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Chapter 1 - Sets, inequalities and functions

1.1 Sets of numbers

A set of a collection of distinct objects.


Objects in a set are called the elements of that set.
If is an element of the set , we write
.

1.1.1 Commonly used sets

- Natural numbers {0, 1, 2, 3...}


- Integers (whole numbers) {.....-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3.....}
- Positive integers {1, 2, 3...}

- Rational numbers can be expressed as ratio of integers : 0

- Real numbers can be represented as the number line


- Complex numbers can be expressed in the form + , where
, , and = 1.
- The null set has no elements at all. The set of all real numbers that
satisfy + 1 = 0 is an empty set.

Interval Notation

Say

and are the endpoints of an interval.


[ = include endpoint
( = exclude endpoint
[] = include both endpoints (closed interval)
() = exclude both endpoints (open interval)
(] or [) = exclude one endpoint and include the other (neither
open nor closed)
o You cannot include because it isn't a number.
o
o
o
o
o

Examples
( , ) = { :

<

< }

[ , ] = { :

[ , ) = { :

< }

[ , ) = { :

[, ) =

1.1.2 Subsets

Suppose and are 2 sets.


If is a subset of , every element of

is an element of .
Set B

Set A

i.e. If implies , A is a subset of B


If is a subset of ,
If B contains A,

1.2 Solving inequalities


For , ,

1. If
2. If
3. If

< , then + < +


> and > 0, then
>
> , and < 0 than
<

4. If

>

> 0, then

5. If

>

> 0 then 0 <

6. If 0 <

> >0
<

<

When multiplying by a negative number, the inequality sign changes.


Note: In a question such as:
Solve the inequality
1
<
3

1
1

To solve the inequality, you can't just multiply the inequality through by 1
because you don't know whether 1 is positive or not. You need to multiply
both sides by ( 1) and then go on and solve it.

( 1)
1
( 1) <
3
1
1
( 1) < ( 1)
3

1.3 Absolute values


The magnitude or absolute value of a real number
by:
| |=

i.
ii.

0
<0

| | = | |
| | = | || |
| |
|

=|

iii.

iv.

| + | | | + | | (triangle inequality)

v.
vi.
vii.

, | | =
, | | =
: > 0,
- | | < , iff < <
- | | > , iff < or

>

Example:
Solve the following inequality:
3
<1
1
| 3|
<1
| 1|
| 3| < | 1|
Squaring both positive sides and using vi.,
( 3) < ( 1)
Expanding and solving we have

> 2.

is denoted by | | and defined

1.4 Functions
A function : is a rule that assigns every element
element ( ) .
Set A: Domain

Range

FUNCTION

to exactly one

Set B: Codomain

( )

Set A is the domain of Dom( ) of the function . It is the set containing all
of the inputs for the function.

Set B is the codomain or Codom( ) of . It is the set that contains all


output values of the function.
o Whilst all outputs must lie in the codomain, not every number in
the codomain may be an output.
o There may be some elements in the codomain that aren't an
assignment of any element in A.

The range is the set of all output values.


o Not necessarily equal to the codomain
o Is a subset of the codomain.
o Unlike the codomain, every value in the range is an output value
and is an assignment of an element in Set A.
o Range( ) = { ( ) : }

The expression ( ) is the value of at the point . ( ) is a unique


number in the codomain that corresponds to the input .
o
( ) is a number NOT a function.
o
is the function.
To define a function precisely, we need a domain, a codomain, and a rule.
In MATH1131, the domain and codomain are always
o .e.g. :
( )=
Dom( )

1.4.1 Combining functions


If :

and :

are real valued functions, then :

( + )( ) = ( ) + ( )
( )( ) = ( ) ( )
( )( ) = ( ) ( )
( )=

( )
,
( )

( )0

1.4.2 Compositions
Suppose, : and : are functions such that
( ) is a subset
of
( ). Then the composition : is defined by the rule:
( )( ) =

( )

Note the composition only exists if the range of


domain of .

is a subset of the

1.5 Polynomials
A function : is a polynomial if
( )=

+ +

Where:

(
)
Odd degrees produce graph
The constants , .
:
0
is the leading coefficient of
The number of turning points is always < the degree

1.5.1 Rational functions


A function

is called a rational function if

and

are polynomials and:

( ) = { : ( ) 0}
( )=

( )
,
( )

( )

