Chapter 1  Sets, inequalities and functions
1.1 Sets of numbers
A set of a collection of distinct objects.
Objects in a set are called the elements of that set.
If is an element of the set , we write
.
1.1.1 Commonly used sets
 Natural numbers {0, 1, 2, 3...}
 Integers (whole numbers) {.....2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3.....}
 Positive integers {1, 2, 3...}
 Rational numbers can be expressed as ratio of integers : 0
 Real numbers can be represented as the number line
 Complex numbers can be expressed in the form + , where
, , and = 1.
 The null set has no elements at all. The set of all real numbers that
satisfy + 1 = 0 is an empty set.
Interval Notation
Say
and are the endpoints of an interval.
[ = include endpoint
( = exclude endpoint
[] = include both endpoints (closed interval)
() = exclude both endpoints (open interval)
(] or [) = exclude one endpoint and include the other (neither
open nor closed)
o You cannot include because it isn't a number.
o
o
o
o
o
Examples
( , ) = { :
<
< }
[ , ] = { :
[ , ) = { :
< }
[ , ) = { :
[, ) =
1.1.2 Subsets
Suppose and are 2 sets.
If is a subset of , every element of
is an element of .
Set B
Set A
i.e. If implies , A is a subset of B
If is a subset of ,
If B contains A,
1.2 Solving inequalities
For , ,
1. If
2. If
3. If
< , then + < +
> and > 0, then
>
> , and < 0 than
<
4. If
>
> 0, then
5. If
>
> 0 then 0 <
6. If 0 <
> >0
<
<
When multiplying by a negative number, the inequality sign changes.
Note: In a question such as:
Solve the inequality
1
<
3
1
1
To solve the inequality, you can't just multiply the inequality through by 1
because you don't know whether 1 is positive or not. You need to multiply
both sides by ( 1) and then go on and solve it.
( 1)
1
( 1) <
3
1
1
( 1) < ( 1)
3
1.3 Absolute values
The magnitude or absolute value of a real number
by:
 =
i.
ii.
0
<0
  =  
  =   
 

=
iii.
iv.
 +    +   (triangle inequality)
v.
vi.
vii.
,   =
,   =
: > 0,
   < , iff < <
   > , iff < or
>
Example:
Solve the following inequality:
3
<1
1
 3
<1
 1
 3 <  1
Squaring both positive sides and using vi.,
( 3) < ( 1)
Expanding and solving we have
> 2.
is denoted by   and defined
1.4 Functions
A function : is a rule that assigns every element
element ( ) .
Set A: Domain
Range
FUNCTION
to exactly one
Set B: Codomain
( )
Set A is the domain of Dom( ) of the function . It is the set containing all
of the inputs for the function.
Set B is the codomain or Codom( ) of . It is the set that contains all
output values of the function.
o Whilst all outputs must lie in the codomain, not every number in
the codomain may be an output.
o There may be some elements in the codomain that aren't an
assignment of any element in A.
The range is the set of all output values.
o Not necessarily equal to the codomain
o Is a subset of the codomain.
o Unlike the codomain, every value in the range is an output value
and is an assignment of an element in Set A.
o Range( ) = { ( ) : }
The expression ( ) is the value of at the point . ( ) is a unique
number in the codomain that corresponds to the input .
o
( ) is a number NOT a function.
o
is the function.
To define a function precisely, we need a domain, a codomain, and a rule.
In MATH1131, the domain and codomain are always
o .e.g. :
( )=
Dom( )
1.4.1 Combining functions
If :
and :
are real valued functions, then :
( + )( ) = ( ) + ( )
( )( ) = ( ) ( )
( )( ) = ( ) ( )
( )=
( )
,
( )
( )0
1.4.2 Compositions
Suppose, : and : are functions such that
( ) is a subset
of
( ). Then the composition : is defined by the rule:
( )( ) =
( )
Note the composition only exists if the range of
domain of .
is a subset of the
1.5 Polynomials
A function : is a polynomial if
( )=
+ +
Where:
(
)
Odd degrees produce graph
The constants , .
