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# ME 2305 APPLIED HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS

PART A

## 1. Name any four desirable characteristics of hydraulic pumps.

2. Name any four drawbacks of fluid power systems.
3. Define fluid power.
4. Define viscosity and bulk modulus of a hydraulic fluid.
5. Explain the term friction factor.
6. State four advantages of fluid power.
7. What is low cost automation?
8. What are the major components of a hydraulic system?
9. What is viscosity index? What do you infer from V.I number of oil?
10. Name any four hydraulic fluids that are commonly used.
11. For the following graphical symbols shown, identify their modes of operation.
12. Draw the graphical symbol for: push button operated, four ways, two positions, spring offset
DCV.
13. List out any four desirable properties of hydraulics fluids.
14. Give the symbol of variable vane pump and pressure compensated flow control valve.
15. Give any two differences between hydraulic power and pneumatic power.
16. Give the expression used to determine friction factor for laminar flow through pipes.
17. Sketch the graphical symbol of (a) variable displacement reversible pump (b) telescoping
cylinder.
18. Why are hydraulic systems preferred for heavy work than the pneumatic system?
19. What are the primary functions of hydraulic fluid?
20. List out some properties of a hydraulic fluid?
21. State Pascals law.
22. Name two undesirable results when oil with a viscosity that is too high.
23. Define the terms absolute viscosity and kinematic viscosity.

PART B
1. What are the basic components that are required for a hydraulic system? Explain their
functions.(8)
2. What types of fluids are available for hydraulic system? Explain two of them.(8)
3. Write short notes on: (8)
(1) Laminar and turbulent flow
(2) Reynolds number.
4. Explain the working principle of hydraulic pipes with neat sketch.(8)
5. List and explain various hydraulic fluids.(16)

6. Compare the use of fluid power to a mechanical system by listing advantages and
7. List down the various properties of hydraulic fluids and explain them in detail.(10)
8. Explain the application of Pascals law with a suitable example.(8)
9. Compare and contrast between hydraulic , pneumatic and electro-mechanical power
systems.(8)
10. List out the application of fluid power employed in different industries/ fields.(8)
11. What are the essential and desirable properties of a hydraulic fluid? Discuss.(10)
12. Differentiate between laminar flow and turbulent flow with example.(8)
13. List out all properties that a good hydraulic fluids. (8)
14. Write notes on:
(i)
Loss of energy in pipes
(ii)
Darcys equation
(iii)
Energy equation
(iv)
Bernoullis equation
15. Explain the application of Pascals law. (16)

## UNIT 2 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM AND COMPONENTS

PART A
1. State the need for synchronization of hydraulic cylinders.
2. What is a hydraulic fuse?
3. How do you classify direction control valves?

## 4. What do you mean by non-positive displacement pump? State its implications.

5. What do you mean by positive displacement pump?
6. What is pump cavitations? How can you avoid it?
7. How do you specify a pump?
8. What are the functions of accumulators?
9. What are the advantages of telescope cylinders?
10. What is pressure compensated flow control? How a variable vane pump can provide this
feature?
11. Why are double acting cylinders known as differential cylinders?
12. Mention few applications where piston motors are employed.
13. What is a pressure compensated vane pump and how does it work?
14. Name four types of cylinder mountings.
15. What is a telescopic cylinder? What is its use?
16. What do you mean by cylinder cushioning?
17. Define volumetric of a hydraulic motor.
18. Write the types of hydraulic motors.
19. Define actuators.
20. Define pump ripple.
PART B
1. What are the factors to be selected in selection of a pump for automatic lift? (8)
2. How will you measure the pump performance? Explain each with suitable examples. (8)
3. How do you classify pumps? Explain with suitable sketch the working of vane pump?
4. Explain the factors which affect the selection of pumps and discuss in detail the
Classification and Performance features of different types of hydddraulic pumps. (16)
5. Explain the working principle of external gear and internal gear pump and determine its
Performance measures. (16)
6. Explain the various mechanisms of hydraulic cylinder mountings with neat diagram.
7. Explain the construction and working of a gear pump. (8)
8. How is capacity of a variable displacement vane pump is adjusted? Explain with a diagram.(8)
9. What is cylinder cushioning? Explain with a diagram. (8)
10. Explain with a diagram the working of a telescopic cylinder. (8)
11. What are the factors to be considered in selection of a pump? (8)
12. Define the following terms:
(i) Volumetric efficiency.
(ii) Mechanical efficiency.
(iii) Overall efficiency.
13. Explain the following:
(i) Pump characteristic curves
(ii) Pump cavitations
(iii) Pump noise

## (iv) Pump selection

14. Using a neat sketch explain the construction and operation of an axial piston pump of swash
plate type. (16)
15. Enumerate the working principle of balanced and unbalanced vane pump with neat sketch.
16. What are the different types of fluid motors? Also explain the function of them. (16)
UNIT 3 DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS
PART A
1. What are the functions of reservoir?
2. What is two- way valve?
3. What is the purpose of regenerative circuit?
4. How do you select hydraulic pipes for a hydraulic system?
5. What is meter in circuit? What is its limitation?
6. Write the functions of a solenoid valve.
7. What is meter out circuit? What is its limitation?
8. What is intensifier?
9. What is the use of a temperature switch?
10. What is the purpose of an air pressure regulator?
11. List any four applications of accumulators.
12. What are the functions of accumulators?
13. What are the types of control valves?
14. What are the types of pressure control valves?
15. Define pressure intensifier.
17. Define relay.
18. Define solenoids.
19. What are the types of electrical control devices?
20. What are the uses of push-button switches?
PART B
1. Draw and explain hydraulic cylinder sequence circuit.(8)
2. Explain the working principle of a failsafe circuit with overload protection. (8)
3. Draw and explain hydraulic circuit used in milling machine. (8)
4. Discuss the applications of hydraulic circuit in press and planner. (8)
5. Describe a hydraulic circuit for synchronizing two cylinders with flow control valves. (8)
6. With simple sketches, explain the various types of synchronizing circuits. (8)
7. Explain the sequencing of two double acting cylinders with a neat sketch. (8)
8. With a neat sketch describe the construction and operation of a pressure compensated flow
control valve. (8)
9. Make a neat sketch showing an intensifier in a punching press application. (8)

