in these replies. All the questions posed related to the collaboration and to the expectations of the respective parties. The hypothesis was that contradictory answers are potential indicators for interactional problems. The replies to the questionnaires were found to contain five contradictions, relating to three of the pairs. The nature of the contradictions was established and questions that needed to be answered were formulated.

The tape recordings gave a clear picture of the problems. They made it clear who was 'to blame' (in as far as one may speak of blame) for an interactional problem, and how that problem was eventually either resolved or not resolved. In one of the five cases studied, the client and architect proved capable of solving the problem on their own.

In brief, it may be stated that the interactional problems encountered were caused by different views and expectations on the part of the client and the architect. These expectations were present in the thinking of the person involved but not explicitly revealed to the other member of the pair.

Hints of these expectations were found in the recorded conversations but they were too small to be picked up by the conversation partner. It was moreover only possible to detect these indications because the specialist concerned was conducting a conversational analysis and was thus in a position to scrutinize every word.

That the two parties had differences in outlook did not become evident until the second and third meetings. Indeed, at that stage it is often almost too late and additional efforts are required to reconcile the outlooks and eliminate the misunderstandings. In other words, the clients and the architects in the cases studied failed to make their expectations and requirements sufficiently clear to each other. Obviously this was an unconscious process: those involved were professionals with ample experience. Had they been aware of the problems they were causing, they would never have let things reach that point. That is why interactional analysis is so valuable - it makes unconscious behaviour explicit.

The recommendations that emerge from the analyses relate to the mutual alignment of thinking, expectations and requirements between clients and architects. Both parties have to decide what is important in advance. The simple act of compiling a checklist before the meeting can be a way of going about this. It makes it clear which aspects of the project have been discussed and which have not. Unambiguous agreements must also be made about future meetings, if disappointments are to be averted. The main purpose of the following meeting must be formulated explicitly. It is pleasant for neither party if the architect is under the impression that the second meeting will be a good opportunity to throw off some loose ideas, while the client assumes that the architect will turn up with a detailed plan of approach. Besides arriving at clear agreements, each of the parties must make an effort to put himself in the other's shoes: 'what will the client want to know on seeing my design?'. What information will the architect find essential for getting started on the project? Questions like these are ideally suited to the process of increasing awareness and of making views, demands and ideas explicit.

Recommendations The recommendations given by the subsidiary research report 'De Verbeelding verwoord' on the basis of interactional analysis are as follows.

Tackle the briefing one point at a time.

If later misunderstandings and problems are to be avoided, it is important that both the client and the architect first make it clear to themselves what they wish to know and what they wish to tell.

• The client must prepare in advance with an easily referenced list of requirements and expectations for the design project so as to make these clear to the architect. The architect, for his part, must have a good picture of what he wishes to know and what else he needs in order to arrive at a good design. It is not inconceivable that the client and the architect place their 'lists' side by side and check whether all the required information has been exchanged and whether all their questions have been answered. Not only must practical information (what? who? where?) be discussed, but also agreements about progress and about the form of the presentation or presentations. This will prevent the occurrence of disappointments at subsequent meetings, as was the case for one of the pairs. The architect was under the impression that the second meeting would be a suitable opportunity to present numerous possible alternatives, while the client had expected a more detailed concept which was the product of careful thinking on the part of the architect.

• The client and the architect must each decide in advance what agenda points must be discussed and what questions must be answered at the first meeting. So much information is exchanged during the first meeting that those involved are likely to 'forget' their points for attention. A written checklist can prove helpful here.

Make use of clear argumentation for the options taken

At meetings subsequent to the initial briefing, the architect presents his design intentions.

These may conflict with what the client initially had in mind. This was clearly so for one of the pairs in the study. The architect made a design in which the dwellings for old persons were placed in a different location to that expected by the client. At first the client found this problematic. The architect succeeded however in backing the design decisions with such sound arguments that the client was eventually convinced of the advantages of the (deviant) design. What is more, the architect had thought about aspects to which the client had not yet given sufficient attention.

• It is therefore very important that the architect pays considerable attention not only to the presentation of the design and the techniques used but also to the verbal presentation that accompanies those techniques. A good design does not speak for itself, and a client is naturally interested in the reasons that an architect has made certain decisions. This is certainly the case when these decisions depart from the client's original expectations. The architect must therefore, in advance of a design presentation, think carefully about what to tell the client about the design. The architect must place himself in the client's shoes and try to predict what the client will want to know after seeing the presentation.