:
0
is the leading coefficient of
The number of turning points is always < the degree
1.5.1 Rational functions
A function
is called a rational function if
and
are polynomials and:
( ) = { : ( ) 0}
( )=
( )
,
( )
( )
1.6 Trigonometric functions
1.6.1 Exact values
sin
cos
tan
1
2
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1.6.2 Ratio and reciprocal identities
tan =
sin
cos
sec =
1
cos
cosec =
cot =
1
sin
cos
sin
1.6.3 Graphs of sinx, cosx , tanx, secx, cosecx, cotx
3
2
1
2
3
1.6.4 Cofunction Identites
sin(90 ) = cos
cos(90 ) = sin
tan(90 ) = cot
sin(180 ) = sin
cos(180 ) = cos
tan(180 ) = tan
sin(180 + ) = sin
cos(180 + ) = cos
tan(180 + ) = tan
sin(360 ) = sin
cos(360 ) = cos
tan(360 ) = tan
cosec(90 ) = sec
sec(90 ) = cosec
cot(90 ) = tan
1.6.5 Odd even identities
sin( ) = sin
cosec( ) = cosec
cos( ) = cos
sec( ) = sec
tan( ) = tan
cot( ) = cot
1.6.6 Pythagorean Identities
sin
+ cos
=1
tan
+ 1 = sec
cot
1.6.7 Sum and difference formulae
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin
cos( ) = cos cos sin sin
tan( ) =
tan tan
1 tan tan
+1=
1.6.8 Double angle identities
sin2 = 2sin cos
cos2 = cos
= 2 cos
sin
tan2 =
2tan
1 tan
= 1 2 sin
1.6.9 Auxillary formula
Any function ( ) =
+
( )
can be written in the following forms:
=
and
( )
=
1.7 Elementary functions
The following are known as elementary functions:
o polynomials
o the nth root function ( ) = ,
o the exponential function ( ) =
o the natural log function ( ) = ln
o the absolute value function ( ) =  
o all trigonometric function (and their inverses)
Also any function obtained by combining a finite number of the above
functions via +, ,,, is also an elementary function.
1.8 Important implicitly defined functions
You must be able to recognise these:
Chapter 1  Difficult/Intermediate Examples
1. Sketch the graph of
diagram
= + 1 and use your graph to sketch (on the same
Solution
Start by drawing the graph of
+ 1 in a dotted line.
Here we have = + 1. Since we want = + 1, we need to square root all
the values of = + 1. This doesn't have to be exact, but we need to consider
the graph at key points. When a number < 1 is square rooted, it increases, so we
expect all the values < 1 to increase slightly. When a number > 1 is square rooted,
it decreases. When 1 is square rooted, the result is 1. So we get the following:
Start by drawing the graph of
Now we want to draw
+ 1 in a dotted line.
, so we need to obtain the graph whose y values
are 1 over every y value of = + 1. Immediately, where = 0, there is an
issue. Since the graph is at = 0, when = 1, there will be a vertical
asymptote at = 1. Since 1 over something is very small, and 1 over something
small is very big, the large parts of = + 1 will get very small and the small
parts will get very large leading to the graph below:
2.
a) By expanding ( ) prove that
b) Deduce that
for all real numbers and
for all non negative real numbers
and . When does
the equality hold?
=
c) Use the result above to find the minimum value of
Solution
a) We need to prove
Because
by considering ( )
is squared, ( ) must always be 0.
So,
( ) 0
2
0
2
= , and
b) Following the above process but letting
+
2
is when it is equal to
c) Before we consider , note the relation
greater or equal to
, =
+
2
1
=
(given when
= 1)
. We see that,
can be
, but it can't be less than. Thus, the minimum value of
Now, using this we can find the minimum value of .
Let
= ,
=2
=2
3. Prove that ( + ) 4
and hence that
We know because it is a square that,
( ) 0
2
Adding 4
to both sides,
+2
( + ) 4
Now, starting with
we modify it to make it equal to something we
know is definitely true to deduce the truth of this relationship.
1
+
+
4
+
4
+
) 4
Square rooting both sides,
+
2
Adding 4
2
+
to both sides as above, we obtain
+2
( + ) 4
Which we know is true.
4.
a) Prove that ( ) = 1 + +
is positive for all real numbers .
b) By considering cases or otherwise, prove that 1 +
positive.
is always
c) Generalise the above results.
Solution
a)
Case 1:
If
= 1, (1) = 3 > 0,
Case 2:
So if
=1
1, then, using the high school formula,
( )=
1 = ( 1)(
+ 1),
1
1
Note in Case 1, we had to deal with = 1 separately because it's substitution into
this formula would result in a division by 0.
Case 2a
When > 1,
1 and
number and ( ) > 0
1 are both positive. So the quotient gives a positive
Case 2b
When < 1,
1 and 1 are both negative. So the quotient gives negative
over a negative which is a positive, and so ( ) > 0.
( )>0
b)
Using the same argument,
Note,
Case 1:
If
=1
= 1, (1) = > 0,
Case 2:
So if 1, then, using the high school formula,
1 = ( 1)( + + + + 1),
( )=1+
1
1
Note in Case 1, we had to deal with = 1 separately because it's substitution into
this formula would result in a division by 0.
Case 2a
When > 1,
1 and
number and ( ) > 0
1 are both positive. So the quotient gives a positive
Case 2b
When < 1,
1 and 1 are both negative. So the quotient gives negative
over a negative which is a positive, and so ( ) > 0.
( )>0
c) Generalising,
( )=1+
+ .+
1
1
We can use the same argument to prove that ( ) > 0