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Oct 16, 2015

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Machine Design Solutions

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Machine Design Solutions

© All Rights Reserved

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Solution to Homework Set 9

Problem 14-15.

Since the pinion and the gear of the given spur gearset have the same material properties then the

power that the gearset can transmit is governed by the failure of the pinion. The problem is to

determine: (i) the power that can be transmitted considering pinion tooth bending failure, and (ii) the

power that can be transmitted considering pinion tooth wear. The power rating of the gearset will then

be the minimum of these two power ratings (for the specified design factor of 2.25).

Consider bending of the pinion tooth.

The diameter of the pinion, see Equation (13-1), page 666, can be written as

dP

NP

P

where P is the diametral pitch; i.e., number of teeth per inch. Therefore, the diameter of the pinion is

dP

17

1.417 in

12

The pitch line velocity, see Example (14-1), page 728, can be written as

VP

dP nP

12

ft / min

VP

1.417 525

194.8 ft/min

12

The uncorrected endurance strength for Sut 212 kpsi , see Equation (7-8), page 325, can be written as

Se 0.504 Sut

Therefore, the uncorrected endurance strength is given as

Se 0.504 76 38.3 kpsi

The surface factor, see Equation (7-18), page 329 can be written as

k a = a Sutb

For milled (machined) teeth, see Table (7-4), page 329, the factor a and the exponent b are given as

a 2.7

b 0.265

and

k a 2.7 (76) 0.265 0.857

Assuming full depth teeth, the sum of the addendum and dedendum, see Figure (14-1), page 725, and

Table (13-1), page 686, can be written as

l

1 1.25 1 1.25

0.1875 in

P

P

12 12

The tooth thickness, see Equation (b), page 725 and Figure (14-1), page 725, can be written as

t

4l x

where the value of the distance x , see Equation (14-3), page 725, can be written as

x

3Y

2P

The Lewis form factor for the pinion with 17 teeth, see Table (14-2), page 726, is

Y 0.303

x

3 0.303

0.0379 in

2 12

t 4 0.1875 0.0379 0.1686 in

The effective diameter for bending, see Equation (7-24), page 330, can be written as

d e 0.808 h b

1/ 2

where h = F Face width 0.875 in and b t tooth thickness 0.1686 in . Therefore, the effective

diameter is

d e 0.808 0.875 0.1686

2

1/ 2

0.310 in

The size factor, see Equation (7-19), page 329, can be written as

d

kb

0.3

0.107

0.310

0.3

0.107

0.996

The loading factor for bending, see Equation (7-25), page 331, is

kc 1

The temperature factor, assuming operation at room temperature, see Table (7-6), page 332, is

kd 1

The reliability factor, assuming 50 % reliability, see Table (7-7), page 334, is

ke 1

Two effects are used to evaluate the miscellaneous-effects factor k f (see Example 14-2, page 728). The

first of these is the effect of one-way bending. The second effect to be accounted for in using the

miscellaneous-effects factor is stress concentration. The miscellaneous effects factor for one-way

bending, see Example 14-2, page 728, is

k f1 1.65

The miscellaneous effects factor due to stress concentration, see Example 14-2, page 728, is

k f2

1

Kf

where K f is the fatigue stress concentration factor. The tooth fillet radius for a full-depth tooth, see

Figure (14-1), page 725 and Example 14-2, page 728, is

rf

0.3 0.3

0.025 in

P

12

r rf

0.025

0.148

d

t 0.1686

The ratio D / d in Figure A-15-6, page 983, is equal to infinity for a gear tooth. Since Figure A-15-6

does not have a curve for D / d then approximate D / d 3 . Therefore, the theoretical stress

concentration factor from Figure A-15-6 is

K t 1.68

3

The fatigue stress concentration factor, see Equation (7-35), page 337, can be written as

Kf

Kt

2( K t 1) a

1

Kt

r

where the value of the Neuber constant for a shoulder, see Table (7-8), page 337, is

a

4

4

0.053 in

Sut 76

Kf

1.68

1.323

2 (1.68 1) 0.053

1

1.68

0.025

k f2

1

0.756

1.323

The final value of the miscellaneous-effects factor, see Example 14-2, page 728, is

k f k f1 k f2 1.65 0.756 1.247

The fully corrected endurance strength, see Equation (7-17), page 328, is

Se ka kb kc kd ke k f Se

Therefore, the fully corrected endurance strength is

Se 0.857 0.996 1 1 1 1.247 38.3 40.77 kpsi

The allowable bending stress for a design factor of 2.25, see Example 14-2, page 728, can be written

as

all

Se 40.77

nd

2.25

The tangential component of the load, see Equation (14-7), page 727 and Example 14-2, page 728, can

be written as

Wt =

F Y all

Kv P

The dynamic (or velocity) factor for milled teeth, see Equation (14-4b), page 727, can be written as