• Self-awareness on the part of the architect is very important. During the design process the architect must continually consider questions such as 'why am I doing it like this?', 'why place this here and not there?', 'why deviate here from what the client had in mind? etc. If the architect continually considers questions such as these, it will be easier to argue for the design choices at

the presentation, for the architect will have already provided himself with answers to the questions during the design process.

• The client must of course also consider questions of this kind: 'what do I have to tell the architect?', 'what do I know but the architect doesn't know?' or 'what information does the architect need in order to make a fruitful start on the design work?'.

Putting these recommendations in an educational context, one might consider introducing roleplaying situations in which students engage in briefing discussions. Students could be trained in the successful presentation of information. Confronting students with communicative rnisunderstandings and problems will make them aware of the kind of things that can go wrong in a real working situation. The conversations could be analysed afterwards.

What went wrong? Why did this problem occur later? In what respects should those involved act differently? etc. After all, a briefing is invariably a face-to-face activity. A balanced combination of a professional visual presentation with a well-grounded, detailed verbal presentation is the key to success of every collaboration.

final sketch design, front facades, case 2

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6.2 THE VISUAL COMPONENT

The distinction adopted in section 3.3. between 'The media and communication' and 'The media and the design process' provides a suitable footing for presenting the conclusions of this study in relation to the visual components.

6.2.1 The media and communication Medium: model/endoscope

Out of the five scale model/endoscope visualizations, two of the clients found the videotape too short and quick. One of the clients found the idea of a predefined, fixed viewpoint particularly unpromising; at the presentation, however, this client was enthusiastic about the actual view· points chosen. Forthree pairs, the model itself formed part of the presentation; in one of these cases the architect specified an order of presentation - drawings, then the video and finally the model. Three pairs found that the endoscope had produced a more comprehensible picture of the design; in other words, they found the medium necessary in order to assess the spatial qualities of the design. In one case, it helped eliminate C's concern that the street profile would be too narrow. In another case, without seeing the medium C would have thought from drawings that the design was too massive. One client saw the endoscope as a complement and used it as an aid in selecting the final variant design. C would have been unable to see its spatial effect without use of endoscopic imaging. Another client thought use of the endoscope made it definitely easier to assess the facades of the design. Both the client and the architect in one pair said that they did not need the medium for a relatively simple project such as the present one. C stated nonetheless that some small-scale details with respect tothe plasticity were evident only on the videotape.

It may thus be stated that there was in every case an image that either proved different from expectations or which was easier to understand and/ or assess.

One client found the medium suitable for use by professionals (who each form their own image of the project) to check whether both parties are talking about the same thing. Two architects saw the medium as a confirmation for the client (the medium can improve the presentation). The additional value of the medium, according to one architect, was less for professional clients than for other kinds. This architect agreed with the client that the medium would be well suited to use in presentations to non-professional third parties and other persons involved.

Main positive points: information, plasticity (the comprehension and experiencing of form), eye-height experience and atmosphere.

When the scale model is well-detailed, the endoscope visualization scores better in the respects of realistic atmosphere and atmospheric experience. Two architects particularly stress motion and eve-height as positive points. These reveal the spatial qualities of the design kinaesthetically and ensure that the design continues to yield surprises. The negative aspects mentioned are colour and texture. Two of the five clients warned against the use of unrealistic information e.g. for colour. One client drew attention to the risk of deploying the medium too early. This could have a distorting effect especially for non·professionals.

Medium: computer

With the four computer visualizations, two of the four clients found the displayed sequence of stills much too short. One client stated that he did not need it himself although it could be very good for other persons involved in the project, but after the final presentation this C stated that the design could be better comprehended and more correctly evaluated thanks to this visualization. This client was also shown the 3D model. Three pairs found that the computer images made the presentation more comprehensible. One pair expressed enthusiasm about the facility incorporated into the final presentation of showing the spatial effect of (parts) of a design, an aspect that would not otherwise have been demonstrable. Once C found the medium definitely complementary to the drawings, particularly for evaluating the urban design aspects of the project. One architect mentioned the convincing effect of the medium in relation to doubts felt by the client, and one client found that the computer images contributed to a different evaluation of the outward form of the building - something that looked effective in the elevation drawing appeared otherwise when seen on the tape.

One C found that the medium had not added much essential although matters might be different for a more complex project. This C reports however that the medium provided more insight, and that certain aspects of the facade composition only became apparent in the computer visualization. Three clients found the visualization more abstract or less detailed than expected.

