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# DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF STRUCTURAL MACHINE

## FOUNDATION DUE TO ROTATING FORCE

Wisnu Widayat

1.

INTRODUCTION

Dynamic loads, which occur during the operation of the machine, result from forces
generated by unbalance, inertia of moving parts, or both. The magnitude of these
dynamic loads primarily depends upon the machines operating speed and the type, size,
weight, and arrangement of moving parts within the casing. In structural machine
foundation, the presence of dynamic loads requires the special attention, since it is
applied repetitively over long period time.
Unbalanced forces in rotating machines are created when the mass centroid of the
rotating part does not coincide with the center of rotation. This dynamic force is a
function of the shaft mass, speed of rotation, and the magnitude of the offset. The offset
should be minor under manufactured condition when the machine is well balance, clean,
and without wear or erosion. Changes in alignment, operation near resonance, blade
loss, and other malfunctions or undesirable conditions can greatly increase the force
applied to its bearings by the rotor.
For table top machine foundation to support Rotary dryer motor for cement dryer, the
dynamic load arise from motor dryer action to rotate the 4 meter diameter dryer with
rotating speed 4.95 rpm.

2.

THEORY OF VIBRATIONS

The foundation vibration due to dynamic force can be simplified as a force vibration with
viscous damping in a general equation :

m y c y ky

F0 sin

(1)

## In which m is mass of structure & equipment, c is a damping constant, k is structural

stiffness, F0 is external exciting forces, is a circular frequency of external exciting force
and t is time.
From the equation above, the general equation for displacement can be express as

y (t )

F0
k

1
1 r

2 2

sin
2 r

(2)

In which y (t) is a displacement for the function of time, F0 is the amplitude of external
exciting force, r is / , is c/ccr (damping ratio)

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The dynamic response of the structural machine foundation system, defined by its
natural frequency and the amplitude of dynamic loads under the normal operating
condition of the machine are two the most important parameters. The wave energy,
which is transmitted to the structural machine foundation, must not cause harmfull effects
on other machines, structures, or people in the immediate vicinity. This consideration
and the operational requirements of the machine necessitate that the amplitudes of
foundation vibration be limited to small values.

Motor Dryer
Machine

## Fig. 1 Equipment Layout

The motor weight is 123 kN and delivers 160 kW to to rotate 4 meter dryer diameter.
The torque developed in the shaft is 5011.56 lb-in (566 N m) base on

63,000hp

In which
T
=
hp
=
R
=

(3)

R
Torque developed in the shaft (lb-in)
horse power delivered to, or by, the shaft
Shaft rotating speed (rpm)

X
Fig. 2 Motor Dryer Foundation

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The natural frequencies and amplitudes of vibration in vertical and horizontal direction
can be expressed in general equation:

k
m

(4)

## in which m is structural mass and k is structural stiffness

The natural frequency of the machine foundation should not coincide with the operating
frequency of the machine. In fact, a zone of resonance is generally defined, and the
natural frequency of foundation system must lie outside this zone.The foundation must
thus as high tunded when its fundamental frequency is greater than the operating
speed or low tuned when its fundamental frequency is lower than operating speed as
shown in Fig.3

## Fig. 3 Tuning of a foundation

The method for dynamic response analysis of frame foundation may be divided into two
categories;
1.
2.

Simplified Method
Rigorous Method

2.1
Simplified Method
In the simplified methods, a number of assumptions are made and the analysis is carried
out on frame basis. A single-degree-of-freedom or two degree of freedom model is
adopted for computing the natural frequencies and amplitudes.
The natural frequencies and amplitudes of vibration in vertical and horizontal direction
are computed by using a single spring mass system. A single degree of freedom model
has been used earlier to compute the natural frequencies by the method known as the
resonance method. In the resonance method, consideration was given only to the natural
frequency of the system in relation to the operating speed of the machine, and the
amplitude of the vibration were not computed.

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For vertical vibration, each transverse frame that consist of columns and beam
perpendicalar to main shaft of the machine, is considered separetly. The stiffness of the
equivalent spring is calculated as the combined stifness of the beam and the columns
acting together and the mass is determined by the mass of total loads acting on the
cross frame. The analysis is based on the assumption that.
1.
Frame column are fixed at their lower ends into the rigid base slab.
2.
The diference between vertical deformations of individual frame column is
negligible
3.
The torsional resistance of longitudinal beam is insignificant compared to the
deformation resistance of transvere beams. Therefore, the effect of logitudinal
beam on vertical vibrations of transveres frames can be neglected.
4.
The natural frequencies of individual cross frame are practically of the same
order.
5.
The effect of elasticity of the soil is neglected
6.
The connection of transvere beam with column is rigid.
The natural frequency of vertical vibrations of the frame may then be obtained as

kz g
W

nz

(5)

## Average natural frequency of vertical vibrations is given by

nz1

nz 2

nv

.....

nn

(6)

In which nz1, nz2 are the natural frequency of vertical vibration of the individual frames.
The average value of the amplitude of vertical vibration may be computed as

Fv

Yv

kv

(7)

nv

In which
Av
=
Pv
=
=

nv

## amplitude of vertical vibration of the foundation

total vertical unbalance force
damping expressed as percent of critical damping

kv

k z1

k z2

......