Kv

1200 VP

1200

Kv

1200 194.8

1.162

1200

Wt

345 lb

1.162 12

The transmitted power (with bending of pinion teeth as the design criterion), see Example 14-2, page

728, can be written as

H

W t VP

33,000

Therefore, the transmitted power (with bending of pinion teeth as the design criterion) is

H

345 194.8

2.04 hp

33,000

The surface stress (i.e., Hertzian contact stress), see Equation (14-14), page 732, can be written as

C ,all

K vW t 1 1

C p

F

cos

r1 r2

1/ 2

The elastic coefficient C p , for a steel pinion in mesh with a steel gear, see Table 14-8, page 745, is

C p 2300 psi

The radii of curvature of the tooth profiles at the pitch point, see Equation (14-12), page 732, are

r1

d P sin

2

and

r2

d G sin

2

Therefore the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles at the pitch point are

r1

1.417 sin 20

0.242 in

2

r2

and

2.5 sin 20

0.428 in

2

The surface endurance strength, see Equation (7-68), page 372, can be written as

SC 10

0.4 H B 10 kpsi

SC 10

The allowable contact stress, see Example 14-3, page 732, can be written as

C ,all

SC

nd

C ,all

49.6

33.067 kpsi

2.25

The tangential component of the load, see Equation (14-14), page 732, can be written as

2

C ,all

F cos

W

Cp

K v (1/ r1 1/ r2 )

2

0.875 cos 20

33067

W

22.6 lb

2300 1.162 (1/ 0.242 1/ 0.428)

t

The transmitted power, see Example 14-2, page 728, can be written as

H

W t VP

33,000

Therefore, the transmitted power (with wear of pinion teeth as the design criterion) is

H

22.6 194.8

0.133 hp

33,000

Conclusion: The power rating considering pinion tooth wear is lower than the power rating

considering pinion tooth bending. Therefore, the power rating of the spur gearset is

6

H rated 0.133 hp

Problem 14-19.

The diameter of the pinion, see Equation (13-1), page 666, can be written as

dP

NP

P

dP

16

2.667 in

6

Similarly, the diameter of the gear, see Equation (13-1), page 666, can be written as

dG

NG

P

dG

48

8 in

6

The pitch line velocity, see Example (14-1), page 728, can be written as

V

dP nP

12

V

2.667 300

209.4 ft/min

12

The transmitted power, see Example 14-2, page 728, can be written as

H

W t VP

33,000

Wt

33,000 H 33,000 5

787.9 lb

VP

209.4

The AGMA bending stress equation, see Equation (14-15), page 734, can be written as

W t Ko K v K s

Pd K m K B

F J

Ko 1

7

The dynamic factor, see Equation (14-27), page 744 can be written as

A V

Kv

B 0.25 ( 12 Qv )2 / 3

Therefore, for the specified transmission accuracy-level number, Qv of 6, the exponent B is

B 0.25 (12 6)2 / 3 0.8255

The factor A , see Equation (14-28), page 744, can be written as

A 50 56 ( 1 B )

Therefore, the factor A is

A 50 56(1 0.8255) 59.77

Therefore, the dynamic factor is

59.77 209.4

Kv

59.77

0.8255

1.196

The size factor, see Equation (a), page 747, can be written as

F

K S 1.192

0.0535

The Lewis form factor for the pinion with 16 teeth, see Table (14-2), page 726, is

Y 0.296

The Lewis form factor for the gear with 48 teeth, see Table (14-2), page 726, using linear interpolation

is

Y 0.4056

Therefore, the size factor for the pinion is

F

K S P 1.192

0.0535

2 0.296

1.192

0.0535

1.088

KS G

F YG

1.192

0.0535

2 0.4056

1.192

0.0535

1.097

The load distribution factor, see Equation (14-30), page 747, can be written as

K m 1 Cmc (C pf C pm CmaCe )

The load correction factor Cmc for uncrowned teeth, see Equation (14-31), page 748, is

Cmc 1

The pinion proportion factor C pf for a face width of F 2 in , see Equation (14-32), page 748, is