10. Make a neat sketch showing the use of an accumulator as a hydraulic shock absorber. (8)
11. Explain the working principle of regenerative circuit. (8)
12. With simple sketches, explain the commonly used 3-way position 4 way directions
control valves. (8)
13. Explain the working of a pressure reducing valve with an example application.
14. Explain with a suitable circuit how an accumulator can be used as
(1) An emergency power source
(2) A leakage compensator.
15. Explain the operation of check valve with neat sketch. (8)

## UNIT 4 PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS

PART A
1. What is meant by inter lock contacts?
2. What is the function of bleed off circuits?
3. What is air oil intensifier?
4. Give the standard graphical symbol for FRL unit.
5. Draw a circuit to automatically reciprocate a pneumatic cylinder using a pressure switch.
6. What is twin pressure valve?
7. What are the reasons for pressure drop in pneumatic lines?
8. How is the air compressors classified?
9. How can you an air compressor?
10. What is meant by an air-over-oil system?
11. What is purpose of fail-safe circuit?
12. What is bistable flip-slop?
13. Give the symbol for an electro-pneumatic 3 position 4 way DC valve.
14. Sketch the graphical symbol of pneumatic regulator.
15. Distinguish between meter in and meter out circuits with respect to speed control circuits.
16. Define fluidics.
17. What is hydrostatic transmission?
18. What is purpose of intensifier?
19. What is quick exhaust valve? Where are these valves installed?
20. State the difference between quick exhaust valve and flow control valve.
PART B
1. Describe the function of an air pressure regulator with neat sketch. (8)
2. Develop an electro pneumatic circuit for the following sequence A+ B+ A B where A
and B stand for cylinders, (+) indicates extension and (-) retraction of cylinders. (16)
3. Develop an electro hydraulic circuit for the following sequence A+ B+ B A where A and
B stand for cylinders, (+) indicates extension and (-) retraction of cylinders. Incorporate
provision for auto-manual selector and emergency stop. (16)

## 4. Describe the working of an air filter with neat sketch. (8)

5. Develop a continuous single cylinder reciprocation circuit for pneumatic system using
limit switches and relays. (8)
6. What is compressor? Explain the working principle of piston type compressor with neat
sketch.
7. What is synchronizing? Explain the synchronizing circuit with suitable approaches. (16)
8. Describe the FRL unit. (8)
9. Explain with ANSI symbols
(1) All the types of actuators used in pneumatics.
(2) Quick exhaust valve and silencer. (8)
10. Describe the working of an air compressor with neat sketch. (8)
11. Describe the working of a pneumatic speed control circuit. (8)
12. Make a circuit sketch for control of a double acting hydraulic cylinder. (8)
13. Design a pneumatic circuit for the following sequence using cascade method: A + B + BA- C+C-. (16)
14. Explain with neat sketch the working of semi-automatic control of a double acting
pneumatic for cylinders.(8)
15. Explain with neat sketch the working of hydraulic circuit used in drilling machine. (8)

## UINT 5 DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS

PART A
1. Mention any two roles of pneumatic systems in low cost automation.
2. What do you understand by single shot sequencing?
3. What is a power pack?
4. How do microprocessors differ from PLCs?
5. What is a microprocessor?
6. What is a servo valve? How does it work?
7. Define Coanda effect.
8. How do you rate a compressor?
9. What are the important components of a hydraulic power pack?
10. What is a regenerative system in a pneumatic circuit?
11. Define the terms Lap and Null with respect to servo valves.
12. What are the servo valves? Write their purpose in fluid power system?
13. Where can fluidics be applied?
14. List the components present in PLC.
15. How does a servo valve differ from proportional valve?
16. Define troubleshooting.

## 17. What is the shuttle valve? Sketch graphical symbol.

18. What is proportional valve? How is it differ from a solenoid valve?
19. What is meant by servo system?
20. What are the advantages of PLC.
PART B
1. Explain the working principle of a PLC with a neat sketch. (8)
2. List out various operating problems associated with pumps and valves and the
corresponding possible causes and suitable remedy for each problem. (8)
3. Enunciate various criteria for the selection of pneumatic components. (8)
4. Explain the block diagram the components present in a PLC and give their functions. (8)
5. Explain the hydro mechanical servo system with suitable application. (16)
6. How PLC is used in fluid power control? Explain with a suitable application. (8)
7. Draw and explain the working principle of proportional pressure reducing valve. (8)
8. Describe various selection criteria for pneumatic components. (8)
9. Explain with neat sketch construction and operation of an electro-hydraulic servo valve.
Also deduce the expression for its open loop gain. (16)
10. Explain the various locations at which filters and strainers are fitted giving reasons. (8)
11. Explain the possible causes and remedies for hydraulic cylinders and accumulators. (8)
12. Explain the working principle of a electro hydraulic servo valves with a block diagram.
State at least two applications. (16)
13. What is PLC? Explain the function of three basic elements of PLC.
14. Explain the construction and operation of a two stage electro hydraulic servo valve. (8)
15. What are the factors considered during the installation of pneumatic system?