(8)

## in which kz1, kz2 are the stiffness of the individual frames.

For horizontal vibration, the analysis is based on the assumption that
1.
Columns are fixed into the rigid base slab at their lower ends
2.
The deck slab is rigid in its own (horizontal) plane.

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3.
4.
5.

## Resistance offered by the columns in axial compression is large compared to

their resistanfe in bending.
Torsional vibration of the deck slab are neglected.
Elastic resistance of the soil at the base can be neglected.

The thickness of large deck slab and the width and depth of the beams in longitudinal
and transvere direction are large compared to their spans and deck slab may be
assumed to be perfectly rigid in its own plane.
Natural frequency of horizontal vibration

k x1
nh

k x 2 .... g
WT

nh

is given by

kh g
WT

(9)

in which
kh
=
kx1, kx2, ...... =
WT
=

## combined stiffness of all the transevere frames in bending

lateral stiffness of individual transevere frames
total weight of deck slab and machine.

kx

12EI c 6 K 1
3K 2
h3

(10)

Fh

Yh

kh

(11)

2
nh

2
nh

## In which Fh is the total horizontal dynamic force.

2.2
Rigorous Model
In rigorous model, the frame foundation is modeled as a three dimensional space frame
or solid. The equation of motion for the models can be writen as

M Y

C Y

K Y

Ft

(12)

## Modal analysis technique may be used for analysis of the system.

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## Fig. 4 Structural Mode

3.
DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF STRUCTURAL MACHINE FOUNDATION
One of the main purposes of the foundation subject to dynamic load is limiting vibration.
The foundation system also limit vibration-sensitive equipment may be installed,
personnel may have to work on a regular basis, or damage to surrounding structures
may occur. These performance criteria are usually established base on vibration
amplitudes at key points on or around the equipment and foundation system. These
amplitudes may be based on displacement, velocity, or acceleration unit. Displacement
limitations are commonly based on peak-to-peak amplitudes measured in mils (0.001 in)
or microns (10-6m). Velocity limitations are typically based on either peak velocities or
root-mean-square (rms) velocities in units of inch per second or millimeter per second.
Displacement criteria are almost always frequency dependent with grater motion
tolerated at slower speeds. Velocity criteria may depend on frequency but are often
independent. Acceleration criteria may be constant with frequency or dependent.
Blake 1964, presented the standard vibration chart for process equipment with
performance rated from No Faults (typical of new equipment) to Dangerous (shut it
down now to avoid danger). The chart can be seen in Fig. 5
The modified Reiher-Meister figure (barely perceptible, noticeable, and troublesome) is
also used to establish limits with respect to personnel sensitivity.

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Fig. 5 Limiting Amplitude Vibration (After Richart. 1962) and Vibration criteria of rotating
machinery (Blake 1964)
From the analysis using finite element, obtain that the velocity in x direction vs time can

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Base on the analysis result above, obtained that the dynamic response of machine
foundation
Direction
X direction
Y direction
Z direction

0.24 x 10-3
0.49 x 10-3
0.52 x 10-3

## Average Velocity (mm/sec)

0.27
0.57
0.07

From the dynamic analysis, obtained that the natural frequency for 4 mode is :
Mode
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 4

Natural Freq.(Hz)
34.53
36.32
66.84
104.71

## Freq Motor/ Nat.Freq

0.72
0.69
0.37
0.24

Base on Fig. 3.it looks that the foundation is in a high tuned range and the frequency
ratio is less than 1. It means that the already safe from resonance.
Base on Fig. 5, for machine with operating speed 1500 rpm with average displacement
up to 0.52 x 10-3 mm and average velocity around 0.57 mm/sec, it still in the zone A (not
noticeable to person).

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4.

CONCLUSION

The dynamic response of the structural machine foundation system, defined by its
natural frequency and the amplitude of dynamic loads under the normal operating
condition of the machine are two the most important parameters. The wave energy,
which is transmitted to the structural machine foundation, must not cause harmfull effects
on other machines, structures, or people in the immediate vicinity. This consideration
and the operational requirements of the machine necessitate that the amplitudes of
foundation vibration be limited to small values. Therefore, in the design of structural
machine foundation, the material selection and dimension ditermination is the two
important things since both of this will directly effect to the response of the structural
machine foundation.

5.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Shamsher Prakash and Vijay K.Puri (1988), Foundation of Machines : Analysis and
Design, Jhon Wiley and sons inc.
Saran, Swami (1999).Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundations. Galgotia, India
Das, Braja M, (1993). Principle of soil Dynamics. PWS-Kent Publishing.
ACI Committee 351 (2004), Foundation for Dynamic Equipment, American Concrete
Institute.
Raw W.Clough and Joseph Penzien (1975). Dynamic of Structures McGraw.Hill
Srinivasulu, P and Vaidyanathan, C.V (1977) Handbook of Machine Foundation
McGraw Hill
Tyler G.Hicks (2004) Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculation.McGraw Hill

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