1.6 Trigonometric functions


1.6.1 Exact values
sin
cos
tan

1
2
3
2
1

1
2
1
2
1

1.6.2 Ratio and reciprocal identities


tan =

sin
cos

sec =

1
cos

cosec =
cot =

1
sin

cos
sin

1.6.3 Graphs of sinx, cosx , tanx, secx, cosecx, cotx

3
2
1
2
3

1.6.4 Cofunction Identites


sin(90 ) = cos

cos(90 ) = sin

tan(90 ) = cot

sin(180 ) = sin

cos(180 ) = cos

tan(180 ) = tan

sin(180 + ) = sin

cos(180 + ) = cos

tan(180 + ) = tan

sin(360 ) = sin

cos(360 ) = cos

tan(360 ) = tan

cosec(90 ) = sec

sec(90 ) = cosec

cot(90 ) = tan

1.6.5 Odd even identities


sin( ) = sin
cosec( ) = cosec

cos( ) = cos
sec( ) = sec

tan( ) = tan
cot( ) = cot

1.6.6 Pythagorean Identities


sin

+ cos

=1

tan

+ 1 = sec

cot

1.6.7 Sum and difference formulae


sin( ) = sin cos cos sin
cos( ) = cos cos sin sin
tan( ) =

tan tan
1 tan tan

+1=

1.6.8 Double angle identities


sin2 = 2sin cos

cos2 = cos
= 2 cos

sin

tan2 =

2tan
1 tan

= 1 2 sin

1.6.9 Auxillary formula


Any function ( ) =

+
( )

can be written in the following forms:


=
and

( )
=

1.7 Elementary functions


The following are known as elementary functions:
o polynomials

o the nth root function ( ) = ,


o the exponential function ( ) =
o the natural log function ( ) = ln
o the absolute value function ( ) = | |
o all trigonometric function (and their inverses)
Also any function obtained by combining a finite number of the above
functions via +, ,,, is also an elementary function.

1.8 Important implicitly defined functions

You must be able to recognise these:

Chapter 1 - Difficult/Intermediate Examples


1. Sketch the graph of
diagram

= + 1 and use your graph to sketch (on the same

Solution
Start by drawing the graph of

+ 1 in a dotted line.

Here we have = + 1. Since we want = + 1, we need to square root all


the values of = + 1. This doesn't have to be exact, but we need to consider
the graph at key points. When a number < 1 is square rooted, it increases, so we
expect all the values < 1 to increase slightly. When a number > 1 is square rooted,
it decreases. When 1 is square rooted, the result is 1. So we get the following:

Start by drawing the graph of


Now we want to draw

+ 1 in a dotted line.

, so we need to obtain the graph whose y values

are 1 over every y value of = + 1. Immediately, where = 0, there is an


issue. Since the graph is at = 0, when = 1, there will be a vertical
asymptote at = 1. Since 1 over something is very small, and 1 over something
small is very big, the large parts of = + 1 will get very small and the small
parts will get very large leading to the graph below:

2.
a) By expanding ( ) prove that

b) Deduce that

for all real numbers and

for all non negative real numbers

and . When does

the equality hold?


=

c) Use the result above to find the minimum value of

Solution
a) We need to prove
Because

by considering ( )

is squared, ( ) must always be 0.

So,
( ) 0
2

0
2
= , and

b) Following the above process but letting


+
2

is when it is equal to

c) Before we consider , note the relation


greater or equal to

, =
+
2

1
=

(given when

= 1)

. We see that,

can be

, but it can't be less than. Thus, the minimum value of

Now, using this we can find the minimum value of .


Let

= ,

=2
=2

3. Prove that ( + ) 4

and hence that

We know because it is a square that,


( ) 0
2
Adding 4

to both sides,
+2

( + ) 4
Now, starting with

we modify it to make it equal to something we

know is definitely true to deduce the truth of this relationship.


1

+
+

4
+

4
+

) 4

Square rooting both sides,


+
2
Adding 4

2
+

to both sides as above, we obtain


+2

( + ) 4
Which we know is true.

4.
a) Prove that ( ) = 1 + +

is positive for all real numbers .

b) By considering cases or otherwise, prove that 1 +


positive.

is always

c) Generalise the above results.


Solution
a)
Case 1:
If

= 1, (1) = 3 > 0,

Case 2:
So if

=1

1, then, using the high school formula,


( )=

1 = ( 1)(

+ 1),

1
1

Note in Case 1, we had to deal with = 1 separately because it's substitution into
this formula would result in a division by 0.
Case 2a
When > 1,
1 and
number and ( ) > 0

1 are both positive. So the quotient gives a positive

Case 2b
When < 1,
1 and 1 are both negative. So the quotient gives negative
over a negative which is a positive, and so ( ) > 0.
( )>0

b)
Using the same argument,
Note,
Case 1:
If

=1

= 1, (1) = > 0,

Case 2:

So if 1, then, using the high school formula,


1 = ( 1)( + + + + 1),
( )=1+

1
1

Note in Case 1, we had to deal with = 1 separately because it's substitution into
this formula would result in a division by 0.
Case 2a
When > 1,
1 and
number and ( ) > 0

1 are both positive. So the quotient gives a positive

Case 2b
When < 1,
1 and 1 are both negative. So the quotient gives negative
over a negative which is a positive, and so ( ) > 0.
( )>0
c) Generalising,
( )=1+

+ .+

1
1

We can use the same argument to prove that ( ) > 0