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Salutation to Aum, the Primal and Blissful cause,

the Transcendental Consciousness shining as the unique mirror of the
wonderful Universe.
Tripura Rahasya or Haritayana Samhita is the work of Haritayana,son of Harita. The
spiritual Truths given in this sacred scripture were given by Sri Parashuraama to Harita,
who in turn obtained it from Sage Dattatreya. It is said to consist of 12,000 verses in three
sections - The Maahaatmya Khaanda (Section on the Greatness of Sri Devi), Jnaana
Khaanda (Section on Supreme Wisdom), and Charyaa Khaanda (Section on Conduct). Of
these the first consists of 6,687 verses; the second of 2,163 verses; and the third is not
traceable. The section on Greatness contains the prelude to the work and later treats
mostly of the manifestations of the Supreme Being as Durga, Kaali, Lakshmi, Sarasvati,
Lalita, Kumaari, etc. and their exploits and found in Brahmaanda Puraana, Maarkandeya
Puraana and Lakshmi Tantra. This Section contains Jnaana Khaanda. The text is in
conversational form. Hasrita instructs Naarada that Knowledge which was taught by
Dattatreya to Parashuraama. This work is a discourse on wisdom, which is unique
because one will be permanently freed from misery, by hearing it. This is the
concentrated extract of the essence of the Vedic, Vaishnava, Shaiva, Saatkta and
Paasupata lore .
The present work is a collection of all stories presented by Sage Dattatreya to explain the
Supreme truth.


No other course will impress the mind so much as this one on Wisdom which
was once taught by that illustrious master Dattatreya to Parashuraama. The
teaching was born of his own experience, logical in sense and quite unique in its
nature. One who cannot apprehend Truth even after hearing this must be
dismissed as a silly fool to be ranked among the insentient and accursed of God;
Shiva himself cannot make such a one gain wisdom.

Royal Gardens of Dashaarna!
On one side beautiful girls danced to the heavenly tunes of the orchestra.
On another side maids were bringing royal delicacies and preparing for a feast.
Some beautiful girls brought garlands of scented flowers and decorated the arena.
Everywhere there was a festive mood.
Everyone laughed for no reason.
Everyone felt happy for no reason.
The whole palace was celebrating the arrival of the new bride.
But the bride? She was nowhere to be seen.
The Prince knew where she would be; in some quite deserted corner of the garden or in
her own room. The prince had thoroughly searched the whole of the vast grove of trees
near the palace. His wife was nowhere. He treaded his steps slowly towards the private
chambers of his young queen.
Prince Hemachuda was worried.
Actually in the worldly sense he lacked nothing to cause him any anxiety.
He was the son of the Muktachuda, renowned King of DASHAARNA.
He and his elder brother Manichuda were highly admired by the citizens for their noble
character and wisdom. The two brothers never caused a blemish to taint the good name of
their dynasty.
Moreover, Hemachuda was now married to the prettiest lady on this earth. The beauty of
his beloved wife Hemalekha was incomparable to any divine damsel of heavens. Her
physical charms were enhanced by the wisdom that shone in her eyes. She was different
from all other girls of her age. So patient, so calm, so compassionate; she was the
epitome of modesty and wisdom. He was very lucky; merits of million births were not
enough to get blessed by such a wife as Hemalekha!
Hemachuda remembered vividly the first time he met her!
He and his brother had gone for hunting in the wild forests on the outskirts of the city. A
big retinue of well trained soldiers followed them as usual. In their enthusiasm they had
gone too deep into the jungles hitherto un-treaded by any humans. As they were trying to
find a good place to camp, the sky had darkened suddenly. Huge clouds had gathered
within seconds. The day became night instantly as if stuck by the magic wand of an evil
sorcerer. To add to the confusion, a heavy storm stuck the area like a curse fallen from
heaven. A tornado hitherto unseen by any of them rose in the sky. Dust filled everywhere.
The atmosphere became misty. Horses screamed terrified by the storm. They ran madly
trampling the soldiers mercilessly. Screams and shouts were carried away by the winds.
Nobody could see anything; nobody could hear anything. All they felt was the continuous
blasts of stones and pebbles on their person. Some managed to hide under rocks. Some
hugged the trees for support. Some withered on the ground in pain. But the princes had

been lucky. Their loyal horses had carried them away from that danger in a flash.
Fortunately his brother Muktachudas horse had returned to the palace safely. But
Hemachudas horse had ventured deeper into jungles and entered an enchanting garden
filled with fruit bearing trees. A stream of sweet water gurgled nearby. Beautiful flowers
of countless hues blossomed everywhere mesmerizing the mind to a state of relaxed
drowsiness. Birds of different colors flew in abandon singing their own songs of love.
The prince had washed himself in the cool waters of the stream and was wondering who
could be the resident of such a heavenly garden. As if in answer he heard the sound of
anklets behind a tree. Curious he had followed the anklet sound till he had reached a
beautiful cottage constructed out of forest-wood and decorated with various creepers of
flowers. The anklet sound now was coming from inside the cottage. He went inside
slightly hesitant. No one was there. He sat on the mat already spread out for him to be
seated. He waited patiently. No one seemed to be around. Suddenly a lightning stuck; yes,
a golden lightning! A beautiful damsel of golden hue stood before him. Her tender hands
held a plate of delicious cut fruits dipped in honey and a bowl of sweet smelling milk.
Before the prince could ask anything she had disappeared. He finished eating all that was
offered silently. As he got up to go, she had again appeared and whispered, Please! Do
not go away. Wait for my Father to come!
He had insisted that he would wait only if she sat with him and conversed. She had
reddened like a ripened fruit and agreed hesitantly. She sat in a corner half hiding her
beautiful face in a veil. He had enquired about her with concern. O beautiful lady! Who
are you? Are you not afraid to live in this terrifying forest alone? Does nobody care for
you? Whose daughter are you? She was silent for a few minutes and had later revealed
her identity. Her words were pouring like nectar in his ears. He wanted to lift her, put her
on his horse and rush off back to his palace and marry her immediately. But he was not
brought up that way. He had suppressed all his emotions and listened to her patiently. She
was the abandoned daughter of a divine damsel Vidyaaprabha who had consented to the
passionate pleadings of King Vena, when she had visited the Earth for sporting in the
forest Rivers. The resultant baby had been aborted by her and thrown on the river bank to
wither and die. Fortunately for the suffering baby, Sage Vyaghrapaada whose hermitage
was nearby had come to the river to perform his evening ablutions and he took home the
dying baby. His compassionate care soon filled life into the baby and now she was sitting
before him as his adopted daughter. Her name was Hemalekha.
The prince had looked at her with lovelorn eyes. What a beauty! Hemalekha! A Golden
line! Yes! The golden line had pierced his heart like a sharp knife. Hemalekha had
understood his heart but had only whispered asking him to wait for the Sage to return
from his wanderings and ask for her hand.
Soon the Sage had returned accompanied by his disciples. They had brought all the
flowers and sacred sticks to conduct the evening worship. The Prince had saluted the
Sage and stood there silently wondering how to express his innermost thoughts. But he
need not have worried. The Sage was aware of his mental state in no time and
understanding that his daughter was also equally in love with the prince had consented to
their union. He had performed the marriage immediately and the prince had left the
hermitage in the morning with his bounty seated with him on the horse. Soon he was in
the palace and his parents and brother had welcomed them with affection and joy.

A grand reception ceremony was held for the newly weds and Hemalekha was accepted
into the royal family without a question.
For first few days after the marriage the prince enjoyed life with his wife like Indra with
his wife Sachi. He felt he had attained the Supreme happiness ever could be attained by a
human. His joy knew no bounds. But he discovered soon that his wife was not happy
with life as he was. She was usually silent and absorbed in some deep thoughts always.
She did not show much enthusiasm about any royal entertainments. Thinking that she
missed her forest life, the prince took her to many a forest resort too. But she still acted
aloof and was disinterested in everything. That was what worried Hemachuda now. He
was puzzled by her behavior and decided to tackle her directly and enquire about her
mental depression.
Hemalekha was looking out through the window at the blue taintless sky.
But her mind was elsewhere
There was no one in her room. She had sent all the maids away and strictly ordered them
not to disturb her. The maids had been actually surprised by her stern behavior.
Hemalekha was absorbed in deep thinking. Her forehead was creased in worry.
She was worried about her husband Hemachuda.
She had not given many thoughts to the future, when she had first met the prince and
fallen in love with him. He was so charming, so good, so dignified. She had lost her mind
to him at first sight. She knew that her Father Vyaghrapada was worried about her
marriage for the past few months. She was thankful to him for rescuing her as a baby and
caring for her all these fifteen years. She did not want to be a burden to him anymore.
If she was out of his hands he would become free to pursue his penance quietly in the
hermitage she knew. So when the prince desired her, she had reciprocated equal love.
But now she missed her forest trees, her hermitage friends, her pet birds, her pet animals,
in fact everything of her past. She wished she could turn back the time and be forever
with her father like a child. Not that she had lost her love for the charming prince. But she
had never imagined that he would be so much interested in sense pleasures.
Music, dance, food, drinks, girls..! She shook her head in disgust. Not a moment was
there any silence in the palace. Always shouts, screams, laughters!
And her husband..! He was infatuated with her beauty. Not a moment would he leave her
alone. He never had enough of her. If he ever went to attend his royal duties, the maids
would surround her immediately..; bathing her, dressing her, decorating her; teasing her;
laughing at some vulgar jokes!
Only if she could divert the Prince from sense pleasures to the joy of contemplation!
But how? Why would he listen to a young forest bred wife? To keep him quite even for a
few minutes was difficult; he would tightly hold her and shower her with kisses even
before she started to utter a word.
Bewildered about her future course of actions, she had somehow managed to get some
free time in her private chambers. The prince had not noticed her slipping away. He was
forcefully getting some wine fed by some of his pretty maids. It would be some time
before he could free himself from their embraces. Hemalekha had escaped to her own
private room and ordered all the maids out. She had removed all the gold ornaments and
royal garments and attired herself in the forest clothing she had kept hidden in her box.

Her eyes were wet as she looked out into the blue sky. Some parrots flew suddenly
making some noise. She wished she was one of them; she could have flown towards her
fathers hermitage and hid herself there! Her thoughts were disturbed by someone
It was Hemachuda! She got up with a sigh!
She saluted her Lord in reverence.
Hemachuda embraced her gently and got her seated.
He observed the pale face and the wet eyes.
He held her like a child and asked:
Dearest! Why? What happened? Did anybody hurt you by any harsh words? Do you
lack any comfort in this palace? Did any maid insult you? Tell me I will not spare anyone
who dared hurt you!
Hemalekha said that no one had hurt her and nothing was the matter with her; she was
quite happy with everything. She removed herself from his tightening arms and looked
out into the garden silently.
Hemachuda followed her. He questioned again with concern:
My pretty wife! I have been observing you lately. You seem to be lost in a world of
your own. You do not show interest in anything. How is it that you are not as attentive to
me as I am to you?
Thou fairest of girls radiant with smiles! How is it that you are never keen on seeking
pleasure or enjoying it? Are not these pleasures to your taste? You look indifferent even
during the greatest pleasures. How can I be happy if your interest is not awakened? Even
when I am close to you, your mind seems to be elsewhere; when spoken to, you do not
seem to listen. As I hold you in close embrace for a long while, you seem unconscious of
me and then ask me, 'Lord, when did you come?'
None of the carefully planned arrangements seem to interest you and you do not take part
in them. When I turn away from you, you remain with your eyes closed; and so you
continue whenever I approach you. Tell me how I can derive pleasure with nothing but an
unresponsive painting which is what you are; you are indifferent to all enjoyments. What
does not please you cannot please me either. I am always looking to you, trying to please
you like a lily looking up at the moon. Speak, dear! Why are you like this? You are dearer
to me than even life. I adjure you! Speak and so relieve my mind."
Hemalekha turned towards him and looked at his face with her lotus like eyes. She
slightly hesitated before she answered his question. She wanted to drag him into a
philosophical discussion and guide him towards the Supreme state of Self realization. She
was also doubtful about him not paying importance to her words! She knew that he
thought of her only as a forest bred innocent girl. He had no true idea of her wisdom.
Somehow she gathered up some courage and slowly disengaging herself from his tight
embrace said:
My Lord! I also do love you and want to be in your company always. But some deep
question is troubling me like a thorn in the mind. I was just thinking about what greatest
undiminishing joy is there in this world that can be sought after. Though I am

continuously churning my mind for the answer, I have not succeeded so far! I am after all
a woman who is not in any way equal to your intellectual capacity! Do you know the
answer? Then please help me by telling me the answer and relieve me of my tension!
Hemachuda burst into laughter.
Was that all she was worried about? Just some silly doubt befitting her young age!
He suddenly felt lighter in the heart. He placed a tender kiss on her shining cheek and
Oof! Only this little problem! Women are indeed silly and worry about worthless
problems. What is the greatest joy? Indeed even the birds and beasts, nay the crawling
insects know what is pleasant and what is painful. They run away from pain and seek that
which makes them happy. What makes them happy they consider it to be good and
pursue them; what gives them pain they avoid it as bad. What is there in it, my dear that
you are always given to thinking about it? Is it not silly?
Hemalekha did not let him know the stupidity of his answer. She flashed a silly smile at
him and said: Yes, my Lord! Women can never judge anything in proper way. They do
act silly always. I am not an exception. So please be kind to this brainless female and
teach me the right answers. No one can clear my doubts like you. You are wise beyond
your years!
If you guide me in the correct way of thinking, I will stop being silly like other women.
Then only will I be suited to be a perfect life partner to you in truth. I will be relieved of
my silly thoughts and will take equal part in all enjoyments. Please be patient and clear
my silly doubts.
She flashed another charming smile at the handsome prince. The prince nodded his head
in agreement! He was confident that he could tackle her questions easily and soon she
would be participating in all amorous sports as he desired.
She continued: Yes! What you told me is the right answer. What pleases one is
happiness; what is not pleasing is misery. That is right. But I have a doubt here; forgive
my silly objection! The same object gives pain or pleasure according to circumstances.
Heat for example is pleasing in winter but unpleasant in summer. It is helpful as a fuel in
cooking; but burns you to death even, if uncontrolled! Its results vary according to
seasons, the places and its own size or intensity. Pleasure and pain are, therefore,
functions of seasons; similarly of latitudes and altitudes. Again, fire is good for people of
certain constitutions only and not for others. Still again, pleasure and pain depend on
circumstances. The same reasoning applies to cold, to riches, to sons, to wife, to kingdom
and so on. Observe how your father, the great Emperor spends his days in anxiety even
though he is surrounded by wife, children and wealth. Why does he not feel dragged
towards enjoyments any more? Of course not that all equal to his age feel the same
anxiety. Why do not others grieve like this? What has happened to the enjoyments in his
case? He is certainly on the look-out for happiness; are not all his resources directed
towards that end?
Nobody is happy if you observe. There is always dissatisfaction in everybodys life.
There are people who are miserable with all the wealth and pleasures at hand; there are
also people who do not own any wealth to speak of and are yet happy. Do the objects

really have inbuilt happiness in them? But we know it is not so. Everyone is miserable in
some way or other. No one seems to possess everything that is sufficient for happiness.
The question arises: Cannot a man be happy, even with such limited means? I shall give
you the answer. That cannot be happiness, my Lord, which is tinged with misery.
Misery is of two kinds, external and internal.
External misery is connected to the body; internal misery is connected to the mind and its
latent desires. Mental anxiety is worse than physical pain and no one born in the world
can escape it. Desire is the seed of the tree of misery and never fails in its fruits. Even
Gods are under it swaying; they live in celestial regions and have access to the nectar of
immortality; yet they are slaves to desires and working incessantly as it dictates.
Hemachuda had not expected this torrent of philosophical ideas from his little wife.
He wanted to end the conversation then and there and hold her in his embrace. But if he
acted that away, she would think of him as unintelligent and resent him more. He had to
prove that he was wiser then her. He had to continue the argument. So he questioned
When a desire gets fulfilled we are happy! So what is wrong with it? Who does not have
a desire? Maybe harming others to fulfill ones wants might be wrong. But desires
sanctioned by Scriptures lead a man towards the fulfillment of life! Oh come on; why
waste time on worthless discussions? Let us go out to the royal pond and play around
happily! Surely such a desire in me is not a sin! he tried to pull her towards him
Hemalekha gently pushed his hands away and continued innocently.
Have you ever thought why one feels good when a desire gets fulfilled? It is because the
gnawing pain caused by dissatisfaction disappears. That is all! But that is not the end. The
moment one desire is satisfied, the mind makes alive another desire and we do not rest
peacefully till that also gets over with. So we go on and on, fulfilling each desire of the
mind; but never have a moment of peace in our lives.
Insects also are in the pursuit of such happiness only. They never rest satisfied; yet their
enjoyment is distinctly better than that of men because their desires are less complex.
Can you state definitely that the happiness is gained by just satisfying one desire and rest
of the desires need not be bothered about? If such is the case, everyone should be happy
in this world.
Everyone is happy because some pain - mental or physical is removed by some act. When
a man is severely burnt, smearing of the ointment is happiness for him.
A man is happy when embraced by his beloved. But if he is anxious about something else
or physically afflicted, the same embrace is painful to him. What is a physical union after
all? It is just a physical need like excretion or hunger or thirst. An animal also feels tired
when carrying a load; a man also feels tired after copulation! What difference is there?
Both are just physical exertions.
O My husband! What enjoyment do you get in sexual unions? It is just some thrill arising
from some nerve-friction producing some chemicals in your brain! Same nerve friction is
enjoyed by dogs also when they mate!

Hemachuda was shocked! He had never though that sexual pleasures could be described
in such degrading words. He retorted vehemently.
No! Do not talk degradingly of my love like this. I am not just physically attracted to
you. I love your simplicity, your innocence; I love you alone. Union with you is an
expression of my love! There is a difference between my love and a dogs love! They do
not have the emotion of love! They mate prompted by nature. But I love you as my soul
partner! His face turned red in embarrassment! He looked away!
Hemalekha held his face in her hand and looked at his eyes directly.
She asked: Yes! I know you love me! I also love you! But what is love? Answer me
honestly! Would you have loved me if I was ugly or ordinary looking?
Hemachuda hesitated a moment. He replied with complete honesty!
I fell in love with you because of your extraordinary beauty. I understood your character
only later. He bent his head in embarrassment.
Hemalekha questioned again.
I know! Nothing wrong with that! But tell me what beauty is?
Hemachuda remained silent! He never had thought about these topics and had no answer
to her simple question.
Hemalekha continued.
Ok! I will give the answer myself! Beauty is just a fanciful notion; like a dream
experience! There is no beauty in objects. Only we superimpose the quality of beauty in
the objects. Beauty is only a creation of the mind. It is just a myth. It has no real existence
in the objective world. Even in the absence of objects we can conceive beautiful objects
in the dream too; because the concept of beauty is only in the mind!
Hemachuda was thoughtful!
Hemalekha rang for her personal maid. She got some refreshments bought for the prince.
As the prince silently partook of the snacks and drinks, Hemalekha continued to talk.
Whatever happiness is experienced in the waking state can be experienced in the dream
state too, where there are no gross objects present. You can have the same pleasure in the
dream state too! Beauty is just a mental concept!
Listen to this story to understand this point.
There was once a most handsome son of a king; he was fairer than Manmatha himself.
He was married to a fair damsel of extraordinary beauty. But she was attracted more
towards an ugly servant of the royal household. They both skillfully deceived the prince
and met in secret daily. In the evenings the servant got the prince drunk very heavily. As
the prince lay on the bed almost in an unconscious state, the wicked servant would send a
wily woman of loose morals to entertain the prince. Later the unchaste princess would
meet the servant secretly and enjoy his company. The prince never understood that he
was only enjoying a worthless harlot daily. He thought that he was in the company of his
devoted wife and felt himself to be a fortunate person to be blessed with such an angel as
his wife. But it so happened that one day the servant was very busy and did not
personally attend to the drinks of the Master. He left the liquor on the table and went

away. Consequently the prince did not drink as much as usual. Feeling desirous of his
wifes company he rushed to the private chambers. The harlot was waiting for him as
usual. The prince did not recognize her in the heat of the passion. After his passion got
satisfied he noticed that the female in his embrace was not his wife, but some ugly
wretch. Shocked to his senses he questioned her angrily - who she was.
She remained silent terrified of the prince. The prince felt cheated. He suspected some
foul play. He flew into a rage and held her by her hair and drawing his sword threatened
her: Speak the truth or your filthy body will lie headless on this very bed! The wily
woman confessed the whole thing. She took him to the place where the servant and his
wife were enjoying each other. There he found the lovely and delicate body of his
beautiful wife in the close and loving embrace of the dark, ugly loathsome savage of the
The prince could not believe his eyes. He stood there speechless. He was in deep shock.
He reflected within himself: Fie on me who was addicted to intoxicating drinks! Fie on
those who are infatuated with females! Women are like birds on trees hopping from one
branch to another. I was a fool to have loved my wife like my own soul. I should have
known that women are good for only sensuous fools. He who loves them is a wild ass.
Even autumn clouds may sometimes become stabilized at one place; but women cannot
be trusted to be loyal to one single person. I loved her so much; I was devoted to her so
much; she was unfaithful to me and was in illicit love with a savage, like a prostitute
entertaining a lecherous fool! All the while she pretended to love me. I never even could
imagine that she was not in my company at nights. I was too drunk but trusted her to be
always a devoted wife. I believed that she served me like a shadow! I was deceived by
this wicked wretch of a girl and felt happy as if I was with my wifes company! But what
is in that ugly servant that is not in me to make my wife seek his company?
Thinking like this the prince felt disgusted with the affairs of the world. Developing
extreme dispassion he retired to the forest and lived like a recluse contemplating on
Higher Truths!
Hemalekha continued: So my good husband, does this story not prove to you that beauty
is only a concept in the mind? You say that you love me because I am beautiful. There are
many lovers whose love exceeds yours, even if their dear ones may not be beautiful in
your eyes.
Let us analyze why one sees beauty in a woman. A woman who is perceived by the
senses is just an object like all other objects.
All the people around her do not perceive her in the same way. A man alone sees the
woman as beautiful and infatuating; because he already has the conception of a beautiful
woman in his mind. He superimposes his own conception of the qualities of an attractive
female on the female who stands in front of him and that female is nothing but a shape
drawn by the brain. The mind draws an image as per the preconceived idea and imagines
that there is a beautiful woman standing there. The fair woman that appears as the object
is only the reflection of the subtle concept already in the subjective mind. The process of
super imposition of beauty on the outside object and drawing the picture of a beautiful
woman are repeated till the shape outside becomes gross. The mind draws an image of
her beauty in conformity with its own repeated conceptions. The repeatedly drawn image
becomes clearer and clearer until it appears solidly as the object. An attraction springs up

(and enslaves the mind) by constant mental associations. Since the mind now deludes
itself that the object perceived is a beautiful object with inbuilt pleasure, the senses get
provoked. Mind becomes more restless. The desire to enjoy her rises automatically. But a
mind which does not have preconceived notions does not get provoked by her sight.
A composed mind does not react to the presence of the fairest maiden. The reason for
infatuation in the uncontrolled mind is the fulfillment of ones own mental picture getting
gratified. Children and Yogis do not get excited by the presence of young women because
they do not have such conceptions of beauty in their mind. Neither do women think of
other women as beautiful. They have a preconceived idea that they are the most beautiful
objects in the world. So whoever finds pleasure in anything, the beauty therein is only
mental imagery. Even ugly and loathsome women are looked upon as delightful angels by
their husbands. If the mind conceives anything as loathsome and not delightful, there will
be no pleasure in such.
Fie on human beings who appraise the foulest part of the body as the most delightful. If
one should see beauty in that body-part which is wet with impure excretions, where will
not man see beauty? Tell me!
Listen Prince! The idea of beauty lies in one's own desire innate in the mind. Sweets are
liked by almost everyone. Even children recognize the sweetness in the edibles. The same
chemical changes happen in almost all human beings when the chemical in the sugar
excites the tongue. But beauty is not innate in the object like a chemical; beauty is just a
subjective concept which is different in different persons. If beauty is natural to the object
of love, why is it not recognized by children too? The form, the stature and complexion
of people differ in different countries and at different times; their ears may be long; their
faces distorted; their teeth large; their nose prominent; bodies hairy or smooth, their hair
red, black, or golden, light or thick, smooth or curly; their complexion fair, dark, coppery,
yellow or grey. Yet each man finds a particular woman as beautiful and enjoys her; she
may look ugly and loathsome to another man with a different conception of beauty. All of
them derive the same kind of pleasure as you, Prince! Even the most accomplished
among men have fallen into the habit of seeking pleasure from women, for all consider
her the best hunting ground for delight. An idea is inbuilt in the mind that a woman is an
object of enjoyment; and no one escapes it. Similarly also a man's body is thought by
woman to be the highest source of enjoyment. The provocation of senses occurs just by
the natural process in the body. To the provoked senses, the opposite sex looks beautiful
and attractive till the passion is satiated. Later the same object which was pleasing and
beautiful might look disgusting and loathsome. But consider the matter well, Prince!
What is this body after all? It is just a shape created by the mind; it is filled with flesh and
fat; some ugly round shape with liquid mass is at the top moving this way and that way;
the hard ugly bones hold the flesh together. Stinking hair covers the whole structure here
and there. Bile and phlegm fill the insides; body is a pitcher of urine and faeces. It is
produced by semen and ova; born from the womb! Just think of it! It is a wonder that
men find pleasure in such limbs! Finding delight in such a thing, how are men any better
than worms growing in offal?
My king! You love me; dont you? You call me beautiful; dont you? But tell me what
beauty you find in this body that you always dwell on it in your mind. But analyze this
body in your mind part by part and understand the loathsome nature of it. Whatever be
the exotic taste of the food consumed it finally comes out as stinking material from ones

body. Body is nothing but a fleshy pitcher of nine stinking holes; you have to clean your
hand thoroughly whichever hole you chance to touch! In such a state of affairs, answer
me as to what is pleasing and non- pleasing!
The Prince was in a state of shock! He sat there like a statue. His mind was in turmoil.
His whole body was bathed in sweat. He quickly took leave of his wife and went to his
own chambers.
Hemachuda had changed. He understood the truth hidden in the words of his pretty wife.
He decided to control his mind and show her that he was no less than her in Self control.
He will know more than her and see to it that she admired his Knowledge. He kept
women, wine and delicacies away. He filled his chambers with various scriptures and
spent his time studying them. He invited many worthy souls and discussed philosophy
with them. He had now achieved at least a good store of spiritual vocabulary. But he was
bored; terribly bored. He did not get any great bliss from philosophical knowledge. Every
topic was dry and boring. Hemalekha might be right! Maybe beauty is the conception of
the mind! But what is wrong with it? If it was real or unreal, the pleasure obtained was
not less in degree because one knew about its unreal nature. After all he did not do
anything criminal by enjoying life. He was a prince; he had all facilities for enjoying life
as a blessing from God! Why waste his life in worthless studies of impractical
philosophies? To please whom? If Hemalekha did not want to be disturbed, he wont
trouble her. She was too young and inexperienced in the royal way of life. As she grows
old she will change. So thinking the prince slowly got back to his old ways of life. But
again in a few days, he got disinterested in everything. He remembered the sensible
advice given by his wife. He again refrained from pleasures and tried to spend his days in
meditations and study of scriptures. Soon he got bored of all this again and reverted back
to his pleasure seeking life. His mind was thus moving to and fro, like a swing.
Unable to stick to one particular way of life he oscillated between pleasure seeking and
pleasure avoiding acts. He neither could enjoy any royal pleasures, nor feel any joy in the
spiritual path. He became pale and melancholy. He felt lost.
Hemalekha soon observed that her husband was not in his normal moods.
He avoided her completely. Even if chanced to meet, he bent his head and walked away.
He looked pale and weak. The cheerful smile which always added charm to his handsome
face had disappeared. He was not eating well.
He desisted from all types of royal sports.
He kept to himself in his room and avoided all his friends and relations. His maids and
servants were worried and reported all this secretly to the Young Queen.
Hemalekha decided to meet him and find out the true state of affairs.
The Prince was sitting on his bed. He was leaning on the backrest. His eyes were closed
in deep thoughts. He did not even hear the anklet sounds of his wife as she entered his
room. Hemalekha placed her hand on his shoulder and whispered My Lord!
The Prince got up with a shock. He had not expected Hemalekha there at that time.
But feeling weak he collapsed on the bed again.