Positive points: information, viewpoints (eye height). These were mentioned by practically all these pairs.

Four clients and two architects gave the medium a plus for the aspect of plasticity; the other two had no opinion on this. One client found the visualization surprising and referred to the aspect of 'sequentiality' - the experiencing of the excitement present in a design sequentially, instead of all at once as from a drawing. Negative points: detailing, atmosphere, unrealistic colouration, distracting/ misleading. A disadvantage mentioned by one architect was the time required to produce the visualization. One client warned against the risk of masking undesirable aspects and all the architects warn against the use of images with an unjustifiable suggestion of realism at too early a stage in the project, giving the impression that all the details have been settled.

Here too we may conclude that in all the cases the design as presented deviated from what had been expected or was not fully comprehended, or interpreted differently or incorrectly. Working hypothesis ifb) is thus confirmed with respect to both visualization media.

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final sketch design. facades, case 3

6.2.2 The media and the design process Medium: scale model/endoscope

One of the pairs arrived at design decisions with the aid of the medium; it was used to aid selection of the correct form and colour from among a number of design variants. It was important to A in this connection for examining and testing a number of aspects. Block models were used for this purpose during the design process. For three other pairs, the medium also operated as a design tool, although one of the clients did not consider this part of the design process. C had concluded that the design was too massive on the basis of the drawings alone.

Medium as design tool: removed doubts for first pair; for another pair, the design was improved; and for the third pair it functioned confirmatively.

Two architects state that they did not use the medium for design purposes in this project but its utility depends on the kind of project.

Medium: computer

One client finds that the computer medium did not have any influence on the design process but that it is a good medium for testing variants; this client subsequently states that a different decision was arrived at using the computer visualization than would have been reached on the grounds of elevation drawings alone. The other three clients find it a good medium for improving the evaluation of a design. One client thinks that the computer visualization provides greater insight and hence leads more rapidly to discussion. This C did not notice certain aspects of the facade composition until the final presentation.

It hence appears that the computer medium was also used and/or was usable as a design tool.

Two architects were however of the opinion that use of the medium does not result in a better design. One of them describes it as a testing tool and then admits that the computer can indeed have considerable influence on the design. The other sees the medium as an aid to detailing and for viewing buildings from a variety of angles; however, this A does use the computer for comparing variants of e.g. parcelling plans.

With respect to working hypothesis l(C) it may thus be concluded that the media involved, i.e. scale model/endoscope and computer, did indeed influence design decisions.

6.2.3 The two media compared The two media attract equally high scores in the aspects of information, viewpoints, plasticity and spatiality at eye height. A number of differences between the two media were noted in the respect of transmission of information.

Negative points of the scale model/endoscope combination are colour, texture and jerky movement (when the endoscope is turned). Negative points of the computer: the use of unrealistic colour has a distracting or misleading effect; the atmosphere and detailing (three Cs found the computer visualization more abstract or less detailed than expected). As positive points of the computer, the availability of rapid insight into a design and the possibility of viewing buildings from all directions were mentioned in one case. In this instance the computer model itself formed part of the final presentation.

While one architect mentions the 'selling potential' of the computer as an advantage, a client warned against the risk of masking undesirable aspects. All the architects warn against the presentation of computer or other images that give the impression that all the details have been decided too early in the project. Two of the five clients warn against using the scale model/ endoscope medium too early for a presentation, since it has a misleading effect, particularly for nonexperts; they also warn against the use of non-realistic information such as colour.

Atmosphere proves to be an aspect that attracts different scores for the respective media. It is mentioned as a positive point several times for the scale model/endoscope, particularly when the model used is a detailed one. For the computer, this aspect was often a negative point.

It is striking that some clients advise against too early a presentation using the scale model/endoscope medium, while all the architects warn against the use of computer images for presentation at too early a stage. The architect is more likely to be inconvenienced by the overconclusive definition of parts of the design which is suggested by the computer images, particularly in the early stages of the design process. The scale model/endoscope combination leaves things more open.

The above supports working hypothesis 2.

6.2·4 Conclusions and recommendations Before formulating the final conclusions of this study, we must mention a number of important aspects.

The variable of verbal communication was introduced in previous chapters in order to better evaluate the results relating to the visual media. Regarding the presentation of the design, a second meeting between the client and the architect means that the client is acquainted with the design before the final presentation. A consequence of this is that the client's encounter with the design in the chosen media at the final presentation is much less of a surprise. However, failure to include such a second meeting would have removed the process even further from typical practice. In the respect of the assessments of e.g. detailing and colour, these are obviously dependent on whether or not these aspects were represented in the models and thus were strongly influenced by this fact.