C pf

F

0.0375 0.0125 F

10 d

C pf

2

0.0375 0.0125 2 0.0625

10 2.667

Assuming S1 / S 0.175 in Figure (14-10), page 748, then from Equation (14-33), page 748, the pinion

proportion modifier C pm is

C pm 1

The mesh alignment factor Cma , see Equation (14-34), page 748, can be written as

Cma A BF CF 2

For commercial enclosed unit, see Table (14-9), page 748, the factors A, B, and C are

A 0.127

B 0.0158

and

C 0.093 104

Cma 0.127 (0.0158 2) (0.093 10 4 2 2 ) 0.159

The mesh alignment correction factor Ce , see Equation (14-35), page 748, is

Ce 1

Therefore, the load distribution factor is

K m 1 1 [(0.0625 1) (0.159 1)] 1.222

9

Assuming the backup ratio mB 1.2 , the rim thickness factor, see Equation (14-40), page 752 is

KB 1

The geometry factor for bending strength for the pinion with 16 teeth from Figure (14-6), page 741,

assuming that the load is applied at the highest point of single-tooth contact is

J P 0.27

The geometry factor for bending strength for the gear with 48 teeth from Figure (14-6), page 741,

assuming that the load is applied at the highest point of single-tooth contact is

J G 0.38

The AGMA bending stress for the pinion can then be written as

P W t Ko K v K s P

Pd K m K B

F JP

6 1.222 1

13,921 psi

2

0.27

G W t Ko K v K s G

Pd K m K B

F JG

6 1.222 1

9973 psi

2

0.38

The safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure, see Equation (14-41), page 753, can be

written as

SF

StYN / KT K R

From Figure (14-2), page 735, the AGMA bending strength for the pinion and the gear made of Grade

1 steel can be written as

10

Therefore, the AGMA bending strength for the pinion and the gear are

The pinion life is specified to be 108 cycles. The gear ratio of the given gearset is

mG

N G 48

3

N P 16

The stress cycle factor for bending strength for the pinion, see Figure (14-14), page 751, with N 108

cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

The stress cycle factor for bending strength for the gear, see Figure (14-14), page 751, with N 108 / 3

cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

The reliability factor, see Table (14-10) page 752, for a reliability of 0.9 is

K R 0.85

The temperature factor, assuming oil and gear-blank temperatures less than 250 F , see page 752, is

KT 1

Then the safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the pinion can be written as

SF P

S t P YN P / K T K R

P

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the pinion is

SF P

2.33

13,921

The safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the gear can be written as

SF G

St G YN G / K T K R

G

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against bending fatigue failure for the gear is

11

SF G

3.32

9973

The AGMA pitting resistance (contact stress) equation, see Equation (14-16), page 734, can be written

as

c C p W t Ko K v K s

Km C f

dPF I

The elastic coefficient C p , for a steel pinion in mesh with a steel gear, see Table (14-8), page 745, is

C p 2300 psi

The surface condition factor, C f , see page 746 is assumed to be equal to 1.

The geometry factor for pitting resistance, see Equation (14-23), page 743, for an external gearset can

be written as

I

cos t sin t mG

2 mN

mG 1

For spur gears, see page 743, the load-sharing ratio mN 1 and t .

Therefore, for the given spur gearset the geometry factor for pitting resistance is

I

cos 20 sin 20 3

0.1205

2 1

31

c P Cp

W t Ko K v K s P

Km C f

dPF I

c P 2300

12

1.222

1

101,545 psi

2.667 2 0.1205

c G Cp

W t Ko K v K s G

Km C f

dPF I

c G 2300

1.222

1

101,964 psi

2.667 2 0.1205

The safety factor guarding against pitting failure, see Equation (14-42), page 753, can be written as

SH

S c Z N C H / KT K R

c

From Figure (14-5), page 738, the AGMA surface endurance strength for the pinion and the gear made

of Grade 1 steel can be written as

Therefore, the AGMA surface endurance strength for the pinion and the gear are

The stress cycle factor for pitting resistance for the pinion, see Figure (14-15), page 751, with N 108

cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

The stress cycle factor for pitting resistance for the gear, see Figure (14-15), page 751, with

N 108 / 3 cycles and considering the upper curve in the shaded region is

Then the safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the pinion is

SH P

Sc P Z N P CH / KT K R

c P

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the pinion is

13

SH P

1.03

101,545

The safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the gear is

SH G

Sc G Z N G CH / KT K R

c G

Therefore, the safety factor guarding against pitting failure for the gear is

SH G

1.05

101,964

14

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