Hemalekha felt anxious about his condition. She knew he had no illness or ailment
connected to the body. But he looked so pathetic, her mind melted in compassion towards
him. She asked with concern: How is it, my Lord that you are not as cheerful as before?
You look sad. Why so? I do not see symptoms of any particular ailment in you. Diseases
are usually caused by disharmony in the three tempers of the body. Tempers get displaced
by food consumed, clothes worn, words uttered or heard, sights seen, objects contacted,
changes of seasons and travel in different countries. There is no way to escape it; but one
need not worry about it also too much medicines always can cure such ailments rising
due to imbalance in the tempers. But your ailment seems to be different. There is no
medicine for unknown ailments. Tell me dear, why you are so sad!
Her tender words were like nectar to his parched mind. Hemachuda poured out all his
problems to her immediately.
He said: After our talks on the last occasion, I felt averse to all pleasures. But I am not
able to completely devote my mind to any particular spiritual path also. I do not feel any
joy in the philosophical thoughts too. I cannot even revert back to my old ways of
pleasure seeking. I feel like a person under death sentence. I do not relish any luxury that
has fallen to my lot. I just go through everything as I have nothing better to do. I am
habituated to only this sort of life. Please my dear tell me how I should try for real
Hemalekha felt happy by his words. She knew that this slightest sign of dispassion is a
sure sign of Goddess Tripuras grace on him. But instead of a discourse on contemplative
practices, she narrated to him a light story by which he would understand the higher
Listen Prince, I will tell you my story.
My mother and I lived alone at first. Then my mother provided me a lady-in-waiting to
keep me company. She made friends with a wicked lady named Lady Ignorance. This
new friend always created new and wonderful things and I also started spending time
with her. My lady- in- waiting was so pure that I could not remain without her company
even for a second. So we three were always together.
The wicked lady had an idiot son, Mr. Fool! He was completely a fool and was addicted
to drinks. My good friend lost her head and fell in love with him. They started living
together. They did not even mind me watching all this. I was helpless and stayed with my
friend and saw her slow downfall. She soon was the mother of a child. He was as idiotic
as his father. He was named Master Inconstant. He was wicked like his grandmother and
stupid like his father. My friend also became a fool in their company. She no more cared
for me. Mr. Fool tried to hook me too; but I was careful and remained as pure as ever.
But people talked! Everyone made light of me saying that I was his slave.
The baby was left to my care and his parents were always enjoying each other without a
break. The wicked lad at last grew up and was duly married to madam Unsteady. She was
always restless and attired herself in many forms to please her husband. The husband was
fully under her control. Mr. Inconstant, too, used to fly hundreds of miles in a twinkling
and return, go here, there and everywhere, but yet could find no rest. Whenever Mr.
Inconstant wished to go anywhere and whatever he wanted to have in any measure,
Madame Unsteady was ready to meet his desires changing herself accordingly and

creating new environments to please her husband. She thus won his affection entirely.
She bore him five sons who were devoted to their parents. Each one was skilled in his
own way. They were also entrusted to my care by my friend. Out of love for my friend,
I brought them up with care, and made them strong.
Then those five sons of Madame Unsteady individually erected splendid palaces, invited
their father to their homes and entertained him continually in turns.
The eldest of them entertained him in his mansion with different kinds of sweet music,
with incantations of the Vedas, the reading of scriptures, the humming sounds of bees, the
twittering of birds and other sounds sweet to hear. The father was pleased with the son,
who arranged for still further sounds for him which were harsh, fearful and tumultuous
like the roar of the lion, the peal of thunder, the raging of the sea, the rumblings of
earthquakes, the cries from lying-in-chambers, and the quarrels, moans and lamentations
of many people.
Invited by his second son, the father went to stay in his mansion. There he found soft
seats, downy beds, fine clothes and some hard things, others hot or warm or cold, or
refreshing things with various designs, and so on. He was pleased with the agreeable
things and felt aversion to the disagreeable ones.
Then going to the third son, he saw charming and variegated scenes, things red, white,
brown, blue, yellow, pink, smoky grey, tawny, red-brown, black and spotted, others fat or
lean, short or long, broad or round, bent or wavy, pleasing or horrible, nauseous, brilliant
or savage, unsightly or captivating, some pleasing and others not pleasing.
The father was taken to the fourth son's mansion and there he had fruits and flowers to
order. He had drinks, things to be licked, to be sucked, and to be masticated, juicy things,
some refreshing like nectar, others sweet, sour, pungent or astringent, some decoctions of
similar flavors, and so on. He tasted them all.
The last son took the father to his home and treated him with fruits and flowers, with
various scented grasses, herbs and things of different odors, sweet or putrescent, mild or
acrid, others stimulating or soporific and so on.
In this manner, he enjoyed himself uninterruptedly, one way or another, in one mansion
or another, being pleased with some and repulsed by others.
The sons too were so devoted to their father that they would not touch anything
themselves in his absence. But Mr. Inconstant not only enjoyed himself thoroughly in his
sons mansions, but also stole away things from them and shared them in secret with his
dear wife, Madam Unsteady, in his own home, unknown to his sons.
After some time, Mr.Vorax (voracious Eater) fell in love with Mr. Inconstant. They both
were very much attached to each other. He used to fetch enormous provisions for her and
she consumed them all in a moment and was still hungry for more. She kept her husband
always on his legs, to collect her food; he was also incessantly in quest of securing
provisions for her. She was not satisfied with the service of the father and his five sons
put together, but wanted still more. Such was her insatiable hunger. She used to order all
of them about for her needs.
In a short time she gave birth to two sons. They were Master Flaming-mouth the elder
and Master Mean the younger - both of course very dear to their mother. Whenever Mr.
Inconstant sought his lover in privacy, his body was burnt by the fiery flames of Master
Flaming-mouth; being thus afflicted, he used to fall down unconscious. Again, whenever
he fondled the younger son out of his love, he was hated by all the world and he himself

became as if dead. Mr. Inconstant thus experienced untold misery. Then my good natured
companion was herself afflicted because of her son, Mr.Inconstant's grief. Being also
associated with her two grandsons, Mr. Flaming-mouth and Mr. Mean, she became quite
miserable and gave way under the public contempt. I too, dear Lord, collapsed in
sympathy with her. Several years passed this way.
Mr. Inconstant was dominated by Madam Vorax and lost all initiative and was entirely in
her hands. He was foredoomed and betook himself to the city of ten gates. There he lived
with Madam Vorax his sons and his mother, always seeking pleasure but only sharing
misery day and night. Burnt by the wrath of Flaming-mouth and treated with contempt by
Mr. Mean, he swung hither and thither greatly agitated. He went into the homes of his
other five sons but was only perplexed, without being happy. My companion too was so
affected by her son's plight that she again collapsed, and yet she continued to live in the
same city.
Madam Vorax with her two boys Mr. Flaming-mouth and Mr. Mean was being fed by
Madam Ignorance - her husband's grandmother, and by Mr. Fool, her father-in-law. She
got on well with her co-wife Madam Unsteady and was even intimate with her.
(Ingratiating herself with all of them), she completely dominated her husband Mr.
I was in a death-like state because my friend was also in the same condition. I too
continued to live there because of my love for my friend. Otherwise, none of them could
remain in the town without me who was their support. I was sometimes suppressed by
Madam Ignorance, was made a fool of by Mr. Fool, became inconstant on account of Mr.
Inconstant, grew unsteady with Madam Unsteady, contacted wrath with Flaming-mouth
and looked contemptible with Mr. Mean. I reflected within myself all the moods of my
friend, for she would have died if I had left her even a minute. Because of my company,
the common people always had doubts about my chastity, whereas discriminating men
could see that I have always remained pure.
My Mother, the Supreme Good One, is ever pure and clear, more extensive than space
and subtler than the subtlest; she is omniscient, yet of limited Knowledge; she works all,
yet remains inactive; she holds all, herself being unsupported; all depend on her, and she
is independent; all forms are hers, but she is formless; all belong to her, but she is
unattached; though illumining all, she is not known to any one under any circumstances;
she is Bliss, yet not blissful; she has no father nor mother; innumerable are her daughters,
like me. My sisters are as many as the waves on the sea. All of them, O Prince, are just
like me involved in their companions' affairs. Though sharing the lives of my friends, I
am in possession of the most potent spell, by virtue of which I am also exactly like my
mother in nature.
When my friend's son retired to rest, he always slept soundly on the lap of his mother.
When Mr. Inconstant was asleep, all others, including his sons, were also asleep; for no
one could remain awake when he slept. On such occasions, the city was guarded by Mr.
Motion, the intimate friend of Mr. Inconstant. He always moved to and fro by two upper
gateways. My friend, the mother of Mr. Inconstant, along with him and her wicked friend
who was her mother-in-law now, kept a watch over the whole sleeping family. I used that
opportunity to seek my mother in that time interval and remained blissful in her fond
embrace. But I was obliged to return to the city simultaneously with the waking of the

This Mr. Motion, the friend of Mr. Inconstant, is most powerful and keeps them all alive.
Though single, he multiplies himself, manifests as the city and citizens, pervades them
all, protects and holds them. Without him, they would all be scattered and lost like pearls
without the string of the necklace. He is the bond between the inmates and myself;
empowered by me, he serves in the city as the string in a necklace. If that city decays, he
collects the inmates together, leads them to another and remains their master.
In this way Mr. Inconstant rules over cities always, he himself remaining under the sway
of his friend. Though supported by such a powerful friend, though born of such a virtuous
mother and brought up by me, he is never otherwise than miserable, because he is tossed
about by his two wives and several sons. He is torn asunder by his sons and finds not the
least pleasure but only intense misery.
Tempted by Madame Unsteady, he grieves; ordered about by Madam Vorax, he runs
about in search of food for her; stricken by Flaming-mouth he burns with rage, loses his
sense and is baffled; approaching Mr. Mean, he is openly despised and reviled by others
and becomes as one dead under shame of public contempt.
Already of disreputable heredity, and now infatuated by love, and tossed about by his
wicked wives and sons, he has been living with them in all kinds of places good or bad;
in forests with woods or thorny bushes and infested with wild beasts; in deserts burning
hot; in icy tracts pierced by cold; in putrid ditches or in dark holes and so on.
Again and again my friend is stricken with grief on account of her son's calamities and
she nearly collapsed to death by misery.
I too, though sane and pure by nature, dear Lord, got involved in the affairs of her family
and became miserable.
Who can hope for even the least happiness in bad company? One may as well seek to
quench ones thirst by drinking water from a mirage!
Engulfed in sorrow, my friend once sought me in private. Advised by me, she soon
gained a good husband, killed her own son and imprisoned his sons. Then accompanied
by me, she quickly gained my Mother's presence. Being pure, she often embraced my
Mother. She at once dived in the sea of Bliss and became Bliss itself.
In the same manner, you too can conquer your sense attractions which are only newly
acquired habits and do not make your true nature.
My Lord, attain the Mother and gain eternal happiness. I have now related to you, my
Lord, my own experience at the pedestal of Bliss."
Hemachuda waited till she completed her story. He looked displeased with the whole
discourse. He addressed her in a stern voice: Enough of this fairy tale! I know you are
the daughter of an apsara and Sage Vyaghrapada brought you up. If you wanted to amuse
me and make me cheerful, you need not have imagined such a meaningless story and
wasted my time. Do you think I am a fool to believe this story?
Listen to my story now! Long back a clown related the following story to amuse me.
A barren woman's son once mounted a chariot reflected in a mirror and decorated with
silver taken from the sheen of mother-of-pearl, armed himself with weapons made of
human horn, fought in the battle-field of the sky, killed the future king, subdued the city
of aerial hosts and enjoyed himself with dream maidens on the banks of the waters of a

Your story is as unbelievable as this story told by the clown. Both stories are meaningless
and idiotic!
Hemalekha retorted immediately:
O Lord, how can you say my parable is meaningless?
I am the beloved daughter of the Great Sage and I have been taught never to utter
untruths. People like us never can talk nonsense. If virtuous people resort to falsehood it
will undermine the effect of their penance. Moreover, one who entertains an earnest
seeker with hollow or false words will not prosper in this world nor advance in the next.
Listen, Prince! My object is to help you come out of your depression and understand the
right method of attaining the Supreme Truth!
A man who is blinded by illness cannot have his eye-sight restored by merely hearing the
prescription read. He is a fool who thinks of good advice as meaningless.
Do you think, my dear, that I, your wife, would deceive you with a myth when you are so
much in earnest? Use your intellect and analyze my story. An intelligent man always
verifies the statement properly before deciding to accept or reject it. I will present to you
the proofs myself.
After my talks last time, you got disinterested in sense pleasures. You understood the
truth in my words and so with reason you were able to develop dispassion.
Now also I am speaking words of wisdom only. By understanding this, again you will
develop more dispassion. So trust my words. Mistrust in a well-wishers words is the
surest way to ruin. A man who is always suspicious gains nothing.
Faith is like a doting mother who always saves her trusting son from dangerous
situations. The fool who has no faith in his well-wisher's words is forsaken by prosperity,
happiness and fame. A man who is always suspicious can never gain anything
worthwhile. Trust alone holds the world and nourishes all. How can a babe survive if it
has no trust in its mother? How can a lover gain pleasure if he does not trust his beloved?
Similarly, how is the aged parent to be happy if he has who has no trust in his sons? Will
the farmer till the land, if he had no faith? How can humanity exist without universal
trust? Mutual distrust will put an end to all transactions.
Do not think everything happens by the law of Cause and effect. There also one should
have trust in that law. One must believe in the law that such and such a cause produces
such and such a result. Is that not faith?
One cant even breathe if he does not trust the air around him. Or he will fear the bacteria
abounding everywhere; block his nose and die!
So develop faith before you aspire for supreme beatitude.
If again, Prince, you hesitate to trust my words thinking that I am an incompetent person,
how else can you get the solution to your problem?
Hemachuda replied in a conciliatory tone:
Dearest! What else can I do? If faith should be placed on any one, my dear, it should
certainly be placed on those worthy of it, in order that one's ends may be served.
He who is after the highest good should never trust an incompetent person. Otherwise, he
comes to grief, like a fish attracted by the tempting bait at the end of a fishing line.
Therefore, faith can only be put in the worthy and not in the unworthy.

Like the fish trusting the bait, many have ruined their lives. But by acting skeptical and
cautious many have achieved their goals without fail.
I do not know your competence. I do not know whether you are competent to guide me
towards my goal. Why then do you ask me how desired end can be approached?"
Hemachuda laughed aloud.
Hemalekha would not give up. She asked again:
How do you decide the competence of a person? You must have a standard of
competence fixed in your mind. Right? Some one is considered to be an authority and
their judgments are accepted.
How do you judge something is good or bad? Again you must have standard of goodness
and badness fixed in your mind! Right? Some one is considered to be an authority and
their judgments are accepted.
Then tell me, what is the accepted authority behind such standards? Those people are
accepted as authorities due to reference to some accepted standards. Are the authors
themselves worthy or unworthy? In this way, there will be no end to argument.
Moreover, the person who refers to these authorities has to be judged for his competence
or incompetence. This can also lead to endless argument.
Therefore life moves by faith only.
I will convince you with proper reason how faith alone leads to the Supreme Goal. Listen
attentively. Arguments and faith both should not be carried to the extreme. Either in the
present life or life in the hereafter, people cant achieve anything either by endless
discussions or blind acceptance. Of the two, however, there is hope for the latter and
there is none for the former.
I will relate to you one anecdote which proves my point.
Once there lived a saint, by name Kaushika, on the Sahya Hill near the banks of the
Godavari. He was serene, pure, and pious. He also had the Knowledge of the Supreme
Truth. He had many disciples who sought Knowledge under his guidance.
Once he had gone out on an important work. His disciples finished their respective tasks
and sat down to revise their lessons. They started discussing philosophy, according to
their own lights.
There appeared on the scene a Brahmin of great intellect and wide learning. His name
was Soonga. He joined the discussion and soon refuted all their arguments by his skill in
logic. He had no faith in any philosophical thought. He had no conviction about
anybodys authority. He was adept in arguments of any sort; he could debate well on any
The disciples of Kaushika argued that the truth must be ascertained by reference to some
standard alone. But Soonga contradicted them on the basis of an unending series of
standards and refuted them.
At the end of his well-worded argument he said:
Listen, you Brahmins, standards cannot be applied for ascertaining the merits or
demerits of any statement and you cannot reach the truth using those standards.
Standards can be either right or wrong. Erroneous standards will not lead to the proper
end. They cannot serve the purpose of testing the statements.

First we have to establish the correctness these standards. We have to present other
standards to test them. Are they in their turn infallible? Proceeding in this way, no finality
can be reached. Therefore no tests are possible.
Ascertainment of Truth being impossible without being tested, nothing can therefore be
Truth. Even what statement is finalized by me cannot be proved by any standard; nor can
you prove my competence. Nothing is true.
What then is the decision arrived at? Nothing! Nothing void - Shoonya alone is true. All
are Shoonya! All are void!
Even this statement cannot be proved by reliable facts. Hence, the statement that all are
void ends in void too.
Hearing his discourse, some of them were impressed by the force of Soonga's logic and
became scholiasts of the void. They got lost in the maze of their philosophy.
The discriminating ones among the hearers placed Soonga's arguments before their
master and were enlightened by him. Thus they gained peace and happiness.
Therefore, beware of dry arguments parading as logic. Use logic in the same manner as
presented by Sacred Scriptures. Surely one will reach his goal of Supreme truth in this
Hemachuda looked at his wife in admiration! So young; yet so wise!
He addressed her with humility:
Dearest! I did not realize your greatness till now. You are indeed a blessed soul! You are
wise beyond your age! I too am blessed as I am wedded to you! I know you have all the
answers to my questions.
You are saying faith alone leads to the highest good! How does that happen?
Please explain! Where should one have faith; Where should not?
Different scriptures teach different things.
Different teachers teach different things.
Even the commentaries written for the same scriptures differ.
Reasoning about them will also not prove their correctness.
Which of them is to be followed and which rejected?
Each one stamps his own views with the seal of authority and condemns the rest, not only
as worthless but also as harmful, my dear! That being the case, I cannot decide for
myself. What you condemned as the school of the void (ShoonyaVada) turns round on
others and attacks them. Why should not that school be respected? It has its own
adherents and its own system of philosophy.
Explain to me dearest, all these things clearly. They must indeed be already clear to you."
Hemalekha who was well trained in the spiritual matters by her father spoke to him with
extreme kindness:
Dearest to my heart, listen to me attentively!
The cause of all the problems in the world is the Mind! Mind is a continuous wave like
vibration, never quite even for a fraction a second. It is like a restless monkey hopping
from one thing to the other without a break. Mind is the cause of all anxieties in every
one. A restless mind is the channel of endless troubles. But when we sleep the mind is
quite and there is no anxiety or restlessness. So listen to me with complete attention
without getting diverted to anything else. Hearing with a distracted mind is as good as not

hearing, for the words serve no useful purpose, resembling the fruit-laden tree seen in a
Instead of dry logic, one must engage in purposeful discussions to reap the benefit of
logic. And after arriving at the final truth of the statements through proper logic, one must
follow it up with appropriate action to reap the full benefit of the discussion.
You already know, my dear that aimless discussions are fruitless and that earnest efforts
are fruitful in the world.
A farmer ploughs the field in correct seasons because of earnest effort followed by
reason. The same discrimination helps a person to estimate the value of gold, silver,
precious stones, medicinal herbs and the rest. No practical work will be done if people
spend all their lives in vain discussions alone. Therefore, one should discard aimless talk
and start directing his efforts in accomplishing the highest aim of life as ascertained by
appropriate sincere discussion. One should not refrain from individual effort like Soonga
and his followers. An earnest man never fails. How can effort fail to give results?
Men earn their food; gods earn their nectar; noble ascetics attain their Supreme beatitude
only by individual effort alone. Any ordinary desire also is fulfilled by individual effort
alone. When has any dry discussion without appropriate action led to any benefit?
True! Sometime individual efforts meet with failures also. But they are exceptions. One
should never lose faith in individual exertion. The accursed man who loses faith in
individual efforts is his own ruin.
Be guided by proper deliberation; be earnest about reaching the goal; follow it up with
sincere effort; you will never fail; emancipation is certain.
Of course there are many methods mentioned to reach that Supreme Goal. Choose that
one among them which is the surest. Which then is the surest?
We have to choose a perfect method by proper reasoning and judge its surety by looking
at the examples of the wise who have attained the goal. After being sure of the method,
one should immediately start the practice.
That is the best method which does not again yoke you to suffering.
A discriminating man sees all the aspects of life as endowed with pain.
Whatever has even the slightest misery as its accompaniment surely cannot be good.
Wealth, children, wife, kingdom, treasury, army, fame, learning, intellect, body, beauty
and prosperity - all these are transient and already in the process of getting swallowed by
time. All these things are seeds which sprout as pain and grow into miseries. The right
means lies beyond these.
Why do we hanker after these evanescent things? It is the deluding power of
Maheshwara, the Master Magician! He is the Supreme Creator and all are deluded by
Everyone gets deluded even by the limited magical feats of an ordinary magician. But
even there some intelligent ones see through his tricks and escape his delusion. But who
can escape the illusory power of Mahadeva?
Yet some wise ones also learn to overcome the universal Maya (illusion), if the Lord is
gracious. Therefore HE should be worshipped by those who are anxious to cross the
Ocean of Maya. He with whom God is graciously pleased is endowed with Mahavidya,
the Supreme Knowledge by means of which he surely crosses over the Ocean of Maya.

There are other methods which are put forward as leading to the Supreme end, but they
are bound to fail in their purpose if the Lord's grace be not forthcoming.
Therefore worship the Primal Cause of the universe as the starting point; be devoted to
Him; He will soon enable you to succeed in your attempts to destroy the illusion.
Why should we believe that God is the Creator of this Universe?
Let us reason it out!
We perceive the Universe around us. Clearly the universe must have some origin.
Although the origin is shrouded in mystery, let us investigate the cause from the visible
effect and be guided by the sacred scriptures; and then the conclusion will be reached that
there is a Creator who in no way is comparable to any known agents. All the arguments
contradicting the existence of God have been logically refuted by many authoritative
scriptural texts. We cannot admit sensory evidence as the only proof for disproving the
existence of a Creator. Such an argument is merely an apology for philosophy and leads
nowhere. Salvation is not its end but damnation is its fruit.
Dry logic also must be condemned. Another system declares that the Universe is eternal,
without beginning or end. It follows that the universe and its phenomena are self-existent;
thus lifeless insentient matter is its own agent and keeper, which is absurd, because action
implies intelligence and no example can be cited to the contrary. Scriptures also say that
the Primal Cause is an intelligent principle, and we know that action always originates
from an intelligent source alone. The world is thus traced to its Creator who differs
entirely from any agent known to us. Judging from the magnitude of the creation, His
power must be immeasurable in the same proportion as the unimaginable vastness of the
creation. Such a one must also be able to protect and elevate His own creatures.
Surrender therefore unreservedly unto Him.
I shall adduce an example as a proof of this. We find in every-day life that a Master even
if he be of limited means always ensures the prospects of the man who is sincerely
devoted to him and pleases him. If the Lord of the world be pleased, will anything be
withheld from the devotee? Tell me. He is the only Solace of the devotees!
The Chiefs and Masters of this world are not necessarily kind; may be they are cruel and
ungrateful also. Their patronage is also wavering and short-lived. The Supreme Lord has
infinite mercy for His devotees, is most grateful and has unlimited powers. Otherwise
would people continue to worship Him from untold ages?
Kingdoms perish because they do not have perfect rulers. But the Universe continues
without ending ever. This Lord of mercy is well established and also rightly famed.
Surrender yourself directly and unhesitatingly to him. He will ordain the best for you and
you need not ask for it.
Among the methods of approach to God, there areA. Devotion to cross over difficulties.
B. Devotion to get the fulfillment of desires.
C. Devotion without expecting anything in return.
The last one is the best and surest in its results.
In practical life too, a Master usually helps a man who pleads for help; but if the man had
not behaved properly in the past the Master may not heed to his prayers. So also the

service done only for some selfish gains bears indeterminate and limited fruit according
to its intensity. Devoted service with no ulterior motive takes a long time to be
recognized; yet it makes even the petty chief amiable. A human master may take long to
recognize unselfish work; but God, the Lord of the universe, the Dweller in our hearts,
knows everything and soon bestows appropriate fruits. In the case of other kinds of
devotees, God has to await the course of destiny - that being His own ordainment;
whereas for the selfless devotee, God, the Lord and the sole Refuge, is all in all and takes
care of him without reference to the devotees past actions; He may even break his own
ordained laws. He compensates the devotee quickly, and that is because He is supreme
and self-contained without depending on anything else.
The predestined fate or Divine will is powerless before Him. Every one knows how He
set aside predestined fate and divine laws in the case of His famous devotee,
Maarkandeya. I will explain to you now the fitness of this. Listen, my dearest!
{Once upon a time, there lived a sage called Mrikandu with his wife Marudvati. Both
were devotees of Shiva. The couple was childless, and so decided to perform austerities
so they would be blessed with a child. Then one day, Shiva appeared before them. Shiva
asked the couple if they desired an ordinary son who would live a long life, or an
exceptional son who would live a short life. The couple asked for the latter.
In due course, Marudvati gave birth to a boy and the child was named Maarkandeya
(literally: son of Mrikandu). Maarkandeya was an exceptionally gifted child, and became
an accomplished Sage early in his childhood. He was especially devoted to Shiva, and
had mastered the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra. At the age of sixteen, his time on this earth
had come to an end, and so Yama, death personified, came to take him away. At the time,
Maarkandeya was in a temple worshipping the icon of Shiva (Shiva Lingam). When he
saw Yama, out of fright, Maarkandeya grabbed hold of the Shiva Lingam and asked Lord
Shiva to protect him. Yama threw his noose around the boy-sage, which encircled the
Shiva Lingam too.
Suddenly, the Shiva Lingam burst open with a thundering roar and a majestic, fiery form
of Shiva appeared out of the blazing light. Enraged that Yama should have the audacity to
encircle the Shiva Lingam with his noose, Shiva struck down Kaala (Yama is also called
Kaala, time, since time brings death to all things) with His trident, and Kaala was no
more. Maarkandeya was spared from death. Shiva blessed Maarkandeya with eternal life
and proclaimed that he shall forever remain a sixteen-year-old Sage. The assembly of
Devas who had witnessed the spectacle begged Shiva to revive Yama, as a world without
death would put unnecessary burden on the Earth. Shiva then revived Yama, and declared
that His devotees were forever to be spared from the noose of Yama.
Since that day, the fiery form of Shiva that appeared to save the boy-sage Maarkandeya is
called Kaala-samhaara Murti.}
Hemalekha continued:
The idea that one cannot escape ones destiny is applicable only to weak-minded and
senseless idiots. Yogis who practice control of breath conquer fate. Even fate cannot
impose its fruits on yogis. Destiny seizes and holds only senseless people. Conforming to
and following nature, destiny forms part of nature. Nature again is only the contrivance
for enforcing Gods will. His purpose is always sure and cannot be prevented. Its edge

can however, be blunted by devotion to Him and if it is not so blunted, the predisposing
cause must therefore be considered a most powerful factor in a mans life. Therefore,
eschew high vanity and take refuge in Him. He will spontaneously take you to the
Highest State. This is the first rung in the ladder to the pedestal of Bliss. Nothing else is
worth while.
Hemachuda felt immensely happy by her discourse.
Ignoring her age, gender and relation to him, he surrendered to Hemalekha completely in
his mind and accepted her as his Guru.
He questioned her with extreme humility:
"Tell me, dear, who is this God, the Creator, the Self-contained One and the Ordainer of
the universe to whom I should take refuge in. Some say He is Vishnu, others Shiva, some
worship Ganesha, some adore the Sun, some praise Nara-simha or similar such avatars;
others say Buddha or Arhat is the Supreme; still others are devoted to Vaasudeva, some
only control Praana, the life-principle, some adore the Moon, Fire, Karma, Nature,
primordial nature and what not. Each sect gives a different origin for the universe. Tell
me which of them is true.
I know for certain that there is nothing unknown to you; you are the daughter and disciple
of Sage Vyaghrapaada; profound wisdom shines in your eyes even though you are a girl
of tender age. Please explain everything in detail to me, my precious wife; you indeed are
a true guide in my journey towards the Supreme!
Thus requested, Hemalekha spoke with pleasure:
Lord, I shall tell you the final Truth about God. Listen!
God is the All-Seer who generates, permeates, sustains and destroys the universe. He is
all the deities worshipped by all sects; yet He is not those deities too.
He is Shiva, He is Vishnu, He is Brahman, He is the Sun, the Moon, etc.; yet He is not
Shiva, nor Vishnu, nor Brahma nor any other exclusively.
Hemachuda looked at her unable to comprehend her contradictory statements.
Hemalekha continued:
I will explain my statements; wait!
Suppose one says that Shiva with five faces is the Primal Being; the Creator in this case
is Shiva who would be limited by a form and endowed with a brain. He would be like an
ordinary potter making pots, endowed with a body and brain. Any art or design
presupposes the existence of an intelligent designer. In fact, the creative faculty in men
belongs to something between the body and pure intelligence. Body itself cannot act
without the brain and brain cannot complete the action without using the body as a tool.
In the dream state, the brain being intelligent conceives forms and environment suited to
that state; and fulfills its latent desires. The gross body lies in a paralyzed state at that
time. This proves that the body is only a tool for a purpose and the agent is intelligence.
Instruments are necessary for human agents because their capacities are limited and they
are not self-contained. Whereas the Creator of the universe is perfect in Himself and
creates the whole universe without any external aid. So we have to conclude that God
has no limitations of the body. Otherwise He would be reduced to the state a glorified
human being requiring innumerable accessories for work and influenced by seasons and

environments; he would be a super powered creature but not the Supreme Controller of
To continue the argument, the accessories used by him should pre-exist or co-exist with
him too. That would further impose limitations on his status as a creator. This is absurd,
as being contrary to the original premises. Therefore He has neither body nor the other
aids, yet He still creates the world O Lord of my life!
Only the ignorant superimpose a body on the transcendental Being and worship him
endowed with characteristics. But even such worship is accepted by Him and he assumes
forms desired by them to please them. He is unique and fulfills the wants of all devotees
of his. He is Bhakta-Chintamani. (a wish-fulfilling gem to his devotees)
Nevertheless, the conclusion must be reached that He is pure intelligence and His body
can only be supreme and transcendental.
That CHITI- the Pure Consciousness is the Absolute; the Supreme Queen; the Supreme
Ruler TRIPURAA DEVI. SHE alone shines as the creator and created and appears
divided, though in reality SHE is undivided.
This entire world of movable and immovable things is like a reflection in the mirror.
Whatever patterns are seen in the mirror, all are actually of the nature of mirror only;
there cannot be a conception of higher and lower in the patterns reflected in the mirror.
The noble characteristics like pre-eminence etc superimposed on godheads are imagined
only in the lower nature of the Supreme. These Gods with forms are also reflections in
the reflection-less mirror called Tripura.
Just like the mirror alone appears as all the reflections, Goddess Tripura alone appears as
all these Gods with form. There is absolutely no difference at all among all types of Gods
with forms. There is no lower or higher God!
Therefore a wise man should worship the Undivided Supreme without attributes.
Suppose one is incapable of conceiving formless state of Tripura, he should worship any
deity that he chooses with extreme devotion without expecting anything in return.
Gradually Tripura herself will gradually endow him with true Knowledge through that
deity whom he adores.
These are the only two methods that can certainly lead one towards the Goal of Supreme
Beatitude even if one has to journey through million births.
Hemachuda felt satisfied by Hemalekhas advice. Hemalekha retired to her own
chambers. Hemachuda sought the advice of competent teachers and learnt the proper
technique of appeasing Goddess Tripura Devi. Hemachuda soon gained peace of mind
and took to the worship of the Goddess with intense devotion.
A few months passed in this manner.
The Supreme Mothers grace descended on him, and he slowly developed true
dispassion. His mind stopped its hankering after pleasures. He felt more composed and
became cheerful. His mind naturally took to the enquiry of Self. Dawn of Vichaara or
Self-enquiry is surely the result of the Grace of the Supreme; for the rise of Vichaara is
the surest means for liberation. Whatever be the practices adhered to by seekers, unless
Vichaara rises in the mind, there is no hope of enlightenment even in million births.
Hemachuda remembered one day the apparently meaningless parable presented by his

He decided to ask her about the true meaning hidden in that story. He had now lost all his
arrogance of manhood and intellectual supremacy, and approached his young wife like a
humble disciple seeking the Guru for instructions.
Hemalekha saw through the window of her room, her husband coming towards her
chambers. She immediately ran out; welcomed him with all the humility of a devoted
wife. She got him seated on the royal chair, washed his feet and worshipped him with
flowers. She saluted him with all reverence and offered him refreshments with extreme
love and affection. After he was comfortable she seated herself close to him and
garlanding his neck with her creeper like arms asked in her nectar like voice:
Dearest! I see you again after such a long time. May be you were ill. Are you in good
health now? Why did you not visit me all these days? You never could spend even a day
without me. But nowadays I do not see you at all. Have I caused you any offense
unknowingly? Forgive this ignorant girl if I have hurt you in any way. Nights are painful
without your company. Not a day passed before without your seeing me and conversing
with me. How have you been passing your time? I could never have dreamt that you
would be so indifferent to me! What makes you so? How do you spend your nights? You
used to say that a moment without me was like eternity to you, and that you could not
bear it.
Saying this, she embraced him fondly and buried her face on his broad chest. She
appeared highly distressed.
But Hemachuda had changed. His mind was not after senses pleasures now. His only
thought day and night was to understand the nature of his own Self and the identity of his
Self with the Supreme Self of Para Brahman.
Though embraced lovingly by his dear wife, he was not moved in the least.
He lifted her face up and replied tenderly:
Dearest treasure of my heart! You know that I have been guided into the right path by
your compassionate heart. I do not have interest in sense pleasures now. You need not feel
obliged to act like the ordinary women of your age. I understand well that you are acting
as if in need of my company only to please me. I can no longer be deceived by you. I am
convinced of your strength; the presence or absence of anything can not affect your
inherent happiness. You are an unperturbed Sage. You know this world and beyond. I
came here not to seek the company of your beautiful form. I am here to ask your advice.
Now please listen. Explain to me that tale you once related to me as the story of your life.
Who is your mother? Who is your friend? Who is her husband? Who are her sons? Tell
me, what relationship has all these people to me? I do not clearly understand it. I no
longer think it is a meaningless parable. I am sure you told me that story to teach some
significant truths about our existence in this world. Tell me everything in detail so that I
may understand it clearly. I bow to you reverently. Kindly clear these doubts.
Hemalekha felt a sudden joy rushing through her limbs. She thought within herselfMy husband is now pure in mind and blessed of Goddess Tripura. He is evidently
indifferent to the pleasures of life and is also strong in mind. This must be due to Gods
Grace alone and his former virtues are now bearing fruit. The time is now ripe for him to
be enlightened, so I will enlighten him.
She kissed him in extreme delight and looked at him affectionately.