Study of the cases gave rise to the following conclusions and recommendations.

It was emphasized by several participants that the medium is particularly suitable for presenting the design to third parties (non-specialists and other persons involved in the project). At the same time, most clients stated that the design was more comprehensible to them, that use of the medium made a better evaluation possible or that doubts about (parts of) the design were removed thanks to use of the media.

For each of the presentation media, endoscope and computer, we encountered one client who claimed not to have needed the medium. However, both the clients concerned saw certain aspects of the design only when represented in the respective medium during the final presentation. There were also two cases where a conclusive choice of design variant was made with the aid of the presentation medium concerned. Presentations with both computer and model/endoscope as visualization media helped remove doubts which clients had entertained (about an excessively narrow street profile and too massive a design respectively)_ In such instances, the medium is not usually classed or recognized as a design tool but rather as a means of testing variants and confirming assumptions; this manner of use can of course result in different decisions being taken during the design process.

One client thought that the medium was considerably more useful when introduced early in the design process: 'From drawings or a scale model, we, as professionals, might well have expected or experienced to get the same idea, if from different angles, but not so concretely that you could say we saw the same thing and now we can discuss it.'

The aspect of eye height found much appreciation with both media studied.

When clients are shown only the (planned) visualization at the presentation, the lack of a possibility to view the 3D model (physical model or computer model) from different, spectator-selected viewpoints is felt strongly. The visualizations are consequently felt to be very short.

A recommendation for clients is to evaluate the design on the additional basis of a 3D model with which, for both media, any desired viewpoint can be taken, so as to avoid everything being 'fixed' in advance.

Two architects and one client stress the advantages of both media with respect to movement at eye height. The spatial concept can be displayed actively and the excitement of exploring a design sequentially, rather than all at once as from a drawing, is preserved.

Colour proves indeed to be a rather difficult aspect. If it is not represented realistically, it evokes negative reactions (distorting). On the other hand, if the colour is realistic, it gives the client the impression that everything has been decided.

A geometrically taut sketch model with pasted-on black and white drawings of facade patterns in accurate proportions tolerates the further addition of colour (e.g. by pieces of coloured transparent plastic) less well than an equally schematic model which has been given a mere suggestion of texture and colour by simple means (e.g. gouache paint or coloured pencils). Thus a simple approach with a single technique gives better results than more elaborate detailing such as some clients supposed (which would in any case be more time-consuming).

All the architects who used the computer as a visualization medium warn against the presentation of computer images at too early a stage because these images easily give an impression of conclusiveness. This is also probably the reason that three clients found the computer visualization more abstract or less detailed than they had expected. In some cases this may have also been partly due to the client's limited experience with the medium.

A further recommendation, which applies particularly to architects, is to offer the right information at the right time. A certain level of abstraction, such as a monochrome model, may be most suitable depending on the stage of the design. This means that aspects such as colour and materials are detached from the model and can be discussed independently of it.

On average, there was no significant difference in the time invested in this process by the architect: slightly less than three weeks for scale model/endoscope and slightly over three weeks for computer visualization.

The greatest variation in time invested was found with the computer medium, ranging from 1.5 weeks to 4-6 weeks. This was mainly due to differences in previous experience with the medium.

The reliability of the information conveyed by a presentation with the aid of either of the two media is primary, but often more than this is needed to put the whole picture across in an engaging and effective way. It must be decided in advance for whom the presentation is intended. Like a film, a presentation should make use of a storyboard. The order, duration, transitions etc. in the sequence of images have a considerable effect on whether the qualities of the presented design are correctly conveyed if at all.

In general this also implies that the images must be made at eye height and at a suitable speed, without unnatural or impossible movements such as sudden stops, starts and turns. Control of speed and motion during recording demands close attention. Movements must not start or finish too abruptly; time is needed for acceleration and deceleration ('slow in' and 'slow out'). The alternation of a moving and stationary viewpoint can often be an effective means of holding the viewer's attention. The use of a hint of what is going to come next in the recorded or post-edited image sequence can be very effective. It corresponds to human experience (normally you know in advance what you are about to do). The way shot transitions take place can produce a certain effect: dissolves are restful transitions and cuts are more dramatic in nature. Video transitional effects can indeed be very useful but must be used sparingly: they must not become a goal in their own right.

