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Structure

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Wisnu Widayat

1.

INTRODUCTION

Dynamic loads, which occur during the operation of the machine, result from forces

generated by unbalance, inertia of moving parts, or both. The magnitude of these

dynamic loads primarily depends upon the machines operating speed and the type, size,

weight, and arrangement of moving parts within the casing. In structural machine

foundation, the presence of dynamic loads requires the special attention, since it is

applied repetitively over long period time.

Unbalanced forces in rotating machines are created when the mass centroid of the

rotating part does not coincide with the center of rotation. This dynamic force is a

function of the shaft mass, speed of rotation, and the magnitude of the offset. The offset

should be minor under manufactured condition when the machine is well balance, clean,

and without wear or erosion. Changes in alignment, operation near resonance, blade

loss, and other malfunctions or undesirable conditions can greatly increase the force

applied to its bearings by the rotor.

For table top machine foundation to support Rotary dryer motor for cement dryer, the

dynamic load arise from motor dryer action to rotate the 4 meter diameter dryer with

rotating speed 4.95 rpm.

2.

THEORY OF VIBRATIONS

The foundation vibration due to dynamic force can be simplified as a force vibration with

viscous damping in a general equation :

m y c y ky

F0 sin

(1)

stiffness, F0 is external exciting forces, is a circular frequency of external exciting force

and t is time.

From the equation above, the general equation for displacement can be express as

y (t )

F0

k

1

1 r

2 2

sin

2 r

(2)

In which y (t) is a displacement for the function of time, F0 is the amplitude of external

exciting force, r is / , is c/ccr (damping ratio)

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

The dynamic response of the structural machine foundation system, defined by its

natural frequency and the amplitude of dynamic loads under the normal operating

condition of the machine are two the most important parameters. The wave energy,

which is transmitted to the structural machine foundation, must not cause harmfull effects

on other machines, structures, or people in the immediate vicinity. This consideration

and the operational requirements of the machine necessitate that the amplitudes of

foundation vibration be limited to small values.

Motor Dryer

Machine

The motor weight is 123 kN and delivers 160 kW to to rotate 4 meter dryer diameter.

The torque developed in the shaft is 5011.56 lb-in (566 N m) base on

63,000hp

In which

T

=

hp

=

R

=

(3)

R

Torque developed in the shaft (lb-in)

horse power delivered to, or by, the shaft

Shaft rotating speed (rpm)

X

Fig. 2 Motor Dryer Foundation

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

The natural frequencies and amplitudes of vibration in vertical and horizontal direction

can be expressed in general equation:

k

m

(4)

The natural frequency of the machine foundation should not coincide with the operating

frequency of the machine. In fact, a zone of resonance is generally defined, and the

natural frequency of foundation system must lie outside this zone.The foundation must

thus as high tunded when its fundamental frequency is greater than the operating

speed or low tuned when its fundamental frequency is lower than operating speed as

shown in Fig.3

The method for dynamic response analysis of frame foundation may be divided into two

categories;

1.

2.

Simplified Method

Rigorous Method

2.1

Simplified Method

In the simplified methods, a number of assumptions are made and the analysis is carried

out on frame basis. A single-degree-of-freedom or two degree of freedom model is

adopted for computing the natural frequencies and amplitudes.

The natural frequencies and amplitudes of vibration in vertical and horizontal direction

are computed by using a single spring mass system. A single degree of freedom model

has been used earlier to compute the natural frequencies by the method known as the

resonance method. In the resonance method, consideration was given only to the natural

frequency of the system in relation to the operating speed of the machine, and the

amplitude of the vibration were not computed.

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

For vertical vibration, each transverse frame that consist of columns and beam

perpendicalar to main shaft of the machine, is considered separetly. The stiffness of the

equivalent spring is calculated as the combined stifness of the beam and the columns

acting together and the mass is determined by the mass of total loads acting on the

cross frame. The analysis is based on the assumption that.

1.

Frame column are fixed at their lower ends into the rigid base slab.

2.

The diference between vertical deformations of individual frame column is

negligible

3.

The torsional resistance of longitudinal beam is insignificant compared to the

deformation resistance of transvere beams. Therefore, the effect of logitudinal

beam on vertical vibrations of transveres frames can be neglected.

4.

The natural frequencies of individual cross frame are practically of the same

order.

5.

The effect of elasticity of the soil is neglected

6.

The connection of transvere beam with column is rigid.

The natural frequency of vertical vibrations of the frame may then be obtained as

kz g

W

nz

(5)

nz1

nz 2

nv

.....

nn

(6)

In which nz1, nz2 are the natural frequency of vertical vibration of the individual frames.

The average value of the amplitude of vertical vibration may be computed as

Fv

Yv

kv

(7)

nv

In which

Av

=

Pv

=

=

nv

total vertical unbalance force

damping expressed as percent of critical damping

kv

k z1

k z2

......