She said: Lord, Gods Grace is upon you, and you are blessed! Dispassion cannot arise
otherwise. It is the sign of Gods Grace that the mind should be absorbed in the quest for
truth after becoming detached from sensual pleasures.
I shall now solve the puzzle of my life-story. Listen attentively.
My mother is Transcendence - Pure Consciousness.
My friend is intellect (discerning faculty).
Avidya- Ignorance- no-Knowledge state is Madam Dark, the undesirable friend of the
The play of ignorance is too well known to need elucidation; she can delude any one,
making a rope seem to be a serpent and strike terror in the heart of the on-looker.
Her son is the greatest of illusions - the mind.
His wife is thought or conception or imagination.
Her sons are five in number, namely, audition, taste, sight, touch and smell, whose
mansions are the respective senses. What the mind was said to steal from them is
enjoyment of sense objects which leaves an impression on the mind to develop later into
the proclivities (strong inherent inclination toward something objectionable) of the mind.
Sharing stolen objects with his wife is manifestation of proclivities in dreams. Dream is
the daughter-in-law of Delusion (i.e., ignorance). Madam Vorax is desire; her sons are
anger and greed; their city is the body. What was said to be my most potent talisman is
Realization of the Self. Mind's friend guarding the city is the vital principle which keeps
moving as the life-breath. The different cities peopled by them are hells passed in the
eternal passage of the soul. The consummation of the discerning faculty is Samadhi. My
admission into my mother's chamber is final emancipation.
Such is in brief the tale of my life. Yours is likewise. Think well and be absolved.
Hemachuda was wonderstruck by her explanation of the parable. He regretted his harsh
retort to such a wonderful tale when she had said it on the last occasion.
He embraced her with extreme love and in a voice choked with emotions said:
My dearest wife! How can I express my feelings towards you? You are the result of my
entire merits of the past lives. Or you must be sent as Tripura Devis emissary to save this
person sitting here as a husband in front of you. My salutations to Her again and again.
There are no words in the language of the humans to praise such an angelic wife like you!
Your wisdom has no bounds. You are not an ordinary woman. You are a Sage in female
form. Till now I was ignorant of your greatness. How shall I describe the profound
wisdom of the story of your life, narrated to me in the form of a parable? Now I
understand everything like a gooseberry resting on the palm of my hand. I am now easily
able to comprehend the workings of the mind and what is the ultimate end to be strived
for by every human. But I still have to learn so many things from you. Be patient with me
and answer my questions. Who is this Mother of yours? How is she without beginning?
Who are we? What is our real nature?
Hemalekha was waiting for such a moment all these days. Thankfully saluting Mother
Tripura in her mind she started to explain everything in detail to her handsome husband.
My Lord, listen carefully to what I am going to say, for it is very subtle.
Investigate the nature of the Self with a pure intellect. By realizing the Self alone can you
realize the nature of the Supreme Mother. Do not bother about the statements given in
any book or by any person. Analyze the nature of your own Self by yourself. Reason it
out by your own intellect.

What is Self?
It is not an object to be perceived, nor described; so how shall I then tell you of it?
You cannot specify or define the nature of the Self; so a teacher cannot teach it.
But it is your own Self; you know it all the time as yourself.
It resides in the unblemished intellect.
Self pervades all; beginning from the personal God to the amoeba; but it is beyond the
cognitive powers of the mind or senses.
It alone illuminates everything; but it cannot be illuminated by anything else.
Self is everywhere and is always there.
Self cannot be demonstrated; Self cannot be proved through discussions.
How, where, when, or by whom has it been specifically described even a little? What you
ask me dear, amounts to asking me to show your eyes to you. Even the best teachers
cannot bring your eyes to your own sight. Similarly your own Self cannot be shown by a
teacher. He can at best guide you towards it and nothing more. I shall also explain to you
the means to realization. Listen attentively.
As long as you are contaminated with notions of me or mine (e.g., my home, my body,
my mind, my intellect), the Self will not be found, for it lies beyond cognition and cannot
be realized as my Self. That which cannot come under the category of mine is the
Self, because it is You and not yours!
Retire into solitude, analyze and see what objects are cognized as mine; discard them all
and transcending them, look for the Real Self.
For instance, you know me as your wife and not as your Self. I am only related to you
and not part of you; much less your very being.
Analyze everything in this way and discard it. What remains left over, where you cannot
cognize any object as mine That is the Self!
Self transcends all cognitions, all perceptions, all conceptions, all appropriations, and all
relinquishments. That knowledge is final emancipation.
Hemachuda was delighted by the instructions given by his wife. He felt the whole
practice to be easier than he imagined. He wanted to realize immediately and attain the
bliss which every known Sage strived for. He now trusted his wife implicitly. He felt
realization was just a step away. What he needed was now a solitary place. He hurriedly
took leave of his wife; mounted on his horse and galloped away from the city.
He soon entered a royal pleasure-garden beyond the outskirts of the town and into a wellfurnished crystal palace. He dismissed his attendants and ordered the keepers:
Let no one enter these rooms while I am in contemplation - be they ministers, elders or
even the king himself. They must wait until you obtain my permission.
Then he climbed up to a fine chamber in the ninth storey which looked out in all
directions. Cool winds blew from all sides. Fragrant flowers filled the chamber with
intoxicating scent. The room was well furnished befitting the royal status of the prince.
He sat down on a soft cushion. He collected his mind and began to contemplate thus:
How the world is deluded by the Supreme power of Shiva! No one knows even the
fringe of the Self! But everyone acts only for the sake of the Self!
Some recite the scriptures, a few study them and their commentaries; some are busy
accumulating wealth; others are ruling the land; some are fighting the enemy; others are
seeking the luxuries of life. Everyone is always engaged in selfish activities; yet they

never enquire about the nature of their own Self! The whole world acts confused because
no one has the Knowledge of the Self! If one does not know his own Self, then
everything is in vain and as unstable as a dream experience!
I am fortunate! I know now what the Self is! All that has to be done is to categorize all
cognitions into I and mine. When I no more have any mine-cognitions, then the
remaining thing is the Self! So easy!
Let me analyze now properly; hmmm..!
My home, wealth, kingdom, treasure, women, cattle - none of these is me, and they are
only mine. Hmm..! This body? It is fair in complexion; well built and handsome too as
befitting my royal genes! I always thought of this body as my Self, but it is not me, but
mine! It is only a tool to experience the world. Most people identify themselves with the
body and suffer. Fools indeed! I know better!
Reflecting thus, he considered the body. He could not identify the body as the Self, and
so began to transcend it. This body is mine, not me. It is built up of blood and bones,
and is changing each moment. How can this be the changeless, continuous me? It is
akin to a bonded slave; it is as aloof as a sleeping body from a dream experience.
I cannot be the body nor can the vital force be the Self; mind and intellect are clearly
my tools so they cannot be I. I am surely something apart from all these, beginning
from the body and ending with the intellect.
When all cognitions are removed what do I see?
I exist this thought is always there; I do not exist this thought is never there.
I exist always aware of my own existence is undoubtedly true.
I am always aware; I am aware of objects of the outside world; I am aware of my
Thoughts, actions; I am aware even of my thinking now; but I never seem to be aware of
my own awareness! I am aware of darkness; I am aware of light; but I am not aware that I
am aware! I am always aware, but do not realize that pure state of awareness. I am
aware; true; but how my existence is made possible- I do not know! The reason of this
inability is not clear to me.
I am aware of the objects of the outside world through the senses. If the senses were
absent, I may not cognize them. The vital energy- Praana is cognized through the sense of
touch; the existence of mind can be inferred by the Knowledge of the world obtained.
The existence of intellect is proved by its action of discrimination and decision-making.
Existence of my own self is inferred by what? I do not know! If my existence is not
dependent on these other inferred entities like world, mind and intellect, then I will not
think of them. I will put a stop to the workings of the senses, mind and intellect and
remain quiet. Then only can the Self shine by itself.
Thus reflecting, he abandoned everything that was accessible to the mind. He arrested his
thoughts completely.
The next moment he saw deep darkness!
He decided that was the true nature of his Self and felt very happy; but feeling doubtful,
he decided to try once more.
He forcefully arrested his thoughts once more through Hatha-yoga and plunged within.
Next instant he perceived a brilliant mass of light without beginning or end.
Then he again woke up. He was surprised by his experiences. He wondered why he
perceived the Self differently at different times.

He decided to try once more. He arrested his mind through yoga again. This time his
mind relaxed into sleep and he did not wake up for a long time. He had various types of
dreams with many wonderful visions in his sleep. When he woke up he felt anxious about
the whole thing. He reflected like this: why did I fall asleep and had so many dreams?
Then I believe that darkness and light seen were also must be of the nature of dream only.
Dream is just a play of the mind. How do I avoid it? I will try to attain the state of Self
once more. Resolving thus he stopped the mind forcibly through yoga. The mind
became quiet. He felt as if he was drowned in the ocean of bliss. But within minutes there
was a vibration in the mind and he woke up. He wondered again: What happened to me?
Was it a dream or was I hallucinating? Oh no! It was a real experience! It is
inconceivable; I did not experience anything even a little. How did I become blissful?
Ah! Nothing so far experienced in this world equals even an infinitesimal part of that
bliss. I was senseless as if in the state of deep sleep. How did this bliss occur? Nothing
was there to cause such a state; then how did it happen? Though I was engaged in
knowing the Self, I do not yet know anything. I see my Self differently at different times.
What can it be? Is it light, darkness or bliss or some other thing? Or, is my Self is of the
nature of all these appearing in succession? I am not able to find an answer to my doubts.
I will clear my doubts with my learned wife.
He sent a messenger to his wife at the city-palace to come and meet him in the tower
where he was now.
Within an hour or so, his wife Hemalekha was climbing the steps of the mansion like the
Queen of night (Moon) moving across the sky. She hurriedly entered her husbands room
and found him cheerful, calm and of a peaceful mind. She seated very close to him and
embraced him. As she nestled close to him he opened his eyes and found her sitting next
to him. Hemalekha whispered with nectar like tenderness:
My Lord! What can I do for Your Highness? I hope you are well. Please tell me why
you called me up to this place?
Thus addressed, he spoke to his wife:
Dearest! As you yourself instructed I came to this solitary place and started to enquire
about the Self exactly as you said, so that I could know the true nature of my Self.
Though my mind was fully concentrated on the Self, why did I have different visions of
the Self? Tell me! Self is always attained; we cannot newly attain it; I know! It is always
there as my awareness. Thinking that the constant Self-awareness is dimmed by the
uncalled-for interference of mental activities, I forcibly repressed my thoughts, and
remained calm. Darkness superseded, light appeared, sleep supervened and finally a
unique bliss overpowered me for a little while. Tell me my dear, is this the nature of the
Self or could it be another somewhere? Analyze my experiences and tell me how to
perceive the true nature of the Self.
Hemalekha who was a knower of this world and beyond replied sweetly thus:
Listen to me my dear, closely.
Your effort in controlling the mind is indeed praiseworthy. All Knowers approve of it and
it is a very important step in the process of realizing the Self. Without the control of the
mind nobody can achieve Self-realization anywhere anytime.

But that alone does not become the cause of the attainment of the Self, because Self is
always attained! You can attain a thing which is hitherto not attained. Self is always there
as yourself; so Self cannot be attained newly. Mere mind control is not going to cause the
attainment of the Self. The very word attainment of the Self is fallacious.
When something is covered by darkness, you shine a lamp and you perceive the objects
as if newly attained. When a man forgets his purse, he steadies the mind and remembers
the location of the purse. He will again say- I gained the lost purse; but his steadying of
the mind did not produce the purse newly. So just controlling the mind is not the cause of
Self realization. Self is always there whether you control the mind or not. You do not
recognize it because you never knew what it was.
A villager, who has always been spending his life with tiny lamps, if he chanced to see
the dazzling lights of the royal court at night, will ignore its magnificence at first sight.
You also have missed the Self because you could not catch its magnificence.
You perceived darkness at the end of your mind control. There was an infinitesimal
effortless natural state just after the mind control and before the perception of the
darkness. Always reflect on that residual state which is the giver of highest bliss.
Here in the world, everyone is gripped by the great delusion and direct their sights
outwards and do not reach the Self state even though they search for it repeatedly; they
get frustrated by failure in their efforts. Here in this world exist great scholars, intellectual
wizards and good logicians. They too grieve day and night unable to understand the Selfstate! That state cannot be attained by skill in interpreting words. They are like theoretical
sculptors. As long as a scholar seeks the Self state through discussions only, he can never
ever reach it because Self is beyond the grasp of the intellect.
By going far you cannot reach it; but remaining still you can always be in that state. You
cannot analyze it and know it; but by remaining silent it shines forth. Like you cannot
chase the shadow of your own head, Self state cannot be reached by any sort of activity.
A child who sees thousands of reflections in a taintless mirror fails to observe the
existence of the mirror; similarly an ignorant man seeing the reflection of the world in
his own Self does not know his own Self; because he is not acquainted with his own Self.
Everyone perceives the objects only and never the space which exists all around! Though
Self is always there as their own awareness, nobody seems to be aware of it.
My Lord! See with your subtle eyes; the world consists of Knowledge and known.
Knowledge is Self-evident. In the absence of Knowledge nothing can be known.
Knowledge proves the existence of objects; known things are dependent on the
Knowledge for their existence. Knowledge in turn is dependent on the knower for its
existence. Knower is not dependent on any thing else for his existence. The knower is the
only reality behind Knowledge and known objects.
That which is self-evident without the necessity to be proved, is alone real; rest are all
unreal. The proof of all proofs itself must be Self-proved! You have to accept it as true as
it need not be proved. It cannot be attained as such by proving its existence and attaining
it like an accomplishment.
One who denies Knowledge has no support to stand on and neither questioning or
answering is possible for him. Knowledge is undeniable. It is like the surface of a huge
mirror which reflects everything. If mirror itself is denied, then there can be no chance
for other discussions.

Everything exists like the reflections in the mirror. There is no differentiation of space
and time even. Space and time are also reflections in the mirror. A pot may appear to be
creating a division in space. But in truth there is no difference or division in the space
outside and inside the pot. Similarly all objects including the limitations of space and
time appear in the mirror of Knowledge like reflections and have no existence apart from
Knowledge. Objects and their knowledge are only reflections in the eternal, selfluminous, supreme Consciousness which is the same as the knower and which alone is
Therefore, Prince, realize with a still mind your own true nature which is the one pure,
undivided Consciousness underlying the restless mind which is composed of the whole
universe in all its diversity. By the complete attainment of the pervasion of that undivided
consciousness, one attains the state of the Doer of all.
I will explain to you how to perceive it directly, so that you can reach that state.
The intervening part between sleeping and wakeful states; the interval between two
perceptions; intermediate state between knowledge and the known (the state of pure
knowledge before the recognition of object occurs); observe that state with your subtle
intellect. This is the natural state of Self, obtaining which one does not grieve again.
Ignorant of this truth, the world is in this deluded state.
In this state of the Self, exist not the form, taste, smell, touch or sound; neither happiness,
nor sorrow; neither any to be grasped nor that which grasps!
Though the support of everything and though it exists as everything, it is free of
everything. That alone is the supreme Lord, the Creator, Vishnu, Shiva and Sadashiva!
See inside controlling the mind for a little while; reject the outward going nature and be
intent only on moving inward. There need not be a forced effort in controlling the mind.
The very concentration on ones nature quietens the mind by itself. Do not even entertain
the thought that you are seeing anything. Be like a blind man - seeing yet not seeing with
an unmoving mind. What you are that you are! Be that alone!
Hemachuda did accordingly, and having gained that state referred to by his wife, he
remained peaceful a long time, unaware of anything beside the Self.
Hemalekha noticed that her husband had attained supreme Peace and so did not disturb
him He remained in the Samadhi state for about a muhurtha (48 minutes) and woke up.
He saw his wife sitting next to him. He desired to be in the trance state alone and closed
his eyes. Hemalekha immediately took hold of his hand and questioned sweetly:
My Lord! Tell me, what you gain by closing your eyes and what you lose by opening the
eyes? My dearest! I am very curious. Do tell me what happens on the eyes being closed
or left open.
Hemachuda slowly opened his eyes. He looked as if drunk. He replied reluctantly and
languidly as follows:
My dear, I have found at last pure untainted happiness. I cannot find the least pleasure in
the activities of the world as they are evanescent and result in pain after the enjoyment is
over. Enough of them! They are tasteless to me like a fruit whose juice has been sucked
away or like the dried up cud chewed by the cattle; an indulgence for those who want to
wastefully pass through their lives! What a pity that such people should be to this day
unaware of the bliss of their own Self! Just as a man goes a-begging being ignorant of the
treasure buried under the floor of his own abode, so did I run after sensual pleasures

unaware of the boundless ocean of bliss within me. Worldly pursuits are laden with
misery and pleasures are transient. Still I was so infatuated that I mistook them for
enduring pleasures, was often grief-stricken, yet did not cease to pursue them over and
over again. The pity of it! Men are fools, unable to discriminate pleasure from pain. They
seek pleasures but gain only sorrow. Enough of these activities which only increase the
relish for such pleasure!
My dear, I beg you with hands clasped. Let me fall again into the peace of my blissful
self. I pity you that though knowing this state, you never seem to be in it and engage
yourself in wasteful activities of the world.
The wise Hemalekha gently smiled at all this, and said to him: My lord, you do not yet
know the supremely sacred state, remaining in which the learned ones with noble hearts
do not get perplexed; that state is still far from your reach like the sky for man standing
on the ground! What little you know is equal to not knowing anything. That state is not
experienced by closing or opening the eyes. By doing any action or by not doing any
action no one can ever attain that state. That state cannot be reached by not going or
going anywhere. By closing the eyes, or by doing or by going how can it be completely
attained? If due to the opened eye lid of the measure of eight barley grains only, that state
can be hidden, then would that state be complete? What shall I say of your muddled
wisdom! The deluded state of yours is amazing!
That, in which millions of Universes are situated in just an infinitesimal corner; that
seems to be hidden on account of opening the eyelid measuring a fingers breadth!
Listen Prince! I will tell you further. As long as these knots are not cut asunder so long
will bliss not be found! There are millions of knots apparent in the rope of delusion.
Non-recognition of ones true nature is the rope of delusion.
Knots (Granthi) are of the form of false perceptions or mistaken understanding.
The first knot is the identification of oneself with the body; it causes the course of the
worldly life to be spread for which there is no antidote. It gives rise to the perennial
stream of happiness and misery in the shape of the cycle of births and deaths.
The second knot is the differentiation of the world from the Self on which the phenomena
are simply reflected as in a mirror.
Similar knots of misconceived ideas are there like so many knots; one such is the firm
belief in the difference between the individual soul and God.
These misconceptions came into existence long ago; by occurring repeatedly, they have
assumed the form of knots; because of them a man is bound. Untying the knots leads to
liberation Supreme!
That state which you easily obtain by closing the eyes is your true state- Pure
Consciousness which nothing can transcend. That alone is the great surface of the mirror
which reflects the picture of the entire world.
When, where and with what form does it not exist? Prove if you can, that everything is
not contained in it. Whatever you admit as known to you, is in the knowledge conveyed
by that consciousness. Even what may be surmised to be in another place and at a
different time, is also within your consciousness. If you state that Self-consciousness does
not exist in some place and in some form, it is indeed a false surmise like the description
of the nature of a barren womans son.

Reflections cannot exist without a mirror; so also nothing can exist apart from
consciousness. By renouncing that state, there exists nothing whatever anywhere. So by
opening the eyes what difference can occur in the state of the Self?
Now the main knot to be cut asunder by you is this misconception namely I know it as
such and such. Otherwise it proves you have not reached your true state. Whatever you
think as the state of the Self cannot be the true state of the Self!
If you think that you have attained that state by closing or opening of the eyes, then it is
not the complete state of the Self because you believe it is attained or lost by some action
of yours.
O Lord! Where exist not the great undivided consciousness, the dazzling fire of
destruction? It is the fire that consumes huge collections of fuel in the form of
When you know the supreme state, there is no activity left for you to perform. Remove
that knot sitting in your heart as I see my Self and uproot the firmly anchored knot
namely I am not this!
See your own Self filling everything as unbroken bliss. See the entire world in your own
Self like the reflection in a mirror.
Again do not think that you are the Self filling everything; after reaching the residual
reality, just remain as that alone.
After listening to her, Hemachuda of pure heart was cleared of all his doubts.
He understood the true nature of his Self and was freed from delusion.
Gradually he was able to be established firmly in the Self-state. Later he spent his life
sporting happily with Hemalekha and other pretty maidens. He ruled his kingdom well
over and made it prosperous, engaged his enemies in war and conquered them, studied
the scriptures and taught them to others, earned enough wealth, performed the sacrifices
like Ashva-Medha and Rajasooya and lived for twenty-thousand years, liberated while
yet alive (Jivan-Mukta).
Note. - Scholars say that "One thousand" is a peculiar expression for 'four.' Thus twenty-thousand stands for eighty.
The king Muktachuda having heard that his son Hemachuda had become a Jivan-Mukta
consulted his other son Manichuda. Both agreed that Hemachuda was not as before, but
that he had changed so that he was no longer affected by the greatest of pleasures or the
worst of sorrows; that he treated friend and foe alike; that he was indifferent to loss or
gain; that he engaged in royal duties like an actor in a play; that he seemed like a man
always intoxicated with wine; and that he did his duty well notwithstanding his absentminded or other worldly look. They pondered the matter over and wondered. Then sought
him in private and asked him the reason of his change. When they had heard him speak of
his state, they too desired to be instructed by him, and finally became Jeevan-muktas like
Hemachuda. The ministers were in their turn desirous of attaining that state, and
eventually reached it after receiving proper instructions from the king. So were the
citizens, the artisans and all classes of people in that city. All of them gained the summum
bonum (highest good) of life and transcended desire, anger, lust, etc. Even the children
and the very old people were no longer moved by passions. There were still worldly
transactions in this ideal state, because the people consciously acted their parts as the
actors in a drama, in accord with the rest of creation. A mother would rock the cradle with
lullabies expressive of the highest Truth; a master and his servants dealt with one another

in the Light of that Truth; players entertained the audience with plays depicting Truth;
singers sang only songs on Truth; the court fools caricatured ignorance as ludicrous; the
academy only taught lessons on God-knowledge. The whole State was thus composed
only of Sages and philosophers, be they men or women; servant-boys or servant-maids;
dramatic actors or fashionable folk; artisans or laborers; ministers or harlots. They
nevertheless acted in their professions in harmony with creation. They never cared to
recapitulate the past or speculate on the future with a view to gain pleasure or avoid pain,
but acted for the time being, laughing rejoicing, crying or shouting like drunkards, thus
dissipating all their latent tendencies.
The Rishis, Sanaka and others called it the City of Wisdom when they visited it.
Even parrots and cockatoos in their cages spoke word of wisdom:
Consider the Self as pure intelligence bereft of objective knowledge.
What is known is not different from that intelligence; it is like a series of images reflected
in a mirror. Absolute consciousness is the universe; it is I, it is all, sentient and
insentient, mobile and immobile. Everything else is illuminated by it whereas it is alone
and Self-luminous. Therefore let those sensible people who are desirous of CHIT (pure
intelligence) turn away from illusory knowledge and contemplate their own Self - the
absolute consciousness - which illumines all the rest, and which is their being too.
The town where even the lower animals convey such supreme wisdom is famous to this
day as (Vidyaa-Nagari) the City of Wisdom on Earth, which reputation it owes to that
one wise princess Hemalekha by whose advice Hemachuda became a Jivan-Mukta, all
the rest following in his wake.


The Sacred City of Sundara in the country of Vanga was ruled by a wise King named
Susena. His younger brother Mahasena was extremely loyal and revered his brother like
Lakshmana devoted to Sri Rama. Under the righteous rule of the King the citizens lived
happily without any problem. They adored their King like God.
Once Susena performed the Horse-Sacrifice or Ashva-Medha Sacrifice.
(This Sacrifice can be performed only by the most powerful of Kings. A suitable horse chosen and dedicated for Sacrifice is allowed to
roam wherever it pleases. The King himself or his chosen representative follows the horse at a distance accompanied by a retinue. The
horse is a challenge to the kings in whose country it roams; many battles are fought until the horse is successfully brought back and
the Sacrifice performed.

As ordained by the scriptures, the horse was left free to wander as it pleased. Many
valiant princes accompanied by a huge army followed the horse. They conquered many a
king who opposed them and at last reached the banks of River Irrawaddy.
(The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River flows from north to south of Burma (Myanmar). It is the country's largest river -about
1350 miles or 2170 km long.)

One Royal Sage named GANA was sitting on the river bank absorbed in penance.