When presenting a design, it is critically important to show how it interacts with the intended design context. The addition offamiliar, immediately recognizable elements such as human figures, cars and street furniture is necessary to indicate the scale of the design. Computer rendering systems make it possible to model more aspects (light sources, textures) at an earlier stage, thereby confronting the designer with the outcome of his design decisions earlier. The same opportunity applies to decision-makers, users and members of the publlc- something in which they are undoubtedly interested. The use of CAD programs is also becoming more and more intuitive. The consequences of this will apply not only to the zD or 3D work itself, but also to the time that has to be invested in the presentations.

sketch design model A, case 4

sketch design model B, case 4

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The questions associated with these developments are just as relevant as the advancing perfection of the means. We therefore consciously concentrated on the sketch phase of the design process in the present research project. There exists a need for greater insight into the use of media during the sketching phase and in an evaluation of their role in the communication between the designer and the client. This led to the main objective of our research. We formulated two hypotheses for this study (see section 1.1).

When we were planning the research project and starting up the design processes, we realized that we were placing heavy demands on the participants, particularly the architects, because our primary motive was to gain insight into the effect and utility of the endoscope and computer as presentation tools in the design process from the start of that process. Although all the working hypotheses were confirmed and the conclusions emerging from the research project merit further consideration for application in professional practice, in further research and in education, it did not yield an unequivocal choice of one medium or the other. That was in any case not consistent with the main aim of our research.

The important point is that use of both media at an early stage in the design process gave the developing design greater clarity and comprehensibility for most clients. In the case of both media, too, a clear preference was expressed for having an opportunity to view the 3D model (physical scale model or 3D computer model) from spontaneously chosen viewpoints, in addition to viewing the (positively assessed) eye-height experience on video. Technically speaking, this is not a problem in either medium. An important consideration may be to utilize the medium not only in the final presentation but directly in the design process. In several cases, the medium helped in making a final choice out of a number of offered design variants.

As regards the verbal component, the Applied Linguistics Department of the Faculty of Language and Literature, Utrecht, made a detailed analysis of a number of cases. Extracts from this interactional research are reproduced in this report. The audio tapes studied for this purpose and the transcriptions made of them is available for educational and follow-up research purposes.

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2 Arnheim R., 'Visual Thinking', University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969.

3 Arnheim R., 'The dynamics of architectural form', University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1977.

4 Bouwman M.J.A., ' De waarde van het gebruik van de entheskoop in relatie tot andere presentatietechnieken voorde gebouwde omgeving', H. Veenman en Zonen B.V., Wageningen, 1979.

5 Bridges A., J.E.H. Mustoe, 'An intelligent architectural design resource', in Visual databases in Architecture - Recent Advances in Design and Decision Making; Edited by A. Koutamanis, H. Timmermans and I. Vermeulen, Avebury, 1995.

6 Does, J. van der, A. van Haaften, H. Gir6, R. Kegel, R. Vrins, 'Overdracht en Simulatie; Onderzoek naar waarde en betekenis van media-toepassing bij architectonische simulaties' , Delftse Universitaire Pers, 1990; en J. van der Does, H. Gir6, R. Kegel, R. Vrins, Concept Onderzoek VF; De techniek van het verbeelden, Fae. Bouwkunde, TU Delft, 1995

7 Dods V.F., M.F. Hobaica, F.J. Slingerland, W.S. Steele 'A Comparative Study of Alternative Design Communication Techniques', Master's Report, University of Arizona - College of Architecture, spring 1991.

8 EAEA '93, First Conference of the European Architectural Endoscopy Association, 'Endoscopyas a tool in Architecture', Tampere, 1993.

9 EAEA '95, Second Conference of the European Architectural Endoscopy Association, 'The future of Endoscopy', August 30th-September ist, 1995, Vienna 1995.

10 EAEA '97, Third Conference of the European Architectural Endoscopy Association, 'Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education' ,August 27th -zcth .. 1997, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University ofTechnology, 1997.

11 Gibson J., 'The Perception of the Visual World', Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston - The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1950.

12 Hamel R., ' Over het denken van de architect. Een cognitief psychologische beschrijving van het ontwerpproces bij architecten', AHA-Books-Art history architecture, Amsterdam, 1990.

13 Kirk S., 1<. Spreckelmeyer, 'Creative Design Decisions. A systematic Approach to Problem Solving in Architecture', van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1998.