(8)

For horizontal vibration, the analysis is based on the assumption that

1.

Columns are fixed into the rigid base slab at their lower ends

2.

The deck slab is rigid in its own (horizontal) plane.

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

3.

4.

5.

their resistanfe in bending.

Torsional vibration of the deck slab are neglected.

Elastic resistance of the soil at the base can be neglected.

The thickness of large deck slab and the width and depth of the beams in longitudinal

and transvere direction are large compared to their spans and deck slab may be

assumed to be perfectly rigid in its own plane.

Natural frequency of horizontal vibration

k x1

nh

k x 2 .... g

WT

nh

is given by

kh g

WT

(9)

in which

kh

=

kx1, kx2, ...... =

WT

=

lateral stiffness of individual transevere frames

total weight of deck slab and machine.

kx

12EI c 6 K 1

3K 2

h3

(10)

Fh

Yh

kh

(11)

2

nh

2

nh

2.2

Rigorous Model

In rigorous model, the frame foundation is modeled as a three dimensional space frame

or solid. The equation of motion for the models can be writen as

M Y

C Y

K Y

Ft

(12)

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

3.

DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF STRUCTURAL MACHINE FOUNDATION

One of the main purposes of the foundation subject to dynamic load is limiting vibration.

The foundation system also limit vibration-sensitive equipment may be installed,

personnel may have to work on a regular basis, or damage to surrounding structures

may occur. These performance criteria are usually established base on vibration

amplitudes at key points on or around the equipment and foundation system. These

amplitudes may be based on displacement, velocity, or acceleration unit. Displacement

limitations are commonly based on peak-to-peak amplitudes measured in mils (0.001 in)

or microns (10-6m). Velocity limitations are typically based on either peak velocities or

root-mean-square (rms) velocities in units of inch per second or millimeter per second.

Displacement criteria are almost always frequency dependent with grater motion

tolerated at slower speeds. Velocity criteria may depend on frequency but are often

independent. Acceleration criteria may be constant with frequency or dependent.

Blake 1964, presented the standard vibration chart for process equipment with

performance rated from No Faults (typical of new equipment) to Dangerous (shut it

down now to avoid danger). The chart can be seen in Fig. 5

The modified Reiher-Meister figure (barely perceptible, noticeable, and troublesome) is

also used to establish limits with respect to personnel sensitivity.

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

Fig. 5 Limiting Amplitude Vibration (After Richart. 1962) and Vibration criteria of rotating

machinery (Blake 1964)

From the analysis using finite element, obtain that the velocity in x direction vs time can

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

Base on the analysis result above, obtained that the dynamic response of machine

foundation

Direction

X direction

Y direction

Z direction

0.24 x 10-3

0.49 x 10-3

0.52 x 10-3

0.27

0.57

0.07

From the dynamic analysis, obtained that the natural frequency for 4 mode is :

Mode

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

Natural Freq.(Hz)

34.53

36.32

66.84

104.71

0.72

0.69

0.37

0.24

Base on Fig. 3.it looks that the foundation is in a high tuned range and the frequency

ratio is less than 1. It means that the already safe from resonance.

Base on Fig. 5, for machine with operating speed 1500 rpm with average displacement

up to 0.52 x 10-3 mm and average velocity around 0.57 mm/sec, it still in the zone A (not

noticeable to person).

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

4.

CONCLUSION

The dynamic response of the structural machine foundation system, defined by its

natural frequency and the amplitude of dynamic loads under the normal operating

condition of the machine are two the most important parameters. The wave energy,

which is transmitted to the structural machine foundation, must not cause harmfull effects

on other machines, structures, or people in the immediate vicinity. This consideration

and the operational requirements of the machine necessitate that the amplitudes of

foundation vibration be limited to small values. Therefore, in the design of structural

machine foundation, the material selection and dimension ditermination is the two

important things since both of this will directly effect to the response of the structural

machine foundation.

5.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Shamsher Prakash and Vijay K.Puri (1988), Foundation of Machines : Analysis and

Design, Jhon Wiley and sons inc.

Saran, Swami (1999).Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundations. Galgotia, India

Das, Braja M, (1993). Principle of soil Dynamics. PWS-Kent Publishing.

ACI Committee 351 (2004), Foundation for Dynamic Equipment, American Concrete

Institute.

Raw W.Clough and Joseph Penzien (1975). Dynamic of Structures McGraw.Hill

Srinivasulu, P and Vaidyanathan, C.V (1977) Handbook of Machine Foundation

McGraw Hill

Tyler G.Hicks (2004) Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculation.McGraw Hill

Seminar dan Pameran HAKI 2011 - Konstruksi Indonesia Melangkah ke Masa Depan

10

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