The princes and their army were too bloated in their heads by their victorious journey and
did not even bother to salute the Sage. They just ignored him and walked past him with
marked arrogance.
The Sage had a son aged about ten years. He was playing on the river bank when he
noticed the arrogant behavior of the Princes and their army. He was infuriated by the
insult rendered to his Father. He caught the horse and ran away. All the soldiers were
annoyed by the childs prank and chased him. He was soon surrounded by the whole of
the army. The child ran towards a small hillock called GANDA situated nearby.
In front of their very eyes, the boy entered that hillock and vanished from sight. The
soldiers puzzled by this magical feat went round and round the hillock searching for any
hidden door. Finding no entrance anywhere, they started to break the hill in anger.
Immediately the boy came out of it with a huge army, fought them all and defeated them
in no time. He took many prisoners of war, including all the princes and re-entered the
hill. Some wounded soldiers somehow escaped from there and reported all that had
happened to King Susena. Susena became anxious about the whole thing. He called his
younger brother Mahasena and addressed him thus:
Dear brother! I am highly anxious about the happenings at the banks of the River
Irrawaddy. A Sage should never be disrespected. These Sages who perform penance have
more power than even Gods. You immediately go there where Sage Gana is performing
penance. Apologize to him profusely and ask forgiveness for the idiotic behavior of the
princes and their armies. Bring them back with his permission. The horse Sacrifice has to
be performed soon and there is no time to waste. Do not in any way act arrogantly
towards the Sage. Do not become the object of his anger in any way. If enraged, these
Sages have the power to reduce the whole world to ashes. Approach him with respect.
Appease him with proper worship. Your purpose is to bring back the horse and the army.
So be very careful as to how you behave.
Mahasena accepted his assignment without hesitation and immediately left on his
mission. Soon he reached the place where Sage Gana was performing penance. The Sage
was deeply absorbed in contemplation. He appeared devoid of thoughts and was like a
deep calm ocean where there danced no waves. Mahasena was overcome by devotion and
saluted the Sage with all humility he could muster. He recited hymns in praise of the Sage
and praised him with wonderful words. The Sage was not moved. But Mahasena
continued his worship without a break.
Three days passed this way.
The Sages son was watching all this unobserved by the visitor. He was highly pleased.
He approached Mahasena and said:
I am happy that you have shown respect to my Father. Tell me what you desire and I will
immediately fulfill it. I am the son of this Sage Gana, the Supreme ascetic.
Mahasena did not feel much enthusiastic about the words uttered by the boy. He said he
wanted to talk only to the Sage and was waiting for him to wake up from his penance.
The boy patiently explained to him everything.
Listen O King! My father is now in Kevala Nirvikalpa Samadhi The contemplative
trance state of Self without the slightest vibration! He remains in that state for twelve
years before he wakes up. Now only five years have passed. You have to wait seven years
for him to wake up. So better tell me what you want! Do not think degradingly of me. I

am in every way a true son of my revered father. Nothing is impossible for a Sage in
penance! I will fulfill any request of yours. Ask!
Mahasena understood the greatness of the boy and immediately saluted him with due
respect. He held the hands of the boy and pleaded:
O Child of the Great Sage! I want only one thing! Please fulfill it! I want to request your
father for something urgently. Wake him from his contemplative state. Then I will ask
him what I want to ask. I cannot wait for seven years as you say!
The boy patiently replied:
O King! Your request is hard to grant. But I cannot break my promise to you too! But
wait for at least an hour or so and be a witness to my Yogic powers. My father is in deep
trance. He cannot wake up by external efforts. I will have to enter his inner faculty and
wake him up.
So saying he sat in a yogic posture; withdrew his senses; united the in-going and outgoing breaths; exhaled all the air out; and was motionless for a while. He entered his
fathers mind in a subtle form by yogic power, created an agitation there and returned to
his own body.
Next moment the Sage woke up. He saw Mahasena sitting in front of him in a humble
posture. Mahasena recited hymns in praise of the Sage and saluted him. The Sage
understood immediately all that had happened. A gentle smile appeared on his face and
he called his son near him. Seating him on his lap with affection said:
Child! What you have done is not the right thing. Anger is an obstacle to penance. We
Rishis can peacefully perform penance because the King protects us from all dangers.
The King is now performing a Sacrifice and we should not cause any hindrance to it
wantonly. Be a good boy and return the horse and the Princes immediately. Do not delay
because the Sacrifice needs to be completed in the appointed hour.
The boy consented to his fathers command and immediately went to the hill. He entered
inside and brought back the horse and the princes. He handed them over to Mahasena and
sat happily on his fathers lap.
Mahasena ordered the Princes to return to the city with the horse quickly. He saluted the
Sage once again and enquired in wonderment:
O Lord! The hill is so small. Moreover there is no visible entrance also anywhere on it.
Then how was it possible for your son to hide the horse and the army inside the hill?
The compassionate Sage replied:
Listen O King! In the past, I was an emperor ruling the Kingdom bound by oceans on all
sides. I was an ardent worshipper of Tripura Devi. Soon Her Grace descended on me and
I got disinterested in all worldly affairs. All the wealth and luxuries appeared worthless
like trash to me. I handed over the Kingdom to the care of my sons and retired to the
forest. My wife also accompanied me. We passed many years in austerities and penance.
But one day my wife was overcome with passion and embraced me when I was absorbed
in contemplative trance. She gave birth to this child. She was struck with remorse. She
woke me up, deposited the child in my hands and gave up her life. I brought up this
motherless child with extreme care and affection. When he grew up a little he heard that I
was an emperor in the past. He requested me that he too wants to be an emperor. I
initiated him in Yoga. He practiced it diligently and attained Siddhis. By his own power,
he created a world inside this hillock and rules it. That is where he took the horse and the
princes. This is the secret of the hill.

The Sage smiled and embraced his son affectionately.

Mahasenas curiosity now knew no bounds.
He asked the Sage eagerly: Ah! What a wonderful account! Such a small hill and a
world inside it! Can I be permitted to see it? Will you please grant my request?
The Sage nodded his head and addressed his son thus:
Son! Take him wherever he wants and satisfy his curiosity.
The Sage relapsed back into his Trance state.
The boy took Mahasenas hand in his hand and went near the hill. As soon as he reached
the rocky wall, he just entered inside and vanished.
Mahasena was stranded outside. He stood there stupefied. He called out for the Sages
son from outside the hill. The boy shouted back from the inside.
He came out and said:
Listen King; this wont do! You do not seem to possess enough Yogic power to enter the
hill. We have to use some other technique. I cannot disobey my father. You saw how I
used my Yogic power to wake up my father. You have to do something similar to it. So
leave your gross body in a hole and cover it with bushes, so it is safe from animals and
insects. Then enter the hill along with me only covered by Manomaya Kosha- the mind
The King prepared a hole and sat there. He covered the hole with bushes and controlled
his breath. Nothing happened.
He called out to the boy and said:
I am not capable of moving out of my gross body. If I forcibly block my breath I will
die. Tell me how to walk out of this body and obtain the subtle form!
The boy laughed aloud and said:
You do not seem to know any proper Yogic methods. I will help you. First close your
The King closed his eyes and became unconscious within seconds by the Yogic power of
the boy .Then the boy entered the Kings inner faculty in a subtle form, dragged the
subtle form of the King which was desirous of seeing the Kingdom inside the hill.
The gross body of the King lay in the hole covered with bushes as if lifeless.
The boy entered inside the hill along with the subtle body of the King. Once inside he
woke up the sleeping mind of the King to the dream state.
The King woke up to see a wide expanse of space all around him. He was overcome with
fear. He pleaded with the boy not to forsake him in that infinite space to perish. The boy
was amused by the behavior of the frightened King and laughed aloud.
He consoled the King saying: Do not be frightened. I will not forsake you. Just observe
everything fearlessly and enjoy the journey.
The King gathered up courage and looked all around him.
He understood that he was now in his subtle body and had more freedom to float
anywhere without meeting any obstacle.
He looked up. Above him was the dark sky filled with innumerable stars. He ascended
into the night sky and looked down below. He floated towards the moon and shivered in
cold. He was frozen. He floated towards the sun and felt its scorching rays. He was burnt.
The boy used his powers to make the King feel normal. Then guided by the boy, the King
understood that the region where they were was a counterpart of heaven. The boy took

him to the summit of the Himalayas and the King saw the Earth below it. The boy gave
him yogic vision and now the King was able to see the entire Earth. He could see distant
lands and even other worlds beside this one.
In some worlds there was only darkness; In some worlds everything was gold; there were
oceans and island continents traversed by rivers and mountains; there were heavens
peopled by Indra and the Gods, the Asuras, human beings, the Rakshasas and other races
of celestials.
He witnessed a huge court room where the boy was sitting on a diamond studded throne
as the Emperor of that world. The court room was filled with ministers and other
attendants. He saw an enormous fortress where a huge army was waiting to do any
bidding of the emperor. He saw a beautiful city where people moved about doing their
various errands. He also observed with wonder that the boy had divided himself as
Brahma in Satya Loka, Vishnu in Vaikunta and Shiva in Kailaasa while all the time he
remained as his original-Self, the emperor ruling in the present world.
Such a small hill; and inside it - a complete Universe with its own Gods! The King was
unable to understand the phenomenon. He felt overjoyed by all these amazing sights. He
wandered here and there like a child with a new toy and at last returned to the presence of
the boy beaming in happiness.
The boy looked at him with amusement for a few seconds and announced with an
expression less face:
Well done! Only a day has elapsed in all these sight seeing adventures. But twelve
thousand years have passed in your world by now. Let us return to my father.
The King was shocked by his statement. Before he could retort he was drowned in
senseless sleep. The boy came out of the hill with the subtle body of the King; united it
with the gross body in the hole covered with bushes and woke him up.
Mahasena opened his eyes and walked out of the hole. He looked around in utter
disbelief. The world had changed completely. The people were different; river was
different; trees were different; in fact it was in no way like the world he left behind when
he entered the hill! He collapsed on the ground exhausted by the sheer shock. With
choking voice he asked the boy:
O Great one! What has happened? Where are we? Where are all the familiar scenes? In
which world are we? How long have we been inside?
The Sages son laughed again and said:
O King! This is the same world we left behind! We have been away for quite a long
time. Countless changes have occurred here meanwhile. In our world we spent just a day
touring all the places. But in this world our one day of that world equals some twelve
thousand years; that is why everything looks so different now! People have changed a lot
and so has the language, culture all changed! But it is natural; nothing to be amazed about
it. I have seen such changes myself many times. See in that direction. My father is still
sitting in his trance state. See that place..? That is where you sat and recited hymns in his
praise. See in the other direction. That is the same hill we entered and came out now!
The King held his head in his hands and closed his eyes in utter bewilderment.
He could not even scream. The shock was too much for him. Incoherent sounds came out
of his mouth. He managed to steady himself for a second and asked: my brother? My
country? My wife, children..? Where are they?

The boy was not able to understand the agony of the King. For him this time-change was
just a sport. It was his regular game. Go inside the hill and come out, the whole world
outside would be different. He used to enjoy the changed environment and played there
till its newness was exhausted. And getting bored of that world he would enter the hill
again. After a few hours when he reentered this world many thousand years would have
elapsed and he would again play for some time in the new world. Since only a few hours
passed in his life, he never aged. His father was there always in a trance state. He could
wake him up any time he wanted; so their life had no problems. It was a common
occurrence for them. The Sage safe guarded his own body and the hill by the power of
Yoga. But to the King who was used to only one life in one world, all this was shocking.
The boy was unable to understand his anxiety.
The King was weeping aloud now!
The boy felt compassionate and explained everything to him patiently.
O King! Your brother is no more ruling your country. His progeny has increased to
thousands. Even your country does not exist any more. Dark impenetrable jungles cover
that area; jackals, tigers and many other wild creatures wander there now. The Vanga
country with the city of Sundara is not there. But one VeeraBahu who is born in your
brothers line rules the Country of Maalva, with his capital as Vishaala on the banks of
the River Kshipra. Another Susharma of the same dynasty rules the country of Dravidas
with his capital as Vardhana, situated on the banks of River Tambrabharani.
That is how the world changes in course of time. Nothing ever remains the same even for
a short span of time! Rivers change their courses; mountains break down and raise
elsewhere; lakes get covered with grounds and new lakes appear elsewhere! Mountains
subside; plains heave high; deserts become fertile; plateaus change to sandy tracts; rocks
decompose and become silt; clay hardens sometimes; cultivated farms become barren and
barren lands are brought under tillage; precious stones become valueless and trinkets
become invaluable; salt water becomes sweet and potable waters become brackish; some
lands contain more people than cattle, others are infested with wild beasts; and yet others
are invaded by venomous reptiles, insects and vermin. Such are some of the changes that
happen on the Earth in course of time. But there is no doubt that this is the same earth as
we were in before.
Mahasena could not believe what he heard. His head reeled. A wailing scream escaped
his throat and he fainted instantly.
The boy felt anxious. He sprinkled some cool waters on the Kings face and revived him.
He made the King comfortably seated under a shady tree. The King was weeping
uncontrollably. He remembered his noble brother and his family; he remembered his own
wife and sons. He called out their name again and again and shed tears.
The boy waited till the King poured out all his sorrow. The King had no more tears left.
He leaned on the tree trunk exhausted by sheer mental anguish. His eyes were staring
blankly at nowhere.
The boy sat next to him and said in a tender voice:
O King! You are sensible man! What are you crying for? Who are you mourning for?
What have you lost? What purpose does your crying serve? Do not act childish! Do not
act senseless! Steady yourself and answer me; why are you immersed in such heavy
sorrow? What use is your grief? What do you think you have lost?

The King was surprised by the boys enquiry.

He answered in a slightly irritated tone:
Why am I sad? As if you cannot understand it, being a great Yogi of unknown powers!
Cant you see? I have lost everything; everything..! The King burst out crying once
more. Then after a while he composed himself and said: Everyone feels sad when any
member of the family dies; nay even if an acquaintance dies. I have not lost just a relation
or friend; I have lost my whole world! I am in a strange world with nobody to call my
own! I am alone in this world now; I miss my brother, my wife, and my children! Oh!
What shall I do? What shall I do? he again started weeping uncontrollably.
The boy waited for sometime and said:
O King! Do not get offended by my words. My intention is not to hurt you. I just want
to bring clarity into your thoughts. Why should one cry if any one dies? Is it a custom or
followed as a necessary ritual generation after generation? Is it a great sin not to cry at
death and destruction? Or do you think you can get back everything by such grieving?
Why should you weep at all? What has happened to make you so sad?
The King stared at the boy with slight irritation. He turned his face away and looked at
some far away mountain, as if not interested in further conversation.
The boy was not to be disconcerted. He continued his talks as before:
Ok! Let us agree that you have to mourn for your close relatives and friends as a
customary ritual like eating when hungry or drinking when thirsty. You may have been
habituated to cry at deaths. But death has been happening always to everyone. Even your
fore-fathers have died in the past; why dont you mourn for their loss?
Maybe you will tell me that you are mourning for those related by blood. Then do the
bacteria which existed on the bodies of your parents and others are also related to you?
They were part of your parents bodies too! Why dont you cry for them too? They were
nourished by the blood of your parents. They are your relations too!
Who are you and who are they? Whose deaths cause you this unbearable grief?
The King looked at boy. His interest was kindled. But he did not give any reply but did
not seem to mind the continuous chatter of the lad.
The boy continued:
You think you are this body made of flesh, blood and bones! Your body is just a
conglomerate of different substances! Even if one small part is damaged, the whole body
suffers. Every second old cells keep dying and new cells get generated without a break.
If all the bacteria, cells, and limbs are the You, then you must cry when sweat pours out
too, when excretions happen too! But you dont mind their loss!
Those whom you consider as mother, father, brother, wife, children etc. are bodies too
made of similar parts. The bodies are just a collection of atoms and dissipate into the
atmosphere when death occurs. Dust returns to dust! Bodies are just made of earth and
return to earth at death; earth resolves into energy! Nothing is lost!
Moreover the body you identify with as you is actually yours and not you! It is as
much yours as the garment you wear is yours!
There is no difference between both. Can you doubt this statement? Neither this body nor
any other body of any other person has any relation to you. But you call this body as
yours; that is all! Just like any garment worn by others and your own garment do not
differ except for the ownership; just like you cannot consider another persons clothes as
yours; you do not claim ownership of other bodies too! There is indeed no difference

between a garment and a body. Why then mourn over the loss of bodies, which are in no
way different from garments?
Whatever part of the body you identify with as yourself is actually referred by you as
my body, my eyes, my life, my mind and so on! Just tell me who you are!
Mahasena was intrigued by this topic and started to think over the matter. But he could
not find any suitable answer to the query placed by the boy. He requested for some free
time to analyze the topic and got up. He wandered for some time alone on the river bank
thinking deeply about all that was said by the boy. But unable to come to a conclusive
answer, he returned and addressed the boy with humility:
O Lord! I do not know who I am! I have thoroughly analyzed the topic, but still cannot
find out my true identity. I cannot tell you also why I cry for the dead ones; it is just a
natural reaction of the mind; I cannot account for it. O Master! I seek your shelter.
Explain to me everything. Every one cries when someone dies; every one is overpowered
by grief when his or her relative dies. And no one knows his or her own Self; and no one
mourns all deaths and losses. It is an individual preference! You seem to know
everything. Please accept me as your disciple and enlighten me about everything.
Being thus requested, the Sages son spoke to Mahasena:
Listen, O King! Misery is synonymous with ignorance. All are deluded by the illusion
cast by the Supreme Queen Tripura. Ignorance of the Self alone is the cause of all
miseries. As long as the ignorance lasts; so long will there be misery. Misery is
meaningless. Ignorance alone takes the form of misery.
A person who is dreaming is alarmed by the happenings in the dream and suffers in the
dream; a fool is terrified by the serpents created in a magic performance. Similarly a
person who does not know his own Self is miserable and afraid of life.
A dreamer when awakened instantly loses all fear; a person who understands the unreal
nature of magic creations instantly laughs at his own foolishness; one who is aware of his
Self stops grieving about anything. O Valiant One! Batter down the impregnable fortress
of illusion and get rid of your sorrow; realize your own Self and be always blissful! Take
recourse to discrimination and do not act brainless!
Mahasena now was stable enough in mind to argue back; he said:
Master! Your examples are not correct. The unreality of the dreamer or a magic trick can
be realized to be illusory by waking up or after the show is over! But this hard concrete
Universe which you term as illusory is always there as a real experience. It cannot be
disproved; it exists as a continuous perception; you cannot wake up out of this illusion
like waking up from a dream; you cannot wait for the show to be over! The show ends
only with death!
The Sages son answered:
S.S: No, the analogy is not wrong. You are now having a double delusion like a dream
inside the dream! Tell me your experience of the dream. Answer me from the position of
the dreamer and say whether the trees do not afford shade to the pedestrians, and bear

fruits for the use of others in the dream-world? For the dreamer dream experience is real;
he does not realize its unreality inside the dream any time.
M.S: Dream is rendered false after waking up.
S.S: But in a dream or in deep sleep, the waking world is falsified; is it not so?
M.S: Waking state continues as it was after the dream is over; not so in dreams. Dreams
vary and differ every night! There is no continuity in dreams night after night. The
continuity is not evident in dream states.
S.S: But dont you know that every moment you are seeing a different world in the
waking state? Is not the continuity broken up there?
Do you suggest that the hills, the seas and the earth itself are really permanent
phenomena, in spite of the fact that their appearance is constantly changing? Is not the
dream-world also similarly continuous with its earth, mountains, rivers, friends and
M.S: One can not believe in the permanency of dream objects.
S.S: Extend the same reasoning to the nature of the wakeful world and know it to be
equally evanescent. The ever-changing objects like the body, trees, rivers, and islands are
easily found to be transitory. Even mountains are not immutable, for their contours
change owing to the erosion of waterfalls and mountain torrents; ravages by men, boars
and wild animals, insects; thunder; lightning and storms; and so on. You will observe
similar change in the seas and on earth. Analyze and tell me whether it is not so?
M.S: Dream and wakefulness resemble each other in their discontinuous harmony like a
chain made up of links. There is no unbroken continuity in any object; one new
appearance presupposes the disappearance of a previous state; the new appearance
implies its later disappearance; but continuity cannot be denied in the fundamentals
underlying the objects; Clay becomes a pot; pot breaks again and becomes pieces; but
clay is the fundamental similarity in all the three states of the pot.
The Dream objects get falsified in the present wakeful state.
S.S: The fundamentals underlying the dream objects and waking state objects are same.
Both the dream pot and the waking state pot are made up of clay only.
M.S: Dream is an illusion; the fundamentals are also of illusory nature. Clay of the dream
pot is as illusory as the pot. But in the waking state the objects do not get obliterated and
are therefore real!
S.S: What is an illusion?
M.S: Illusion is determined by its transitory nature.

S.S: Transitory nature means appearance to and disappearance from the senses. Right?
But everything gets obliterated in deep sleep.
M.S: Dream state is false in waking state and waking state is false in dream state; both
are false in deep sleep state. Such Mutual contradiction is unreliable as evidence and so
proves nothing.
S.S: It means Self-evident sight alone furnishes the full proof! This world experience is
self evident! Quite so, people like you do not have a true insight into the nature of things.
Listen to my words.
The present world is only similar to the dream world. Long periods pass in dreams also.
Therefore, purposefulness and enduring nature are in every way similar to both states.
Just as you are obviously aware in your waking state, so also you are in your dream state.
These two states being so similar, why do you not mourn the loss of your dream
The wakeful universe appears so real to all only by force of habit. If the same be
imagined vacuous it will melt away into the void. One starts imagining something; then
contemplates it; and by continuous or repeated association resolves that it is true unless
contradicted. In that way, the world appears real in the manner one is used to it. My world
that you visited furnishes the proof thereof; come now, let us go round the hill and see.
Saying so, the Sage's son took the King, and went round the hill and returned to the
former spot. Then he continued:
Observe O King! The circuit of the hill is hardly two miles and a half and yet you have
seen a universe within it. Is it real or false? Is it a dream or otherwise? What has passed
as a day in that land, has counted for twelve thousand years here, which is correct?
Think, and tell me. Obviously you cannot distinguish this from a dream and cannot help
concluding that the world is nothing but imagination. My world will disappear instantly if
I cease contemplating on it. Therefore convince yourself of the dream-like nature of the
world and do not indulge in grief at your brothers death.
Just as the dream creations are pictures moving on the mind screens, so also this world
including yourself is the obverse of the picture depicted by pure intelligence. It is
nothing more than an image in a mirror.
Realize this and tell me. Will you anymore be elated by the accession of a dominion or
depressed by the death of a relative in your dream?
Self is the Self-contained mirror projecting and manifesting this world.
Self is pure unblemished awareness.
Do not waste time! Realize the Self and attain transcendental bliss!
Mahasena pondered over all the truths he heard from the boy. At last he got convinced of
the dreamlike nature of the world. He stopped sorrowing for his dead relatives.
He addressed the Sages son thus:
O Great one! You know this world and beyond. I do not believe that there is anything
that you do not know. Please answer me now.

How can you say that the whole Universe seen is pure imagination? However much I
may imagine, my imagination does not materialize. But you have created a Universe by
the force of your will.
How do time and space differ in these creations? Please tell me.
On being thus asked, the Sage's son replied:
The grossification of an imagination depends upon the strength of the mind whether it is
uniform or broken up by indecision. We know that this world is a Creation of Brahma.
This Universe is his imagination. This looks real and permanent because the original
desire is so powerful. Whereas the world of your creation no one takes seriously, and
your own mistrust makes it useless.
How can we materialize conceptions?
Lord Brahma naturally conceives this world and creates it because it is his ordained
function. Yakshas and Rakshasas (classes of celestial beings) possess magical gems
which can make true their wishes. Gods have the magical tree to bestow their desires.
Yogis do it by the power of Yoga. Siddhas have attained miraculous power of hymns and
create anything they want. Sages perform penance and gain power to do any impossible
feat. Viswakarma can build any wondrous structure because the boons he possesses.
How can imagination become grossified?
As long as the old idea is alive, a new idea cannot take root and materialize. Suppose I
ask you create a Universe inside this hill, you cannot do it because you have a fixed
notion that the hill is small and the Universe is big and will not fit inside the hill. Your
own doubt about your own creation proves an obstacle in grossifying your imagination.
One should forget the old associations in order to make ones new conception effective.
The new conception will remain alive as a material as long as your will holds it as true.
Smallest doubt about its existence will immediately destroy it. Your will must be strong.
Only then can the imagined world of yours can be stable. Anything is possible that way.
You must practice focusing your thoughts if you desire your creations to be stable.
And you were asking me also about the mystery of space and time.
This world is full of varieties. What is good for one proves harmful to another.
The Sun helps all to see but blinds the owls; water is the abode of fishes but drowns man;
fire burns a man but is food to tittiri (a species of bird); fire is ordinarily put out by water
but it flourishes in the middle of ocean at the time of dissolution. Similar discrepancies
are evident elsewhere.
Similarly what we perceive also differs from person to person.
A jaundiced eye sees everything yellow and myopia produces the double image of a
single object. Abnormal visions are thus the direct result of abnormal eyes. The
Karandakas, in an Eastern island, are said to see everything red; so also the inhabitants of
Ramanaka isle see everything upside down. One hears many more strange stories of the
kind, all of which are based on abnormalities of vision. They can all be remedied by
proper treatment.
Other senses also give different experiences to different people.
Mental faculty also differs in everybody.
Every ones personal experience is unique. We can confirm the similarities only with the
help of language, but actually each person carries his own world in his mind.
For a man waiting, time is lengthy; for a person who moves, time is shorter.

For a person who walks, the distance proves to be longer. His conception of space and
time is longer than the person who travels by a horse. Even the space and time
experienced by a horse rider is smaller for a person who uses an air vehicle. Thus space
and time experience is different for different persons and relative to the mind of the
observer. There is no absolute space and time fixed as such. We only create space and
time projections and place the objects nearer or distant.
I have conceived that only a few hours should pass for me inside the hill in comparison
with the hundreds of years outside the hill. It helps me pass time quickly and my father
can remain in penance for a longer time without being anxious about my welfare. He
knows I am safe inside the hill-universe. Every time I come out I see the changes that
have happened outside the hill and get entertained. I do not age also because of living in
the hill-universe.
The space and time inside the hill are my imaginations. I keep them alive as fixed ideas in
my mind. I believe and know for sure that there is a world inside it; whereas others see it
only as a rocky surface. They can never imagine a world inside it. So they can never see
it. If I stop imagining it, it will cease to exist.
You observe that there is an inside the hill world and outside the hill world.
How do these ideas of external and internal occur?
Let us analyze now!
What do we mean by external?
All that is outside of us is external!
We conceive of the outside world as some picture on a screen.
We perceive it; so it is outside; thus we imagine.
But here we have a misconception and identify ourselves with the body. We always
imagine the world to be outside the body.
How is it feasible? Like a pot seen outside in the world, this body also is seen by us
outside only. It is also a part of the picture seen on the outside screen limited by space
time ideas. But because we have the misconceived idea of our identity we think that the
world is outside our body which is actually a wrong conception. Even our wrong
imagination makes it real for us. From generation to generation we maintain the wrong
idea that the world is outside our bodies.
How does it happen?
When we say that the world is outside the hill, we remove the picture of the hill from the
outside world. We then project the world outside the hill with the hill as the idea inside
us. We thus have many external and internal space ideas. Inside the house, outside the
house, inside the cart, outside the cart etc.; each time we withdraw the picture of a
particular object and see the world as external to it. Body has become a permanent inner
idea for us. We never project it as external; we make it the centre of our perceptions and
see the entire world as external to it. The world all around the body alone is our external
Each one keeps his or her body as the central point of his or her universe.
What our consciousness illuminates only becomes the picture of our universe. Each
person is aware of only his or her universe. The illuminated objects are within the vision
of the illuminant. Body also is part of the illumined external world. All those which are
illumined by the illuminator are objectified as existing outside the illuminator. The

illuminator and illuminated cannot be the same. The illuminant cannot be the object of his
own illumination. How can the illumination by which he sees be apart from him?
Light reveals all the objects. Light does not reveal itself. Light is self-revealing.
Illuminant illuminates all the objects including the body; illuminant does not need
another illuminator to illuminate him. He is self-luminous. He is the Self; he is the
illumination in perfection - only one, and the being of all. The illuminator projects the
conceptions of limited by space and time and illuminates them as if they are outside. But
he is all the three; the illuminant, illumination and the illumined.
The ideas of external and internal also are part of the illumination only. He extends as
time and space. How can then anything be outer unless it is like a peak on a mountain?
The whole universe is thus in the illumination which shines self-sufficient, by itself,
everywhere, and at all times. Such illumination is Her Transcendental Queen Tripura, the
Supreme. She is called Brahma in the Vedas, Vishnu by the Vaishnavites, Shiva by the
Saivaites, and Shakti by the Shaaktas. There is indeed nothing but She. She holds
everything by Her prowess as a mirror does its images. She is the illuminant in relation to
the illumined.
The object is drowned in illumination like the image of a city in a mirror. Just as the city
is not different from the mirror, so also the Universe is not apart from consciousness. Just
as the image is part and parcel of the clear, smooth, compact and one mirror, so also the
universe is a part and parcel of the perfect, solid and unitary consciousness, namely the
There is no solid world outside ones mind. Space is just a void projected by the mind to
locate objects. The universe is, always and all-through, a phenomenon in the Self.
How then the Pure Consciousness being void, is dense at the same time?
A mirror is dense and impenetrable and contains all the images within itself as itself.
Pure consciousness is dense and impenetrable and yet displays the universe by virtue of
its self-sufficiency.
Pure consciousness is all-pervading, dense and single; it holds the mobile and immobile
creation within it; wondrously variegated; with no immediate or ultimate cause for it.
Whatever be the amount of reflections appearing in the mirror, the mirror is never tainted
by them. It continues to reflect as clearly as always.
In the same way the one consciousness illumines the waking and dream states; but is
never affected by them and stays as pure as ever.
O King! Analyze again your dream experience and imaginations of the mind. Though
they are perfect in detail, they belong only to the mind.
Consciousness permeating them obviously remains unblemished before creation or after
dissolution of the world; even during the existence of the world, it remains unaffected as
the mirror by the images.
The mirror reflects the space inside it as external to itself.
Though unperturbed, unblemished, thick, dense and single the absolute consciousness
being self-sufficient manifests within itself what looks exterior.
This is the beginning of ignorance and also the beginning of creation. It is the darkness!