14 Korswagen c.J.J., 'Mondelinge communicatie in theorie en praktijk 1', Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, 1985.

15 Larson K., 'Computer modeling as a Design Tool; Ken Larson of Peter L. Gluck and Partners Architects in New York relates his firm's experiences with 3D CAD' , Progressive Architecture, ntio, 1991.

16 Laseau P., 'Graphic Thinking for Architects and Designers', van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1980.

17 Lawson B., 'How designers think', The Architectural Press Ltd., London, 1980.

18 Uiffelman M., 'De verbeelding verwoord ... Een interactioneel (deel)onderzoek naareen succesvolle informatieoverdracht tussen opdrachtgever en architect ... ' , under supervision of Dr. H. Houtkoop-Steenstra, Dr. F. Jansen and Dr. L. Lentz, Applied Linguistics Department, Dutch Language and Literature Section, Faculty of Language and Literature, University of Utrecht, 1998.

19 Mitchell W.J., ' The Reconfigured Eye, Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era' , The M IT Press, Cambridge, London, 1992.

20 Nauta D. (jr.), 'The meaning of information' ,Mouton, The Hague, Paris, 1972.

21 Oxman R.M., 'The reflective eye: Visual reasoning in design', in 'Visual Databases in Architecture - Recent Advances in Design and Decision Making', Edited by A. Koutamanis, H. Timmermans and I. Vermeulen, Avebury, 1995.

22 Penz F., 'But do computers help design; Do computers help or inhibit design?; Francois Penz describes student experiments at Cambridge, designing projects both by hand and with computer aid, and compares the results', The Architects Journal, pages 22-29, nr. 8, 1992.

23 Prak N.L., 'Vorm en betekenis, Theorie van de tekens en de Media', TU Delft, Bouwkunde, 1974.

24 Schulz von Thun F., , Hoe bedoelt U? Een psychologische analyse van menselllke communicatie' , Wolters·Noordhoff, Groningen, 1986.

25 Shoshkes E., 'The Design Process; Case studies in project development', Architecture Design and Technology Press, London, 1990.

26 Vries B. de, 'Communication in the Building lndustrv- a strategy for implementing electronic information exchange' , thesis TU Delft, 1996. .

27 Thiel P., 'People, Paths and Purposes, notations for a Participatory Envirotecture', University of Washington Press, Seattle and London, 1997.

28 Walraven T., ' Taalgebruik en taalwetenschap; Inleiding in het onderzoek van verbale communicatie', van Gorcum, Assen, Amsterdam, 1977.

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V) The authors are greatly indebted to the research participants. In their functions as 'clients' and architects,

they represent the following companies, partnerships and foundations:

AEGON Nederland N.V., Vastgoed

Cees Dam en Partners Architecten, Amsterdam Stichting Centrale Woningzorg, Amersfoort Stichting DUWO, Delft

ERA Bouw B.V., Zoetermeer

Groosman Partners B.V., Rotterdam Architectenbureau Hienkens BNA, Delft

Hoenders, Dekkers, Zinsmeister, Architecten B.V., Delft IBC Vastgoed (MUWI), Capelle aid llssel

Architectenburo Immerzeel·Leeuwenburgh B.V., Rotterdam Klunder Architecten, Rotterdam

Leo de lunge Architecten, Rotterdam Woningstichting Patrimonium

PWS, woningstichting, Rotterdam Proper-Stok Woningen B.V., Rotterdam Architectenburo Roeleveld·Sikkes B.V. STZ, tuinstad Zuidwijk, Rotterdam Architectenburo van Titburg & partners

the arch itects: ir. J. Bruit

ir. D. Dam

ir. M. Eijkelenboom ir.1. Hegeman

ir. W. Hienkens

ir. I. Hoenders ir. A. Roeleveld

ir. R. de Ruiter ir. A. van Tilburg

the clients:

ir. F. van Beek

ir. G. van den Beuken drs. F. Faro

ir. I. Frankenmolen ir. P. van der Gugten ir. A. den Hoedt

ir. drs. M. Kleijnen i r. L. Peters

ir. J. Schutten (t 1999)

advisory assistance

Universiteit Utrecht, Vakgroep Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde Afdeling Taalbeheersing; deelonderzoek: M. Liiffelman

Technische Universiteit Delft, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Dr.ir. D.J.M. van derVoordt

translation

V.J. Joseph, Amsterdam

graphic design

Jantien Methorst I Niels van Ommeren, publicatiebureau Bouwkunde Delft

publisher

Delft University Press