Starting as an infinitesimal fraction of the whole, this ignorance manifests as the idea that
something exists outside it. It is a property of the ego-sense.
The unmanifested vaasanaas prepare a stage for their manifestation through this first seed
of ignorance. Each Vaasana projects outside a field of experience for its own
manifestation and ego-sense appears as the experiencer seeing a world outside him or her.
There is no identity with the original consciousness. It is now simple, insentient energy.
The present creation is the mental product of Brahma or Hiranya Garbha, appointed as
the Creator by the will-force of the Primal Being, Sri Tripura Devi.
Time, space, gross creations, etc., appear in it according to the imagery of the agent.
A certain period is only one day according to my calculation whereas it is twelve
thousand years according to Brahma: the space covered by about two miles and a half of
Brahma is infinite according to me and covers a whole universe. In this way, both are true
and untrue at the same time. Similarly also, imagine a hill within you, and also time in a
subtle sense. Then contemplate a whole creation in them; they will endure as long as your
concentration endures - even to eternity for all practical purposes, if your will-power be
strong enough.
That is why I say that this world is a mere figment of imagination.
Therefore what looks like the external world is really an image on the screen of the mind.
Consciousness is thus the screen and the image, and so yogis are enabled to see long
distances of space and realize long intervals of time. They can traverse all distance in a
moment and can perceive everything as readily as a gooseberry in the hollow of one's
Therefore recognize the fact that the world is simply an image on the mirror of
consciousness and cultivate the contemplation of I am, abide as pure being and thus
give up this delusion of the reality of the world. Then you will become like myself and be
On hearing this discourse of the Sage's son, the King overcame his delusion; his intellect
became purified and he understood the ultimate goal. Then he practiced Samadhi, and
became self-contained, without depending on any external agency, and led a long and
happy life. He ceased to identify himself with the body, and became absolute as
transcendental space until he was finally liberated.


King Janaka ruled the city of Videha.
In ancient India, Janakas were the Kings of Videha Kingdom. Their capital was Mithila,
which is believed to be present day Janakpur, Nepal. The most famous Janaka was
Seeradhwaj, he of the plough banner because his daughter Sita sprang up ready formed
from the furrow when he was ploughing the ground and preparing for a Sacrifice to
obtain offspring. There are references to him in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, Mahabharata
and Puranas. The Janakas were known to be well-versed in the Knowledge of the Atman,
and remained free from attachments even while living as householders and rulers.
Seeradhwaj Janaka was not only a brave King, but was also as well-versed in all the
Scriptures and Vedas equal to any great Sage of those times. He was the beloved pupil of
Sage Yaajnavalkya, whose exposition of Brahman to the King is included in the
Brhadaranyaka Upanishad. In the Bhagavad Gita, Sri Krishna cites Seeradhwaj Janaka as
an illustrious example of the Karma yoga.
Seeradhwaj Janaka was also said to be a Rajarshi having spiritually advanced and
reached the state of a Rishi, though he was a King administrating the Kingdom of
Mithila. He was also instructed by Sage Ashtavakra upon the nature of the Self or Atman;
this exposition forms the content of the famous treatise Ashtavakra Gita.
The Brahmanas relate that he refused to submit to the hierarchical pretensions of the
Brahmins, and asserted his right of performing Sacrifices without the intervention of
priests. He succeeded in his contention, for it is said that through his pure and righteous
life he became a Brahmin and was one of the highly reverted Rajarshis (Royal Sages). He
and his priest Yaajnavalkya are thought to have prepared the way for Buddha.
One King of the Solar dynasty named Nimi died without leaving a successor. The Sages
subjected the body of Nimi to attrition, and produced from it a prince who was called
Janaka, from being born without a progenitor. He was the first Janaka, and twenty
generations earlier than Janaka, the father of Sita.
Ashtavakra was a Sage in ancient India. Ashta means eight. Vakra means bend or
deformity. Ashtaavakra means a person with eight bends.
Sage Uddaalaka ran a school (Ashram) teaching Vedic Knowledge. Kahola was one of
his best disciples. Uddaalaka was so pleased with him that he had his daughter Sujaata
married to him. Sujaata, eventually got pregnant and in the natural desire of wanting her

child to imbibe spirituality and intelligence, began to sit in the classes taught by
Uddaalaka and Kahola, listening to their chanting of mantras.
In India, there is a belief that when expectant mothers expose themselves to spiritual
teachings, the child in the womb hears it and gathers that Knowledge and becomes a
genius in that spiritual Knowledge after its birth.
One day Kahola recited the Vedas within the hearing distance of the child growing in the
womb; being already aware of the correct pronunciation of every syllable, the child in the
womb squirmed in distress whenever Kahola pronounced a syllable wrong. Sujaata
informed Kahola that he had pronounced the syllable wrongly as indicated by the child in
the womb. This happened on eight occasions. Kahola observed this as arrogance on the
part of something yet to manifest itself in the world, and cursed the fetus with eight
deformities. So, when the baby was born, it had eight bends; was crooked in eight places.
Naturally, he was named Ashtaavakra (a person of eight bends).
Around the time Ashtavakra was born, his father was invited to argue with the great
philosopher Bandi. Bandi easily defeated Kahola. Kahola lost the argument and had to
submerge himself in the river, as per the rules of the contest. Ashtavakra was therefore
raised by Uddaalaka and his disciples and within a short time mastered everything that
was expected of a 'Brahmin'. Uddaalaka and his disciples took pains to see that
Ashtavakra was always kept in the dark about the fate of his father. However, Ashtavakra
came to know the Truth when his young uncle, Shvetaketu inadvertently, blurted out that
the person who Ashtavakra thought was his father, was in fact not his father. Ashtavakra
then demanded the Truth from his mother and decided to confront Bandi and defeat him
in an argument.
King Janaka ruled the city of Videha. Nobody knew his real name. He looked after the
citizens like a father caring for their wealth education and morality, that every one
addressed him only as Janaka- father; he became renowned by the name of Janaka all
over the world.
Janaka from his young age was given to Self-enquiry and was a realized soul by the time
he ascended the throne of Videha. He was always engaged in philosophical discussions
with great Sages and learned men. His main hobby was to arrange debates on highly
paradoxical topics of philosophy and lavishly reward the winner. He was an ardent
devotee of Supreme Goddess Tripura and had realized Her as his own Self.
Once he performed a Sacrifice honoring Her and invited all the learned men all over the
world. As it was an unforgettable experience to participate in a Sacrifice arranged by
King Janaka, all the Brahmins, scholars, hermits, critics, those versed in the Vedas, those
accustomed to share in Sacrificial rites and Sacrifices, etc. all arrived there without fail.
Lord Varuna, the God of waters, arranged for a similar Sacrifice at the same time and
invited all the learned men and Sages to attend the same. But everyone highly admired
the hospitality of the King and went off to attend the Sacrifice conducted at King Janakas
palace. They ignored Varunas invitation. Varuna felt offended. Varunas son was a great
dialectician. He consoled his father and promised him that he will soon bring all the
Brahmins there without fail. He changed his form to that of a Brahmin and entered
Janakas palace with the rest of the Brahmin crowd.

King Janaka prostrated before every Brahmin and sought their blessing. He saluted the
disguised Vaaruni too. The Brahmin cheat, now called Bandi, blessed the King duly and
addressed him thus before the entire assembly of learned men.
O King! I pity you! What sort of people have you invited to your Sacrifice? Your
Sacrificial Hall looks like a lotus lake ravaged by crows, jackdaws and herons. Look at
all these incompetent fools assembled here waiting for the delicacies and gifts but not
having an iota of Knowledge worthy of you. No swan has arrived here to adorn this
beautiful lotus pond! I feel awkward to be seen with such idiots. I think I will leave
immediately if you permit me.
There was immediately a big commotion in the assembly. All those assembled there stood
up in anger. They addressed the arrogant Brahmin thus:
You charlatan of a Brahmin! How dare you insult everybody? What is lacking in us?
What Knowledge is there that we do not know? You are just an arrogant rascal coming
here to insult all of us! Do not run away with an excuse after insulting us all like this.
Stay and prove your supremacy in Knowledge. Great men of Supreme Knowledge are
here to honor the Sacrifice of the Great King Janaka.
Do you think you know anything better than them? Choose any topic you like and prove
us your proficiency at least in that topic.
Vaaruni accepted the challenge and addressed the assembly thus:
I need only a minute or two to outdo you all in a debate. But I have this one condition
before we start the debate. If I get defeated, throw me into the sea; if you are defeated, I
will consign you to the sea one after the other. Are you ready for such a fate?
The scholars assembled there did not give much value to the words of the arrogant
Brahmin. They all thought that he was just acting like a fool and would soon be under the
waters as he himself had announced.
The debate started in earnest. Vaaruni was a wizard in language and all the scholars
assembled there duly entered the sea waters being defeated by him in no time. But to
their surprise they found themselves in the Sacrificial hall of Lord Varuna and were
overjoyed. They were welcomed with due honor by the God and they participated in his
Sacrifice happily.
One of the Brahmins who were sunk was of the name Kahola. He had a scholarly son
named Ashtaavakra. Ashtaavakra was enraged hearing the fate of his father. He
immediately rushed to the court of King Janaka. He challenged the disguised Vaaruni for
a debate. Vaaruni was defeated soon and was condemned to enter the seas by the young
avenger. Vaaruni humbled before all discarded the Brahmins form and stood there in his
true form. He restored back all the Brahmins who were sunk in the sea. Kaholas son felt
extremely proud of his learning and thought of himself to be the greatest scholar in the
whole world. He addressed all those assembled there with offensive words and
humiliated one and all. All the scholars stood in front of the young man with bent heads
and were highly embarrassed by their own ignorance.
Just then there was some commotion at the entrance and in came a beautiful female
ascetic. Her eyes shone with extraordinary light of Knowledge. She appeared to be a lady
of extreme charms, though she was attired in ordinary bark garments and her hair was
covered with matted locks. Her eyes shone with compassion and she looked at all the

scholars with understanding and smiled at them cheering their broken hearts. The King
got up from his seat and welcomed the charming maiden with due honor.
Ashtavakra looked at her with disgust! A female..! What would she be capable of! How
dare she enter an assembly ornamented by a great scholar like himself!
The female ascetic addressed Kaholas son thus.
O Child! O son of Kahola! You indeed are a highly accomplished Sage; for these
Brahmins have been rescued by you after you defeated Vaaruni in the debate.
I am just a female of lesser intelligence. I will not waste your precious time in worthless
debates. I will just ask you a short and simple question and you give me a straight,
explicit and unreserved answer; that is enough.
Ashtavakra agreed! What did he not know in the world? What great question can this
female ask after all? He was confident that he would make a fool of her within minutes!
He looked at her impatiently.
The female ascetic asked:
What is that state by attaining which one becomes immortal?
What is that state by knowing which one becomes completely free of doubts and
What is that state established in which one annihilates completely all desires?
If you have realized that state, then describe it to me!
Kaholas son lost no time in answering that simple question. He had completely read all
the Scriptures and knew every word of those texts without a miss. He said:
I know the answer. Listen to my words. There is nothing in the world not known to me. I
have mastered all the Sacred Scriptures fully. I can easily answer your question.
That state which you enquired about is the primal and efficient cause of the Universe!
It has no beginning, middle or end. It is not affected by space and time.
It is pure, unbroken, single Consciousness.
The whole world is manifested in it like a city in a mirror.
One who knows that transcendental state becomes immortal; all doubts and uncertainties
vanish there; one is no more fooled by the sight of innumerable images; desires will not
arise any more; the experience transcends everything.
It is also unknowable because there is no one to know it besides itself!
Ashtavakra flashed an arrogant look at the female Sage and held his head high like a
Supreme Intellectual whose equal was nowhere in the world.
Anyone who has even glanced superficially at some scriptures will know how to
elaborate on the topic of Self and Para Brahman. Ashtavakra was no exception. He had
studied all the available texts including those which teach about Self-state. But he had
not himself attained that state by proper enquiry. He was stuck in his intellectual
supremacy and did not go beyond the understanding level to the realized level of the
Supreme Truth.
Female ascetic flashed an enchanting smile at him and ignoring his arrogant behavior
Young Sage! I appreciate your promptness in answering my question. What you have
said is the correct answer and accepted by one and all without objection.
But there are some statements uttered by you which are contradictory to each other.

You admitted that the transcendental state in question is unknowable for want of a
knower outside the Consciousness.
You also stated that Knowledge of such a state confers immortality and perfection.
How are these two statements to be reconciled?
Either admit that Consciousness is unknowable; and you do not know it; so it does not
Or, say that it is knowable; and you know it; so it is not unknowable.
You evidently speak from second hand Knowledge, and just quoting from Scriptures.
You do not have personal experience of the Supreme state; you have not realized that
state truly!
You stated that the whole world is manifested in it like a mirror and one is no more
fooled by the sight of innumerable images.
Your words amount to only this - you have a personal knowledge of the images but not of
the mirror. How can that be?
Havent you straddled enough in the presence of this great King?
Ashtavakra stood there silently. He had no words to speak back. He felt embarrassed. He
remained with bent head and thought about the argument presented by the female ascetic.
He understood his lack of Knowledge and addressed her with great humility:
O Great Ascetic! I do not know the answer to your question. Accept me as your disciple
and clear my doubt. I have not deliberately uttered false statements; for I know that any
merits a liar may have, are counteracted by his lies so that he is condemned as unworthy.
As you observed, I only quoted these statements from the Scriptures. Pray tell me how
the two scriptural statements are to be reconciled.
The ascetic was pleased by the humility and sincerity of Sage Ashtavakra and addressed
him with compassion:
Child! Ultimate Reality is not a subject to be dealt with such lightness. It is well guarded
on all sides to get trapped in dry polemics. Everyone cannot realize by just a textual
rendering of the statements of the Scriptures. Many well versed scholars live in a state of
delusion, without ever realizing the sublime Truth. Even in this assembly, only the King
and I are in the actual realized state.
Self is not a subject for discussion. The most brilliant logic can only approach it but never
attain it. Though it is beyond the grasp of even the sharpest intellects and logic based
arguments, it can be realized easily by the Grace of God and service to ones Guru.
You are the son of a reputed Sage. Listen attentively and try to understand my teachings.
You can listen to this topic a thousand times from many a realized Sage; but it is just a
useless activity if you do not verify the statements by the actual enquiry into your own
Self, with a concentrated mind.
Suppose a prince who is wearing a pearl necklace gets a mistaken notion that his
necklace has been stolen, you cannot convince him about the truth of the necklace still
adorning his neck, unless he himself finds it around the neck by his own effort like
touching or seeing in the mirror.
O young man! However clever a person is, he cannot know his own Self by the mere
teachings of others unless he realizes the Self as a personal experience himself. One
cannot realize the Self with the mind turned outward.

A lamp illumines everything around it but itself. It does not illumine the light of another
lamp too. It shines without depending on another source of light to illumine it. Light of a
lamp is Self-luminant. It shines by itself. Can you say by reason of that, that they do not
exist or cannot be known?
Similarly everything is illumined by Consciousness or Awareness. It is Self-shining. How
can you doubt the existence of awareness itself?
How can anything be apparent to you without Consciousness? In deep sleep state you are
aware of nothing; but to say nothing is apparent to you at that state, you should be
conscious of nothingness there. Is not your awareness of your unawareness also due to
Consciousness? When is Consciousness ever absent?
If you infer its eternal light, then enquire within yourself, whether the light is of itself or
not. You cannot enquire like this with an outward turned mind. As long as ones mind is
restlessly moving outward without control, one cannot engage in Self-enquiry however
learned and proficient one may be. As long as thoughts keep rising in the mind, you must
understand that the turning inward of the mind has not been accomplished. As long as the
mind is not turned inward, so long the Self cannot be realized.
Turning of the mind inward means the absence of desires. How can you stabilize the
mind on the Self-enquiry, if desires have not been annihilated?
Of course lamp light or any such source of light is insentient; it cannot be self aware.
Still, their existence or manifestation is under no doubt. That means they are selfluminous. Can you not similarly investigate with an inward mind in order to find out if
the all-comprehending Self is conscious or not conscious?
That Consciousness- Chit - is Absolute; IT transcends the three states of waking, dream
and deep sleep states. IT contains within itself the entire Universe, supporting its
manifestation. Nothing can be apprehended without its light.
Therefore, develop dispassion and get established in your Self. Remaining as your own
Self does not need any special effort; it is spontaneous. The state where there is complete
cessation of thoughts and Self-enquiry ceases - that is the state of your Self. When you
later analyze it intellectually, you will understand the significance of its being knowable
and unknowable at the same time. Thus realizing the unknowable one abides in
immortality for ever and ever.
I have finished my talks. Salutations! Farewell!
I believe you have not comprehended my words fully, because it is the first time you are
hearing this. This King standing here is the wisest among men. Request him to clear your
doubts; he will be too glad to help you.
The King and the assembly were amazed by her speech. They saluted her and hailed her
with praises. She instantly dissolved in air and disappeared from human sight.
Ashtavakra now humbly approached the King seated in the court room filled with great
scholars and said:
O King of Videha, I have not clearly understood the teaching of the ascetic because of
its brevity. Please explain to me then, Lord of mercy, how I shall know the unknowable.
Being thus asked, Janaka, as if surprised, replied:

O Son of the Great Sage! Listen attentively.

It is neither unknowable nor remains unknown at any moment.
How even the ablest of the teachers can guide one to something which remains always
unknown? If a Guru can teach about it, then it means he knows it! This Knowledge is
extremely easy and extremely difficult too. It is easy for him whose perception is turned
back towards his own Self; it is extremely difficult to attain for one whose perception is
turned outward.
It cannot be taught at all if it always remains unknown. The fact that the Vedas point to it
only indirectly as not this - not this (NETI-NETI), shows that this Knowledge can be
imparted to others. Analyze this subtle intelligence by which you know everything else.
This underlying Consciousness though abstract and apart from material objects illumines
them all the same. Know it to be the Truth, O Sage!
What is not self-luminous can only fall within the orbit of intelligence and cannot be
Intelligence itself.
Intelligence is that by which objects are known; it cannot be what it is if it becomes the
object of Knowledge. What is intelligible must always be different from intelligence
itself, or else it could not be made known by it.
This Abstract Intelligence is not made of parts like the intelligible objects which appear in
a variety of shapes. Eliminate all those which are made of parts and shapes and perceive
the Absolute Intelligence without parts.
Look at the mirror reflecting images. The mirror itself takes on the hues of images and
appears like them. Similarly the Abstract Intelligence also assumes the different shapes of
objects by virtue of its holding them within itself. If you cease to observe the reflections,
the mirror will appear aloof from the reflections yet holding the reflections inside itself.
Reflections will also appear as the mirror alone.
Similarly the Abstract Intelligence assumes the different shapes of objects by virtue of its
holding them within itself. Eliminate from it, all that can be known; then the Abstract
Intelligence will manifest by itself. It cannot be defined as of having any characteristics
and made known; because it is the very support of all other knowable things with
Self cannot be cognized like other objects; it alone cognizes everything else.
Self is not the body, senses, or mind; they are all transient; they are all changing
Body after all is composed of food. How can it be the Self? How can the body be You?
When you cognize the objects, there is no sense of your body; there is only the ego
sense- the I! This I surpasses the body, senses and mind at the time of cognizing
objects. The body, mind and senses can be only cognized by the I. The I sense is
always there. It is self luminous. The bodily conception does not exist along with the
perception of objects. Otherwise the two perceptions must become coeval, which is
disproved in personal experience.
If it is argued that nobody has the flash of the I at the time of cognizing objects, it is a
senseless statement; if I or you were not there, how can the perception of objects take

place? If 'I' did not shine forth at that time, the objects would not be perceived, just as
they are invisible in the absence of light.
Then why is the flash not apparent?
Perceptibility is always associated with insentient matter. Who else is there to see the
self-luminosity of the Self? It cannot shine in absolute singleness and purity. However, it
is there as 'I'.
Moreover every one feels I perceive the objects whenever an act of cognition takes
place. If I was not there as a permanent feature, a doubt would arise always- if I am or
if I am not - which is absurd. If it is argued that the I sense refers to the body at the
time of cognizing objects, it is an incorrect statement.
What is perception?
The subtle intellect the Self itself takes on the shapes of the objects at the time of
perception; it takes on the shape of the body also and identifies itself with it.
It cannot be argued also that, at the time of perception there exists the sense of a person
with some name and other characteristics who is doing the act of perception. It can not
be said that I am Chaitra; so and so. The Chaitra sense, over-reaches the 'I' sense; but
the 'I' sense is never lost by the Chaitra sense. In Chaitra sense, I sense may not be
apparent; but Chaitra sense inheres the I sense only.
When a perception occurs, one is aware of the object; but I am seeing an object is a later
thought process; I am such and such name/form is another thought process; but I exists
as the awareness itself, transcending the thought processes.
I is the continuous unbroken awareness which is the support of all our broken
experiences. The limited ego is just one more thought accompanying all the cognitions.
Ego is a mind created identity; I is the awareness, pure and undivided.
There is the continuity of 'I' in deep sleep state and in Samadhi state too. Otherwise after
sleep a man would get up as somebody else; in the Samadhi state one is absorbed in deep
contemplation and the continuity is not lost there also. In those states the Self remains
unqualified. It does not have the identity of the limited ego of the waking state.
Then there exist two kinds of Is; qualified and unqualified.
Qualification implies limitations whereas its absence implies its unlimited nature.
I is associated with limitations in dream and wakeful states, and it is free from them in
deep sleep and Samadhi states.
In the deep sleep and Samadhi states, I exists without the three fold division of subject,
object and the relationship of perception. It is pure and single and untainted. It persists as
the pure I and nothing else. It is Perfection!
The Supreme Queen, the Absolute Intelligence alone exists as the ever-shining I.
SHE is all; SHE knows everything at all times.
You are SHE in the abstract sense.
Realize your own Self by turning your glance inwards. You are the Pure Abstract
Consciousness. Do not delay; do not procrastinate. Realize it now; this very instant.
A good disciple realizes the Self at the moment of instruction itself.

Glancing inwards does not mean glancing with the physical eyes. It is the eye which you
use in dreams; it is the inner eye by which the cognition becomes complete; it is the eye
of the eye.
How can we see inwards?
Perception is possible when the sight is turned towards an object. The sight must be
turned away from other objects and fixed on a particular object in order to see it.
Otherwise that object will not be perceived in entirety. It is as good as not seeing if the
sight is not fixed on the object. Same is the case with hearing, touching etc. The same
applies to the mind in its sensations of pain and pleasure, which are not felt if the mind is
otherwise engaged.
When you perceive objects of the world you have to eliminate all others from your
cognition and concentrate on only one object which you want to sense.
However when your goal is Self-realization, you have to eliminate all perceptions
entirely. Self-Realization differs from ordinary act of cognition in that it requires only one
condition: elimination of all perceptions.
Of course Consciousness is unknowable; yet it can be realized by the pure mind. This fact
cannot be grasped by even learned scholars.
Let us analyze the act of perception of objects in the world.
External perceptions of the mind are of two kinds.
First is elimination of all perceptions.
Second is fixation on the particular object of perception.
When the mind is turned away from other perceptions, it is in an indifferent state.
In that state there is the absence of any kind of perception.
Therefore concentration on any one particular object is necessary to perceive the external
But one cannot concentrate on the Self as an object because Self is Consciousness and
not different from the mind. If one just stops perceiving other objects; Self shines by
itself. It is enough that other perceptions (namely, thoughts) should be eliminated from
the mind and then the Self will be realized.
Suppose a man wants to pick out one particular image among a series of images passing
in front of him as reflections on a mirror, he has to turn his attention from all other
reflections and concentrate on that particular one he desires to see.
Suppose he wants to see only the space in the mirror, he just turns his attention from all
the pictures and the space manifests without any attention on his part. He need not
specially concentrate on space because space is immanent everywhere and is already
reflected there. He did not notice it because of the interspatial images dominating the
scene. Space is the support of all images; it is immanent in all images; it becomes
manifest if only the attention is diverted from the panorama. In the same way,
Consciousness is the supporter of all and is immanent in all; it pervades the mind too.
Diversion of attention from other items is all that is necessary for Self-Realization.
Is it ever possible that the Self-illuminant can ever be absent from any nook or corner?

There can indeed be no moment or spot from which Consciousness is absent. If

Consciousness is absent, everything else is absent too. Therefore Pure Consciousness or
Self becomes manifest by mere diversion of attention from things or thoughts.
Self Realization becomes possible through absolute purity of mind and not by
concentrating on it. That is why Self is said to be unknowable.
Purity of the mind is the sole necessity for Self-Realization.
What is the impurity of the mind that has to be removed?
Thought is the impurity of the mind. To make the mind thought-free is to keep it pure.
Do you understand now why purity of mind is advocated to a seeker after Selfrealization? If mind is not pure how can one realize his Self?
Or, how is it possible for the Self not to be found gleaming in the pure mind?
All the injunctions in the Scriptures are directed towards this end alone.
Qualities like unselfish action, dispassion, and devotion are all advocated for this purpose
only. Transcendental Consciousness is manifest only in the stain-free mind.
Ashtavakra again questioned:
O King! You are saying that the passive mind where no thoughts arise is pure and makes
way for the Self to manifest by itself; then such a passive state is found in the deep sleep
state too: there also thoughts do not arise; then sleep also should make way for the Self to
manifest since it satisfies your condition and there is no need for any kind of effort.
King Janaka spoke:
I will clarify this doubt of yours. Listen carefully.
In the deep sleep state, the mind indeed is silent. But it does not act there because of
darkness. It is blocked like a mirror covered by tar. Such a blackened mirror does not
reflect images; it does not reflect space too. Is it enough in that case, that images are
eliminated in order to reveal the space reflected in the mirror?
Mind at the time of sleep is veiled by darkness; it is blinded and rendered unfit for
illuminating thoughts. Mind is in a state of eclipse; how can such a mind reveal the
glimmer of Consciousness?
Only a clean untainted mirror can reflect the images. Would a chip of wood held in front
of a single object to the exclusion of all others reflect the object simply because all others
are excluded? Similarly realization of the Self can only be with an alert mind and not
with a stupefied one. Even new born babes do not have thoughts; do they realize the Self?
Their minds are not alert.
Let us analyze the example of the mirror covered by tar.
The tar may prevent the images from being seen, but the quality of the mirror is not
affected, for the outer coating of tar must be reflected in the interior of the mirror.
The mind in deep sleep is diverted from dream objects and the waking state objects; but
is not free of ignorance. This is evident by the recollection of the dark ignorance of sleep
when one wakes.
I will now explain to you again the difference between the state of sleep and Samadhi.
The cognizing mind has two states; Illumination and consideration.

Illumination means the association of the mind with the external objects.
Consideration means deliberation (Vimarsha) on the object seen.
In the state of illumination the limitations of the objects like shape, name etc. are not
Deliberation is qualified by the limitations pertaining to the objects seen; objects remain
clearly defined in that state.
In the preliminary state of illumination there does not arise any distinctive qualities of the
object; so illumination is said to be unqualified. In the next state following it, the object
becomes defined and is said to be such and such, and so and so. That is the perception of
the object after deliberation.
Deliberation is again of two kinds; one is actual experience and fresh; the other one is
cogitation over the former and called memory. The mind always functions in these two
Dreamless sleep is characterized by illumination of sleep alone and the experience lasts
unbroken for some time. Wakeful state is characterized by deliberations only, repeatedly
broken up by thoughts; so it is said to be free of ignorance.
Light is luminous; yet it is insentient; similarly sleep is free of thoughts and consists of
illumination alone; yet it is a state of nescience. Flame is insentient; but sleep is gleaming
with Consciousness. In sleep the insentient phase of stupor overpowers the sentient phase
of deliberation. But the factor of illumination is ever present and deliberation alone is
absent. That is why sleep is said to be the state of ignorance, as distinguished from
wakefulness which is conceded to be Knowledge.
Sleep is the first manifestation of the Unmanifest. The wise say that the mind is
submerged in sleep because it is illumining the unmanifest condition. The prevailing
experience in the sleep state is nothing exists. In the waking state also the actual
experience is nothing exists, though there is a visible universe surrounds us. This
ignorance is shattered by the repeated rising of thoughts. The naught state is the basic
state of the ego which is the beginning of ignorance. Continuous rising up of thoughts
become an addition of such a state in the waking experience. So, when thoughts are
absent, naught state alone exists in the deep sleep state. The Unmanifest alone exists
there; but the mind is incapacitated in that condition. All the vaasanaas remain in the seed
form still blocking the Reality. Only the unmanifest is there with the mind without the
cognitive capacity.
Such a state without deliberation exists not only in the deep sleep state but also at the
time of cognizing objects. I am not telling this as just a fanciful statement; it has been
actually experienced by me. Even the most intelligent get perplexed in this topic.
Listen attentively.
The mind has three states which are characterized by the absence of perturbation;
Samadhi state, sleep state and the instant of cognizing objects. Yet we differentiate among
these states when we recapitulate these states and understand that they illumine different

Absolute Reality is manifest in Samadhi; a void or unmanifest condition distinguishes

sleep and diversity is the characteristic of cognition in wakefulness. The illuminant is
however the same all through and is always unblemished. Therefore it is said to be
Abstract Intelligence.
We can easily understand the thoughtlessness in the Samadhi and the deep sleep state
because their experience remains unbroken for some appreciable period and can be
recapitulated after waking up. But we do not recognize the thoughtless state at the time of
cognition because the experience lasts for a fleeting fraction of a second only. We would
not recognize this deliberation-less state in Samadhi and deep sleep if they were also
fleeting. The deliberation-less state in the wakeful state is like a fleeting experience of
Samadhi or deep sleep state. Even it is possible to recapitulate a fleeting experience of
sleep state because we know what it is like. But fleeting Samadhi goes undetected
because we usually do not know what it is like.
O Brahmin! Fleeting Samadhi is indeed being experienced by all beings even when they
are engaged in day to day activities; but it passes unnoticed by them for they are not
acquainted with it.
Samadhi state is completely free of thoughts and musings at every instant. It is a
synonymous word for denoting the absence of thoughts. At some moments of waking
state and in the deep sleep state also there are no thoughts. But all the proclivities of the
mind remain latent in those states; they are in a ready to manifest state.
In the wakeful state, at the instant prior to the recognition of the object, there exists the
infinitesimal moment of thoughtlessness. That state is exactly like the state of Samadhi.
Sleep is the unmanifest state; entire world of perception is absent there; it is the first step
in the manifestation of the perceived world; all vaasanaas exist in a potential state ready
to burst out into fields of experience; it is the first born of the Abstract Intelligence. But it
is the insentient phase of the Supreme Consciousness. Nothing is revealed because there
is nothing to be revealed. Sleep is therefore the manifestation of the insentient state.
In the state of Samadhi, Brahman, the Supreme Consciousness is continuously glowing;
SHE pervades all time and place; SHE destroys all ignorance; SHE is Supremely Pure.
How can SHE be the ignorance of sleep?
Therefore sleep is not the end-all and the be-all.
Ashtavakra questioned again:
O King! You told me that subtle states of Samadhi exist in even ordinary day to day
experiences. Please explain it more clearly.
O King! Under what conditions do the states of Pure Consciousness without thoughts
The King spoke:
Listen, O Brahmin! I will explain clearly where all such Samadhi states occur in day to
day life.
When a man is tightly embraced by his newly married beloved wife for the first time; at
that instant he does not understand inside or outside; he has no perception of the outside
world and there exist not the internal emotions. He is not overcome by sleep also at that
moment; that state is called Samadhi.

When a person desires to have something for a long time and has well-ascertained its
unavailability; if he acquires it all of a sudden; at that instant he does not understand
inside or outside; he has no perception of the outside world and there exist not the
internal emotions. He is not overcome by sleep also at that moment; that state is called
When a man is walking cheerfully on the road without any fear or apprehension, if he
chances to see all of a sudden a terrifying tiger in front of him; at that instant he does not
understand inside or outside; he has no perception of the outside world and there exist not
the internal emotions. He is not overcome by sleep also at that moment; that is called
When a man suddenly hears about the death of his dearest son or someone close, who
was an expert in all the affairs of the house and had not a hint of any illness; at that
instant he does not understand inside or outside; he has no perception of the outside
world and there exist not the internal emotions. He is not overcome by sleep also at that
moment; that is called Samadhi.
There are other instances of Samadhi occurrence too. Listen attentively.
Samadhi state exists in the infinitesimal intervals between waking, dream and sleep
states. When the mind switches from one state to another, there is a tiny interval of
thoughtlessness. That is the state of Pure Consciousness.
Analyze how cognition takes place!
If one wants to perceive some object at a distance with one pointed mind, mind becomes
elongated like a leech crossing from the tip of one grass to the tip of another grass.
The whole mental structure consists of the appearance of the body in the body and the
nature of the object in the object. The mind is aware of the existence of the object at a
distance. Remaining as the cognizer on the one side and the characteristics of the object
on the other side, it recognizes the object. But before it understands the characteristics of
the object, before it gets the idea that I am seeing such and such an object, there is an
infinitesimal instant of thoughtless silence.
The mind projects itself and takes the appearance of the object and that alone is termed as
cognition. There is awareness first; then the projection of the mind towards the object;
then the three folds experience of perceiver perceiving the perceived.
The state of pure awareness before the perception of the object is the silent state of
Samadhi. Carefully watch that state.
What use is a mere verbal discourse! You can grasp it with your subtle reasoning.
Listen attentively.
In the day to day activities, for any one, (cognizing) Knowledge is not wholesome.
The day to day perceptions consist of a collection of broken perceptions. That is why the
noble ascetics describe the Self or the Pure Intellect as One separated by different
momentary cognitions. The interval between these broken perceptions is the thoughtless
state of Pure Intellect.
O son of Kahola! Know this! For a Knower, Samadhi state exists at every moment.

For the ignorant, this state is like the hares horn. Though I have described how this state
of Samadhi is intermingled in all states of the mind, it cannot be easily grasped by the
ignorant. It needs a highly subtle intellect and a thorough practice in remaining in the
witness state.
Ashtavakra questioned:
O King! Samadhi is a higher spiritual state paving the way towards liberation.
If the Samadhi state devoid of thoughts exists in all the day to day activities including
sleep, then why should there be the bondage of worldly existence?
The Self being Pure Intelligence, why does it not recognize itself and remain always
liberated? Please be kind and clear my doubts.
King Janaka spoke:
I will reveal you the secret! Ignorance is the very cause of pains and pleasure
experienced by every one; this ignorance is there from time immemorial throughout the
cycle of births and deaths; this experience of the world is only dream like and unreal.
Such a deep rooted ignorance can be destroyed only by the Knowledge of the Supreme.
Identification with the ego bound by limitations is ignorance; identification with the
Supreme Self is Knowledge.
Just by remaining thoughtless, one cannot destroy the ignorance. Just by the experience
of unqualified expanse of Consciousness as in Nirvikalpa Samadhi does not destroy the
ignorance. A trance state of thoughtless state is not equal to Knowledge.
Such a state is equal to the state of existing as the clean canvas used in painting.
A person in the Nirvikalpa Samadhi state (unperturbed by any vibration) is like a mirror
without reflection; a canvas without pictures. But it is not Knowledge. Pictures do not
contaminate the canvas nor does it lose its pure state by the pictures. The world seen all
around is not the actual ignorance. It is the Savikalpa state (perturbed by perceptions); the
Pure Consciousness with thoughts; the canvas with pictures; the mirror with images.
Knowledge does not mean wiping out all the pictures. It is the wisdom of seeing the
canvas as the support of the pictures. It is the wisdom of seeing the mirror which is itself
all the images yet different.
Savikalpa is not ignorance. World is not a condemned existence. Escaping to Nirvikalpa
state is not liberation. Being in the Nirvikalpa state when in the Savikalpa also, is
The course of worldly existence does not cease till the cessation of ignorance. Ignorance
does not cease without the complete Knowledge of the Perfect Self.
Perfection is free from the limitations of space and time. The Perfect state of the Self is
without parts; it is undivided. Parts can appear only with time, space and form.
The Pure Self with its completeness appears at first without these limitations but only
with a yearning for them; which in turn becomes a want; the limitations appear next; and
the fundamental cause of existence as I am comes into being. That is the embryonic
seed from which shoots forth the sprout of the body as the individualized Self. This starts

the continuous cycle of births and deaths. This cycle does not cease unless ignorance is
destroyed. This can happen only with the perfect Knowledge of the Self.
The complete Knowledge of the Self is determined to be of two types; Paroksha and
Aparoksha indirect and not-indirect; indirect and direct.
Indirect Knowledge is obtained through a Guru and Scriptures. Such an indirect
Knowledge is not the direct means for liberation.
Direct Knowledge is the Supreme understanding ripened by the practice of Samadhi. It is
capable of destroying the ignorance together with the visible universe; leads to the
auspicious goal of realization.
Indirect Knowledge should be first sought for; then one should practice contemplation;
then the direct Knowledge is produced.
If one does not possess the indirect Knowledge through the Guru and the Scriptures, there
is no attainment of liberation for the ignorant, even though the Samadhi state occurs at all
A man who has no Knowledge of gems cannot recognize the emerald by the mere sight of
it in the treasury. A person who has somewhat heard and known the gem recognizes it
instantly being intent on finding it. One, who is not intent on finding it, though seeing the
gem which has been heard of to be somewhere, does not recognize it though he might be
an expert.
An expertise in Scriptures does not lead to realization unless one seeks it with all his
heart. His theoretical Knowledge does not help him in recognizing the Samadhi state
which occurs in the day to day experiences also. But a person whose goal is Self
realization, even if he is not a scholar but knows a little bit about it, immediately
understands these states.
Even a learned scholar is no better than a fool, if he does not pay attention when a thing is
explained to him. A man looking up at the sky cannot identify the individual
constellations if he has not paid attention to the lessons properly. On the other hand, a
man though not a scholar but yet attentive, having heard all about the planet Venus, goes
out in confidence to look for it, knowing how to identify it, and finally discovers it, and
so is able to recognize the same whenever he sees it again. Inattentive people are simply
fools who cannot understand the ever-recurring Samadhi states in their daily lives.
They are like a man who ignorant of the treasure under the floor of his house, begs for his
daily food.
O Brahmin! Therefore just experiencing these fleeting states of Samadhi in daily life is
not of any use in the attainment of Self-realization. Even just born babes have no
thoughts; still they cannot attain Self realization because the ignorance has not been
destroyed. Nirvikalpa Samadhi clearly will never eradicate ignorance. Therefore in order
to destroy it Savikalpa Samadhi must be sought.
First perform meritorious selfless actions; the Supreme Controller Ishvara is pleased by
such virtuous actions; after many births one gets the desire for liberation. Otherwise even
in million births one does not get the desire for Self realization.
It is through extreme good fortune does one gets born as a sentient being; countless
merits are needed to get a human birth; to be endowed with both virtuous tendencies and
sharp intellect is indeed an extraordinary occurrence.

Observe o Brahmin! The world is mostly filled with immobile objects; Mobile creation
occupies a very small fraction of the immobile; human beings again form a very small
portion of the animal world; most of the human population is just a level more than
animals ignorant of the good and bad, or right and wrong. The sensible crowd among
them runs after pleasures just being intent on fulfilling desires; a few learned ones are
beset with the desire to enter heaven after death. Of the remaining few, most of them have
their intellects dimmed by Maaya and cannot comprehend the oneness of all as the
Supreme Reality.
How can these poor folk, held in the grip of Maaya, extend their weak sight to the
sublime Truth of Oneness? This Truth is beyond the grasp of those deluded by Maaya.
Suppose even if by some good fortune one gets interested in these Truths and grasps them
intellectually, even then he may not get convinced of their Truths and brush them
away as some intellectual trash. He may not like to follow the path for want of selfcontrol and be swayed by desires. He may justify his non-belief by some fallacious
arguments and get drowned in the worldly entangles more and more. Greater misfortune
awaits those who have the fortune to understand the Supreme Truths through their
intellect yet do not do any effort to practically realize the Truths personally. Wondrous is
the Supreme power of Maaya that they throw away the magical gem of Chintamani
thinking it to be just a pebble.
Only those who cultivate devotion to the Supreme Goddess of Self can transcend the
Maaya and discriminate the Truth. By the Grace of the Supreme Goddess, they get
endowed with proper discrimination and earnestness; soon they get established in the
transcendental oneness and get absorbed into Her.
I shall now relate to you the path towards liberation.
Due to the result of meritorious deeds of countless births, one develops devotion towards
God; then he worships Him for a long time with intense devotion. Then gradually
dispassion towards pleasures rises up in the mind. This gives rise to an intense longing
for realizing the Truth and he devotes every minute of his life in trying to accomplish that
goal. He then searches for a suitable Master and learns from him all about the
transcendental state. He gains the theoretical Knowledge from his Guru.
After this he ponders in his mind about the validity of the theoretical Knowledge and by
constant churning of the intellect ascertains the Truth. He becomes completely convinced
of the Truths mentioned in the Scriptures and the statements of his own Master. He is able
to ascertain the highest Truth with clearness and certitude.
The ascertained Knowledge of the Oneness of the Self must afterwards be brought into
practice, even forcibly, if necessary, until the experience of the Truth occurs to him.
After experiencing the Inner Self, he will be able to identify the Self with the Supreme
and thus destroy the root of ignorance. There is no doubt about it.
Further practice in contemplation leads him to the fulfilled state of realization, where he
remains without any perturbation. That state alone is termed Nirvikalpa Samadhi. After
waking from such a state, he retains the memory and acts in the world with complete
identification with his own Self. His ignorance is now completely annihilated. Thoughts
do not rise in him without control. He is now in the state of the canvas and does not mind

whatever picture is drawn over his Consciousness. He is in complete peace with the
world. He is no more deluded by the perceived objects. No event, good or bad affects
him. His blissful state of the Self never is lost. He is liberated while living.
All aspirants do not need the same effort or time for realization. They can be roughly
categorized into three types; the best, the middle and the lowest; Uttama, Madhyama and
The best ones attain realization the moment they hear the Truth. Their ascertainment of
the Truth and contemplation thereon are simultaneous with their learning. Realization of
the Truth does not need even the least of the efforts by them.
O Brahmin! I, the King Janaka also realized it in that way.
It was a beautiful moonlit summer night. I was in the royal garden lying on a soft bed
enjoying the company of a pretty maiden. I was in a slightly intoxicated state by drinking
the wine fed by her. She had held me in a tight embrace. At that time fiver Siddhas who
were travelling in the sky descended into my garden. I could not see them, but was able
to hear their words clearly. Each one uttered a verse explaining the Supreme Truth of Para
As I heard those verses, I realized the Supreme state instantly; I was in the Samadhi state
for an hour or so. What a wonderful bliss I experienced at that instant! Even the post of
Indra, the King of Gods cannot be equal to a fraction of that supreme Bliss! Even the
Creator Brahma cannot experience that bliss. I was suddenly stuck by a disgusting
attitude towards everything. I felt I had wasted all my life in worthless routine acts. I had
been a fool I thought; I was surly equal to an idiot who possessing a wish fulfilling
Chintamani, lived like a beggar on streets without knowing its value. I wondered how
the people of the world waste their lives seeking external pleasures ignorant of the
fountain of bliss within themselves. I decided to put a complete cessation to all sorts of
pleasure-seeking and remain totally immersed in that bliss. I did not want to continue as
an ignorant fool anymore. I felt life was nothing but wasteful repetitions of the same acts;
same foods; same bed; same perfumed garlands; same ornaments; same enjoyment from
women; Nothing new at any time!
I had decided to walk out of the foolish panorama and live like a recluse the whole of the
remaining life. However immediately another thought arose in me contradicting my own
decision of renunciation.
What confusion I am in! Although I am always in the perfection of Bliss, what is it I
want to do? What more can I acquire? What do I lack? When and whence can I get
anything? Even if there were anything new to be gained, would it endure? How can I who
am Infinite Consciousness-Bliss know effort? How can I act? All around me what world I
see is unreal. I create the world in my dream by projecting my own mind. All the
Individual bodies perceived by me in this wakeful world as people, their senses, minds,
etc., are similar to visions in a dream; they are also projected from me. Even this body
which I called as mine till now is also a projection. I have controlled one mind and made
it free of perturbations. But control of one mind leaves all other minds as they are. So
what is the use of controlling my mind? Minds, controlled or uncontrolled, appear only to
my mental eye. Even if I suppose all minds are controlled, my mind seems to be utterly

free; it is like infinite space, the receptacle of all things. Who is to control it and how?
There seems to be no one here as a person. There is no one out there too as real persons.
There is the experience of only unbroken bliss; nothing else looks real. What more should
I strive for, when already I am in that state of perfect bliss? My own Consciousness
manifests diverse activities all about the world which is again my own manifestation.
What matters if one manifests as action or inaction? Where is the gain or loss in such
manifestation? What matters if I am in perceiving the world or not perceiving the world?
What matters whether I stay in Nirvikalpa Samadhi or not? Samadhi or no Samadhi, I am
the same Perfection and eternal Peace. Let the body do what it likes!
Thus thinking I continued enjoying the company of the pretty maiden without any
botheration; and I am still acting the part of the King as a sport of my own Self.
The bliss of realization I experienced at that moment has not diminished any time. I
always exist as my Blissful Self whatever be the perceived world around me.
My experience is typical of the best aspirants.
Lowest aspirants attain wisdom in the course of many births.
As for the middle class, these aspirants attain realization in the same birth but in a slow
and gradual process of - first learning about the Truth; then getting convinced of it; then
Savikalpa Samadhi and Nirvikalpa Samadhi and lastly Sahaja Samadhi. The last state is
very rarely found.
What use is Nirvikalpa Samadhi if one has no Knowledge of the Truth? Even if one
experiences it a hundred times, he will not attain liberation. That is the reason why I tell
you that the fleeting experiences of Samadhi in the wakeful state are useless.
A man who is truly liberated has no trace of ignorance. Though he eats, sleeps, talks like
everyone else; he sees every perception of his as a projection of his own Self. He never
swerves from the blissful state of Self anytime.
Abstract intelligence is the background support of all the phenomena that is exhibited on
it. So in the absence of the phenomena it must manifest as itself in absolute purity.
It remains unrecognized because it is not distinguished from the phenomena displayed by
it. On their being eliminated it becomes apparent. Nirvikalpa Samadhi is characterized by
the experience of the true Self alone, namely, Pure Intelligence.
O Brahmin! Think over what you have now learnt, and you will realize the Truth. With
the wisdom born of your realization, you will inhere as the Self and be eternally free.
After giving these instructions to Ashtavakra, Janaka sent him away. Ashtavakra reached
his own place and put the lessons into practice. Very soon he too became a Jivan-Mukta
(liberated while yet alive).


Why are all individuals different?
Supreme Queen Tripura Devi, the Transcendental Consciousness- ParaaChiti pictures the
whole universe in Her being like images in a mirror. She takes on the individuality of
Hiranya-Garbha, the golden Wombed Brahma; considering the predispositions of the
egos enclosed in that egg (Hiranya Garbha), SHE unfolds the Scriptures for the wellbeing
of the beings.
Hiranya Garbha contains within himself the infinite unfulfilled vaasanaas in his being.
Since the embryonic individuals are full of unfulfilled desires Hiranya Garbha begins to
think out the means of their fulfillment. He elaborates a scheme of cause and effect, of
actions and fruits, and consequently the individuals get born to revolve in that wheel of
cause and effect. They take different shapes and are placed in different environments
consistently with their predispositions. After passing through innumerable species, the
individual evolves as a human being owing to the merit he has accumulated. In the first
few of his human births, the individual engages himself in selfish pursuits alone. But his
desires keep on increasing, and he undertakes more and more births in the process of
fulfilling them. After many an ups and downs, after innumerable births he will by chance
develop a desire for liberation. Failures are inevitable everywhere. Disappointments
result. Yet, the aspirants accumulated merits reinforced by association with the wise and
by divine grace, make him persist in the course, and gradually take him step by step to
the highest pinnacle of happiness.
Is there a difference in the state of realized Knowers?
The state of the Knowers also differs, according as his efforts have been great or less.
A person with dense Vaasanaas who gets a glimpse of the Realized state does not slip into
Sahaja Samadhi state immediately. He has to engage himself in regular practice of
contemplation and destroy his hidden vaasanaas. In few more births he will reach the
final realization.
There are different types of realized Yogis.
There are differences in states of realization according to the level of intellect and the
quality of actions performed.
The Trinities- Brahma Vishnu and Shiva are Knowers by nature. They manifest in the
beginning as all Knowing Lords of the Universe. Their actions never bind them. They are
eternally free.
Knowledge is not affected by the hue of the form or mind. Even the three sons of Atri
have different states of Knowledge.
Sage Durvaasa is easily annoyed.
Chandra is married to twenty seven daughters of Daksha.
Dattatreya cares not what he wears or not wears on his form.
Sage Vasishta is the family Preceptor of the Solar dynasty. He never fails in the strictest
adherence to duty as prescribed by the Scriptures.

Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatsujata and Sanatkumara, the four sons of Brahma are totally
indifferent to any action including religious rites.
Naarada is a devotee of Lord Naaraayana.
Bhaargava or Shukraachaarya the well-known preceptor of Asuras supports the enemies
of the Gods whereas the equally great Sage Brihaspati supports the Gods against their
Vyaasa is ever busy codifying the Vedas, and propagates their truth through Mahabharata,
the Puranas and the Upa Purana.
Janaka is famous as the ascetic-King.
Jada Bharata looks like an idiot.
There are so many others with individual characteristics such as Chyavana, Yaajnavalkya,
Visvaamitra, etc.
Yaajnavalkya is the Sage of Sages mentioned in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Visvaamitra is the originator of Gayatri Mantra.
Best of the Sages do not have any Vaasanaas. Even the desires they express do not bind
them. Any trace of the subtle vaasanaas is destroyed by Contemplation on the Self.
Dispassion need not be very marked in their cases. Such people need not repeatedly
engage in the study of Scriptures or seek instructions from a Teacher, but straightaway
pass into meditation and fall into Samadhi .They live evermore as Jeevan-muktas.
Another class of Sages does not consider it worthwhile to eradicate their desires.
If by chance desires arise due to the old habits of the mind, they do not make any effort to
remove them. These desires do not disturb their Self-state. . Therefore their desires
continue to manifest even after realization as before it. Neither are they tainted by such
vaasanaas. They are said to be emancipated and diverse-minded. They are also reputed to
be the best class of Knowers.
He whose mind clings to the ignorance of the necessity of work cannot hope for
realization even if Shiva offers to instruct him. Similarly also the person who has the fault
of marked indifference to or misunderstanding of the teachings cannot attain realization.
On the other hand, a man only slightly affected by these two vaasanaas, and much more
so by desires or ambitions will, by repeated hearing of the holy truth, discussion of the
same, and contemplation on it, surely reach the goal though only with considerable
difficulty and after a long lapse of time. Such a Sage's activities will be less because he is
entirely engrossed in his efforts for realization. A Sage of this class has by his long
practice and rigorous discipline controlled his mind so well that predispositions are
totally eradicated and the mind is as if dead. He belongs to the middle class in the scheme
of classification of Sages and is said to be a Sage without mind.
The last class and the least among the Sages are those whose practice and discipline are
not perfect enough to destroy mental predispositions. Their minds are still active and the
Sages are said to be associated with their minds. They are barely Knowers and not
Jeevan-muktas as are the other two classes. They appear to share the pleasures and pains
of life like any other man and will continue to do so till the end of their lives. They will
be emancipated after death.

Prarabdha Karma means those actions which have begun to bear fruit.
Sanchita Karma means those actions which are in store and which will bear fruit in the
AAgami Karma means those actions which are performed at present and will bear fruit
All three types of these Karmas get annihilated by the Realization of the Self.
Prarabdha (past karma) is totally powerless with the middle class, who have destroyed
their minds by continued practice.
The mind is the soil in which the seed namely Prarabdha sprouts (into pleasures and pains
of life). If the soil is barren, the seed loses its sprouting power by long storage, and
becomes useless.
How does Karma affect our lives?
The Supreme Tripura Devi is the undivided taintless Consciousness without a second.
In Her exist all possible states of Existence.
Anything that can be expressed as a thought is a possibility in Her.
Such potential possibilities are termed as Vaasanaas.
These have no beginning or end.
These states exist as the very nature of the Supreme Consciousness inherent in it like the
ocean consists of waves.
When any potential possibility randomly expresses itself as a thought, an appropriate
field is created projecting a threefold unit of experiencer, experienced and experiencing.
The experiencer is not a person with a particular identity, but a cognizer of the field.
Every moment, nay every fraction of a moment some potential possibility is getting
expressed as the threefold unit of experienced experiencer and experiencing.
In that fraction of a second there is the experience of the whole universe with infinite
space and time.
Next moment another Vaasana might express itself as a field randomly; another ego
experiences the cognition.
If the experiences are stored in a memory configuration, there appears a mirage of an
individual living a life; he is the Jeeva.
If the Jeeva firmly starts believing in his name/form identity and a solid universe around
him, that particular ego as a Jeeva develops possible states of vaasanaas which need more
and more fields of experience. Since Jeeva is not a person but only an idea of
identification with the body or form/name, a shift of field is imminently possible.
If the continuity of experiences is there without a memory of the previous field of
experiences, it is termed rebirth; if it is the same field of experience it is called a life in
the world.
Every thought is a potential universe maker.
A hoarding idea can create a rat hoarding its treasures; a vengeance idea might create a
tiger with its universe; dirty vulgar ideas might create a mosquito world or a cockroach
world; a quiet nature may result in a cows world. These are not rebirths, but Vaasana
fields which appear as such creatures; so any thought created in any mind will grossify
randomly into a field and a universe around it.

Therefore a universe around you filled with fights, wars, deaths, diseases, bacteria are
nothing but the collective thoughts of all the minds which are acting as egos. The worst
possible state around you, you call it Kali Yuga; best thoughts around you it is Sat Yuga;
and so on.
But while all this goes on, the Pure Consciousness remains unaffected by all this play.
At the same time it is the pure untainted, undivided whole without any space time
projections. It is just pure existence, pure Knowledge, pure bliss. It contains within itself
all these possibilities, all potentialities, all universes, all fields of experiences, all space
time projections as its very nature.
The mirrors very nature is to reflect. Ordinary mirrors reflect something external to
them. But this Tripura mirror itself is the reflecting mirror of itself in itself.
All this space/time projections, all vaasanaas, all thoughts, all egos, all experiences are
nothing but the Supreme Consciousness. There is no one existing as second person
experiencing anything apart from it. SHE is the very awareness in each one of the ego
experiences. SHE only experiences everything, every life, every Universe. Jeeva is just
an experience. He is as unreal as a picture drawn in space. Name and form are just
imagined identities. One must cease to be a carrier of vaasanaas and destroy the Jeevatva,
the livingness. Then the original a state of Pure Tripura Consciousness alone remains.
If it is argued that the life is quite enjoyable without the realization of the truth, it is like
saying that the hallucination created by the brain through drugs or alcohol or some such
substance is enjoyable and should be continued. Moreover there does not exist any
continuous person anywhere any time with a name and form identity. Every moment a
Vaasana creates a field of experience with a name and form and a built up random
Every moment there is a Universe with all dream characters as your world denizens.
The vaasanaas queue up in the unconscious, grossify every moment with a new
experience and new ego, new Jeeva, with new memory configuration giving the
appearance of a continuity. All names and forms are unreal; all name and form identities
are unreal; all perceptions are unreal; all space time projections are unreal; there is no
solid universe with solid living beings anywhere anytime.
THAT alone is REAL; THAT alone Exists as all this: THAT alone should be realized as
the Self; Realization alone destroys the mirage of the Universe perceived.
A realized person does not instantly become a superman with all the knowledge of future.
He does not become a miracle maker. However if he wishes to attain such powers he will
follow the required practices and possess them like Krishna Vaasudeva or Visvaamitra.
But Sages like Janaka do not care for such Siddhis. Janaka arranged many a debates on
Self-Knowledge and invited many great Sages and scholars to his courtroom and
entertained himself in listening to their discourses. He lavishly rewarded the winner and
spent his wealth in a just cause.

All realized beings need not be clever in worldly activities too. Each may have their own
talent and wisdom as connected to their life narratives. A realized person may practice the
art of walking on water, but a person who walks on water is not a realized man.
Miracles are not the symbolic feature of a realized person.
It is also possible that some realized souls may get devoted to some particular deity like
Sage Naarada, the devoted disciple of Lord Naaraayana.
Rama realized his Self at the age of sixteen before he left for the forest with Sage
Visvaamitra. Remaining in the Self state alone, he married Sita and got ready for his
Avataar work.
Krishna realized by the age of eight or ten when he was a student at Sandeepani School.
Seeta was a realized soul at a tender age of six or seven. She was always an interested
listener sitting on the lap of her father at all the Knowledge debates conducted at the
courtroom of Janaka. Scriptures were her kindergarten books. She was a pet disciple of
Sage Yaajnavalkya and knew all that had to be known when she married Sri Rama.
Emotions do not cease in these realized beings. Rama and Sita are the ideal human beings
ever born. Sita coveting a golden deer is a childish whim and not a taint on her realized
state. Her realized state alone gave her the strength of mind to endure the hardships at the
palace garden of Ravana.
Gaargi was another female ascetic renowned for her logical prowess. She was always an
ardent Opposer of Yaajnavalkya in all the debates conducted by King Janaka.
They all exist as the Supreme Self alone. There is no change in their blissful inner
existence. But the minds acting as their identities differ. The personalities also differ.
The mental faculties exist in them as shadows, like burnt up ropes, just maintaining a
vague ego-like existence. Each mental faculty assumes a particular shape to suit the
particular function. But it is the one single mind of Tripura acting as different shapes to
perform different functions at the same time.
The mind of the best among Knowers is only the Self and yet manifests as all without
suffering any change in its eternal blissful nature as the Self. They are therefore manyminded. The Prarabdha of Knowers is still active and sprouts in the mind but only to be
burnt up by the steady flame of Knowledge.
Pleasure or pain is due to the dwelling of the mind on occurrences. But if these are
scorched at their source, how can there be pain or pleasure?
Knowers of the highest order, however, are seen to be active because they voluntarily
bring out the vaasanaas from the depth of the mind and allow them to run out. Their
action is similar to that of a father sporting with his child, moving its dolls, laughing at
the imagined success of one doll over another, and appearing to grieve over the injury to
another, and so on; or like a man showing sympathy for his neighbor on the occasion of a
gain or loss.
The vaasanaas not inimical to realization are not weeded out by the best class of Knowers
because they cannot seek new ones to crowd the old out. Therefore the old ones continue
until they are exhausted and thus you find among them some highly irritable, some lustful
and others pious and dutiful, and so on.
Now the lowest order of Knowers still under the influence of their minds, know that there
is no truth in the objective universe. Their Samadhi is not different from that of the rest.
What is Samadhi?

Samadhi is being aware of the Self, and nothing else - that is to say - it should not be
confounded with the Nirvikalpa (undifferentiated) state, for this state is very common and
frequent as has been pointed out in the case of momentary Samadhi.
Every one is experiencing the Nirvikalpa state, though unknowingly. But what is the use
of such unrecognized Samadhi? A similar state becomes possible to the Hatha yogis also.
This experience alone does not confer any lasting benefit. But one may apply the
experience to the practical affairs of life. Samadhi can only be such and such alone.
(Sahaja Samadhi is meant here.)
What is Sahaja Samadhi?
Sahaja means Saha+JA - born with- natural.
When an ignorant man moves in the world, he is completely identified with his body,
senses and mind. He assumes he is of a particular form and name. It is a natural state for
him to act as his body. He need not repeat every moment that he is so and so and look in
the mirror continuously and say I am of such and such a form; he is what he is; of such
and such a name and such and such a form.
A realized person does not repeatedly say I am the Self; he is naturally the Self. The Self
state is his natural state. He is always THAT. This state is known as Sahaja Samadhi.
How is that state experienced by realized beings?
The wise say that Samadhi is the control resulting from the application of the experienced
truth (the awareness of the Self) to the practical affairs of life. This Sahaja Samadhi is
possible only for Yogis who follow the path of Knowledge. A realized devotee has to
maintain a tiny vibration of identity as a different person and worship the chosen deity as
a separate Godhead.
The Hatha yogis are of two kinds: the one intent on eliminating all perturbations of the
mind - starts with the elimination of the non-self and gradually of all mental vacillations.
This requires very long and determined practice which becomes his second nature and the
yogi remains perfectly unperturbed.
The other practices the six preliminary exercises and then controls the breath
(Praanaayaama) until he can make the air enter the Sushumna nadi. Since the earlier
effort is considerable owing to control of breath, there is a heavy strain which is suddenly
relieved by the entry of air in Sushumna. The resulting happiness is comparable to that of
a man suddenly relieved of a pressing load on his back. His mind is similar to that of man
in a swoon or a state of intoxication.
Both classes of Hatha yogis experience happiness similar to that of deep slumber.
A Knowledge yogi, on the other hand, has theoretical Knowledge of the Self, for he has
heard it from the Guru and learnt it from the study of Scriptures and has further cogitated
upon the teachings. Therefore, the veil of ignorance is drawn off from him even before
the consummation of Samadhi. The substratum of Consciousness free from thoughts of
external phenomena is distinguished by him like a mirror reflecting images. Furthermore
in the earlier stage of Samadhi, he is capable of remaining aware as Absolute
Consciousness quite free from all blemishes of thought.

Whereas a Hatha yogi cannot remain in such a state as the Jnaanis Samadhi, both the veil
of ignorance and perturbation of thoughts are removed.
In the Hatha yogi's Samadhi, though the Self is naturally free from the two obstacles, yet
it remains hidden by the veil of ignorance. The same is torn off by the Jnaani in the
process of his contemplation.
If asked what difference there is between the Samadhi of a Hatha yogi and sleep, it must
be said that the mind overpowered by deep ignorance is covered by dense darkness in
sleep whereas the mind being associated with Sattva (quality of brightness) acts in
Samadhi as a thin veil for the self-effulgent principle. The Self may be compared to the
Sun obstructed by dark and dense clouds in sleep, and by light mist in Samadhi. For a
Jnaani, the Self shines in its full effulgence like the Sun unobstructed in the heavens.
This is how the Sages describe Samadhi.
What is Samadhi?
Samadhi is absolute Knowledge uncontaminated by objects. Such is the state of the best
Knowers even when they take part in the affairs of the world.
The blue color of the sky is known to be an unreal phenomenon and yet it appears the
same to both the knowing and the unknowing, but with this difference that the one is
misled by the appearance and the other is not.
Just as the false perception does not mislead the man who knows, so also all that is
perceived which is known to the wise to be false will never mislead them.
Since the middle class of Knowers have already destroyed their minds, there are no
objects for them. Their state is known as the supramental one.
The mind is agitated when it assumes the shape of those objects which it mistakes for
real; and unperturbed otherwise. Therefore the latter state alone is supramental.
Since a Jnaani of the highest order can engage in several actions at the same time and yet
remain unaffected, he is always many-minded and yet remains in unbroken Samadhi. His
is absolute Knowledge free from objects.



Bharata was born in the Solar Dynasty, in the line of Manu Svayambhuva, the eldest of a
hundred sons of a saintly King by the name of Rishabha Deva, who ruled over the earth.
When Rishabha Deva became old he entrusted the rule of his Kingdom to Bharata and
retired to the forest to perform tapas.

Bharata on assuming rule married a girl named Panchajani and five sons were born to
them. Bharata ruled the earth for a long time in a just manner. He performed a number of
Sacrificial rites, worshipped God in the prescribed manner and performed many Dharmic
acts. Thus, he earned much merit. At the forest he stayed in the hermitage of the Rishi
Pulaha on the banks of Gandaki River and by means of his austerities became a great
Sage. When Bharata in turn became old, he divided his Kingdom among his five sons
and, following his father, went to the forest to perform tapas.
One day while offering prayers to the Sun God on the river bank, he saw a lone and
heavily pregnant doe coming to quench its thirst in the river. Hardly had it touched the
water when the forest echoed with the roar of a lion. The doe became terror-stricken and
it just leaped into the water without even quenching its thirst and tried to cross the river in
a bid to escape to the other side of the river. Shocked by fear and overcome by the effort
to negotiate the current, the doe gave birth to a young deer midstream. Without even
being aware of it, the doe reached the other bank where it died of exhaustion.
The royal Sage, who saw it all, was moved by compassion at the sight of the motherless
infant deer being carried away by the river. He picked the young deer, took it to his
ashram and fed it with tender grass and protected it from wild beasts. Soon he grew very
fond of it. In course of time the Sage became so attached to it that he could not part from
it even for a short while. He feared all sorts of harms to his pet and prayed for their
removal. He forgot that he was a Sage and behaved like a foolish householder doting over
his child. In the end he died with thoughts of the deer in his mind.
That Sage was born as a deer in his next birth. The Vedic scriptures say that a man will be
born in his next birth as that thing about which he was thinking most at the time of his
death. Therefore wise men advice people to think of God so that it will become a habit
and thus after death achieve God's abode. As a result of his tapas and merits and having
almost reached perfection the deer that was Bharata, could remember its past by the
Lord's grace.
He regretted: How foolish of me to have forgotten my tapas and become attached to an
animal? And now I suffer for it, being born an animal. I shall not repeat the mistake.
Saying this, the deer left its mother and began living in the vicinity of a Rishi's hermitage
spending all its time thinking of God. When death approached, the deer entered the water
of a river and standing there, gave up its body. In the next birth the deer was born as the
son of a pious Brahmin. The past tapas and mistakes lingered in the child's mind and so
he did not want to commit the same mistake. As a child Bharata in his third birth did not
show any attachment to his family. He did not even speak. He was unresponsive to
everything. People therefore called him Jada or a dunce; hence the name Jada Bharata.
His father however gave him the sacred thread of Gayatri and tried to teach him the
Vedas. Bharata did not make much headway in it. The old father died and his brothers
gave him up as an idiot.
Bharata was now a ripe Jnaani. He ate whatever food was offered to him, good or bad. He
dressed scantily and roamed as an avadhuta (unaware of the bodys condition and a mad
state of Self Knowledge). He, however, had a well-built body. So people forced him do
all sorts of work; he labored tirelessly like a bull, without caring for reward or
One day some robbers caught him in a field. They took him to a Kali temple to offer him
as a human sacrifice to the Kali. Bharata did not resist. The robber chief lifted the sword

to cut the Sage's head. At that time Goddess Kali, enraged, burst out of her image and
snatching the sword from the robber, killed the robber himself.
On another occasion, the servants of the king Rahugana of Sauvira Kingdom were
looking for a man to help them carry the king's palanquin. They took Jada Bharata and
made him one of the four to carry the palanquin. The king was going to Sage Kapila's
hermitage on the banks of the river Ikshumati to gain spiritual knowledge. Bharata being
a Jnaani or realized soul did not want to hurt even worms and insects while carrying the
palanquin. He walked slowly while the other bearers walked fast. The result was that the
palanquin did not move smoothly. When scolded, the other bearers naturally blamed
Bharata for this difficulty.
Whenever he saw insects on the ground he jumped above them and that made the
palanquin jerk violently. The king who was riding bumped his head as a result.
What is wrong? - asked the king angrily, Havent you borne the palanquin only for a
little while? How is it that you are tired? Cant you bear a little burden? You look quite
strong to me.
Bharatas answer was this. "Who am I and who are you? What you have seen is only my
body and your body. I am not my body and nor are you your body. Our ATMANS are
what we really are. My ATMAN is not strong or tired, nor is it carrying your palanquin
upon its shoulders.
The king was wonder struck by the reply. He stepped down from the palanquin and
falling at the feet of Jada Bharata asked him to forgive him for his ignorance and teach
him the sacred knowledge. Then Jada Bharata revealing himself taught him the nature of
Self. He told him the truth about the ATMAN, which is never destroyed and takes up
different bodies from one life to another. He also narrated the story of Ribhu to explain
this philosophy.
The Sage ended: A man becomes liberated when he severs all attachment through
wisdom, keeps the company of great souls and sings and listens to the praise of God!
The Sage Ribhu taught his disciple Nidagha, the Supreme Truth of the One Brahman
without a second. However Nidagha, in spite of his erudition and understanding, did not
get sufficient conviction to adopt and follow the path of Self-Knowledge but settled down
in his native town to lead a life devoted to the observance of ceremonial religion.
But the Sage loved his disciple as deeply as the latter venerated his Master. In spite of his
age Ribhu would himself go to his disciple in the town, just to see how far the latter had
outgrown his ritualism. At times the Sage went in disguise, so that he might observe how
Nidagha would act when he did not know that he was being observed by his Master.
On one such occasion Ribhu who had put on the disguise of a village rustic found
Nidagha intently watching a royal procession. Unrecognized by the town-dweller
Nidagha, the village rustic enquired what the bustle was all about and was told that the
King was going in the procession.
Oh! It is the King. He goes in the procession! But where is he? asked the rustic.
There, on the elephant, said Nidagha.
You say the King is on the elephant. Yes, I see the two said the rustic, but which is the
King and which is the elephant?

What! exclaimed Nidagha. You see the two, but do not know that the man above is the
King and the animal below is the elephant? What is the use of talking to a man like you?
Pray, be not impatient with an ignorant man like me, begged the rustic. But you said
above and below what do they mean?
Nidagha could stand it no more. You see the King and the elephant, the one above and
the other below. Yet you want to know what is meant by above and below burst out
Nidagha. If things seen and words spoken can convey so little to you, action alone can
teach you. Bend forward and you will know it all too well.
The rustic did as he was told. Nidagha got on his shoulders and said: Know it now. I am
above as the King; you are below as the elephant. Is that clear enough?
No, not yet, was the rustics gentle reply. You say you are above like the King, and I
am below like the elephant. The King, the elephant, above and below -so far it is
clear. But pray tell me what you mean by I and you?
When Nidagha was thus confronted all of a sudden with the mighty problem of defining a
you apart from an I, light dawned on his mind. At once he jumped down and fell at his
Master's feet saying: Who else but my venerable Master, Ribhu, could have thus drawn
my mind from the superficialities of physical existence to the true Being of the Self? Oh!
Gracious Master, I crave thy blessings
Bhrigu Maharshi married Khyathi, daughter of Kardama Prajaapati another lady named
as Usana and Pulomaa. Pulomaa became pregnant in due course. Asking her to prepare
the Sacred Fire for the Sacrifice, the Maharshi went to the near by river for bath.
Pulomaa, who was advanced in pregnancy, was in the fire house. A demon also named as
Puloma came there and was bedazzled by the beauty of Puloma and was interested to
know more about her, but was scared. So, he asked the fire god Agni, who she was and
demanded that Agni be truthful. Agni was in a dilemma. If he told him the truth, he might
face the curse of the Sage and if he did not tell the truth, he would incur the sin of telling
him an untruth. He felt that it was better to face the wrath of the Sage and the
consequences of his curse than to incur the sin of untruth.
So Agni told the demon Puloma that the lady was Pulomaa, chaste wife of Sage Bhrigu.
Hearing that, the demon claimed that he had been in love with that lady earlier it self and
her parents did not give her hand to him and instead gave her to Bhrigu. He felt that luck
smiled at him and he decided to take her as his wife. So saying, the demon took the shape
of a boar and carried away the frightened and crying Pulomaa forcefully.
The baby inside her womb got angry and came out of the womb and looked at the demon
with sharp and angry eyes. The demon was reduced to ashes. Pulomaa carried the baby
and returned to the ashram. He became famous as Chyavana because he slipped out from
the womb (Chyut-to slip out)
Sage Bhrigu returned to his ashram and found his wife with the newborn and bright child.
On enquiry, he came to know that it was Agni who let out her identity to the demon
Puloma. Sage Bhrigu cursed Agni to become a Sarvabhakshaka (Omnivorous). Agni
pleaded with the Sage that he could not do any thing except tell the truth and though Agni
could curse the Sage back did not do so out of respect to the Sage and withdrew. Agni felt
that he could not be the channel for carrying the havis (sacred offering in the Sacrificial
Fire) to the celestial gods because his purity was affected. Because of Agni withdrawing

from his duties, all the Sacrifices everywhere stopped and there was chaos. Lord Brahma
was approached by the celestial Gods for a solution. Brahma called Agni and assured him
that even though the curse of Sage Bhrigu could not be reversed, there would be no sin
and no impurity attached to Agni because of his eating every thing. Thus Agni was
pacified and his purity restored.
The child Chyavana grew up mastered all Vedas and Vedangas. Later he took permission
from his parents, went to Vaidurya mountain area and settled near a lake called Payoshni
(body temperature, Luke warm) and did penance. He entered Samadhi and an ant hill
grew around him. Creepers also covered that ant hill and thus his presence was not
known to any one. Thousands of years passed this way.
King Saryati came to that area accompanied by his 4000 wives and a big army. They set
up camp there and the King and his family enjoyed a dip in the lake. Sharyaatis daughter
Sukanya was a young and beautiful damsel and she was attracted to a glow from the
anthill (the eyes of the Sage were glowing or his aura was glowing). She thought that
there were some fire flies and poked two sticks into the two holes. The eyes of the Sage
started bleeding. She ran away from that place frightened. Sage Chyavanas penance got
disturbed and due to his power, the whole army was affected (their toilet functions were
stopped). The King realized that there was some mistake on their part and asked every
one but none of them had any answer. The King and his army were sad and did not know
what to do. At that time, Sukanya approached her father and told him about her foolish
act and her running away from that area out of fear. She asked the King whether that
could be the fault and the reason for the problem. King Sharyaati went immediately to
that place and saw the old Sage glowing with the aura of long tapas. He prostrated before
the Sage and confessed what his daughter has done and asked the Sage to forgive his
daughter and pleaded for mercy.
Sage Chyavana asked King Sharyaati to offer his daughter in marriage as a penance for
the sin committed. The King felt that it was a good fortune that his daughter was
becoming the wife of such a great Sage. He offered her hand in marriage to the Sage
immediately and leaving her there, returned to his Kingdom.
Sukanya felt that she was indeed fortunate to serve such a great Sage as his beloved wife
and served her husband faithfully. She did not, even for a moment think of herself as
being affected by bad luck in that she was married to a man who was very old .This
steadfastness of her mind attracted the attention of the celestials.
The celestial physicians (Vaidyas) named as Aswininkumaras (also called Ashwini
Devatas) got attracted by Sukanyas beauty and her Pati vrata dharma. They came to the
ashram of the Sage to see Sukanya and test her steadfast dharma. Sage Chyavana was not
present at that time, but Sukanya worshipped the Celestial Vaidyas as befitting Atithis
(honored guests). They identified themselves and asked her who she was. Sukanya gave
out her story in all humility. The divine doctors started laughing in a teasing way and
exclaimed: Oh, what a fate? You, so young and so beautiful forced to live with an old
man and thus are wasting your youth. Even now, it is not too late! Select one of us who is
young and who is fit to be your husband and we will ensure that you are happy with that
Sukanya closed her ears with her palms and told them that she was a devoted wife and
that she married Sage Chyavana of her own accord and she loved him with all his
physical defects of age. She also reminded them that once she has accepted him as her

husband, her mind cannot go to any one else, and their words were not befitting their own
divine stature and were not to be uttered in front of a Sages wife like her..
On his arrival from the river bank Sukanya informed her husband Sage Chyavana of the
visit of Ashwini Devatas and the conversation. Sage Chyavana was highly pleased with
the steadfast devotion of Sukanya and wanted to bless her. So, he asked her to contact the
Celestial Physicians and ask them to get her a good husband. They came and went to the
Payoshni Lake for a dip. When they submerged themselves in the lake waters, he too
entered the lake and then the three of them emerged as identical looking young men and
stood in front of her. They asked her to choose one of them as per her will. Sukanya could
see Sage Chyavana among the three due to her divine powers and she obviously chose
him. Chyavana Maharshi was very happy and lived happily with his beautiful wife.
Vishvaamitra was a King in ancient India, also called Kaushika (the descendant of
Kusha). He was a valiant warrior and the great-grandson of a great King named Kusha.
On one of his exploits, he and his soldiers took rest in the ashram of Rishi Vasishta.
There, his whole army was well fed and taken care of. This caused a doubt in the King's
mind as to how it was possible for this simple ashram to take care of all the arrangements
to feed an entire army. He expressed his surprise to the Sage.
Vasishta replied:
"O King, this feast that you have partaken with your kinsmen, has been provided by my
calf Nandini who was gifted to me by Indra. You must know that she is the daughter of
Indra's cow Kamadhenu. She provides me with everything I need."
Kaushika was filled with wonder when he heard this. He began to think that possessing
this cow would mean a lot to him; after all, the Sage did not have to provide food and
sustenance for a large army everyday. He expressed a desire to the Sage for obtaining
Nandini from him. Vasishta was polite, but steadfast in his refusal. He would not be
tempted by the offer of untold wealth that was made by Kaushika, for after all who can
set a price on a cow, which can readily yield all the riches in the world.
The King grew exceedingly angry. He insulted the Brahmarishi Vasishta with harsh
words, and ordered his soldiers to seize the cow, and drive it to his Kingdom. By his
yogic powers, the great Sage Vasishta, called forth an entire army of fierce warriors. They
fought the army of Kaushika and defeated it thoroughly. Kaushika was captured and
presented before Vasishta. The Sage pardoned the King and sent him away with words of
Kaushika then undertook a penance for several years to please Lord Shiva, who bestowed
upon him the Knowledge of celestial weaponry. He proudly went to Vasishta's ashram
again, and used all kinds of powerful weapons to destroy Vasishta and his hermitage. He
succeeded in the latter but not in the former.
Vasishta brought out his Brahma-danda, a wooden stick imbibed with the power of Lord
Brahma. It consumed Kaushika's most powerful weapons, including the Brahma Astra.
Kaushika returned back humiliated and angry.
Kaushika realized that the power obtained by penance was far greater than mere physical
might. He renounced his Kingdom and began his quest to become a greater Rishi than

Kaushika sought to attain the same spiritual power as Vasishta, to become his equal, a
Brahma Rishi. He undertook a fierce penance for one thousand years, after which
Brahma named him a Rajarshi, or royal Sage.
After another long penance of ten thousand years, Brahma named him a Rishi, thus
leaving his royal lineage permanently.
At this point, Indra, the King of Swarga attempted to test the Rishi by sending Menakaa,
an apsara to seduce him. Kaushika fell in love with the beautiful apsara, and lived with
her for many years, losing his self-control and pious credits. After many years he awoke
out of his reverie, and angrily confronted Menakaa, who confessed to him everything.
Kaushika knew that Menakaa genuinely loved him, so with great sorrow he cursed her
just to be parted from him forever.
Kaushika then went to the banks of the river Kaushiki, which was the spirit of his own
sister. After many thousands of years of penance, Brahma named him maharishi, but also
told him that he hadn't become Self-controlled yet .This was brought to light to Kaushika
when he angrily cursed Rambhaa, an apsara sent by Indra to seduce Kaushika again, to
become a stone for a thousand years.
After cursing Rambhaa, Kaushika went to the highest mountain of the Himalayas and
performed severe penance for over a thousand years. He stopped eating any food, and
reduced his breathing to a bare minimum.
He was tested again by Indra, who came as a poor Brahmin begging for food just as
Kaushika was ready to break a fast of many years by eating some rice. Kaushika instantly
gave his food away to Indra and resumed his meditation. Kaushika finally mastered his
passions, refusing to be provoked by any of Indra's testing and seductive interferences.
At the penultimate culmination of a multi-thousand year journey, Kaushika's yogic power
was at a peak. At this point, Lord Brahma, at the head of the Devas led by Indra, named
Kaushika a Brahma Rishi, and also pronounced him as Vishvaamitra, or Friend of All
because of his unlimited compassion. He was also embraced by Vasishta, and their
enmity was at an end.
Another story Vishvaamitra is known for is his creation of his own version of Swarga or
heaven, called Trishanku Swarga. When a proud King Trishanku asked his guru, Vasishta,
to send him to heaven in his own body, the Guru responded that the body cannot ascend
to heaven. King Trishanku requests again Vasishta's seven sons to send him to heaven.
The sons, outraged that Trishanku should not come to them when their father had refused,
cursed him to be a Chaandaala, or untouchable. When Trishanku woke up the next day,
he found himself entirely deformed. Since none of his subjects could recognize him, he
was driven out of the Kingdom. He came across the Sage Vishvaamitra, who agreed to
help him. Vishvaamitra organized a great Sacrifice and ritual propitiating the Devas,
pleading that they accept Trishanku in heaven. Not one Deva responded. Angered,
Vishvaamitra used his yogic powers and ordered Trishanku to rise to heaven.
Miraculously, Trishanku rose into the sky until he reached heaven, where he was pushed
back down by Indra. Enraged even more by this, the powerful Vishvaamitra then
commenced the creation of another upside down heaven for Trishanku. He had just
finished completing the heaven when Brihaspati ordered him to

stop. Trishanku, however, did not enjoy Trishanku Swarga; he remained fixed in the sky
and was transformed into a constellation. In the process of forming a new universe,
Vishvaamitra used up all the tapas he had gained from his austerities. Therefore after the
Trishanku episode, Visvaamitra had to start his prayers again to attain the status of a
Brahma Rishi, to equal Vasishta.


Once upon a time, a King by name Ratnaangada ruled the city of Amrita on the banks of
the Vipasa. He had two sons Rukmangada and Hemangada - both wise and good and
dearly loved by their father.
Rukmangada was well versed in all the Scriptures; but Hemangada was a Knower of the
highest order.
Once both the brothers went to the forests with a huge retinue to hunt wild animals. They
spent a long time enjoying the sport of hunting. Later getting exhausted they rested near a
Nearby lived a Brahma Rakshasa; a Brahminic devil. The devil was well versed in all the
Scriptures and very learned. He used to challenge many a learned person who passed that
way for a scholarly discussion and defeat them easily; in the end he ate them and satisfied
his hunger.
Some travelers passing that way informed the princes of the danger lurking nearby and
hurried off before the devil saw them. Rukmangada felt amused about this learned ghoul
and decided to confront it in a scholarly debate. Both the brothers went in search of it,
found the Brahmaraakshasa resting on a huge tree. Rukmangada challenged the devil and
engaged him in an argument. However his textual supremacy was not up to the devils
wisdom and he was soon defeated in the debate. The ghoul emitted a terrifying laughter
and grabbed him tightly in its huge hands and got ready to consume him. Hemangada
who was watching all this immediately shouted:
O Brahmaraakshasa, do not eat him yet! I am his younger brother. Defeat me also in
argument so that you may eat us both together.
The ghoul was not to be put out. He did not let go of Rukmangada and replied: I have
long been without food. Let me first finish this long-wished for prey, and then I shall
defeat you in debate and complete my meal with you. I hope to make a hearty meal of
you both.
The younger Prince decided to engage the wise ghoul in conversation and said:
O Brahmaraakshasa! You do not look like an ordinary being. You are very learned and
wiser than even many a human scholar!
Why do you defeat people in scholarly disputes and eat them? Please answer me before
you eat my brother.

The ghoul said:

In the past I ate anyone who passed this way while crossing the jungle. Once Deva vrata,
a disciple of Sage Vasishta passed this way. When I pounced on him, he got angry and
cursed me saying, May your mouth be burnt if you indulge in human prey any more.
I prayed to him with great humility and he condescended to modify his curse thus:
You may eat such as are defeated by you in debate.
Since then I have been adhering to his words. I have now waited so long for prey that
this is very dear to me. Allow me to eat this defeated brother of yours. I shall deal with
you after finishing this.
Hemangada again stopped him sayingWait, Wait! Listen to my words! Please release my brother. If food is your only problem,
I will get you some other food to replace him. I will give you more food than you can
ever imagine. But please, let my brother go! I beg of you!
The ghoul laughed aloud and said:
How can I let go of this long awaited feast just because you promise me some other food
in bargain? Listen O prince! There is no such price for redemption. I will not give him
up. I would be a fool if I let this food slip away from my hand. I am too hungry now to
bargain with you.
But you appear to be wiser than your brother. However I shall tell you now a vow which I
have taken. There are many questions deeply afflicting my mind. If you can answer them
satisfactorily, I shall release your brother.
Hemangada was too glad to oblige. He requested the ghoul to present any question he
desired fit and he would try his best to answer all his queries.
Here is how the conversation of the Brahmaraakshasa and Hemangada went forth.
What is more extensive than space and more subtle than the subtlest?
What is its nature? Where does it abide? Tell me, Prince.
Prince Hemangada:
Listen o Ghoul! Abstract Intelligence (CHIT) is wider than space and subtler than the
Its nature is to glow. It abides as the Self.
BR: How can it be wider than space, being single?
How is it subtler than the subtlest? What is that glow?
And what is that Self? Tell me, Prince.
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Being the material cause of all, intelligence is extensive though single.
It is beyond the grasp of the mind; so it is subtle.
Glowing obviously implies consciousness and that is the Self.
BR: Where and how is this Chit (Abstract Intelligence) to be realized?
What is the effect?

PH: Listen o Ghoul!

The intellectual sheath must be probed for its Realization.
One-pointed search for it reveals its existence.
Rebirth is overcome by such Realization.
BR: What is that sheath?
What is concentration of mind?
Again what is birth?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
The intellectual sheath is the veil drawn over Pure Intelligence; it is inert by itself.
One-pointedness is abiding as the Self.
Birth is the false identification of the Self with the body.
BR: Why is that Abstract Intelligence which is ever shining not realized?
What is the means by which it can be realized?
Why did birth take place at all?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Ignorance is the cause of non-Realization.
Self realizes the Self; there is no external aid possible.
Birth originated through the sense of doer ship.
BR: What is that ignorance of which you speak?
What is again the Self?
Whose is the sense of doer ship?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Ignorance is the sense of separateness from Consciousness and false identification with
the non-self.
As for the Self, the question must be referred to the Self in you.
The ego or the I-thought is the root of action.
BR: By what means is ignorance to be destroyed?
How is the means acquired?
What leads to such means?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Investigation cuts at the root of ignorance.
Dispassion develops investigation.
Disgust of the pleasures of life generates dispassion towards them.
BR: What is investigation?
What is dispassion?

What is disgust in pleasures?

PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Investigation is analysis conducted within oneself, discriminating the non-self from the
Self, stimulated by a stern, strong and sincere desire to realize the Self.
Dispassion is non-attachment to surroundings.
Disgust in pleasures occurs if the misery consequent on attachment is kept in mind.
BR: What is the root cause of the whole series of these requirements?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Divine Grace is the root cause of all that is good.
Devotion to God alone can bring down His Grace.
This devotion is produced and developed by association with the wise. That is the prime
cause of all.
BR: Who is that God?
What is devotion to Him?
Who are the wise?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
God is the Master of the Cosmos.
Devotion is unwavering love for Him.
The wise are those who abide in Supreme Peace and melt with love for all.
BR: Who is always in the grip of fear?
Who is always in the grip of misery?
Who is always in the grip of poverty?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
Fear holds a man possessed of enormous wealth.
Misery holds a man possessed of a large family.
Poverty holds a man possessed of insatiable desires.
BR: Who is fearless?
Who is free from misery?
Who is never needy?
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
The man with no attachments is free from fear.
The one with controlled mind is free from misery.
The Self-realized man is never needy.
BR: Who is he that passes mens understanding and is visible though without a body?
What is the action of the inactive?

PH: Listen o Ghoul!

The man emancipated here and now passes mens understanding.
He is seen though he does not identify himself with the body.
His actions are those of the inactive.
BR: What is real?
What is unreal?
What is inappropriate?
Answer these questions and redeem your brother.
PH: Listen o Ghoul!
The subject (Self) is real.
The object (non-self) is unreal.
Worldly transactions are inappropriate.
I have now answered your questions. Please release my brother at once.
When the Prince had finished, the ghoul released Rukmangada with pleasure.
Instantly a Brahmin of virtuous glow appeared in the place of the Brahmaraakshasa.
The two princes were amazed by the miraculous occurrence. They saluted the Brahmin
and asked him who he was.
The Brahmin said:
I was formerly a Brahmin of Magadha. My name is Vasumaan. I was famous for my
learning and known as an invincible debater. I was very vain headed about my
intellectual supremacy and always participated in the debates conducted in the assembly
of those learned scholars who collected in my country under royal patronage. There was
among them a great saint, perfect in wisdom and entirely Self-possessed. He was known
as Ashtaka. I went there for love of debate. Though I was a mere logician, I argued
against his statement on Self-Realization by sheer force of logic. He backed his
arguments by profuse quotations from the Holy Scriptures. Since I was out to win laurels,
I continued to refute him. Finding me incorrigible, he kept silent.
However one of his disciples, descendant of Kashyapa lineage, was enraged at my
audacity and cursed me in front of the king, saying:
You chip of a Brahmin! How dare you refute my Master without first understanding his
statements? May you at once become a ghoul and remain so for a long time.
I shook with fear at the curse and took refuge at the feet of the Sage Ashtaka. Being
always Self-possessed, he took pity on me though I had figured as his opponent just a few
minutes back. He modified his disciples curse by pronouncing redemption to it as
follows: May you resume your old shape as soon as a wise man furnishes appropriate
answers to all the questions which were raised here by you, answered by me but refuted
by your polemics.
O Prince! You have now released me from that curse. I therefore consider you as the best
among men, knowing all that pertains to life here and beyond."
The princes were astonished at that story of his life.

The Brahmin requested Hemangada to clear some more of his doubts. Hemangada
obliged with extreme kindness and answered all his questions.
Here is how the conversation went forth.
Prince! I shall ask you a question. Please answer me.
I learnt about the Supreme Truth from Ashtaka and later from you.
You are a Sage; but still, how is it that you go out hunting?
How can a Sage be engaged in work?
Work implies duality; wisdom is non-duality; the two are thus opposed to each other.
Please clear this doubt of mine.
O Brahmin! Your confusion owing to ignorance has not yet been cleared up.
Wisdom arising out of Self-realization is eternal and natural. How can it be contradicted
by work? If wisdom is affected by work, then it will be worthless like dream experience.
No eternal good is possible in that case.
All actions performed exist on the support of Self-awareness or wisdom.
Being so, can work destroy wisdom and yet remain in its absence?
Wisdom is that Consciousness in which this world with all its phenomena and activities is
known to exist as an image or series of images. Duality essential for work is also a
phenomenon in that Non-dual Awareness.
There is no doubt that a man realizes the Self only after purging himself of all thoughts
and that he is then released from bondage once for all.
Your question has thus no basis and cannot be expected of the wise.
True, O Prince! I have also concluded that the Self is pure, unblemished Intelligence.
But how can it remain unblemished when a willful thought arises in it?
How can a realized person be untainted by his actions?
A coil of rope alone appears as a snake; so also the thought is a modification of the Self
alone. So, is not the Pure Intelligence blemished by appearing as a thought?
Your question is wrong again. You are not able to distinguish between confusion and
Sky appears blue, even though the space is colorless in truth.
A person who knows this truth and another who is ignorant of the Truth, both see the sky
only as blue. The sky appears blue to all alike whether they know that space is colorless
or not. In this case, the one who is ignorant of the color-less space is confused. The one
who knows the truth is not confused. The wise man also sees the blueness of the sky but
his apparent confusion is harmless like in the presence of a dead snake.
Similarly the Knower of the Self is untainted by his actions. He remains as his Self
always. Just like the reflections do not taint a mirror, a knower is also unaffected by his
apparent actions. There lies the difference between a Sage and an ignorant man. The

former has accurate knowledge and unerring judgment, whereas the latter has a blurred
conception and his judgment is warped.
A Sage never is lost to the Knowledge of his Self, even though he may appear to be
immersed in actions. All his activities are like reflections in a mirror for, being Selfrealized, ignorance can no longer touch him.
Wrong knowledge due to sheer ignorance can be corrected by true knowledge; but wrong
knowledge due to fault cannot be so easily corrected. So long as there is myopia, the
eyesight will be blurred and many images of a single object will be seen. Similarly, so
long as there is the Prarabdha (residual past karma) unaccounted for, the manifestation of
the world will continue for the Jnaani, though only as a phenomenon. It is like an arrow
already shot from the bow and has to end only when its goal is reached.
The life-existence which is the result of a past Karma can only end at its death and the
Jnaani continues to see this world as long as his body remains alive in this world. This
will also vanish as soon as the Prarabdha has played itself out and then pure, unblemished
Intelligence alone will remain. Therefore I tell you, there is no blemish attached to a
Jnaani though he appears active and engaged in worldly duties.
O Prince! How can there be any residue of past karma in a Jnaani? Does not Jnaana burn
away all karma as fire does a heap of camphor?
Listen Brahmin!
There are three kinds of Karma, as you already know.
Prarabdha- Actions of the past which have begun to take fruit;
Agaami Karma- the results of the present actions which are yet to bear fruit;
Sanchita Karma- the results of the actions of innumerable births of the past which still not
begun to bear fruit.
The first of these alone remains for the Jnaani and the other two are burnt away.
When a person realizes his Self, both the Agaami and Sanchita Karma fruits get
annihilated; but the Prarabdha alone remains. Since it has already begun to yield fruit, it
continues its course even for the Jnaani. Karma matures by the agency of time; such is
divine law. When mature, it is bound to yield its fruits. The Karma of the one, who is
active after Self-Realization, is rendered ineffective by his wisdom.
Karma already in the maturing state and yielding results is called Prarabdha: it is like an
arrow already shot from a bow which must run its course until its momentum is lost.
Perception of the world is apparently similar to one and all. Environments are only a
result of Prarabdha of a person; Jnaanis react to them differently according to their own
stages of Realization.
Pleasure and pain are apparent to the least among the Sages, but do not leave any mark on
them as they do on the ignorant. They are equanimous to either of them. They still have
the sense of what is pleasure and what is pain.
Pleasure and pain operate on the middle class of Sages in the same way; however, they
react only indistinctly to their surroundings, as a man in sleep does to a gentle breeze or
to an insect creeping over him. They do not bother about either of them. They find no

meaning in either of them; they too have a very light sense of what is pleasure and what
is pain.
Pleasure and pain are again apparent to the highest among the Sages, who however look
upon them as unreal like a hare growing horns. They do not even know pleasure and pain
as distinct experiences.
The ignorant always place high values for pains and pleasures. They always make efforts
to gain pleasures and avoid pains. After every experience they recapitulate the measure
of pain or pleasure in every event; reflect over them; and leave a strong impression on
their minds.
The ignorant are not aware of the pure Self; they see it always blemished and hence they
believe in the reality of objective knowledge and are therefore affected by the pleasures
and pains of life.
As for the lowest order of Jnaanis, these realize the Self off and on, and spells of
ignorance overtake them whenever overcome by their predispositions, they look upon the
body as the SELF and the world as real. They are often able to over-ride the old
tendencies, and thus there is a struggle between wisdom and ignorance - each of them
prevailing alternatively. The Jnaani ranges himself on the side of wisdom and fights
against ignorance until falsity is thoroughly blown out, and truth prevails. Therefore
Jnaana is indivisible.
Forgetfulness of the Self never overtakes a middle class Jnaani and wrong knowledge
never possesses him. However he of his own accord brings out some predispositions from
his own depths in order to maintain his body according to Prarabdha. This is the conduct
of an accomplished Jnaani.
As for the aspirant, there is no forgetfulness of the Self so long as he is engaged in
practicing Samadhi. But the accomplished Jnaani never is lost to the Knowledge of the
Self and picks out his own predispositions according to his own choice.
The highest Jnaani makes no difference between Samadhi and worldly transactions. He
never finds anything apart from the Self and so there is no lapse for him.
The middle order Jnaani is fond of Samadhi and voluntarily abides in it. There is
accordingly a lapse, however slight, when he is engaged in worldly affairs, or even in the
maintenance of his body.
On the other hand, the Jnaani of the highest order involuntarily and naturally abides in
Samadhi and any lapse is impossible for him under any circumstances.
But the Jnaani of the middle order or of the highest order has no tinge of karma left in
him because he is in perfection and does not perceive anything apart from the Self.
How can there be anything of karma left when the wild fire of Jnaana is raging
consuming all in its way?
Jnaani has the root of misery cut off at the instant of realizing the Self. It is immaterial for
him if he dies in a holy spot, or in foul surroundings, remaining aware, or overtaken by
coma, just before death. He is emancipated all the same.
Unmistakably realizing Shiva even once by a Master's advice, by scriptural statements or
by inference, there could no longer remain any tinge of obligatory duty on his part
because he is emancipated.
Such karma is only a trick believed to be true by the onlooker. I shall explain this point
further. The state of the Jnaani is said to be identical with that of Shiva. There is not the
least difference between them. Therefore karma cannot besmear a Jnaani.

Vasumaan had all his doubts cleared by this discourse of Hemangada. He had a clear
understanding of true Realization. Vasumaan and the prince saluted each other and
returned to their respective places.


Once at the abode of Lord Brahma there was a very distinguished gathering of great
Sages. Among those present were Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara and Sanatsujata,
Vasishta, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Atri, Angiras, Pracheta, Naarada, Chyavana,
Vamadeva, Vishvaamitra, Gautama, Shuka, Paraashara, Vyaasa, Kanva, Kashyapa,
Daksha, Sumanta, Sanka, Likhita, Devala and other celestial and royal Sages. As they
were casually conversing among each other, a subtle and sublime discussion made its
way. The question that troubled them all was to find out who was the best among all
Each one of them spoke of his philosophical view point with courage and conviction and
maintained that it was better than all the rest. But they could reach no conclusion and so
asked Lord Brahma: Lord! We are Sages who know all about the world and beyond, but
each one's way of life differs from that of the others because the dispositions of our minds
differ. Some of us are always in Nirvikalpa Samadhi, some engaged in philosophical
discussions, some sunk in devotion, some have taken to work, and others seem exactly
like men of the world.
Who is the best among us? Please tell us. We cannot decide ourselves because each one
thinks that his way is the best of all.
Lord Brahma pondered for a while and confessed his ignorance about the matter. He
spoke to the perplexed Sages:
O Great Sages! This is really a perplexing question. I also do not know the answer. But
I feel curious too. Let us approach Lord Shiva. He is an All-Knower. He will surely know
the answer.
They went to Vaikunta and reported problem to Lord Vishnu. He took them all to Shiva
Loka. Shiva heard their request patiently. He understood that the Sages lacked confidence
and will not heed to his words whatever he said.

He addressed Brahma:
O Creator. I am not in a position to answer this question. Let us pray to the Great
Goddess Tripura Devi. The Supreme Queen possesses unconditioned Knowledge. SHE
will make us understand even the sublets of Truths by Her Grace.
As per Shivas advice everyone including the Trinities contemplated on the Supreme
form of Tripura, on Her Divine Majesty, the Transcendental Consciousness pervading the
three states of life (waking, dream and sleep).
Thus invoked, SHE manifested in Her glory as the Transcendental Voice in the expanse
of Pure Consciousness.
They all heard the Voice speak like thunder from the skies:
Speak out your minds, O Rishis! Be quick, the desires of my devotees will always be
fulfilled immediately.
Hearing the majestic voice of the Queen, the exalted Rishis prostrated and Brahma and
the others praised the Goddess - namely Absolute Consciousness pervading the three
states of life.
Salutations to Thee! The Greatest! The Best! The Most Auspicious! The Absolute
Knowledge! The Consciousness of the three states! The Creatrix! The Protectress! The
Dissolver in the Self! The Supreme One transcending all! Salutations again!
There was no time when Thou wert not, because Thou art unborn!
Thou art ever fresh and hence Thou never growest old.
Thou art all; the essence of all, the knower of all, the delighter of all. Thou art not all.
Thou art nowhere, with no core in Thee, unaware of anything, and delighting no one.
O Supreme Being! Salutations to Thee; over and over again; before and behind; above
and below; on all sides and everywhere.
Kindly tell us of Thy relative form and Thy transcendental state, Thy prowess, and Thy
identity with Jnaana.
What is the proper and perfect means for attaining Thee, the nature and the result of such
What is the utmost finality of accomplishment, beyond which there remains nothing to be
Who is the best among the accomplished Sages?
Salutations again to Thee!
Thus besought, the Goddess of ultimate knowledge began with great kindness to explain
it clearly to the Sages:
Listen, Sages! I shall categorically explain to you all that you ask.
I shall give you the nectar drawn out as the essence from the unending accumulation of
sacred literature.
I am the Abstract Intelligence wherefrom the cosmos originates, whereon it flourishes,
and wherein it resolves, like the images in a mirror.
The ignorant know me as the gross universe, whereas the wise feel me as their own pure
being eternally glowing as 'I-I' within. This realization is possible only in the deep
stillness of thought-free consciousness similar to that of the deep sea free from waves.

The most earnest of devotees worship me spontaneously and with the greatest sincerity
which is due to their love of me. Although they know that I am their own non-dual Self,
yet the habit of loving devotion which is deep-rooted in them makes them conceive their
own Self as ME and worship ME as the life-current pervading their bodies, senses and
mind without which nothing could exist and which forms the sole purport of the holy
scriptures. Such is my Transcendental State.
My concrete form is the eternal couple - the Supreme Lord and Shakti - always in
undivided union and abiding as the Eternal Consciousness pervading the three
phenomenal states of waking, dream and sleep, and reclining on the cot whose four legs
are Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Ishvara and whose surface is Sadashiva, which is
contained in the mansion known as Chintamani, enclosed by the garden of Kadamba trees
in the Mani-Dweepa situated in the wide ocean of nectar surrounding the cosmos and
extending beyond.
Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Ishvara, Sadashiva, Ganesha, Skandha, the Gods of the eight
quarters, all forms of Shaktis, celestials, serpents and other superhuman beings are all
manifestations of myself. However, people do not know ME because their intellect is
shrouded in ignorance.
I grant boons to those who worship ME. There is no one besides ME worthy of worship
or capable of fulfilling all desires. The fruits of worship are put forth by Me according
to the mode of worship and the nature of individual desires. I am indivisible and
Being non-dual and Abstract Intelligence I spontaneously manifest even as the smallest
detail in the Universe and as the Universe. Though I manifest in diverse ways, I still
remain unblemished because absoluteness is My being. This is My chief power, which is
somewhat hard to comprehend.
Therefore, O Rishis! Consider this with the keenest of intellect. Though I am the abode of
all and immanent in all I remain pure.
Although I am not involved in any manner and am always free, I wield My power - called
Maaya; become covered with ignorance, appear full of desires, seek their fulfillment,
grow restless, project favorable and unfavorable environments, am born and reborn as
individuals, until growing wiser I seek a teacher and Sage, learn the truth from him, put it
in practice and finally become absolved. All this goes on in My pure, uncontaminated,
ever free absolute intelligence. This manifestation of the ignorant and the free, and of
others, is called My creation which is however, without any accessories - My power is
too vast to be described. I shall tell you something of it in brief. It is that the cosmos is
only the obverse of the many details in them leading up to different results.
Knowledge relating to me is complex but it can be dealt with under the two categories;
dual and non-dual, of which the former relates to worship and the latter to realization.
On account of their intricacies, there are many details in them leading up to different

Dvaita or belief in the God with form and devotee is manifold because it depends on the
concept of duality and manifests as worship, prayer, incantation, meditation, etc.; all of
which are due to nothing more than mental imagery.
Even so, they are efficacious in contradistinction to day-dreams, for, the law of nature
provides for it. There are degrees in the efficacy of the methods, of which the most
important concerns the aspect mentioned before. The ultimate goal of all is certainly
Advaitic (non-dual) realization.
Worship of Abstract Intelligence in a concrete form is not only useful but essential for
non-dual realization. For how can one be made fit for it, without Her benediction?
Non-dual realization is the same as pure Intelligence absolutely void of objective
knowledge. Such realization nullifies all objective knowledge revealing it in all its
nakedness to be as harmless as a picture of a pouncing tiger or of an enraged serpent.
The state where the mind has completely resolved into the Self is called Nirvikalpa
Samadhi. After waking up from it, the person is overpowered by the memory of his
experience as the one, undivided, infinite, pure Self and he knows I am That as opposed
to the unreal I-thought of the ignorant. That is Supreme Knowledge (Vijnana or
Pratyabhijna Jnaana).
Theoretical knowledge consists in differentiating between the Self and the non-Self
through a study of the Scriptures, or the teachings of a Master, or by one's own
Supreme wisdom is that which puts an end to the sense of non-Self once for all. Non-dual
realization admits nothing unknown or unknowable and pervades everything in entirety
so that it cannot in any way be transcended, (e.g., a mirror and the images). When that is
accomplished, the intellect becomes quite clear because all doubts have been destroyed;
and then the predispositions of the mind (e.g., lust, greed, anger, etc.) are destroyed
though any remnants of these that may remain are as harmless as a fangless viper.
The fruit of Self-realization is the end of all misery here and hereafter and absolute
fearlessness. That is called Emancipation.
Fear implies the existence of something apart from oneself. Can the sense of duality
persist after non-dual Realization, or can there be darkness after sun-rise?
O Rishis! There will be no fear in the absence of duality. On the other hand, fear will not
cease so long as there is the sense of duality.
What is perceived in the world as being apart from the Self is also clearly seen to be
perishable. What is perishable must certainly involve fear of loss.
Union implies separation; so also acquisition implies loss.
If emancipation be external to the Self, it implies fear of loss, and is therefore not worth
aspiring to. On the other hand, Moksha is fearlessness and not external to the Self.
The state where the three phases of Knower, Knowledge and the Known merge into unity
is a state totally free from fear and leads to Moksha.

Jnaana (Supreme Wisdom) is the state devoid of thoughts, will and desire, and is
unimpeded by ignorance. It is certainly the primal state of the Knower, but remains
unrecognized for want of acquaintance with it. The Guru and Scriptures alone can make
the individual acquainted with the Self.
The Self is Abstract Intelligence free from thought. The Knower, Knowledge and the
Known are not real as different entities. When differentiation among them is destroyed,
their true nature is evident in the resulting non-dual consciousness, which is also the state
of emancipation. There is in fact no differentiation among the Knower, etc. The
differences are simply conventions retained for the smooth working of earthly life.
Emancipation is eternal and, therefore, here and now, it is nothing to be acquired. The
Self manifests as the Knower, Knowledge and the Known; the cycle of births and deaths
endures with all the apparent reality of a mountain so long as this manifestation lasts. As
soon as the manifestation is realized to consist of the Self alone without any admixture of
non-self, the cycle of births and deaths comes to a standstill, and is broken down to
fragments like clouds dispersed by strong winds.
Thus you find that earnestness is the only requisite for emancipation. No other requisite is
needed if the longing for emancipation is intense and unwavering.
What is the use of hundreds of efforts in the absence of a real and unswerving desire for
emancipation? That is the sole requisite and nothing else.
Intense devotion signifies mental abstraction as the devotee loses himself in the desired
object. In this particular instance, it will mean emancipation itself. For such unwavering
devotion must certainly succeed and success is only a question of time - which may be
days, months, years, or even the next birth, according as the predispositions are light or
The intellect is ordinarily befouled by evil propensities and so nothing good flourishes
there. Consequently, the people are boiled in the seething cauldron of births and deaths.
Of these evil propensities, the first is want of faith in the revelations made by the Guru
and in the Scriptures; the second is addiction to desires; and the third is dullness (i.e.,
inability to understand the revealed truth). This is a brief statement of them.
Of these, want of faith is betrayed by one's doubts regarding the truth of the statements
and by failure to understand them. The doubt arises whether there is Moksha; and later
misunderstanding leads to its denial. These two are sure obstacles to any sincere efforts
being made for realization.
All obstacles are set at naught by a determined belief in the contrary; that is to say determined belief regarding the existence of Moksha will destroy both uncertainty and
But the question arises how this determined belief will be possible when faith is wanting.
Therefore cut at its root. What is its root?
Want of faith has its root in unfavorable logic. Give it up and take to approved logic as
found in holy books and expounded by a Guru. Then enlightenment becomes possible
and faith results. Thus ends the first evil propensity.

The second propensity, namely desire, prevents the intellect from following the right
pursuit. For, the mind engrossed in desire, cannot engage in a spiritual pursuit. The
abstraction of a lover is well known to all; he can hear or see nothing in front of him.
Anything said in his hearing is as good as not said. Desire must therefore be first
overcome before aspiring for spiritual attainment. That can be done only by dispassion.
The propensity is manifold, being the forms of love, anger, greed, pride, jealousy, etc.
The worst of them is pursuit of pleasure which, if destroyed destroys all else. Pleasure
may be subtle or gross. Neither of these must be indulged in, even in thought. As soon as
the thought of pleasure arises, it must be dismissed by the will-power developed by
dispassion. In this way, the second evil propensity is overcome.
The third, known as dullness resulting from innumerable wicked actions in preceding
births, is the worst of the series and hardest to overcome by one's own efforts.
Concentration of mind and understanding of truth are not possible when dullness
prevails. There is no remedy for it other than worship of the Goddess of the Self
(adoration, prayer, meditation, etc.). I remove the devotee's dullness according to his
worship, quickly, or gradually, or in the succeeding birth.
He who unreservedly surrenders himself to Me with devotion is endowed with all the
requisites necessary for Self-Realization. He who worships Me, easily overcomes all
obstacles to Self-Realization. On the other hand, he, who being stuck up does not take
refuge in Me - the Pure Intelligence manipulating the person - is repeatedly upset by
difficulties so that his success is very doubtful.
Therefore, O Rishis! The chief requisite is one-pointed devotion to God. The devotee is
the best of aspirants. The one devoted to Abstract Consciousness excels every other
seeker. Consummation lies in the discernment of the Self as distinguished from the nonSelf. The Self is at present confounded with the body, etc., such confusion must cease and
awareness of the Self must result as opposed to nescience in sleep.
The Self is experienced even now; but it is not discerned rightly, for it is identified with
the body, etc., there is therefore endless suffering. The Self is not hidden indeed; it is
always gleaming out as 'I', but this 'I', is mistaken for the body, owing to ignorance. On
this ignorance ceasing, the 'I' is ascertained to be the true consciousness alone; and that
sets all doubts at rest. This and nothing else has been ascertained by the Sages to be
finality. Miraculous powers such as flying in space, etc., are all fragmentary and not
worth a particle of Self-Realization. For this is the unbroken and immortal bliss of the
Self in which all else is included.
Miraculous powers are also hindrance to Self-Realization. Of what use are they? They are
but simple acrobatic tricks. The Creator's status appears to a Self-realized man to be only
a trifle. What use are these powers, unless for wasting one's time?
There is no accomplishment equal to Self-Realization which is alone capable of ending
all misery because it is the state of eternal bliss. Self-Realization differs from all
accomplishments in that the fear of death is destroyed once for all.

Realization differs according to the antecedent practice and, commensurate with the
degree of purity of mind, may be perfect, middling or dull.
You have seen great scholars well versed in the Vedas and capable of chanting them quite
correctly amidst any amount of distractions. They are the best. Those who are capable
businessmen, repeat the Vedas quite correctly when they engage in chanting them without
other distractions. These are the middle class. Whereas others are constantly chanting
them and do it well. Such are of the lowest order among scholars. Similarly there are
distinctions among the Sages also.
Some Sages abide as the Self even while engaged in complex duties, such as ruling a
kingdom (e.g., King Janaka); others can do so in intervals of work; still others can do so
by constant practice alone. They are respectively of the highest, the middle and the lowest
order. Of these, the highest order represents the utmost limit of Realization.
Unbroken supreme awareness even in dream is the mark of the highest order.
The Person who is not involuntarily made the tool of his mental predispositions but who
invokes them at his will is of the highest order.
He who abides in the Self as 'I, I,' as spontaneously and continuously as the ignorant man
does in the body, is again of the highest order.
He, who though engaged in work, does not look upon anything as non-self, is a perfect
He who even while doing his work remains as in a sleep is a perfect Sage.
Thus the best among the Sages are never out of Samadhi, be they working or idle.
He, who is from his own experience capable of appreciating the states of other Jnaanis
including the best among them, is certainly a perfect Sage.
He, who is not influenced by happiness or misery, by pleasure or pain, by desires, doubts
or fear, is a perfect Sage.
He, who realizes pleasure, pain and every other phenomenon to be in and of the Self, is a
perfect Sage.
He who feels himself pervading all - be they ignorant or emancipated - is a perfect Sage.
He who knowing the trammels of bondage, does not seek release from them and remains
in peace, is a perfect Sage.
The perfect among the Sages is identical with Me. There is absolutely no difference
between us.
I have now told you all these in answer to your questions. You need no longer be
perplexed with doubts.
Having said so, Transcendental Intelligence became silent.
Then all the Rishis saluted Shiva and the other Gods and returned to their own abodes.




- is THAT which abides as the Self is Pure Intelligence Transcendental being

comprised of the aggregate of all the egos in perfection.
SHE is Self-contained, and fills the role of Maya by virtue of Her own prowess.
Being one without second, SHE makes even the impossible happen and thus
displays the Universe as a series of images in a mirror.
SHE is also the individual egos falsely identified with bodies.
SHE is Ego in perfection, while abiding as pure Consciousness. This is the nature
of Abstract Intelligence.
This unbroken 'I-I' consciousness remains before creation as will, self-sufficient
and independent in nature and is also called Svatantra.
SHE turns into action (kriya) during creation and is called Maya.
Creation is not vibration or metamorphosis; it is a mere projection of images like
those in a mirror. Because Shakti cannot be reached by time and much less
broken up by it, SHE is eternal; so it follows that the Universe has no origin.
SHE who is transcendence, awareness perfection and total-summation of all
egos, of Her own Will divides Herself into two sentient and insentient.
The sentient phase is Sadaashiva Tattva.
Later Sadaashiva identifies the insentient phase with His body at the time of
starting Creation. Then he goes by the name Ishvara. Now this contaminated
Higher Ego, namely Ishvara, divides Himself into the three aspects - Rudra,
Vishnu and Brahma (representing the modes of Ego associated with the three
qualities darkness, brightness and activity) who in their turn manifest the cosmos
consisting of many worlds.
Brahmas are innumerable, all of whom are engaged in creating worlds;
Vishnus are equally taken up in protecting the worlds;
and the Rudras in destroying them.
This is the way of creation. But all of them are only images in the grand mirror of
Abstract Consciousness. These are only manifest, but are not concrete, since they
have never been created.
The Supreme Being is always the sum-total of all the egos. Just as you fill the
body and identify yourself with different senses and organs without deviating
from the Ego, so does the transcendental Pure Intelligence similarly identify itself
with all, beginning from Sadashiva and ending with the minutest protoplasm,
and yet remains single.

Again, just as you cannot taste anything without the aid of the tongue, nor
apprehend other things without the aid of other senses or organs, so also the
Supreme Being (Sadashiva) acts and knows through the agency of Brahma, etc.,
and even of worms.
Just as your conscious Self remains pure and unqualified although it forms the
basis of all the activities of limbs, organs and senses, so also the Supreme
Intelligence is unaffected though holding all the Egos within Herself. SHE is not
aware of any distinctions in the vastness of the cosmos nor does SHE make
difference among the Egos.
In this manner, the Cosmos shines in Her like images in a mirror. The shining of
the Cosmos is due to Her reflection. In the same way, the individuals in the
world, namely you, I, and other seers are all flashes of Her consciousness. Since
all are only phases of Supreme Intelligence, that alone will shine in purity bereft
of taints or impediments in the shape of objects.
Just as the shining mirror is clear when images no longer appear in it, and the
same mirror remains untainted even when the images are reflected in it, so also
Pure Intelligence subsists pure and untainted whether the world is seen or not.
This untainted Supreme Intelligence is one without a second and filled with Bliss,
because totally free from the least trace of unhappiness. The sum-total of all
happiness of all the living beings has taken shape as the Supreme One because
SHE is obviously desired by all; and SHE is no other than the Self, which consists
of pure Bliss, because the Self is the most beloved of every being.
Pure Intelligence is indeed Bliss because it is the only one sought for.
For the sake of the Self people discipline their bodies and subdue their desires; all
sensual pleasures are mere sparks of Bliss inherent in the Self. For sensual
pleasures are similar to a sense of relief felt on unburdening oneself of a crushing
load, or to the peace of sleep.
People do not recognize the Bliss inhering as their Self, because of their
ignorance. They always associate pleasure with incidents.
Furthermore, just as images in a mirror are associated with objects, ignoring the
presence of the reflecting surface, but after consideration are found to be
dependent on the mirror and not apart from it, and the mirror is found to be
untainted by the reflected images, so also the sages know the Self alone to be
unique, real and untainted by its own projections, namely, the world, etc.
The relation of the Cosmos to Pure Intelligence, i.e., abstract Self, is like that of a
pot to earth, or of an ornament to gold, or of sculpture to the granite rock.
Denial of the existence of the world does not amount to perfection.

Denial is absurd. For, it implies intelligence, and intelligence displays itself as the
Universe. The intelligence denying or admitting the world is there shining over
all! Can the world be erased out of existence by mere denial of it?
Just as the images appear in a mirror and partake of its nature, so also the
Cosmos is of and in the Self, and real inasmuch as it is the Self.
This wisdom in perfection is the realization of all as the Self. Consciousness
appears as objects by its own virtue, as a mirror appears as the images on it. This
is the whole essence of the Scriptures. There is no bondage, no liberation, no
aspirant, and no process of attainment. The transcendental Conscious Principle
alone subsists in the three states of being.
SHE remains as the one uniform, absolute being. SHE is ignorance; SHE is
wisdom; SHE is bondage; SHE is liberation and SHE is the process thereof.
This is all that need be known, understood and realized. There is nothing more.
The man who knows it rightly will never be overtaken by misery. Such is the
section on Wisdom, recondite with reason, subtlety, and experience.
Should any one not gain wisdom after hearing or reading it but continue to
wallow in ignorance, he should be put down as nothing more than a stock or a
stone. What hope is there for him?
Hearing it even once must make a man truly wise; he is sure to become wise. Sin
or obstruction to wisdom is destroyed by reading it; wisdom dawns on hearing it.
Writing, appreciating and discussing its contents respectively destroys the sense
of duality, purifies the mind and reveals the abiding Truth.
SHE goes by the name of Emancipation when clearly and directly realized by
investigation as the one undivided Self of all; otherwise, SHE goes by the name of
SHE is the one Consciousness threading the three states of being, but untainted
and unbroken by them.
SHE is the sound, word and the significance of -